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Unit Title: Immigration/Mexico Studies Subject(s)/Topic Area(s): Social Studies and Literature Designed By: Alicia Beck and Jamie Johnson Grade Level(s): 6-8

Established Goals (Standards Correlations): G

Social Studies Standard #2 – Understands the historical perspective necessary to make predictions and recommendations concerning national and world wide events. Social Studies Standard #3 – Uses geographic information to understand people and places. Reading Standard #5 – Recognizes the worth and understands a variety of literary forms and works from past and contemporary times. Reading Standard #8 – Demonstrates the ability to form conclusions based on information heard and read. Understandings: U Students will understand that there are various economic, social, and political reasons for people choosing to immigrate Students will understand how multiple points of view affect a work of literature. Students will understand that immigration can have difficulties—assimilation, language barriers, dangers of illegal crossing, gaining citizenship, quotas, etc. Students will understand the economic concerns that many people of Mexico are faced with. Students will understand how each country experiencing emigration or immigration is affected. Students will understand that regardless of their own political views they can empathize with the hardships of many Mexican citizens. Students will understand a guest speaker’s personal account of immigrating to the United States. Students will know… K Key vocabulary terms Mexican social, economic, and political factors leading to emigration. Obstacles and risks faced by immigrants to the United States. How point of view affects literature How countries are affected by immigration. Why nations set immigration quotas Circumstances the current border situation presents between Mexico and the United States. Essential Questions: Q What circumstances in Mexico contribute to citizens emigrating? How does immigration affect you personally? How does immigration affect your country? How does immigration affect Mexico? How does immigration affect the world? What are your views on immigration? How does Lupita Manana’s story relate to present day? How do Lupita and Salvador’s opposing perspectives on assimilation affect their experience in the United States? What type of situation would cause you to risk the dangers of illegally immigrating?

Students will be able to… S Debate quotas compared to open-door policies. Discuss the risks of illegal immigration. Reflect using an anticipation guide before and after the unit. Evaluate current newspaper articles on the topic of Mexican immigration. Write letters from the perspective of Lupita or Salvador. Evaluate photos from National Geographic depicting life in Tijuana. Identify points of view in the novel Lupita Manana. Utilize appropriate vocabulary to discuss their ideas about immigration. Propose ways Mexico could improve their economic 1

Adapted from Understanding by Design Professional Development Workbook ©ASCD 2004


Performance Tasks: Students will choose to complete one of the performance tasks. The goal is for students to demonstrate the knowledge and understanding they have acquired through the unit on Mexico, immigration, and Lupita Manana. Each performance task should be accompanied by a brief personal narrative describing the student’s personal thoughts regarding the unit. The student should use the anticipation guide, informational texts, and class discussions to describe their own personal journey throughout the unit. 1. Create a collection of photographs/images depicting Lupita Manana’s journey from her home in Mexico to crossing the border to living in the United States. Images should reflect her trials and tribulations, and include descriptive captions that express her thoughts and emotions. The collection could be made up of images from the internet, drawings, digital photographs, etc. Students will present to small groups. 2. Propose new legislation to present in front of Congress. Outline an original, detailed plan regarding immigration and our nation’s borders. Detail the benefits of your plan compared to current laws or legislation. Students will present information to a small group using a method of their choice. 3. Write a letter to your political representative using Lupita or Salvador’s point of view. Using the characters’ experiences from the novel, convince this politician to understand your view regarding immigration. Clearly define your letter using examples from his/her life and information from the immigration unit. Students will read their letter to a small group. 4. Vicente Fox and George W. Bush are meeting to discuss their views on immigration between the United States and Mexico. Both are hoping to convince the other person to understand their country’s political position regarding immigration. Develop a personal agenda listing the points each person wants to get across to the other head of state. Support the viewpoints with statistics. Describe in writing how you think such a meeting would turn out. Students will present their handouts to a small group. Other Evidence:


1. Anticipation Guide: Students will answer questions about immigration at the beginning and end of the unit. 2. Quizzes: Students will take quizzes on Lupita Manana and corresponding vocabulary throughout the reading of the novel. Students will take quiz over their knowledge of Mexico and immigration. 3. Discussion: Students will participate in small and large group discussions about various topics regarding immigration. 4. Summarize: Students will use the Exchange/Compare Strategy to summarize newspaper articles about current immigration topics. 5. Letter: Students will write letters from the perspective of Lupita or Salvador. 6. Analyze photos: Students will discuss and analyze photographs depicting life near the border of Mexico and the United States.

Adapted from Understanding by Design Professional Development Workbook ©ASCD 2004


L Through the 7th grade social studies curriculum the students study the western hemisphere. As part of their studies on Mexico, the topics of economic hardships, population growth, and emigration will be covered. This mini-unit focuses on immigration and will coincide with a novel, Lupita Manana, that the students will read in their Language Arts/Reading class.

