You are on page 1of 32

The Ripresa, the Ritornello, and the Passacaglia

Author(s): Richard Hudson
Source: Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Autumn, 1971), pp.
Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the American Musicological
Stable URL:
Accessed: 16-06-2017 15:20 UTC

Linked references are available on JSTOR for this article:
You may need to log in to JSTOR to access the linked references.

JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted
digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about
JSTOR, please contact

Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at

American Musicological Society, University of California Press are collaborating with JSTOR to
digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of the American Musicological Society

This content downloaded from on Fri, 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC
All use subject to

The Ripresa, the Ritornello, and
the Passacaglia

A SPECIAL STYLE OF composition for dances and instrumentally ac-
companied songs developed in Italy early in the sixteenth century.
The style spread to other European countries and persisted as the basis
for this particular type of music until the middle of the next century.
A large repertoire of such music remains in manuscript and printed books
for lute, bandora, vihuela, cittern, the stringed keyboard instruments,
various ensembles, and, beginning in the seventeenth century, the Spanish
guitar. Associated with this style throughout its history are small musical
units that occur before, after, or between repetitions of the music
for a dance or song. In the Intabolatura de leuto de diversi autori
(Milan: Giovanni Antonio Casteliono, 1536) such units are called ri-
prese, and unmarked examples occur even earlier. The term changes to
ritornello in II ballarino (Venice, i581) of Fabritio Caroso,' and in
I6o6 Montesardo describes the passacaglia, one of the Spanish forms that
entered Italy along with the guitar, as that which in his country is called
a ritornello.2 The musical construction of the ripresa, ritornello, and
passacaglia is based on the compositional techniques of the Italian
dance style. Therefore I will summarize briefly the special features of
this style, and then discuss the various types of riprese: internal or con-
cluding (in regard to location), standard or double in length. Finally,
I will describe the particular ostinato technique that operates in the
chains of concluding riprese and ritornelli, and ultimately leads to the
great Baroque sets of variations on the passacaglia and ciaccona.
In the Italian dance style, musical organization on the most funda-
mental level is essentially harmonic in nature. Ex. I shows my concept of
the basic chordal relationships for the modes per B quadro and per B
molle, the two dance modes which, during the course of the Baroque
period, gradually evolve into the tonal major and minor modes.3 Each
1 Facsimile edition in Monuments of Music and Music Literature in Facsimile, Ser.
2, Vol. XLVI (New York: Broude Brothers, 1967).
2 Girolamo Montesardo, Nuova inventione d'intavolatura, per sonare ii balletti
sopra la chitarra spagniuola (Florence, 16o6), copy in Bologna, Civico Museo
Bibliografico Musicale, preface: ".. le passacaglie cosi chiamati ' lingua Spagniola;
overo ritornelli in lingua nostra ..." Concerning a probable Spanish predecessor of
the passacaglia, the paseo of Juan Carlos Amat, see my article "Further Remarks on
the Passacaglia and Ciaccona," in this JOURNAL, XXIII (1970), 302ff.
3 See my article "The Concept of Mode in Italian Guitar Music During the First
Half of the 17th Century," Acta musicologica, XLII (1970), 163-83.

This content downloaded from on Fri, 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC
All use subject to


mode expresses a central chordal idea by means of one or more chord-
rows, each of which I have designated by the first chord (shown in a
circle) that distinguishes it from the others.4 I have purposely avoided
the usual terminology of passamezzo moderno, romanesca, passamezzo
antico, and folia, respectively, since each scheme appears also in other
forms, and, in addition, the folia consistently matches Scheme V only
in the late Baroque era.5
The process of composing a dance in the sixteenth century involves the
selection of a chord-row, the distribution of its chords at even or uneven
time intervals throughout the composition, and then, where desired,
the addition of melodic figuration or new chords that revolve around the
separate framework chords. In the technique of melodic variation each
framework chord is associated with a specific scale which governs the
movement of melody.6 Chordal variation involves the insertion of chords
that relate to the framework chord as V to I or IV-V to I. Variation
chords are also shown in Ex. i, with the numerals in brackets indicati
how they relate to the framework chords. In the light of this techniqu
of chordal variation, the expansion of the central chordal idea given i
Ex. I for the mode per B molle appears itself to be the result of varia
tion chord insertion, for VII relates to III as V to I. The four chords o
the expanded B molle idea occur in three chord-rows which, since the
second half of each is identical, are differentiated by the pattern of th
opening four chords (marked as a "unit" in Ex. i). In the mode p
B quadro the basic V-I idea seems to be matched by a similar leap to t
other side of I, creating a progression identical to that of the variatio
chords. This mode is mainly represented by Scheme IV, but may a
involve other combinations of the three chords.
The application of these techniques is most obvious when, as in the
passamezzi or the dances paired with them, the framework chords occu
at equal intervals. Furthermore, the principles of chordal variation, a
though applying to the dance style throughout its history, are mo
apparent in the rasgueado (chordal) guitar music of the early seve

4 Major triads will be indicated by upper case Roman numerals, minor by lower
case. For further description of the chord-rows and the various forms in which th
appear, see Otto Gombosi's articles: "Italia, patria del basso ostinato," La rasseg
musicale, VII ('934), 14-25; and "Zur Friihgeschichte der Folia," Acta musicologi
VIII (1936), II19-29. See also John Ward, "The Vihuela de Mano and Its Mu
(I536-I576)" (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 1953), pp. 29
348; and Lawrence H. Moe, "Dance Music in Printed Italian Lute Tablatures from
1507 to i611" (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1956), pp. 12
34 and 154-69.
51 have described the relationship between Scheme V and the folia in "The Folia
Dance and the Folia Formula in I7th Century Guitar Music," to be published in
Musica Disciplina, XXV (i971-).
6 See Georg Reichert, "Giacomo Gorzanis' 'Intabolatura di liuto' (1567)) als Dur-
und Molltonarten-Zyklus," Festschrift Karl Gustav Fellerer (Regensburg: Gustav
Bosse Verlag, 1962), pp. 428-38.

This content downloaded from on Fri, 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC
All use subject to

39_"_ V I IV V I VIIi IX II IV II VV II IV V I mode per Schenm__ _ _ _ __ _a n .Example i Chordal Organization in Italian Dances ca.185. 500oo._ _.6o Mode CentralCord-rows chordal idea Expansion Principalidea of central variation chords unit I B qadroeO mode rr.45 on Fri.147.... 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about..jstor.A. I Schem per . III i IIIVII i V VI VII I11 III IV VII iv V i i II IV I I IIVV IlIIVV II IIVV II unit V Schem i i Scheme( i i This content downloaded from 193.

