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Recruitment and Selection - Introduction

Recruitment and Selection is an important operation in HRM, designed to maximize employee strength in
order to meet the employer's strategic goals and objectives. In short, Recruitment and Selection is the
process of sourcing, screening, shortlisting and selecting the right candidates for the filling the required
vacant positions.

In this tutorial, we will discuss the various aspects of Recruitment and Selection such as
the recruitment process, the factors affecting recruitment, recruitment planning,
methods of recruitment, recruitment interviews, selection process and making an offer.

The Scope of Recruitment and Selection

The scope of Recruitment and Selection is very wide and it consists of a variety of
operations. Resources are considered as most important asset to any organization.
Hence, hiring right resources is the most important aspect of Recruitment. Every
company has its own pattern of recruitment as per their recruitment policies and
procedures.

The scope of Recruitment and Selection includes the following operations −

 Dealing with the excess or shortage of resources

 Preparing the Recruitment policy for different categories of employees

 Analyzing the recruitment policies, processes, and procedures of the organization

 Identifying the areas, where there could be a scope of improvement

 Streamlining the hiring process with suitable recommendations

 Choosing the best suitable process of recruitment for effective hiring of resources

Any organization wants it future to be in good and safe hands. Hence, hiring the right
resource is a very important task for any organization.

Case Study: How to Improvise Recruitment Process

Let’s assume there is a company called ABC Systems, which sells FMCG products. The
company is lately suffering due to its high attrition rates. In this case study, we will see
how ABC Systems can improve its recruiting process and focus on maintaining the
efforts required for filling a job vacancy. We will also learn how the HR team of ABC
Systems can reduce the time and effort involved in sourcing good resources for the
vacant positions.

We suggest here seven different steps that ABC Systems can utilize to resolve its
problems.

Step 1 − Define the Problem

First, define the problem in exact terms and then, design a step-wise recruitment
process that can be easily followed.

Recruitment Process

Step Activity

1 Sending the resignation communication message to HR with request for
initiating the recruitment process

2 Manager-HR directs the hiring team to start the recruitment process

3 Logging into the employment website and contacting different recruiters

4 Sourcing, identifying, and collecting the resumes of the candidates

5 Receiving relevant resumes

6 Shortlisting the resumes

7 Sending the shortlisted resumes to the department manager

8 Schedule interview dates

9 Calling the candidates for interview

10 Interviewers complete the feedback form and the feedback is shared with the
HR

11 This process repeats for many candidates till the best candidates are finalized.

12 The HR team negotiates the package and compensation

13 Final confirmation and agreements

14 Send offer letter

15 Offer accepted

Step 2 − Research the Causes

Analyze the root cause of the problem at hand. Why the attrition rate is so high? There
are several ways to arrive at the root cause behind a problem.

In case of ABC Systems, it was observed that there is only a less percent of candidates
who are rejected in the process of review. Hence, there is a need to improve this
process by increasing the number of rejections with an efficient review process.

Screening of resumes must be very effective, because the selection of the candidates
through resume screening has maximum percentage of a positive outcome, which is
explained below −

Reviewers can use a set of defined criteria to screen the resumes, which can then be
compiled as shown below.

Step 3 − Countermeasure Ideas Generation

It is mandatory to have a basis of standardization in selecting the candidates. The
shortlisting of the relevant criteria is done as shown in the following table −

The shortlisted list of candidates is reviewed by the department heads and they can
suggest modification which can then be incorporated as new criteria.

Step 4 − Testing and Modifying the Ideas

The next step is to test the defined set of criteria with three batches. After the
selections are done, the set of criteria is analyzed to see it was effective or not.

Step 5 − Implementing the Ideas

If found effective, then implement the new set of criteria for future recruitments.

Step 6 − Standardize Procedures

The next step is to standardize the procedure. First, make a note of the improvements
achieved recruitment efficiency. It can done as shown in the following tables −

With the help of the above processes, there will be a reduction of about 30%-40% in
the hiring process in shortlisting, reviewing and selecting the candidates for the right
job positions. This process was standardized and adopted in the regular practice.

Step 7 − Compiling the Quality Improvement Story

And the process should be performed within a time constraint and it should be cost effective. It is a core function of Human Resource Management.  It helps in identifying the job applicants and selecting the appropriate resources. Recruitment also refers to the process of attracting. . Importance of Recruitment Recruitment is one of the most fundamental activities of the HR team. then  The organization gets happier and more productive employees  Attrition rate reduces.  It helps in evaluating the effectiveness of the various recruitment techniques. What is Recruitment? Recruitment is a process of identifying. or from external sources.  It helps in increasing organizational effectives for a short and long term.e. Here is a list that shows the purpose and importance of Recruitment in an organization −  It determines the current and future job requirement. The hiring of the candidates can be done internally i.  It helps in increasing the success rate of selecting the right candidates. selecting.At last. shortlisting and hiring potential resource for filling up the vacant positions in an organization. screening.  It helps in reducing the probability of short term employments.. the improvised and the quality story is compiled and presented to the senior management for a better recruitment process. If the recruitment process is efficient.  It increases the pool of job at the minimal cost. within the organization.  It meets the organization’s social and legal obligations with regards to the work force. and appointing potential candidates to meet the organization’s resource requirements.  It results in overall growth of the organization. Recruitment is the process of choosing the right person for the right position and at the right time.  It builds a good workplace environment with good employee relationships.

The internal factors are −  Size of organization  Recruiting policy  Image of organization  Image of job Size of Organization The size of the organization is one of the most important factors affecting the recruitment process. When the market condition changes.  It determines the present futures requirements of the organization and plan according. Proactive HR Professionals should understand these factors influencing the recruitment and take necessary actions for the betterment of the organization. Factors Affecting Recruitment Recruitment is an important function of the Human Resource Management in an organization. recruitment planning is mandatory for hiring more resources.  It attracts and encourages the applicants to apply for the vacancies in an organization.  It helps in creating a talent pool of prospective candidates. we will be discussing these factors in detail. the organization also needs to monitor these changes and discover how it affects the resources and analyze these functions for making recruitment an effective process. which will be handling the future operations. which enables in selecting the right candidates for the right job as per the organizational needs. To expand the business. Recruiting Policy . Internal Factors Organizations have control over the internal factors that affect their recruitment functions.  It links the potential employees with the employers. We have Internal Factors as well as External Factors that influence the recruitment process. and it is governed by a mixture of various factors.  It helps in increasing the success ratio of the selection process of prospective candidates. In this chapter.