Social Studies unit on Mexico focusing on economic conditions leading to emigration: Students will begin the unit on immigration by filling out a 5 question anticipation guide. This anticipation guide will be filled out again to conclude the unit.

Anticipation Guide: 1. True of False Most Mexican immigrants are leaving their country for political reasons. False they are leaving mostly because of economic reasons. 2. True of False If you have lived in the United States for 7 years or longer, you are considered a citizen. False 3. True of False Someone who transports illegal immigrants to the United States is called a coyote. True 4. True of False The United States has the highest percentage of immigrants living in their country compared to other nations. False 12% are foreign born— the U.S. ranks in the middle. 5. Mexican immigrants living in the United States help the Mexican economy. True Background information on Mexico’s history, current economic situations, rural to urban migration, and immigration to the United States will be addressed through the students’ textbook as well as notes provided by the instructor. Students will receive a list of vocabulary terms that relate to the topic of immigration. They will be assessed on the understanding of the terms in a quiz over Mexico.

Vocabulary: quotas, illegal alien, naturalization, deportation, immigrate, emigrate, migrant, stowaway, assimilation, Immigration and Naturalization Services, green card, permanent resident, port of entry, coyote, refugee, visa, smuggler, open door policy, braceros, amnesty, rural to urban migration, etc.

Adapted from Understanding by Design Professional Development Workbook ©ASCD 2004


After establishing background information, vocabulary, and drawing on prior knowledge from our studies of Mexico the students will participate in related activities.

Classroom Activities: Reading: Read and discuss the article “Busted” found in the Current Events magazine. What are the dangers that illegal immigrants coming to the United States face? Would you take these risks to go to another country? Under what circumstances? What is a coyote and should they charge $10,000 to smuggle immigrants? Vicente Fox’s plan would allow Mexicans to be guest workers in the U.S. and would legalize the citizenship of 3.5 million Mexicans living in the U.S. illegally. Do you think this is a good idea? What is your idea for immigration policies?

Discussion/Debate: Classroom discussions centered around how immigration affects the student, their country and the world will follow. As well as discussion on immigration policies such as quotas compared to open door policies, and the decision to assimilate into American culture or keep strong ties to their native country. Students will be encouraged to discuss in small groups by utilizing the appropriate vocabulary and supporting their opinions with facts and statistics.

Guest Speaker: A guest speaker will be brought into the classroom. This will be an immigrant to the United States and will share his/her experience with language barriers, new opportunities, hopes, fears, and why they chose to immigrate.

Photography: Students will analyze photographs from These photographs convey what life is like in Mexico. Students will see images of Mexico City, Tijuana and the border, as well as photos from the heartland of Mexico. Focus will be on the city of Tijuana and what life is like near the border. Students will study the images and draw conclusions about the subject matter in the photograph. The captions will be shared with the students after they have spent some time drawing their own conclusions.

News Article Research: Students will be instructed to find four relevant news articles about Mexican immigration. Students will spend a class period utilizing the search engine and the feature that allows them to search for news articles. They need to evaluate the articles for bias, compare perspectives among the articles, and summarize what they found.

Naturalization Test: Students will be given a 25 question test that immigrants must pass to become a naturalized Adapted from Understanding by Design Professional Development Workbook ©ASCD 2004 4

citizen. This test can be found at Discussion will follow about the difficulty of this test and the reasons for testing.

As a social studies teacher I will be familiar with the novel Lupita Manana and tie in connections from her life to the discussions in the social studies classroom. This mini-unit will culminate with students completing one of the four performance assessment tasks as mentioned previously.

Differentiation for unit: Compacting will be available for students when discussing background information on Mexico. If students have an understanding of social, political and economic factors present in Mexico they will be encouraged to move forward and research information on immigration. Graduated rubrics will be used to evaluate their performance assessment task. Other performance assessment tasks will be considered for the student who would rather act out a role play, prepare a speech, etc. Those performance assessments will be considered as an alternative assessment that should be proposed by the student. The anticipation guide attached earlier lets us see what the students know about immigration before the unit begins.

Literature Connection: Students will read the book, Lupita Manana by Patricia Beatty, as a supplement to the social studies curriculum. Several discussions and small activities will take place during the reading of the book. Students will also have time to work on their performance assessment.