185. AND PASSACAGLIA 367 teenth century. Since I have described in detail the chordal organization of music in the dance style in another article. I will refer back to some of these techniques later. or anticipate the next chord of the row. 2 shows that when no variation chords are present each framework chord occupies two full measures (in other pieces this may be one.45 on Fri. the riprese serve in groups of two or more as purely instrumental sections that alternate with the principal music of a dance or . then variation applied to the mode per B quadro (Ex. along with the varia- tion chords that encircle it. 2) by each framework chord are now filled as follows: all or most of the opening measure. and sometimes part of the second. as well as interludes between the stanzas. 1-5 will make clear most of the techniques of composition applied rather consistently throughout the history of the dance style. This content downloaded from 193. 35-52. for the two measures otherwise occupied (as in Ex. and to the mode per B molle (Ex. the extent of its effect. In this example variation chords are added only near the end for the purpose of cadence. 2. THE RIPRESA. Variation chords may thus either prolong the effect of a previously sounded framework chord. 4). which is emphasized by a special rhythm. Ex. In the examples the appearance of each framework chord is indicated by a number above the staff and a square around the chord numeral. In instrumentally accom- panied songs the riprese thus provide an intonazione before the voice begins. four or more measures). with no regard for which note is the lowest) by their roots and chord numerals. III (1970). Melody acts in a similar fashion. 2). 3. but this time in company with melodic figuration. RITORNELLO." Journal of the Lute Society of America. three.' this brief summary will suffice here. is shown by parentheses. I have transcribed the guitar triads (which simply fill the full range of the instrument. and both are in action simultaneously in the keyboard excerpt from 155 in Ex. 3). Functionally. are devoted to the frame- work chord. the ritornello. 3 and 4 are guitar compositions showing first almost no variation (Ex. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. 3 and 4 illustrate more elaborate chordal variation. since the ripresa. the remainder of the time may be occupied by chords that circle the framework chord (Ex.147. where melody is totally absent. the numerals in brackets show how the variation chords relate to the framework chords (as V-I or IV-V-I. with stems indicating the direction the hand moves in strumming the chords.jstor. In addition. Dance riprese appear between choreographic cycles to allow the dancers time to assume the proper position for the next movement. longer and more 7 "Chordal Aspects of the Italian Dance Style 1500-1650. 5. Exx. I). Here chordal variation is applied to the framework chords in precisely the manner seen in the previous guitar examples. Exx. Careful study of Exx. in the manner shown in Ex. and the passacaglia are shaped by the same principles of musical construction. third measure from the end) or anticipate the next framework chord (second full measure).

16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. Biblioteca Riccardiana. MS 86 (H7 2) [Antonio . fol. 25: Pass'emezzo semplice. Perugia.jstor. 368 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY Example 2 Florence.45 on Fri. ca. Biblioteca Comunale. 43~: Scheme IV F l IV ( i V v IV v 1 ( jj] ) (IV VII I IV vI IVI" V 1I I I V V1 I Iv V ' ) op IV V [ ) ( V II IVI VA I1 )(II X"N V IVY 1I VV V VII 11 This content downloaded from 193. MS 2804 [ca.185. 16301]. Scheme IVN N V I N V V KV V I Example 3 Passamezzo per B quadro.6401. . fol.147.

D. 155 ).org/terms .45 on Fri. Scheme III 0 I A J I l2 3 (II[ VII III ) ( IIV VII ) ( [V I] [V IJ 4 5 V) (I II V ) ( VII III [IV V 1. and chord numerals.147. opening half of Pass'e mezo nuovo. Heartz. Corpus of Early Key board Music. Scheme IV ( ) (IV I IV I IV VII I [I V I V I IV V It This content downloaded from 193. VIII (American Institute of Mu- sicology. PP.jstor. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about.1 [V I 6 7 8 I] I I ([ IV [V VII I] ) (IV i Vi Ritorn ello ) (IV V ) Example 5 Intabolatura nova di varie sorte de balli . 56: Romanesca. showing only the melody. AND PASSACAGLIA 369 Example 4 Carlo Milanuzzi. . transcr. L ibro primo (Venice: A. 1625). bass. . Secondo scherzo delle ariose vaghezze (Venice. fol. RITORNELLO. 1965). Gardane.185. 3v. P-. THE RIPRESA. 38-39.

Riprese most often assum shown below the sustained I ch I have been replaced by its vari formation of the seventh fram variation process observed in E (Ex. modern ed Claudio Monteverdi (Asolo. two such riprese are al musical section that precedes dance or song. to show the struc built. This cadenc passamezzo semplice of Ex.45 on Fri. A "double" ripre ripresa.370 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY 4 5 [V I IV V 11 complex chains of riprese appe second dance of a pair. so-called here simply in the literature of the dance s chords. 1607). 6 shows the musical const At the left appear the chord measures except the seventh. 1926-4 explains: "Prima che si cominci a c I Ritornelli dovranno esser sonati This content downloaded from 193. I believ selves as the real framework o written to the right of Scheme I chord (a). w variation chord. 6b).jstor. it is still useful.185." the termin s Apparently the earliest source in musicali (Venice. .147. V. spanning the time of f repeated two times in success other harmonic structures are technique can be applied to either To those more familiar with verdi and others to designate an with other music. a include the V chord as a memb 7 and 8 never actually occur u IV-V). Ex. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about.

AND PASSACAGLIA 371 Example 6 Structural Relationship between the Riprese and the Chord-row. four differ transcribed by Ba Institute of Musico This content downloaded from 193. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. or altern This is made u seems to anticip that have been plural term in the to a two-fold repe in Le musiche sop Accademia d'Italia term necessarily t p. 52 the instructi 9 Romanesca con P organi (Naples. 168 Music.jstor. Scheme IV 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (a) Repeat or return of I I IV I V I IV I V I I (b) 2 standard riprese or rito V I V I (c) A double ripresa: one V I pected. THE RIPRESA. XI (Americ lo Selva di varie c 1664).147.45 on Fri.185. Howeve or passacagli) ap most the entire as are depicted specific term fo its component tinuous chains o As late as 1687 Ritornelli nel b Passagagli [sic] as are numerous an specifically to a comes a unit of follows. .

ii above) further implies that the ele which returns is some small portion from the main music itself. which are accompanied choreographically by pushing one foot forward during each measure-certainly a minimum of activity. 12 Caroso. Trattato II.372 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY Ex."12 In his later book. as far as I can tell. 1969]). II ballarino.. . (I IV V ) (IV V []7 ) 11 This composition is unique. of Bibliotheca musica bononiensis: Danze del secolo XVI [Bologna: Forni. Caroso's phrase Due R nelli della Sonata" (see fn. the ri carefully avoid any direct repetition of the concluding melod Example 7 Fabritio Caroso. p. 7b a single phrase bears the instruction "ritornello farass volte.. bilti di dame (Venice. This may plain the change of the name of the musical term from ripres ritornello. as far as I steps for the ritornello as well as for the m the second and third renditions of the sonata occur Due Ritornelli della Sonata. N. fol. This content downloaded from 193. (a) Fol. Riprese due . pp. 8-12. 87. i6oo). to the original edition of i6oo). p. . Ricordi. 22-25). I. I 6-i20: Laura sauve (Biblioteca di raritd musicali."14 Occa ally Caroso marks above a musical phrase that has all the musical c acteristics of a ripresa: "Si torna a far un'altra volta. Nobiltd di dame. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about.jstor. 328: Vero amore.45 on Fri. "qzuesto ritornello farassi tre volte. however. 46. -. Both terms suggest a repeat or return. Trattato II.185.) 15 For example. [i884-1915]).147. II ballarino (Venice. Caroso indicates for one dance: "I tornello farassi sempre due volte. I most all of the examples that I have .13 for another (following a second ing): "li fine della seconda volta che comincia le riprese. ioth to 5th pages before the numbered pagination begins: Celeste giglio (Biblioteca di raritd musicali. 95': Bella gioiosa.: the standard internal riprese from Bentivoglio. 13 Caroso.Z.""1 At the end of another dance appears a phrase of music an statement. transcribed by Oscar Chilesotti in Biblioteca di raritd musicali (Milan: G. 158 ). This is the only time I have seen a three-fold repetition indicated for an internal ritornello. 14 Ibid." 15 This may b indication of the function of the riprese from the dancer's point of The term ripresa also appears frequently in Caroso's books (as it also in earlier dance sources) as the name of a dance step. i6o5 edition (identical. ibid. I (reprinted as Sezione IV. 22. I.