Maintaining good public relations. These laws dictate the compensation.  Labor laws − Labor laws reflect the social and political environment of a market. definitely helps an organization in enhancing its reputation in the market. safety and health regulations. etc. On the other hand. OBCs are best examples of legal considerations. i. It specifies the objectives of the recruitment and provides a framework for the implementation of recruitment programs.. Jobs having a positive image in terms of better remuneration. These considerations. the image of a job plays a critical role in recruitment.. which affects the recruitment process. promotions.e. and thereby attract the best possible resources. then recruiting tends to be very difficult due to less number of resources. the hiring will be relative easier. the laws too change.  Unemployment rate − If the unemployment rate is high in a specific area. SCs. gender. good work environment with career development opportunities are considered to be the characteristics to attract qualified candidates. as the number of applicants is very high. providing public services. literacy level.  Labor market − Labor market controls the demand and supply of labor. For example. etc. for different types of employments. which are created by the central and state governments. recognition. Image of Organization Organizations having a good positive image in the market can easily attract competent resources. etc. passed by . hiring from internal or external sources of organization is also a factor. Image of Job Just like the image of organization. The external factors that affect the recruitment process include the following −  Demographic factors − Demographic factors are related to the attributes of potential employees such as their age.Recruitment policy of an organization. if the unemployment rate is low. External Factors External factors are those that cannot be controlled by an organization. if the supply of people having a specific skill is less than the demand. occupation.  Legal considerations − Job reservations for different castes such as STs. religion.. then the hiring will need more efforts. working environment. economic status. hiring of resources will be simple and easier. In contrast. if the demand is less than the supply. As the government changes.

Recruitment process is a process of identifying the jobs vacancy. will have a positive or negative impact on the recruitment policies of the organizations. government. these practices also ensure consistency and compliance in the recruitment process. It sources the candidates with the abilities and attitude. shortlisting and selecting the right candidate. To increase the efficiency of hiring. Recruitment Process Recruitment is a process of finding and attracting the potential resources for filling up the vacant positions in an organization.  Competitors − When organizations in the same industry are competing for the best qualified resources. analyzing the job requirements. which are required for achieving the objectives of an organization. reviewing applications. there is a need to analyze the competition and offer the resources packages that are best in terms of industry standards. it is recommended that the HR team of an organization follows the five best practices (as shown in the following image). These five practices ensure successful recruitment without any interruptions. . screening. In addition.

experience. Recruitment Planning Recruitment planning is the first step of the recruitment process. It includes job specifications and its nature. experienced with a capability to take the responsibilities required to achieve the objectives of the organization. Identifying Vacancy The first and foremost process of recruitment plan is identifying the vacancy.Recruitment process is the first step in creating a powerful resource base. This process begins with receiving the requisition for recruitments from different department of the organization to the HR Department. The potential candidates should be qualified. which contains −  Number of posts to be filled  Number of positions  Duties and responsibilities to be performed . A structured recruitment plan is mandatory to attract potential candidates from a pool of candidates. where the vacant positions are analyzed and described. etc. qualifications and skills required for the job. The process undergoes a systematic procedure starting from sourcing the resources to arranging and conducting interviews and finally selecting the right candidates.

it the responsibility of the sourcing manager to ascertain whether the position is required or not. And this data gives the employer and the organization a clear idea of what an employee must do to meet the requirement of his job responsibilities. compensation. full-time or part-time. Job Analysis Job analysis is a process of identifying. and determining the duties. These parameters should be evaluated before commencing recruitment. Job description provides information about the scope of job roles. Proper identifying. The following steps are important in analyzing a job −  Recording and collecting job information  Accuracy in checking the job information  Generating job description based on the information  Determining the skills. knowledge and skills. and performance appraisal. training. which is descriptive in nature and contains the final statement of the job analysis. Job description is generated for fulfilling the following processes −  Classification and ranking of jobs  Placing and orientation of new resources  Promotions and transfers . analyzing. This description is very important for a successful recruitment process. abilities. Job analysis helps in understanding what tasks are important and how to perform them. planning and evaluating leads to hiring of the right resource for the team and the organization. skills. responsibilities. and work environment of a specific job. etc. These factors help in identifying what a job demands and what an employee must possess in performing a job productively. Job Description Job description is an important document. responsibilities and the positioning of the job in the organization. permanent or temporary. which are required for the job The immediate products of job analysis are job descriptions and job specifications. Its purpose is to establish and document the job relatednessof employment procedures such as selection.  Qualification and experience required When a vacancy is identified.

Materials and Equipment  Process of Supervision  Working Conditions  Health Hazards Job Specification Job specification focuses on the specifications of the candidate. This information about each job in an organization is as follows −  Physical specifications  Mental specifications  Physical features  Emotional specifications  Behavioral specifications A job specification document provides information on the following elements −  Qualification  Experiences  Training and development  Skills requirements  Work responsibilities  Emotional characteristics  Planning of career Job Evaluation . The first step in job specification is preparing the list of all jobs in the organization and its locations. The second step is to generate the information of each job. whom the HR team is going to hire.  Describing the career path  Future development of work standards A job description provides information on the following elements −  Job Title / Job Identification / Organization Position  Job Location  Summary of Job  Job Duties  Machines.

Recruitment Strategy Recruitment strategy is the second step of the recruitment process. job ranking. . where a strategy is prepared for hiring the resources. This process consists of two steps −  Source activation − Once the line manager verifies and permits the existence of the vacancy. which are involved in job evaluation. While preparing a recruitment strategy. job classifications.Job evaluation is a comparative process of analyzing. There are several methods such as job grading. assessing. The steps involved in developing a recruitment strategy include −  Setting up a board team  Analyzing HR strategy  Collection of available data  Analyzing the collected data  Setting the recruitment strategy Searching the Right Candidates Searching is the process of recruitment where the resources are sourced depending upon the requirement of the job. etc.  Selling − Here. the search for candidates starts. After completing the preparation of job descriptions and job specifications. but having a right strategy is mandatory to attract the right candidates. Job evaluation forms the basis for salary and wage negotiations. the next step is to decide which strategy to adopt for recruiting the potential candidates for the organization. and determining the relative value/worth of a job in relation to the other jobs in an organization.. the HR team considers the following points −  Make or buy employees  Types of recruitment  Geographical area  Recruitment sources The development of a recruitment strategy is a long process. After the recruitment strategy is done. The main objective of job evaluation is to analyze and determine which job commands how much pay. the searching of candidates will be initialized. the organization selects the media through which the communication of vacancies reaches the prospective candidates.