Discussions will focus on questions such as: How are Lupita and Salvador’s approaches to life different? What impacts (economic, emotional, etc) does the death of Hernando Torres have on the members of Lupita’s family? How are the rituals that Hernando’s family observes after his death similar or different from the rituals that your family would practice? Why does everyone call Lupita Torres, Lupita Manana? How did the incident with the robbers on the road affect Salvador and Lupita’s thoughts about their journey and about people in general? What are the Mexican people’s beliefs about Americans that are presented in this book? Why do you think Salvador throws the money that Lupita got from begging into the bush? Do you think Lupita should keep lying to her mother in her letters? Why or Why not? Why does Lupita want to call Lucky, Lucio Manana? What does Lupita mean when she says than many of the wetbacks and pochos are half-gringo? How do Salvador and Lupita each feel about assimilation into the American culture? How has Aunt Consuelo changed from the day they first arrived to the end of the book? Why does Lupita say that she wants to build a hard shell around herself? What do you think Salvador will do once he is freed in Mexico? How do the author’s comments in the back of the book, that were written in 1980, relate to the immigration issue our country faces today? Adapted from Understanding by Design Professional Development Workbook ©ASCD 2004 5

Students will also complete a story map to show that they can identify the elements of literature. In addition to the main conflict and resolution, students will identify minor conflicts throughout the story. They will describe the resolutions from the story and discuss possible alternative solutions that could have occured.

During the final part of the book students will write a plausable letter from either Lupita or Salvador’s perspectives. Students will write to their family back in Mexico describing their life and their hopes for the future. Students may also choose to write the letter as if it were written ten years later predicting what may happen to the character they have chosen. This will be a quick write and will be evaluated based on content rather than writing requirements.

Throughout the unit the class will write “point of view” statements on the board that depict the feelings or beliefs of the various characters. Students will practice picking out different characters’ perspectives and the teacher will highlight statements the author makes that illuminate how a character views certain events or situations.

Many topics described in the social studies part of the unit may carry over into discussions in reading class. The vocabulary terms listed will be addressed throughout the book. Relevant newspaper articles may be explored during reading class using a vocabulary and summarization strategy. (Students use vocabulary from the article or text to predict and summarize the information presented.)

W—We are developing an understanding of the social, economic, and political factors that contribute to Mexican immigration. Students will develop an understanding of the risks and issues that surround immigration through various readings, activities, and speakers and come to their own conclusions. H— Activities are designed with the students in mind. An immigrant to the U.S. will present his/her personal experiences. Instead of hearing about the Naturalization test the students will be able to experience it themselves. E—Through the textbook, novel, guest speaker, and news articles the student will draw conclusions about immigration. R—Class discussions will encourage reflection. The performance assessment task requires a personal reflection on their views about immigration. E-- The performance assessment task rubric will be provided ahead of time to allow for self-evaluation. T—Four different options are provided for the performance assessment tasks. O--Using the textbook as framework to organize the unit, but also using many other activities and readings to supplement the unit. Sources: Beatty, Patricia. (1981). Lupita Manana. New York: William Morrow and Company. Adapted from Understanding by Design Professional Development Workbook ©ASCD 2004 6

“Busted.” (2002 January). Current Events, 101, 1-4. Elbow, G. and Greenfield, G.M. (1998). Western Hemisphere. Parsippany, NJ: Silver Burdett Ginn. Parfit, Michael. (1996, August). Discovering Mexico. National Geographic. World Explorer: Western Hemisphere. (1998). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Immigration---Performance Assessment Rubric

Criteria Explanation

Proficient 3 Student clearly explains statements and events using documented information from reliable resources and class notes. Student accurately takes on the role presented in the performance task. Interpretations of viewpoints are congruent with information presented in the unit. Student uses knowledge from the unit to accurately and effectively complete the performance task. Student shows evidence of critical thinking from the multiple perspectives presented in the unit. Student is able to step away from their individual life to analyze the topic of immigration from the desired perspective described in the performance task. In doing so, the student shows empathy for situations that vary from their own.


Adequate 2 Student provides explanations of statements and events, but does not provide documentation of sources. The student takes on the role presented in the performance task, but only some viewpoints match the desired role.

Not Yet 1 Student does not back up statements or events and/or makes false statements.

The student attempts to take on the desired role, but does not accurately portray the viewpoints presented in the unit. Student completes the performance task, but does not use or apply information from the unit. Student does not show evidence of critical thinking from a perspective other than their own. Student is not able to step away from their individual life to analyze the topic of immigration from the desired perspective described in the performance task and shows little or no empathy for others. 7




Student shows application of some knowledge from the unit, but does not provide strong evidence of learning. Student shows evidence of critical thinking from one perspective presented in the unit. Student analyzes the topic of immigration from the desired perspective described in the performance task, but does not show evidence of empathy for others.

Adapted from Understanding by Design Professional Development Workbook ©ASCD 2004

Self-knowledge Student shows evidence of reflection regarding their thoughts and changing perspectives throughout the unit.

Student describes personal view points, but does not reflect on how their thoughts have evolved through the unit.

Student does not address their personal view points in their reflection.

Adapted from Understanding by Design Professional Development Workbook ©ASCD 2004