45 on .147. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. 147: Fedelth. entire piece. RITORNELLO.185. THE RIPRESA. AND PASSACAGLIA 373 (b) Fol. Scheme IV 3 4 5 6 7 8 Ritornello (I IV I V )l This content downloaded from 193.

6 suggests that the element returns from the main piece is its concluding structure chord. Textes musicaux. The first is based on Scheme III. Joan Ambrosio Dalza. 8a. libro quarto (Venice: Petrucci. in his Intabulatura de lauto. Published by Pierre Attaingnant. This sort of repetition never happens. 1962). Riprese also appear with three gaillardes in At- taingnant's Quatorze gaillardes . 24). 24). The ritornelli in the guitar romanesca of 1625 (Ex. [1531]): "Man erkennt hier deutlich den urspriing- lichen Sinn der Ripresa.99 (No.185. II [Neuilly-sur-Seine. 8c. Harmony and rhyt are simplest and most uniform in internal riprese (those that preced songs or appear between sections of a song or dance). Riprese may also exist in two earlier sources.45 on Fri. which is followed by a pair of riprese with the pattern of Ex. 5-6 (No. Daniel Heartz (Corpus of Early Keyboard Music. then the double riprese (wh only rarely appear in a concluding role). I9641). printed in Keyboard Dances from the Earlier Sixteenth Century. especially since there seem to be no other sarabands provided with riprese. 6) [the riprese are in mm. states. Standard internal riprese occur almost always in pairs and for over a century display a remarkable uniformity of pattern. 12 (p. the third one on fol. I would conclude that Froberger's repeat is not a ripresa as we are using the word. . 17-19]. each is written out. pp. (Paris. . VII (Hofheim am This content downloaded from 193. We will see some sults of such variation as we turn now to a more detailed examination of the structures of various types of riprese. VIII [American Institute of Musicology.jstor.147. 234. ed. In the dance collection from around 1520 transcribed by Knud Jeppesen in Balli antichi veneziani per cembalo (Copenhagen: Wilhelm Hansen. ['53'1). 26 (p. 83) and o102 (No. 35 (P. and 29 (No. tran- scribed by Daniel Heartz in Preludes. . see the identical phrase that concludes dances No. 14. 3). transcribed by Helmut M6nkemeyer in Die Tabulatur.374 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY harmony from the main piece. . 4) follow the pattern of Ex. 19651). 23). since the two phrases in a pair differ melodically. 18). Chansons and Dances for Lute. Therefore I wi discuss first the standard internal riprese. . in the dance riprese of the i6th and i7th centuries. (Paris. (Paris. . 9 presents 16Willi Apel. as well as the phrase at the end of No.und Klaviermusik bis 1700 (Kassel: Birenreiter. 1967). 8a or c. I am indebted to his book for helping me locate keyboard examples (see the index of his book under both ripresa and ritornello for further references). the other presents riprese of the same type attached to a B quadro scheme. and 33 (p. and finally the most compl and varied type. as far as I know. nfimlich einer bestitigenden Wiederholung der Schluss- wendung der Hauptmelodie.16 . [1530]) contains two such gaillardes.17 Ex. See. 85). and c show the main features of their harmony and rhythm. Apel also mentions (p. 8-9 (No." Apel seems to be intrigued by riprese. wh then is varied independently from the main piece but according t same principles of melodic and chordal variation. 9). with signs for exact repetition of a single phrase. i5o8). 17 Dixhuit basses dances . Exx. Paris (1529-1530) (Publications de la Soci6te de Musique d'Autrefois. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. for example. p. 8a. A number of gaillardes from Attaingnant's publications of 1530 and 1531 possess sets of un- marked riprese with harmonic patterns like Exx. the standard riprese that conclude a dance or a pair dances. in connection with some pieces from Attaingnant's Quatorze gaillardes . includes ripresa- like phrases in some of his pavane alla venetiana. 545) the ripresa that Froberger sometimes adds to the end of a saraband. This is an exact repeat (either written or indicated by signs) of the last three to five measures of the main piece. Therefore. b. in Geschichte der Orgel. pp.

185. _t I I I I I (iV II v < 1i IV V ) IFV 11 portions of a lute saltarello of Waissel. 1955]). (I IV V )F (d) Concluding double ripresa. pp. pp. IV (b) Alternate interpretation of the rhythm. (IV V il ) (c) A variant . The i6-measure B quadro scheme (the same one used in the Attaingnant gaillarde mentioned above. his two internal riprese follow the pattern of Ex. and a third time (in which one measure seems to be missing) followed by two such phrases. I [Neuilly-sur-Seine. RITORNELLO.45 on Fri. Thus.147. Textes musicaux. n ( i iW A i 1 V ) . see Compositione di Meser Vincenzo Capirola. Concerning this scheme and the possible riprese. AND PASSACAGLIA 375 Example 8 Rhythmic Organization of the Triple-meter Riprese (a) Standard internal riprese: basic form. THE RIPRESA. LXIV-LXXII. ed. IIV ( V u II v ) (e) Internal double riprese. examples from a wide range of time illustrate essentially the same features: usually Taunus: Friedrich Hofmeister. This content downloaded from 193. 8a. .. 14-i5. one of the few composers to show both internal and concluding riprese attached to the same piece.. 85 from Dixhuit basses dances) appears two times followed by a single phrase of I-IV-V-I. No. Lute-Book (circa y517). 1967). 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. with harmonic variants applicable to either phrase .I - IV.jstor. Otto Gombosi (Publications de la Societe de Musique d'Autrefois.

This content downloaded from 193.45 on Fri. 376 JOURNAL OF THE AMIERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY Example 9 Matthius Waissel._ . G4: excerpts from El suo (refer- ring to the Pass e.j : .jstor.fol. Scheme VII z 3 wI _ __ I * _ II z unmarked standa IPIP ) (IV(IV V Scheme VII (3 more times) Nzi8 .. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. Tabulatura (Frankfurt/O. . 1573) . mezo) saltarello.

185.jstor. LA% K ___ j.45 on Fri. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about.147. AND PASSACAGLIA 377 Le represe (9 standard concluding phrases) 2 (IV V j ) (IV 3 (V W )(IV V vFi.) j. This content downloaded from . THE RIPRESA. RITORNELLO.