and overall background matching the requirement of the job . In this process. Internal Sources Internal sources of recruitment refer to hiring employees within the organization through −  Promotions  Transfers  Former Employees  Internal Advertisements (Job Posting)  Employee Referrals  Previous Applicants External Sources External sources of recruitment refer to hiring employees outside the organization through −  Direct Recruitment  Employment Exchanges  Employment Agencies  Advertisements  Professional Associations  Campus Recruitment  Word of Mouth Screening / Shortlisting Screening starts after completion of the process of sourcing the candidates. which were received through sourcing. Screening is the process of filtering the applications of the candidates for further selection process.Searching involves attracting the job seekers to the vacancies. Screening is an integral part of recruitment process that helps in removing unqualified or irrelevant candidates. the resumes of the candidates are reviewed and checked for the candidates’ education. The screening process of recruitment consists of three steps − Reviewing of Resumes and Cover Letters Reviewing is the first step of screening candidates. The sources are broadly divided into two categories: Internal Sources and External Sources. work experience.

an HR executive must keep the following points in mind. agency fees. which makes it easy for the hiring manager to take a decision.e.While reviewing the resumes. In this process.. These include the following −  Salaries to the Recruiters  Advertisements cost and other costs incurred in recruitment methods. hence it is important that the performance of the recruitment process is thoroughly evaluated. The costs incurred in the recruitment process are to be evaluated and controlled effectively. the effectiveness and the validity of the process and methods are assessed. after the resumes are screened. and communication skills.  It also helps in giving a quick insight about the candidate’s attitude. to ensure better screening of the potential candidates −  Reason for change of job  Longevity with each organization  Long gaps in employment  Job-hopping  Lack of career progression Conducting Telephonic or Video Interview Conducting telephonic or video interviews is the second step of screening candidates. the candidates are contacted through phone or video by the hiring manager. This screening process has two outcomes −  It helps in verifying the candidates. Recruitment is a costly process. In this process. whether they are active and available. ability to answer interview questions. Identifying the top candidates Identifying the top candidates is the final step of screening the resumes/candidates. This process has the following three outcomes −  Shortlisting 5 to 10 resumes for review by the hiring managers  Providing insights and recommendations to the hiring manager  Helps the hiring managers to take a decision in hiring the right candidate Evaluation and Control Evaluation and control is the last stage in the process of recruitment. i. the cream/top layer of resumes are shortlisted. In this process.  Administrative expenses and Recruitment overheads .

recruitment is a crucial part of developing and maintaining an effective and efficient team. and conducting interviews. shortlist. . Types of Recruitment For any organization. screen. the question that is to be asked is. job specifications. how a recruiter finds the right candidates? Recruiters use different methods to source.  Overtime and Outstanding costs. Have you ever thought of. which would have incurred for extensive training and development of unqualified resources. A good recruitment strategy will cut down the wastage of time and money. Finally. Recruitment types explain the means by which an organization reaches potential job seekers. and select the resources as per the requirements of the organization. whether the recruitment methods used are valid or not? And whether the recruitment process itself is effective or not? Statistical information on the costs incurred for the process of recruitment should be effective. while the vacancies remain unfilled  Cost incurred in recruiting suitable candidates for the final selection process  Time spent by the Management and the Professionals in preparing job description.

we will shed some light on the secrets of hiring and recruiting methods. remuneration. Internal Sources of Recruitment Internal sources of recruitment refer to hiring employees within the organization internally. At the time recruitment of employees.In this chapter. In other words. which provides the opportunities for the development and utilization of the existing resources within the organization. Recruitment is broadly classified into two different categories − Internal Sources and External Sources. applicants seeking for the different positions are those who are currently employed with the same organization. Let us now discuss more on the various internal sources of recruitment. the initial consideration should be given to those employees who are currently working within the organization. It is the process of shifting an employee from a lower position to a higher position with more responsibilities. This is an important source of recruitment. facilities. Internal sources of recruitment are the best and the easiest way of selecting resources as performance of their work is already known to the organization. and . used by the recruiters. Promotions Promotion refers to upgrading the cadre of the employees by evaluating their performance in the organization.

In this scenario. The other major benefit of recruiting former employees is that they are very well versed with the roles and responsibilities of the job and the organization needs to spend less on their training and development. This process is costeffective and saves plenty of time. depending upon the project requirements and the capabilities of that respective employee. In this process. Recruiting Former Employees Recruiting former employees is a process of internal sources of recruitment. who are currently working with the organization. . Let’s take an example to understand how it works. Transfers Transfer refers to the process of interchanging from one job to another without any change in the rank and responsibilities. the present employees can refer their friends and relatives for filling up the vacant positions. Many organizations fill the higher vacant positions with the process of promotions. where they can apply for the vacant positions. there is a possibility of shifting an employee from Branch-B to Branch-A. It provides equal opportunities to all the employees working in the organization. Hence. It can also be the shifting of employees from one department to another department or one location to another location. It is the process of hiring new resources through the references of employees. Having two branches. this position has to be filled for the continuation of the project in Branch-A. instead of searching or sourcing new candidates. Internal Advertisements (Job Posting) Internal Advertisements is a process of posting/advertising jobs within the organization. This job posting is an open invitation to all the employees inside the organization. internally. wherein the exemployees are called back depending upon the requirement of the position. Hence.status. Assume there is a finance company called ABC Ltd. Branch-A and Branch-B. the recruitment will be done from within the organization and it saves a lot of cost. This internal shifting of an employee from one branch to another branch is called as Transfer. Employee Referrals Employee referrals is an effective way of sourcing the right candidates at a low cost. which is time consuming and expensive. depending upon the requirement of the position. and an employee from Branch-A resigned from his job responsibilities.