6b has been repl century the scheme with a major tonic c consist of major IV. XVII This content downloaded from 193.147. both intern occur with the salta passamezzo and hen is For further exampl Osterreichische Nationa del gropo.45 on Fri.jstor. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about.378 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY (El v I triple meter (but oc harmony IV-V-I. a Ex. and p. especially in the n Standard internal r song forms. There riprese. For or. . third is absent. 21b: t in Osterreicb.185.

i8 above). Diego Ortiz's Recercada settima is based on Scheme III and concludes with two riprese like Ex. 4 below). op. ed. II [American Institute of Mu cology. pp. 9 above. 1911. as suggested by Schneider. modern ed. pp.185. i571). cit. III (Barcelona. Denkmdler der Tonkunst in Osterreich. 30-37. 7-19). 1588). it appears in his Tratado de glosas sobre clausulas y otros generos de puntos en la mzisica de violones (Rome. 22 Alonso de Mudarra. reprint Graz: Akademische Druck Verlagsanstalt. The Storace example is printed in Corpus of Early Keyboard Music. Sometimes a sche (aria per cantare) is presented that can fit many different texts of poetic construction. I believe the E's in the IV chords should not be flatted. 20-21 and 30. Iii: Aria (mm. when used for sets of instr mental variations).C. Orgel o Instrument Tabulatur (Leipzig. I believe. Oscar Chilesotti (Leipz Breitkopf & Hirtel. ii (Gagliarda). see fn.jstor. pp. 1960). 20 Transcribed by Gerald Lefkoff in Five Sixteenth Century Venetian Lute Books (Washington D. i568) of Antonio di Becchi Some of Becchi's arie display a simple style during the main piec which is the actual accompaniment for the vocal part. AND PASSACAGLIA 379 they accompany the passamezzo itself.21 The romanesca. Tres libros de muzsica en cifra para vihuela (Seville. ed. I38-39) and in Antonio Valente's Intavolatura de cimbalo (Naples.22 Finally. for that of Strozzi. Macario Santiago Kastner (Mainz: B. transcribed by Emilio Pujol in Monumentos de la muzsica espajola. pp. pp. RITORNELLO. 37. 4-7. VII. is likewise connected throughout its long hist with standard riprese. 37). 139-40: Favorita (Nos. and then a shorter note values during the riprese. [8901]). This content downloaded from 193. 1949). 28-31). 21 "Tinze und Arien fiir Klavier aus dem Jahre 1588. 51-6o. PP. 113-14. Schott's SiShne. (see fn. See also Elias Nicolaus Ammerbach. Although not entitled romanesca. 49 (Passo mezzo). Da un codice Lauten-buch del cinquecento. Additional examples may be found in Becchi's lute book of 1568 (Lefkoff. including riprese for such arie occur in the Fugger lute book (1562)19 and in the Li primo d'intabulatura da leuto (Venice. which is also. Examples occur in vihuela variations by Mudar and in the guitar music of the seventeenth century. 34). 8a. XVIII Bd. and i42: Fantinella aria cantar (No. 21-28) and Aria per cantare (last four measures). Instrumental accompaniments. Willi Apel (Corpus of Early Keyboard Music. sentially a vocal form (except. copy in Cambridge. Jg. 1546). P3v-P4: Saltarella altera cum reprisa. 126-29. 19631).: Catholic University of America Press. 14 Da cantar (No. VII (Bar- celona. In 17th-century guitar music t such ritornelli usually accompany the dance of the folia. 1553). last seven measures (see also fn. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. by Max Schneider (Kassel: Baren- reiter. Numerous examples are also in almost every guitar book from the first half of the I7th century. and the Otras tres diferencias of Luis de Narvyiez in Los sey libros del Delphin de mzsica (Valladolid. pp. The same ty of ripresa also appears with accompanied songs. p. Adolf Koczirz (Vienna. University Librar . 1945). 1967). as well as in lat works by Storace and Strozzi.. 1576): La romanesca is printed in Silva iberica. 87-89- 19 Op. of course.45 on Fri. 1959). ed. Collected Wor ed. standard internal song ripre dert. Willi Apel has described the sa practice in Marco Facoli's 11 secondo libro d'intavolatura di balli d'arp cordo (Venice. 44-45 (Saltarello della Favorita). 23-32 (Nos. cit. ['9541). 1538). THE RIPRESA.147." Archiv fiir Musikwissen schaft. Most of them have marked or unmark riprese. transcribed by Emilio Pujol i Monumentos de la miisica espafiola. The arie are printed in Marco Facoli. XVII (196o).

8c. In the opening half of the lines in Ex. substituting for half its duration. as do most of the guitar composers. This content downloaded from 193. not only these passacaglie for certain songs. Elsewhere in his book (fol.jstor. but sometimes slightly modified in rhythm (as in Ex. Double riprese are attached. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. Biblioteca Riccardiana MSS 2793 and 2804 include a large repertoire of both Spanish and Italian songs.147. 6b. or in harmonic pattern (Ex. almost without exception. Biblioteca Comunale. to composi- tions based on Scheme IV: in Italy the passamezzo moderno and the gagliarde or saltarelli paired with it. or in the first three 23Luis de Brigefio. 42 concludes with two unmarked standard riprese. 6. Io shows further chordal variation of this framework. the term pasacalle or passacaglia is not used in Spain or Italy outside of this special category of song." On fol. I have never seen it used with dances." followed by the guitar chords for the progression I-IV-V-I. The basic structure shown in Ex. The guitar tablatures of the seventeenth century contain. los quales son negesarios para cantar toda suerte de letrillas y Romanges graves. See Thomas Walker. Throughout the history of the Italian dance style the internal standard riprese. in Perugia. 6c represents chordal variation on the most elemental level. with a long series of passacagli sopra tutte le lettere dell'alfabeto. even though La favorita on p. then." this JOURNAL. but also riprese and ritornelli (the preferred term by this time) that often display the same musical form. text. and on fols. Ex. Although Montesardo (op.. and into the first of variation chords (II and I-II) that circle the V chord. the term does not appear elsewhere among his dances.) begins his book. showing for each the guitar chords. 8a. "Ciaccona and Passacaglia: Remarks on Their Origin and Early History.23 Its harmonic pattern assumes the form of Ex. Florence. XXI (1968). states on fol. II (or sometimes I-II) may appear only in the second measure (a). and the name of the appropriate pasacalle. I2v) Brigefio includes two unlabeled standard riprese at the end of Una gallarda liamada Las bacas.185. the primary variation chord of I. The application of this technique to the second half produces the results shown in the last four measures of each line in Ex. appearing almost always in pairs. 14v he presents Doze pasacalles para comencar a cantar. As far as I know. 7a). MS 586 (H72).380 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY are represented. exhibit a fairly fixed harmonic and rhythmic design-usually as shown in the opening phrase of Ex. 7b). (d) is the same as Ex. 8a. in Metodo mui facilissimo (Paris. French or Italian verse. 1626) [copy in Paris. (c) shows a pattern much like the standard riprese of Ex. 14: "Regla para saver todas las entradas de theatro como son pasacalles. in England the quadran pavan and its galliard. most of which are preceded by the abbreviation " . with the initial I chord occupying sometimes only two beats of anacrusis. with the insertion into the second half of variation chords (V and IV-V) that belong to the I chord. with V. 300-20. beginning early in the seventeenth century. which is associated with the singing of a particular type of Spanish. by the pas- sacaglia. I5-24 a series of songs. entitles his alphabet series Passacagli Sritornelli. Espaiioles o Frangeses. cit. io: in (a) the whole notes show a pattern identical to the cadence progression of framework chords 7 and 8 in Ex. Bibliotheque Nationale]. in the second and third (c).45 on Fri. Carbonchi. Io.

in KI-K2v (Nos. and 12. (e) = a chord that may be inserted.] (a) Variations on the basic form.: Harvard University each book. 3. Jahrhunderts (diss Berlin & Bernau: Druck der Universit~ Musikbeilagen. (c) The form used with the Quadran Pavan. e= an alter- nate chord. Occasionally. ( II V II IV V I [V I V II (d) The form associated with the Saltarello (?V I (XI II V ) [IV v II Ex. i shows a pair of internal d tarello by Waissel. in (d) I and II are both included.185.24 variation cho 24 A slightly different version of this different edition. Example o Harmonic Variety within the Double Ripresa. (b) Further . This content downloaded from 193. RITORNELLO. The I chord sometimes inserted at the end of the fourth measure of (b) or (c) is an anticipation of the structural I chord of the second half. Here the indication Le rep spot in the edition I obtained from Mu latter edition Le represe appears only bef saltarelli on fols. which precedes and an- ticipates its structural appearance in the next measure. is printed by Egon Lautenmusik des 16. riprese are mentioned in the table of c research is Howard Mayer Brown's I (Cambridge. acting in the same manner as the tonic chord in the fourth full measure of Ex.45 on Fri. V thus becomes in this context a structure chord on a secondary level. Mass. AND PASSACAGLIA 3 8 I (b).jstor. G4. THE RIPRESA. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. its effect is indicated in Ex. saltarelli are not marked. [The notes are roots of triads. io by dotted squares and parentheses. nor are the d well as its padoana and its saltarello. H2. 31 and 32).147. H4.

45 on Fri. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. Tabulatura (1 573). 382 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY Example ii . Scheme IV -.185.: excerpts from Saltarello. fol.jstor. 14. 2 3 ( )(IV] ) ( 2 unmarked double )(v LV i u v S1 ii V I(v v II SiV V V This content downloaded from 193.

Keyboard Works. Thurston Dart (London: Stainer & Bell. Fuller Maitland & W. XVIII/2. Fuller Maitland and W. AND PASSACAGLIA 383 of Ex. which shows a passamezzo in which each framework chord spans four measures. 261ntabolatura di liuto (Venice. Quadro pavan from the Forster Virginal Book. The earliest internal double ripresa known to me appears in Hans Newsidler's Ein newes Lautenbiichlein (Niirnberg. op. they take the general shape of Ex. since it returns to I. New York: Dover Publications. Ioa with the black notes substituted. 12i. reprint. A. already mentioned in connection with stand- ard riprese. each time followed by two double riprese (marked separately Prima and Seconda ripresa). 1569). Jg. 1959). in The Fitzwilliam Virginal Book. They alternate pairs of statements of Scheme IV with pairs of double riprese that have the form shown in Ex. Bd. 1540). A. All of the twenty-four dances end with two double riprese of the general form of Ex.147. each is like Newsidler's. Barclay Squire.. XIX [London: Stainer & Bell.. ed. 8-13- (4) Anthony Holborne.29 This uni- 25 Passa mesa. I [Cambridge. one of the variant structures indicated in Ex. fol. Thurston Dart (Musica Britannica. each with three passamezzi and three saltarelli. Mass. J. In the latter edition the same music appears differently arranged: both the pavan and the galiard appear as three pieces. 20 For examples of English double riprese. 40 (see fn. ed. Iob. 1899.25 Two double riprese conclude Julio Abondante's Pass'e mezo primo of 1563. The opening phrase of Ex. University Library. Variation of the Quadran pavan. Quadro pavan from Cambridge. Barclay Squi (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hirtel. 2. might appear to be a complete ripresa in itself. I. II. Keyboard Music. transcribed by Lefkoff. 153-76. 225. J. ed. I I. cit. 27 Becchi's pieces are transcribed by Lefkoff. printed in Thomas Morley. However. it is almost identical to the whole notes in Ex. i967]). 28 Corpus of Early Keyboard Music. pp. but with the substitution of IV in the fifth measure. for comparison. 8o-8i: Gagliarda del passo e mezo detto il Moderno. Quadran paven and Galiard to the Quadran paven in T Fitzwilliam Virginal Book. 21 above). ed. Io5. The editor gives the harmonic scheme of the riprese on p. I: Music for Lute and Bandora.45 on Fri.185. I. Ioc. I for the work of Holborne. Becchi makes clear by the double bars in his tablature that his riprese are of the double type. II. p. Quadran pavan. contains four dance cycles. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. cit. 196 II. (2) John Bull. See also the two pairs of double riprese in Julio Cesare Barbetta's II primo libro dell'intavolatura de liuto (Venice. Io3-15.jstor. Abondante's book was first published in I546. (3) Thomas Morley. p. . RITORNELLO. 192-97. ioa. Iob. pp. THE RIPRESA. and Galiard to the Quadran pavan. 8e. 99-123. see the following sources: (I) William Byrd. MS Dd. also printed in John Bull. 37. 8e. 1-9 (see fn. see the facsimile page in Lefkoff. i8 above). Masakata Kanazawa (Harvard Publications in Music.28 The English composers display a remarkably consistent technique in their quadran pavans and galliards. transcribed by Oscar Chilesotti in Lautenspieler des XVI. op. I563). printed in Denkmiler der Tonkunst in Osterreich. Iob."7 Marco Facoli has a lengthy Pass'e mezzo moderno in which Scheme IV appears six times. printed in The Complete Works of Anthony Holborne.26 Becchi's lute book of 1568. 1963]). I22-38. [189I]). Jahrhunderts (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hiirtel. This content downloaded from 193. 70'. Those attached to the saltarelli employ the rhythm typical of the standard riprese. in Ex.: Harvard University Press. p. this is shown. each marked in the manner shown in Fig.

185.) Bull galliard Content of in Barley the musical Byrd Byrd Fitzwm." or even "reprisa") refers here to the varied repetition of a section." (which may have meant "re- peat. 1 transcribed by Manfred Schuler in Musikalische Denkmndler. . 1583) and f This content downloaded from 193. 2 . TABLE I: DIVERSITY IN THE MARKING OF ENGLISH DOUBLE RIPRESE. Rep. Rep. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about.Rep. each with its saltarello. David Lum pp. are from II primo libro de balli (Venice." "reprise.45 on Fri. V (Mainz: B.jstor. His Pass'e mezzo antico and Pass'e mezzo moderno. 8 Scheme IV large 3 9 Scheme IV Rep. Concluding dou Giorgio Mainerio provides a un passamezzi. ed. Table I presents a comparison of the various systems of numbering. Morley Holborne Allison pavan & sections pavan galliard Book pavan pavan pavan galliard Scheme IV - Scheme IV 2 Rep. after five sta four complete double riprese occu however.Rep. an dance of a pair. Rep. in his saltarello riprese (5) Quadron pavan and Quadron galliar orpharion and bandora] (London: for of Shakespeare's Time. Ripresa 3 small 2 3 2 2 Ripresa 4 Rep. 10 Ripresa small 2 11 Ripresa Rep. Concluding ripre chains of unspecified number. 1966). (6) Richard Allison. 12 The riprese discussed so far h cause they almost invariably occu could depend on a constant period the main piece. Rep. pp. where. pp. Sch S6hne. Wilburn W State University Press. Rep. 4-9 and 26-31. I96i). (A dash indicates that a section of music is both unnumbered and untitled. with Scheme VII as well as Scheme IV. p Music (16th Century). ed. Quadro pavan. Scheme IV 5 large 2 5 3 Scheme IV 6 Rep. 6 Ripresa 7 small 2 7 4 Ripresa 8 Rep. 30 Mainerio is also the only composer. Rep. 4 . 25-27.384 JOURNAL OF THE AMIERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY formity of musical treatment is accompanied by inconsistency in mark- ing the sections.147. Both works appear anonymously in Chorear molliorum collectanea (Antwerp: Pierre Phalese and Jean Bellere. the abbreviation "Rep.