Pros and Cons of Internal Sources of Recruitment Internal sources of recruitment.  It motivates the employees to work hard. because it is cost effective and saves time as compared to hiring candidates from external sources.  Employees. and increases the work relationship within the organization. In other words. External Sources of Recruitment External sources of recruitment refer to hiring employees outside the organization externally. easy. in order to motivate their employees. The drawbacks of hiring candidates through internal sources are as follows −  It prevents new hiring of potential resources.. Most organizations. the applicants seeking job opportunities in this case are those who are external to the organization. i.Organizations encourage employee referrals. These resources can be easily approached and the response will be positive in most of the cases. Previous Applicants Here. it has . hiring employees within the organization.  There could be issues in between the employees. who are not promoted. and cost effective. quick. Sometimes.  It has limited scope because all the vacant positions cannot be filled. The advantages are as follows −  It is simple. then that position will remain vacant. It is also an inexpensive way of filling up the vacant positions. as the candidates already know their job and responsibilities. These applicants are those who have applied for jobs in the past. who are promoted and who are not. Although hiring through external sources is a bit expensive and tough. new resources bring innovative ideas and new thinking onto the table. may end up being unhappy and demotivated.  It helps in developing employee loyalty towards the organization. the hiring team checks the profiles of previous applicants from the organizational recruitment database. go ahead and reward them with a referral bonus for a successful hire. has its own set of advantages and disadvantages.  No need of induction and training.e.  If an internal resource is promoted or transferred. External employees bring innovativeness and fresh thoughts to the organization.

semi-skilled. Using advertisements is the best way to source candidates in a short span and it offers an efficient way of screening the candidates’ specific requirements. or government. but when time and number are important. Advertisements Advertisements are the most popular and very much preferred source of external source of recruitment. Employment exchange is a government entity. Let us now discuss in detail the various external sources of recruitment. Employment Exchanges As per the law. Advertisement is the best suitable practice for this kind of hiring. Direct Recruitment Direct recruitment refers to the external source of recruitment where the recruitment of qualified candidates are done by placing a notice of vacancy on the notice board in the organization. Advertisement is one of the costliest way to recruit candidates. Professional Associations . for certain job vacancies. semi-skilled and skilled resources as per the requirements of the organization. Assume that there is a Sales Company called XYZ Ltd which has got a new project of selling a product in a short span of time. choosing the specific recruitment plays a vital role. because a large volume of hiring in a short span can be done through Advertisement only. This external recruitment is helpful in hiring for unskilled. Employment Agencies Employment agencies are a good external source of recruitment. public. where the details of the job seekers are stored and given to the employers for filling the vacant positions. Employment agencies are run by various sectors like private.tremendous potential of driving the organization forward in achieving its goals. then advertisement is the best source of recruitment. as the blue-collar and technical workers are hired through this process. These agencies hold a database of qualified candidates and organizations can use their services at a cost. and skilled workers. it is mandatory that the organization provides details to the employment exchange. The job vacancy is announced through various print and electronic media with a specific job description and specifications of the requirements. It provides unskilled. This method of sourcing is also called as factory gate recruitment. as the competition is very high. In this scenario. Let’s take an example. Here the ideal type of recruitment which should be chosen is Advertisement.

however they specialize in sourcing mid-level and top-level resources.. the organizations visit technical.  The cost incurred is very high when compared to recruiting through internal sources. where the educational institutions such as colleges and universities offers opportunities for hiring students. as the selection process is very lengthy. Recruitment Interviews . and managerial personnel. Word of Mouth Advertising Word of mouth is an intangible way of sourcing the candidates for filling up the vacant positions. management. Pros and Cons of External Sources of Recruitment External sources of recruitment. because of the large number candidates appearing. The disadvantages of recruiting through external sources are as follows −  This process consumes more time. The benefits are as follows −  It encourages new opportunities for job seekers. Campus Recruitment Campus recruitment is an external source of recruitment. depending upon the requirement of the organization. i. technical. In this process. Such organizations only need a word-of-mouth advertising regarding a job vacancy to attract a large number of candidates.  External candidates demand more remuneration and benefits. hiring employees outside an organization. There are many professional associations that act as a bridge between the organizations and the job-seekers.e. and professional institutions for recruiting students directly for the new positions.  Organization branding increases through external sources.Professional associations can help an organization in hiring professional. There are many reputed organizations with good image in the market. has both its benefits and drawbacks.  There will be no biasing or partiality between the employees. To conclude. the HR department should be flexible enough to choose between internal or external methods of recruitment.  The scope for selecting the right candidate is more.

An interview refers to a conversation with one or more persons acting as the role of an interviewer who ask questions and the person who answers the questions acts as the role of an interviewee. you should prepare a list of questions. There are different meanings of the word “interview”. prospectus etc. The following five P’s should be taken into consideration in order to ensure effective selection and interviewing − .An interview is a purposeful exchange of ideas. However. they can be conducted over telephone or via video conferencing. which are as follows−  Through interviews. Hence. How to Interview? Various researches have proved that organizations that spend more time on recruitment have benefitted greatly in long term. whom you are interviewing and what kind of information you want from that person. Interviews can be carried out one-to-one or in groups. for obtaining information about qualities. Interviewing is both an art and a science. the answering of questions and communication between two or more persons. an interview is a process of private meeting conversation between people. recruiters can verify the information obtained through application forms and tests. interviews have some basic objectives. prior to conducting an interview. which you want to ask.  Interviews provides an applicant the information and the necessary facts about the job and the organization. An important thing to do. structured or unstructured. as different scholars defined the term differently. The primary purpose of an interview is to transfer information from interviewee to interviewer. how to interview is a technique that every HR professional should learn and try to implement. when you are planning for an interview is to think.  Recruiters can obtain additional information about the candidates which are not mentioned in the application forms or resumes. where questions are asked and answered. attitudes. Interviews can be either formal or informal.  Interviews establish a mutual understanding between the applicant and the organization. Generally. Hence.