the Pass'e mezzo antico and its sal- tarello are arranged for keyboard in Jacob Paix. 1967). 1927. 50-57). However. AND PASSACAGLIA 385 variable number of times (four or six in this case). Radino.45 on Fri. Con- cerning Mainerio's riprese see. 24-30. reprint. and the second half appears only once. N. M. 31 Facoli's Pass'e mezzo moderno. Examples of such concluding double riprese occur also in the works of Facoli. Der Tanz in den deutschen Tabulaturbiichern (Leip- zig: Breitkopf & Hartel. Anhang B. 42-51. 53-58). See also the Gagliarda by Gio- vanni Maria Radino. In addition. as depicted in Ex. Ricordi. PP.31 All except Picchi refer to this type with the singular term ripresa. 121-26. The Pass'e mezzo antico by itself is also printed in A Treasury of Early Music. RITORNELLO. and 31-37. in which I and II. 1621). 90-92. ed. but at the end of the saltarello is La sua ripresa. also in Antologia di musica antica e moderna per pianoforte. 1949). 8d) with that of the stand- ard riprese (Ex. 36 (Bologna: Forni. W. 1592). act as both a prolongation of the preceding . 6. based on the central chords of the mode per B molle. However. and Picchi. XXXIII (American Institute of Musicology. pp. A comparison of this form (Ex. 1583). 6-9. Harding (Cambridge: W. Since the chord-rows usually end on a major tonic triad. in Chilesotti's Biblioteca di rarita musicali. and 93-95. THE RIPRESA. 8a) reveals striking rhythmic and harmonic similarities. XVI (1963). W.. the variation chords of V. there must have been two dif- ferent editions of this work during the same year. Maurri di Ettore Stanta. pp. V (Milan: G. which appears for lute in Intavolatura di balli per sonar di liuto (Venice. Norton & Company. Ex. also transcribed by Susan Ellingworth in Corpus of Early Keyboard Music. I592). and for keyboard in II prinmo libro d'intavolatura di balli d'arpicordo (Venice. since one version is included by Schuler as an Anhang to his edition of Mainerio's work (pp. facsimile edition in Bibliotheca musica bononiensis. Tagliapietra. This content downloaded from 193. G. 17-18. Ein schbin Nutz unnd gebreiichlich Orgel Tabulaturbfich (Lauingen. und 16.147. in addition to the Einleitung of Schuler's edition. which repeats its opening half eight times.jstor. Iod shows their structure. II. 47-53) and 25b (pp. 1968). 1925]). by Giuseppe Gullino (Florence: Edizioni Musicali Ditta R. Carl Parrish (New York: W. ed. modern ed. and New York: Broude Bros. 20-23. 1958). Heffer. Hildesheim: Olms. I [Leipzig: F. Ex. Beispielen 25a (pp. Concluding riprese occur in a number of dances in Giovanni Picchi's Intavolatura di balli d'arpicordo (Venice. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. Since Facoli seems particularly careful with his terminology. 1949). riprese tend to take their shape from the B quadro system.. no amount of repetition of the first half of the double ripresa (which is based structurally on V) will produce more than a single structural return of I. Internal examples based on the struc- this source are printed in Friedrich Blume. this must be a recognition that the word in its essen- tial meaning indicates a structural repeat of the I chord from the main scheme. A very rare type of double ripresa should also be mentioned. hence. 1968). already described. 87-88. 19-21. F. his article "Zur Friihgeschichte der Passacaglia. Studien zur Vorgeschichte der Orchestersuite im 15. pp. Jahrhundert (Berliner Beitrage zur Musikwissenschaft. 197-201 (No. 1931). as well as an anticipation of the V which begins each repeat or opens the second half. 7-12. facsimile and transcription by Rosamond E. Siegel." Die Musikforschung. modern ed.185. 35). pp. and 23-25. 12 shows the construction of another type. Kistner & C. Sezione IV. contains internal double riprese following the passamezzo itself. Inc. and another is printed in Wilhelm Merian. which occurs in the second half. i35-39.

with Reference to Parallel Forms in European Lute Music of the Same Period" (unpublished.D. 34I want to express my thanks to Prof.386 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY Example i Harmonic Variety within the Double B molle Ripresa (a) Basic form.jstor." This content downloaded from 193. 1954). H. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. Double B molle riprese occur in .45 on Fri. In both sets some of the variations have a double ripresa. i5oo-I55o.185.46-54. and who kindly allowed me to examine both his microfilm copies and his transcriptions. 87-91 (fasc. La coda may be synonymous with my expression "concluding riprese.und Klaviermusik. He lists the contents of the two fascicles containing riprese on pp. 473). III) and 103 (fasc. Irvine. others none. and in fasc. At his suggestion I will use the fascicle numbering which he employed in his Ph. Orgel. III i (b) The f (c) The fo ture of baldi. III. dissertation. terms which appear to be inter- changeable in these manuscripts. 1-3 (La coda). VII). five in the 1637 edition have riprese of the standard length.147. VII. 450-54 (note especially Fig. Three of the ripresa groups are labeled La coda. I2v-13v.33 peated keyboar Collegia with pa one to el The dou interna rhythm 32 One u sobre Las modern I (Brookl 33The Pa Toccate e in Bologn della rom d'intavol Pierre Pidoux in Girolamo Frescobaldi. fols. who is preparing a transcription of these manuscripts for future volumes of Corpus of Early Keyboard Music. III (Kassel: Bairenreiter. fols. Colin Slim of the University of California. Both pieces are discussed by Apel in Geschichte der Orgel. PP. Harvard University. and 22'-24V. for they appear with both standard and double riprese.und Klavierwerke. 1961). 20'-22. two La ripresa. pp. "The Key- board Ricercar and Fantasia in Italy ca. 12v-I4.

They usually fol- low a saltarello or gagliarda paired with a passamezzo or pavana. because of their greater number they create the effect of a set of ostinato variations. whereby each of these two chords (V and I) may be varied Example I 3 Harmonic Variety within the Standard Ripresa. Once these patterns are created. then a second level of chordal variation may take place. Most often they are associated with Scheme VII. ] " Note that none of the struc which is the common cadence p 7 and 8 in Ex. The basic pattern of V and I shown in Ex. and hence tend to be in triple meter. . the whole notes in (b) through (g) give other possible distributions of V and I. Furthermore. This content downloaded from 193. i (a) I V I (b) (e) ' I- (f) . . 6b ap- pears in whole notes in Ex. Ex. AND PASSACAGLIA 387 cluding standard riprese. I3a. [ o = an alternate triad.35 This is chordal variation of the sustained I chord of Ex. ."I. THE RIPRESA.147. . ioa and b).45 on Fri. show far greater diversity.jstor. 6). RITORNELLO. even within the same composition. but may appear with the other schemes. 6a on the most elementary level. -. 13 is an attempt to show as briefly as possible the extent of their harmonic diversity.185. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. " (g) _Jr-. It sometimes ripresa (Exx.