knowledge and skills of the applicants. The following points explain the importance of conducting interviews −  Interviews help in selecting the right candidate from a group of applicants. while the applicants get an opportunity to become more familiar with the demands of a given position. why he/she is conducting it. the interviewer should make sure that he/she understands the key elements of the job. attributes. ask questions and also help in evaluating the potential for establishing a professional working relationship with the organization. This good practice of hiring will help in selecting the right candidate for the organization.  Performance − An interviewer must identify the attitude. If the requirement is about special education and technical skills.  Process − Every interviewer should follow a structured interview process to get better results. will not be completely transparent. which helps in selecting the right candidate. who comes for an interview. it is the job of an interviewer to un-mask the applicant and discover the inner qualities and skills during the interview. Hence.  Prepare − Preparation is the first step of conducting an interview.  Interviews are a medium to help collect useful information about potential candidates. feelings and motivations. And the interviewer should go through the resume of the candidate for understanding his/her qualities and efficiencies  Purpose − The interviewer should have knowledge about the purpose of the interview. Prior to interview. who come for an interview. The interviewer should project the organization as the best place to work to the interviewee. A structured process of interview avoids bias and gives equal and fair chance to all the applicants.  People Skills − The applicant. who applied for a job. Importance of Interview An interview provides an organization the scope to learn more about the applicants. Interviews help in gathering a wide range of information about the applicants’ attitude. . who are needed for the success of the organization. The best way for accomplishing this process is by using the behavioral based questions and situational questions. which in turn help in the decision-making process to hire the right candidates. then hiring high-performing applicants plays an important role. Interviews enable both the parties to exchange information.

that has to be followed for the right results. to find the right person for a specific position. Following such an interview process.  Interviews also help in promotions and transfers of the candidates. as per the requirements of the organization. Types of Interviews Depending up the requirements. where the interview questionnaire is not prepared.  Collect and review applications and resumes and from them. Conduct a thorough job analysis. the interviews are broadly classified into ten different categories. and consistent in hiring the candidates. Here. Recruiters should be knowledgeable enough to understand which type of interview should be used when.  Prepare a specific job description and a job specification. accurate. there should be a proper process. Hence. the interview is designed and detailed in advance. the effectiveness of the .  Unstructured Interview − This type of interview is an unplanned one. Recruiters can ask the candidates to provide an elaborate explanation during the interview.  Interview the shortlisted candidates based upon the job description and specification.  Verify the candidates’ background with the references provided by them. which in turn increases the goodwill of the organization.  Information given in the application form or resume is very less. A structured interview is pre-planned.  Make a plan − how and where to find qualified candidates. An ideal interview process for selecting the right candidates is as follows  Determine the requirements of the job. Interview Process Interviewing candidates is the final stage in the recruitment process. the HR department can hire the best possible candidates for a vacant job position. The ten different types of interviews are as follows −  Structured Interview − In this type. select the most potential and qualified candidates for further proceedings. locations and time. situations.  A good interviewer gives good impression about the organization.

interview is very less and there is a tremendous waste of time and effort of both
the interviewer and the interviewee.

 Group Interview − In this type of interview, all the candidates or a group of
candidates are interviewed together. Group interviews are conducted to save
time when there is a large number of applications for a few job vacancies. A
topic will be given to discuss among the candidates and the interviewer judges
the innovativeness and behavior of each candidate in the group.

 Depth Interview − Depth interview is a semi-structured interview, where the
candidates have to give a detailed information about their education
background, work experience, special interests, etc. And the interviewer takes a
depth interview and tries in finding the expertise of the candidate.

 Stress Interview − Stress interviews are conducted to discover how a
candidate behaves in stressful conditions. In this type of interview, the
interviewer will come to know whether the candidate can handle the demands of
a complex job. The candidate who maintains his composure during a stress
interview is normally the right person to handle a stressful job.

 Individual Interview − In an individual interview, the interview takes place
one-on-one i.e., there will be a verbal and a visual interaction between two
people, an interviewer and a candidate. This is a two-way communication
interview, which helps in finding the right candidate for a vacant job position.

 Informal Interview − Such interviews are conducted in an informal way, i.e.,
the interview will be fixed without any written communication and can be
arranged at any place. There is no procedure of asking questions in this type of
interview, hence it will be a friendly kind of interview.

 Formal Interview − A formal interview held in a formal way, i.e., the candidate
will be intimated about the interview well in advance and the interviewer plans
and prepares questions for the interview. This is also called as a planned
interview.

 Panel Interview − Panel interview, as the name indicates, is being conducted
by a group of people. In this type of interview, three to five members of the
selection committee will be asking questions to the candidates on different
aspects. The final decision will be taken by all the members of the panel
collectively.

 Exit Interview − Exit interviews are conducted for those employees who want
to leave the organization. The importance of the exit interview is to discover why
an employee wants to leave his job.

Example

Suppose there is a software company Global Systems, which has an executive
requirement for the position CEO. This kind of position cannot be fulfilled in a short
span. This kind of requirements need a keen observation and a lot of planning.

There are different types of interviews, which are explained in the above list. The best
type of interview suitable for hiring a CEO would be a “Structured Interview”. Hiring a
CEO for an organization is a big task and it can only be fulfilled with lots of planning.
Hence the interview process needs to be well structured and it has to be executed in a
perfect way.

What is Selection?

Selection is the process of picking or choosing the right candidate, who is most suitable
for a vacant job position in an organization. In others words, selection can also be
explained as the process of interviewing the candidates and evaluating their qualities,
which are required for a specific job and then choosing the suitable candidate for the
position.

The selection of a right applicant for a vacant position will be an asset to the
organization, which will be helping the organization in reaching its objectives.

Different authors define Selection in different ways. Here is a list of some of the
definitions −

 Employee selection is a process of putting a right applicant on a right job.

 Selection of an employee is a process of choosing the applicants, who have the
qualifications to fill the vacant job in an organization.

 Selection is a process of identifying and hiring the applicants for filling the
vacancies in an organization.

 Employee selection is a process of matching organization’s requirements with the
skills and the qualifications of individuals.

A good selection process will ensure that the organization gets the right set of
employees with the right attitude.

Difference between Recruitment and Selection

The major differences between Selection
Recruitment and Selection are as
follows −Recruitment

Recruitment is defined as the process of Selection is defined as the process of
identifying and making the potential choosing the right candidates for the vacant
candidates to apply for the jobs. positions.

Recruitment is called as a positive Selection is called as a negative process
process with its approach of attracting with its elimination or rejection of as many
as many candidates as possible for the candidates as possible for identifying the
vacant jobs right candidate for the position.

Both recruitment and selection work hand in hand and both play a vital role in the
overall growth of an organization.

Importance of Selection

Selection is an important process because hiring good resources can help increase the
overall performance of the organization. In contrast, if there is bad hire with a bad
selection process, then the work will be affected and the cost incurred for replacing that
bad resource will be high.

The purpose of selection is to choose the most suitable candidate, who can meet the
requirements of the jobs in an organization, who will be a successful applicant. For
meeting the goals of the organization, it is important to evaluate various attributes of
each candidate such as their qualifications, skills, experiences, overall attitude, etc. In
this process, the most suitable candidate is picked after the elimination of the
candidates, who are not suitable for the vacant job.

The organization has to follow a proper selection process or procedure, as a huge
amount of money is spent for hiring a right candidate for a position. If a selection is
wrong, then the cost incurred in induction and training the wrong candidate will be a
huge loss to the employer in terms of money, effort, and also time. Hence, selection is
very important and the process should be perfect for the betterment of the
organization.

Advantages of Selection

A good selection process offers the following advantages−

 It is cost-effective and reduces a lot of time and effort.

 It helps avoid any biasing while recruiting the right candidate.

and proficiency. work attitude. the attitude. and the behavior of the candidate as an individual and also as a professional. skills.  It provides a guideline to evaluate the candidates further through strict verification and reference-checking. A good selection process should comprise the following steps −  Employment Interview − Employment interview is a process in which one-on- one session in conducted with the applicant to know a candidate better. in which the physical and the mental fitness of the applicants are checked to ensure that the . knowledge.  Medical Examination − Medical examination is a process.  It helps in comparing the different candidates in terms of their capabilities. It helps the interviewer to discover the inner qualities of the applicant and helps in taking a right decision. ability.  Checking References − Reference checking is a process of verifying the applicant’s qualifications and experiences with the references provided by him. These reference checks help the interviewer understand the conduct.  It helps eliminate the candidates who are lacking in knowledge. experience. etc. Hence the selection procedure should be perfect. Selection Process and Steps As we have discussed that Selection is very important for any organization for minimizing the losses and maximizing the profits. A good selection process helps in selecting the best candidate for the requirement of a vacant position in an organization.

In such cases. Some organizations have salary grades. Tips for Good Salary Negotiation Hiring managers should keep the following points in mind while negotiating salary with a potential candidate −  Research about the job posting well in advance and have a clear understanding of the demand and supply of skilled professionals in the job market.  Final Selection − The final selection is the final process which proves that the applicant has qualified in all the rounds of the selection process and will be issued an appointment letter. then the employer can raise the package (if the budget permits) in the following cases −  The candidate is highly talented with a potential to deliver great results. If the candidate expects and demands for a higher salary than the offered salary. Sometimes there is high demand for a skill and the market does not have sufficient supply of qualified candidates to fill the gap. This is the heart of recruitment and selection process. Salary Negotiations Salary negotiation is done ahead of issuing an offer letter. A Win-Win Situation The negotiations should be a win-win situation. where both the candidate and the employer should benefit. A selection process with the above steps will help any organization in choosing and selecting the right candidates for the right job. have a budget for each position and they are under pressure to hire the right candidates without overshooting their assigned budget.  The candidate has exceptional skills which are rare in the market. This examination helps the organization in choosing the right candidates who are physically and mentally fit. The remuneration offered should be balanced. Hiring managers. acceptable and agreed by both the parties – the employer and the employee. wherein the actual worth of a right candidate will be evaluated. which are already assigned for each and every position. hence the new employee also receives the salary as per the grade for which the candidate is qualified and selected for. candidates are capable of performing a job or not. most of the time. . the HR team offers lucrative packages in order to attract talented professionals.

Most HR professionals tend to believe that making an offer is a simple process. benefits. or. and a few terms related to the company policies. role. At other times. it is very important to maintain balance between hiring the right candidates and working within the boundaries of the assigned budget. The following points should be kept in mind while making a job offer −  Do Not Delay − Issue an offer letter as soon as a candidate is selected. because it’s a stressful and demanding process until the candidate joins the company. Making an offer is a crucial part of recruitment and selection. Making a Job Offer Making a job offer is the final stage of recruitment and selection. as it can either make or break a selection. How to Make a Job Offer? Making a job offer is a delicate process and it should be handled carefully. Salary negotiation is extremely important.  Do not let the candidate know the maximum salary that can be offered. Once a candidate is selected. he/she will be issued an offer letter. especially if the resources are limited. hiring managers tend to go overboard and offer an extraordinary package to attract a right candidate. which describes the designation. after issuing an offer.  Make the candidates understand the break-up of the total package that is offered. it is not so. job location. Hence. At this stage. responsibilities. rather try to make them understand the fringe benefits that is being offered in the package. Sometimes. but in many cases. the HR team should take quick action at his stage. a potential candidate rejects the offer because it was not up to his expectation. The outcome of this process can be one of the following −  the candidate may accept and start working with the organization. . remuneration.  the candidate may accept a better job offer from another organization.  Do not reject a candidate if his expectations are beyond the budget. if he gets one. Hence. a lot of responsibility lies on the shoulders of the HR with regards to the process after making an offer.

ask the candidate to send a signed copy of the offer letter. Once the offer letter is prepared and issued to the selected candidate. After finding the right resource for the vacant job in the organization. the next step is preparing and issuing a job offer letter. the offer is prepared and released to the candidate. background verification etc. . till he/she joins the organization. A formal job offer should include the following −  Name of the employee  Title or designation of the job  The remuneration or salary offered  Employment commencement date  Roles and responsibilities of the job  Terms and conditions (contract/temporary/permanent) of the job  Compensations and benefit  Conditions during the probationary period  Additional condition.  Set a deadline to accept the offer − Once the offer is issued to the candidate. do not wait for the right time.  Put the job offer on the table − While issuing an offer letter.  Stay connected − Even after the offer is accepted by the candidate. as a token of acceptance of the job offer. it is best to make the initial offer and discuss about the terms of the employment. set a reasonable deadline to accept the offer. It is crucial at this stage to follow a correct process in order to close the deal and ensure that the selected candidate joins the organization as per the terms issued in the offer letter. During the confirmation of the job offer through phone call or mail. it is the responsibility of the hiring manager to be in touch with the selected candidate. Take a confirmation from the candidate that he/she should join as per the date of joining mentioned in the offer letter. which includes legal. Contact the selected candidate over phone and give him a verbal confirmation that he/she is selected to fill the position vacant. Preparing a Job Offer Letter Once the salary negotiations are completed.