388 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY by the appropriate variation chords.45 on Fri. a considerable variety of possibilities result from the application of this chordal variation technique. with a square around the structure chords and parentheses to indicate the variation chords that belong to each. i or iv may be . Ex. For comparison I have marked the chords as in Ex. I3a. 3. The sec illustrate riprese in which the final IV Ex. four of the possible variants depicted by Ex. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. 13 shows. i4b) prepares for the structural I of This content downloaded from 193. I3a. each time varying this framework chord according to the same principles that would be applied to the main scheme itself. and the meter may be duple last measure of Ex. as Ex. (a) (b) (IV V ) (V ) (IV (c) (d) V ) (II V [V 11 phrases of any particular chain of ripre another. Usually a ripresa. for example. 14a or Ex. i4c is replaced by a an E in the bass. 14b is somewhat like the fourth full measure of Ex. Occasionally the four lished by passing or neighbor chords t The procedures outlined in Exx. Exx. the successive Example 14 The Technique of Variation Chord Insertion in the Standard Concluding Riprese of Ex. i4c like measure 6. but sometimes.147. 14 thus presents four repeats or ri- prese of the final structural I chord from some preceding main scheme. 9. 13 by black notes. 3. They are usually major or without third. Ex. All of the notes in Ex. especially in the i7th century. Ex. 3 and 14 both show variation chords that circle a framework chord within its own time period (Ex.jstor. 3. as well as those that anticipate the next structure chord: Ex. as depicted i each in a single measure of triple m however. where phr (with IV substituted) alternate at ra Within each of the phrases the structur variation chords (V or IV-V). 13 an concluding riprese of Ex. 14 shows. shown in Ex. Since. 13 thus represent triads in root position.185. last three measures).

transcribed in Lefkoff.37 Pietro Paolo Borrono. 25-26 and 28-30. which is a guitar tablature bearing the date 16i9 and the name Romanus. The sections of riprese are labeled. "Zur Geschichte der Suite. 247. which consists of fifty-five standard phrases. Three of the saltarelli appear also in Intabolatura de lauto de diversi autori (Venice. 1 XV. cit. With both the Pass'e mezo antico and the Pass'e 7nezo la Milanese appears Ii suo saltarello con la ripresa. Giinther Oberst (Wolfenbiittel-Berlin. 37 Tablature de Lutz (Lyon: Jacques Moderne. 52-54 (Nos. 7v a single unattached phrase marked saltarello. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. Barclay Squire. Norlind. The earliest standard concluding riprese appear in Casteliono's lute book of 1536. Samuel F. [1628? ]). Two other sources seem to use this term to indicate riprese. pp. a number of independent sets exist that are not attached to any particular piece. .45 on Fri. See Tobias Norlind. 1612).. Lyons Music Printer of the 16th Century (Geneva: Librairie Droz. in an unpredictable order. i6-17v (Apel uses the numbering system adopted by Jeppesen) the first note of the ripresa should be G and not F. pp. 16-17'. pp. which con cerns fasc. 3o II primo libro intabolatura di liuto (Venice.d. 38 Intavolatura di lauto (Venice. pp. saltarella. Ber- nardino Balletti published in 1554 an independent composition entitled Represe. i8-2o and 21-22 (each a gaillarde with La reprinse or reprise). AND PASSACAGLIA 389 15 both exhibit the characteristic trait of mixing. Biblioteca Musicale Governativa del Conservatorio di Musica S.39 Peter Philips. 7 and 8) and 58-59 (No. In addi- tion.147. Foriano Pico." op. curiously. zum Beschluss der Galliarden. copy in Munich. 10-12.. 12).36 Other examples occur in the works of Jean Paul Paladin. Conserva- torio di Musica L. VII (1905-o6).43 Bellorofonte Castaldi has two independent sets of ritor- 36 Copies in Vienna. gives on fol. 30o6-II. 42 Intabolatura de lauto (Venice). and Florence. cit. The riprese actually alternate at random between V-V-I-I and V-V-I-IV. copy in Munich.). ed. pp. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. 17'-19 and 19-20'. 8v-Io. I.. Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana. Rome. RITORNELLO. isterreichische Nationalbibliothek. In addition. Wie dieselbe von den Frantz.und Klaviermusik. twenty-one. eleven and ten riprese. p. I have considered them of the internal variety. ten of the saltarelli (op. ed." the four sets contain seventeen. 1563) is transcribed by Lefkoff. marks the same word over a pair of standard riprese that follow a piece called Girumetta. 199-200.6sischen Dantzmeistern diminuiret und color- iret werden. 76-7 43 Terpsichore (Wolfenbiittel. In his Fig. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. 172-203. THE RIPRESA. 6-8. op. Fuller Mait- land and W. The riprese of the first saltarello are printed in T. 40 Galiarda passamezzo in The Fitzwilliam Virginal Book. printed in Gesamtausgabe der niusik Werke von Michael Praetorius. gives evidence that the book was probably published before 1547. III. Cherubini.40 and in the Castell'Arquato manuscripts. III on fols. pp. J. n. 85-95) possess up to ten concluding riprese. 182-87. A. fols. 179- 80. 24. 1566). phrases of different harmonic structure. 41 Seven saltarelli end with twelve to twenty-seven riprese. A later edition (Venice.4' Furthermore. three other groups consist of only one or two riprese. but they should commence in the third measure of his example. 230. 4-6." Sammelbdnde der internationalen Musikgesellschaft. The French word reprinse or reprise appears here and in Paladin This content downloaded from 193.42 In the next cen- tury Praetorius presents "vier Reprinse. 1548). 1563) and are printed in Lefkoff.. cit. Apel discusses these work in Geschichte der Orgel. where eleven different saltarelli are followed by chains of three to eleven riprese. Pogue. op.185. some of the pieces in Casteliono's book bear Borrono's initials. pp. A. copy in Venice. hence. 230-31.jstor. in Jacques Moderne. 1969). in Nuova scelta di sonate per la chitarra spagnola (Venice. They are in fasc. Cecilia. cit.38 Melchior Newsidler. "Zur Geschichte der Suite.Ms.

16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. fol. This meaning must apply i musyck boexken (Antwerp. io. transl. Blume. Only on the occasion ment designate riprese of the type we are i are attached immediately follows La cludes the Passamezzo Itali auff den la two different meanings within the sam This content downloaded from 193.45 on Fri. which appea reprise. also F.jstor. the te basse danse. by Mary Stewart Evans and 67-74. However. copy in Mun uses the spelling reprisa. 15 36).org/terms .390 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY Example 15 Intabolatura de leuto (Milan: Casteliono. 1550). RW F to indicate riprese.: the opening three standard con- cluding riprese from the Saltarello paired with the Pavana chiamata la Milanesa bv Pietro Paolo Borrono. Le riprese (V I )(IV Of r. see Jehan Tabourot (Tho Engl.185. Studien zur and Io5.147. In a a reprinse. and here the term seems t ment of the same music to fit a new variation meaning applies in the citt quae cytbara pulsantur liber secundu ische Nationalbibliothek) and other works of Ammerbach (the one cited published in Niirnberg.