address proof.The process of recruitment and selection starts right from understanding the requirements.  Contacting the candidates − Be in contact with the candidate through calls or mails or messages. If a candidate responds positively. It provides information regarding the behavior and attitude of the candidate. selecting and finally issuing the offer letter. Hence. This communication and the relationship between the recruiter and the candidate will help the process to complete and reduce the risks of the candidate not joining the company. because it will help in knowing the status of the candidate joining the organization as per the joining date mentioned in the offer letter. keep following up with the candidate about the joining date.  Following up for the joining date − Finally. do follow up with regards to the resignation acceptance document/mail from the current employer. The following steps are important after a candidate accepts the Job Offer −  Documentation process − This process includes collecting documents such as educational certificates. the role of a recruiter is important because the candidate may or may not join. Later on.  Employment verification process − Collecting an employment verification document. the recruiter should be in touch with the candidate through mails/messages/calls till he/she joins the company. communication plays a vital role in the process of recruitment and selection. there is a time-gap of one month or so after a candidate accepts the Offer Letter till the time he joins the organization. previous company offer letter. which consists of the details of the previous employers and their references. etc. make sure that the candidate resigns his current job and shares a copy of the resignation document/mail. relieving letters. shortlisting. During this time-gap. then it is an indicator that he/she is actually interested in joining the organization. which helps in building a relationship between the recruiter and a potential employee. It also helps in knowing the status of the candidate joining the organization. So. . scheduling.  Resignation from current employment − As soon as an offer letter is issued to the candidate. sourcing. id proof. The process is not over till the candidate joins. interviewing. What Next after Issuing a Job Offer? Employees usually have to serve a notice period before switching jobs. even after accepting the offer letter! Hence.

Recruitment and Selection . hiring the right resource is a very important task for any organization. We will also learn how the HR team of ABC . Hence. In this case study. recruitment interviews. selection process and making an offer. shortlisting and selecting the right candidates for the filling the required vacant positions. and procedures of the organization  Identifying the areas. we will see how ABC Systems can improve its recruiting process and focus on maintaining the efforts required for filling a job vacancy. In short. The Scope of Recruitment and Selection The scope of Recruitment and Selection is very wide and it consists of a variety of operations. screening. methods of recruitment. recruitment planning. The scope of Recruitment and Selection includes the following operations −  Dealing with the excess or shortage of resources  Preparing the Recruitment policy for different categories of employees  Analyzing the recruitment policies.All the above points help the employer in identifying the interest and the seriousness of a candidate in joining the organization. hiring right resources is the most important aspect of Recruitment. In this tutorial. Every company has its own pattern of recruitment as per their recruitment policies and procedures. Hence. processes. which sells FMCG products. we will discuss the various aspects of Recruitment and Selection such as the recruitment process. Recruitment and Selection is the process of sourcing. Resources are considered as most important asset to any organization. The company is lately suffering due to its high attrition rates.Introduction Recruitment and Selection is an important operation in HRM. Case Study: How to Improvise Recruitment Process Let’s assume there is a company called ABC Systems.Quick Guide Recruitment and Selection . the factors affecting recruitment. designed to maximize employee strength in order to meet the employer's strategic goals and objectives. where there could be a scope of improvement  Streamlining the hiring process with suitable recommendations  Choosing the best suitable process of recruitment for effective hiring of resources Any organization wants it future to be in good and safe hands.

and collecting the resumes of the candidates 5 Receiving relevant resumes 6 Shortlisting the resumes 7 Sending the shortlisted resumes to the department manager 8 Schedule interview dates 9 Calling the candidates for interview 10 Interviewers complete the feedback form and the feedback is shared with the HR 11 This process repeats for many candidates till the best candidates are finalized. design a step-wise recruitment process that can be easily followed. Step 1 − Define the Problem First. Recruitment Process Step Activity 1 Sending the resignation communication message to HR with request for initiating the recruitment process 2 Manager-HR directs the hiring team to start the recruitment process 3 Logging into the employment website and contacting different recruiters 4 Sourcing. identifying. define the problem in exact terms and then. We suggest here seven different steps that ABC Systems can utilize to resolve its problems.Systems can reduce the time and effort involved in sourcing good resources for the vacant positions. .

because the selection of the candidates through resume screening has maximum percentage of a positive outcome. Why the attrition rate is so high? There are several ways to arrive at the root cause behind a problem. Screening of resumes must be very effective. Hence. In case of ABC Systems. 12 The HR team negotiates the package and compensation 13 Final confirmation and agreements 14 Send offer letter 15 Offer accepted Step 2 − Research the Causes Analyze the root cause of the problem at hand. which is explained below − Resume Selection Test Reviewer Resumes Provided Resumes Selected Successful Selections* 1 10 8 4 2 10 5 2 3 10 7 2 Reviewers can use a set of defined criteria to screen the resumes. Tabulation of Selection Criteria Used Criteria Reviewer 1 Reviewer 2 Reviewer 3 . there is a need to improve this process by increasing the number of rejections with an efficient review process. it was observed that there is only a less percent of candidates who are rejected in the process of review. which can then be compiled as shown below.

The shortlisting of the relevant criteria is done as shown in the following table − Selection Criteria – Standardized Criteria Reviewer 1 Reviewer 2 Reviewer 3 Criteria to Keep 1 X X 2 X X X X 3 X X 4 X X 5 X X X X . 1 X X X 2 X X X 3 X 4 X X 5 X X X 6 X X 7 X X 8 X X X Step 3 − Countermeasure Ideas Generation It is mandatory to have a basis of standardization in selecting the candidates.

1 34 I/C 10 6 40 . make a note of the improvements achieved recruitment efficiency. First. Step 5 − Implementing the Ideas If found effective. then implement the new set of criteria for future recruitments. the set of criteria is analyzed to see it was effective or not. Step 6 − Standardize Procedures The next step is to standardize the procedure. Step 4 − Testing and Modifying the Ideas The next step is to test the defined set of criteria with three batches. 6 X X X 7 X X X 8 X X X X The shortlisted list of candidates is reviewed by the department heads and they can suggest modification which can then be incorporated as new criteria. After the selections are done. It can done as shown in the following tables − Improvements in Recruitment Efficiency Before After Resumes 100 92 Selected 18 24 Interviews 170 142 Improvements in Recruitment Efficiency Before After Percentage Improvement R/C 6.25 4.