The label written a measure or so too late or too soon. or harmonic formulae are employed t begin (Ex.46 I would like now to expand the concept suggested b phrase so that it includes all the sets of riprese and ritornelli (b ever name) throughout the entire period of the Italian dance sty then to set the somewhat more specialized technique of the pass and ciaccona in perspective within this larger concept. Thirdly. however. In 1967 Albi Rosenthal kindly sent me photographic copies of the from the volume then in his possession. the triple-meter dance to which the riprese are attached contains an alio m or the preceding pavana uses the same harmonic progressions. a melodic ostinato may somet cur.. and also the article cited in fn. one can then com the section immediately preceding the riprese with one of its variant sections and t reckon the point where it concludes and the riprese begin. the first two concluding riprese of Ex. A ha ostinato seems often to be set beside the idea of diversity within composition. LX. musically at least. but then tu ruptly to a new pattern. 4 46-47. 46 "The Passacaglia and Ciaccona in Italian Keyboard Music of the 17th Ce The Diapason. Vol. 1969). most of the independe bear the name of either the passacaglia or of another form. Paladin Borrono lute books. 45 During the first half of the 17th century the name ciaccona occasiona cated a ritornello. the obstinate repetit short. especially in the Baroque period. AND PASSACAGLIA 391 nelli. constant phrase-length must have had a powerful and exhi effect on those who had just completed a pair of dances in whic attention was fastened. 9).185. 1620). LX (December. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about.147. pp.47 The impact of this rhythmic ostinato w strengthened by the parallel beginnings of succeeding riprese (c for example.45 on Fri. pp. 42) begin twelve exactly identical statements of I-IV-V-V. and Vol. 1969). pp. 6-7. THE RIPRESA. the familiar schemes do not usually appear. Ostinato on a number of different levels. 15) or all end (Ex. on the slower progression o eight chords of a row.4' In other articles I have described the special technique invo passacaglia and ciaccona variations as an ostinato of derived and formulae. Sometimes the sin chord in the final measure of a group of riprese must actually be sustained for measures. I41-42. 12 (November. RITORNELLO. In a number of sources before I55o. First of all. such as the Casteliono. This content downloaded from 193. 22-24. When one of the Schemes is used and its chords occur at equal intervals. Albert-Ludwigs-Universit burg . in order to complete the last phrase. 2 above. but usually only to the extent that gr phrases within a larger composition use the same chords (Ex. the riprese simply begin when the scheme has its full course. 1956). h ever. the c a dance whose musical scheme joins that of the passacaglia in a c technique of variation.jstor. Balletti's fifty-five riprese (see fn. Secondl ostinato may be harmonic.44 During the I7th century. In many cases. No. in the double riprese attac 44 Capricci a due stromenti ciod tiorba e tiorbino (Modena. 47 It is sometimes difficult to determine where the riprese begin. 9) with a common chord. Br. thus. pp. meaning that the musical scheme from the dance was to b A number of examples are cited by Helga Spohr in Studien zur italienisc komposition umn 6oo (unpublished dissertation. three concluding riprese).

(c) Ciaccona forms.185. 14. I6b). -= an alternate chord. He may strive for continual variety. . Iod. Although the formulae in I6th century dance music se to be harmonic in nature. selection involves preference for a singl harmonic structure: I .. . We have already examined the harm method of derivation in this ostinato of derived and selected formu selection.] (a) The progression from Ex. V. to favor its B molle versi (i-iv-V-i). 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. Although Ex. then. as we have s the harmonic ostinato shown in Ex. He may utilize such groups as units in large-scale form. first harmonically (iii a IV are inserted in Ex. [The notes in (b) and (c) are not necessarily the roots of . From these two formulae are derived others. II. and in the Antologia . 13 indicates great diversity of formulae that might occur. .147. This content downloaded from 193. and then melodically (7 and 6. 8a and c) or those in Exx. or may unite a group by harmonic or melo ostinato. the special sens ostinato that characterizes these particular forms comes from the ran recurrence of a group of familiar rhythmic and harmonic formulae are related in the sense that they are all derived from the application common constructive technique. for from phrase to phras the composer is free to choose whichever formula he wishes.jstor. whose basic progression seems to be I-V-vi-V (Ex. in contrast to the B quadro modality of the ciaccona. and an ha monic or melodic ostinato may sometimes occur.45 on Fri. occurs in several ways.4" Although the rhythmic ostinato is powerful by itself. a certain few are selec far more often than the others-such formulae as the standard internal ripresa (Exx. and I5. For passacaglia variations. IV-V-(I). of Tagliapietra. 23-25. The repetition of the opening half produces. 93-95. Picchi's Ballo detto "II S fanin" provides an example of this harmonic progression supportin melodic basso ostinato. The passacaglia tends. I6c). for example in Ex. ~ca----. as well as avoidance of patter peculiar to the ciaccona. i6).notes or chords that may be inserted. Selection al operates during the course of composition. (o) . those in the passacaglia-ciaccona ostinato ap Example 16 The Passacaglia and Ciaccona Formulae. . . 13f. 9.392 JOURNAL OF THE A-MERICAN IUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY saltarelli. (b) Passacaglia forms.~ ]Mini- 48 Printed in Biblioteca di raritd musicali. for example.

THE RIPRESA. however. 40 (fn. on the passacaglia. In spite of derivation from a single original harmonic progression. I would like to suggest. passacaglia variations.4" Two such repeats or returns were usually used betwee sections of a dance or song. The various types of ripresa occurred throughou 49 The term ritornello existed also in the i4th century to designate a portion of madrigal or caccia. however. On p. into four triple-time groups. a rarer B molle type for Scheme III. except for the early examples in rasgueado guitar music. t sentially melodic. Internal insertion of new chords and tones alters the original patterns of both forms. of course.45 on Fri. This suggests. in unpredictable succession. si entire pattern fits. The passacaglia-ciaccona ostinato is thus a special application of th larger ostinato of derived and selected formulae from which it evolve Having been derived from one basic harmonic structure. so tha sometimes only a harmonic framework remains in which successiv phrases all begin on I or all end on IV-V-(I). I6 without bar-lines. The regular double type developed for use with Scheme IV. the passacagl never utilizes. led to the special ostinato of derived and selected formulae. formulae having been derived for each form. as in dicated above. one or more of the pa formulae as its central musical idea. that the term may also refer in the 14th centur to some feature of the preceding piece (music or text) that "returns" once or twice This content downloaded from 193. do not nece sarily constitute a harmonic or melodic ostinato. describes the ritornello madrigal (pp. for example. links it with th most common type of internal ripresa. Don Harran. Its harmonic pattern of I-IV-V-(I). the term does not refer to the enti section but to some smaller element that may occur more than once in immedia . that of chordal variation. Longer series of standard riprese (usually associated with Scheme VII).jstor. in "Verse Types in the Early Madrigal" (this JOURNAL. along wit some independent sets. 37-38). those forms of Ex.147. The characteristic feature of such sets of variations is the recurrence. 52) he quotes Trissino (Arte poetica. I529). XXII [19691). a composer then s one for each phrase. like those on the ciaccona. which adds tw or four lines after its two or three tercets. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. but usually applied independently." Thu like the i6th and i7th century dance ritornello. of the various formulae that evolved from the original harmonic pat- terns. The ripresa. with this chord varied by the same process used in the scheme i self. then. in various ways.185. as functional units in the Italian dance style. who refers to these added lines as "one or two ritornelli. They are shown in Ex. AND PASSACAGLIA 393 pear. that the words ripresa and ritornello refer primarily to th repeat or return of the final I chord from the main scheme of a compos tion. so th the music is harmonically and melodically different from that of the main piece. whose history. RITORNELLO. for example. Most common was the standard length attached to any of the schemes. in such a way that he establishes in a set o tions. 13 that include the chord. and the passacaglia originated. as we have seen extends back in a continuous line to at least 1530. the ritornello.

185.45 on Fri. after the style that gave it birth had disappeared in the passacaglia and ciaccona variations by Bach and other composer of the late Baroque period. 16 Jun 2017 15:20:40 UTC All use subject to http://about. lived on.147. University of California. Los Angeles This content downloaded from 193. The musical ancestors of such works are t riprese and ritornelli in the Italian dance style of the I6th and I7th ce .394 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY most of the period from around I500 to 1650. The special ostinato te nique. however.jstor.