Recruitment is the process of choosing the right person for the right position and at the right time.  It helps in increasing the success rate of selecting the right candidates. What is Recruitment? Recruitment is a process of identifying. and appointing potential candidates to meet the organization’s resource requirements.e. the improvised and the quality story is compiled and presented to the senior management for a better recruitment process.  It increases the pool of job at the minimal cost. screening.  It helps in identifying the job applicants and selecting the appropriate resources. Recruitment also refers to the process of attracting. Here is a list that shows the purpose and importance of Recruitment in an organization −  It determines the current and future job requirement. or from external sources. It is a core function of Human Resource Management. This process was standardized and adopted in the regular practice. If the recruitment process is efficient. .With the help of the above processes.  It meets the organization’s social and legal obligations with regards to the work force.  It helps in reducing the probability of short term employments. shortlisting and hiring potential resource for filling up the vacant positions in an organization. Step 7 − Compiling the Quality Improvement Story At last. reviewing and selecting the candidates for the right job positions. selecting.  It builds a good workplace environment with good employee relationships. Importance of Recruitment Recruitment is one of the most fundamental activities of the HR team. within the organization.. The hiring of the candidates can be done internally i. And the process should be performed within a time constraint and it should be cost effective. then  The organization gets happier and more productive employees  Attrition rate reduces.  It results in overall growth of the organization. there will be a reduction of about 30%-40% in the hiring process in shortlisting.

 It helps in increasing organizational effectives for a short and long term.  It helps in increasing the success ratio of the selection process of prospective candidates. and it is governed by a mixture of various factors. we will be discussing these factors in detail. The internal factors are −  Size of organization  Recruiting policy  Image of organization  Image of job Size of Organization The size of the organization is one of the most important factors affecting the recruitment process. which enables in selecting the right candidates for the right job as per the organizational needs. Factors Affecting Recruitment Recruitment is an important function of the Human Resource Management in an organization. When the market condition changes.  It helps in creating a talent pool of prospective candidates. Proactive HR Professionals should understand these factors influencing the recruitment and take necessary actions for the betterment of the organization. recruitment planning is mandatory for hiring more resources. In this chapter. Recruiting Policy . We have Internal Factors as well as External Factors that influence the recruitment process.  It determines the present futures requirements of the organization and plan according. the organization also needs to monitor these changes and discover how it affects the resources and analyze these functions for making recruitment an effective process. which will be handling the future operations. To expand the business. Internal Factors Organizations have control over the internal factors that affect their recruitment functions.  It helps in evaluating the effectiveness of the various recruitment techniques.  It links the potential employees with the employers.  It attracts and encourages the applicants to apply for the vacancies in an organization.

as the number of applicants is very high. i.e. Maintaining good public relations.  Unemployment rate − If the unemployment rate is high in a specific area.Recruitment policy of an organization. These laws dictate the compensation. economic status. the hiring will be relative easier. OBCs are best examples of legal considerations. which are created by the central and state governments. The external factors that affect the recruitment process include the following −  Demographic factors − Demographic factors are related to the attributes of potential employees such as their age. definitely helps an organization in enhancing its reputation in the market. gender.. which affects the recruitment process. providing public services. Jobs having a positive image in terms of better remuneration. the image of a job plays a critical role in recruitment. religion. etc. On the other hand. if the supply of people having a specific skill is less than the demand. passed by ... Image of Job Just like the image of organization. hiring of resources will be simple and easier. safety and health regulations. and thereby attract the best possible resources. literacy level. promotions. Image of Organization Organizations having a good positive image in the market can easily attract competent resources. hiring from internal or external sources of organization is also a factor. In contrast.  Labor market − Labor market controls the demand and supply of labor. As the government changes. etc. if the demand is less than the supply. etc. the laws too change. External Factors External factors are those that cannot be controlled by an organization.  Legal considerations − Job reservations for different castes such as STs. then the hiring will need more efforts. occupation. SCs. then recruiting tends to be very difficult due to less number of resources. if the unemployment rate is low. These considerations. working environment. for different types of employments.  Labor laws − Labor laws reflect the social and political environment of a market. It specifies the objectives of the recruitment and provides a framework for the implementation of recruitment programs. For example. good work environment with career development opportunities are considered to be the characteristics to attract qualified candidates. recognition.

To increase the efficiency of hiring. These five practices ensure successful recruitment without any interruptions. It sources the candidates with the abilities and attitude. reviewing applications. Recruitment process is the first step in creating a powerful resource base. In addition. these practices also ensure consistency and compliance in the recruitment process. shortlisting and selecting the right candidate. Recruitment Process Recruitment is a process of finding and attracting the potential resources for filling up the vacant positions in an organization. it is recommended that the HR team of an organization follows the five best practices (as shown in the following image). there is a need to analyze the competition and offer the resources packages that are best in terms of industry standards. . government. will have a positive or negative impact on the recruitment policies of the organizations. Recruitment process is a process of identifying the jobs vacancy.  Competitors − When organizations in the same industry are competing for the best qualified resources. analyzing the job requirements. screening. which are required for achieving the objectives of an organization. The process undergoes a systematic procedure starting from sourcing the resources to arranging and conducting interviews and finally selecting the right candidates.

and work environment of a specific job. These parameters should be evaluated before commencing recruitment. training. The potential candidates should be qualified. This process begins with receiving the requisition for recruitments from different department of the organization to the HR Department. experienced with a capability to take the responsibilities required to achieve the objectives of the organization. skills. abilities. where the vacant positions are analyzed and described. analyzing. The following steps are important in analyzing a job −  Recording and collecting job information  Accuracy in checking the job information . experience. Job analysis helps in understanding what tasks are important and how to perform them. Proper identifying. Identifying Vacancy The first and foremost process of recruitment plan is identifying the vacancy. permanent or temporary. which contains −  Number of posts to be filled  Number of positions  Duties and responsibilities to be performed  Qualification and experience required When a vacancy is identified. full-time or part-time. qualifications and skills required for the job. responsibilities. It includes job specifications and its nature.Recruitment Planning Recruitment planning is the first step of the recruitment process. etc. A structured recruitment plan is mandatory to attract potential candidates from a pool of candidates. and determining the duties. These factors help in identifying what a job demands and what an employee must possess in performing a job productively. compensation. and performance appraisal. Job Analysis Job analysis is a process of identifying. etc. it the responsibility of the sourcing manager to ascertain whether the position is required or not. Its purpose is to establish and document the job relatednessof employment procedures such as selection. planning and evaluating leads to hiring of the right resource for the team and the organization.

Job description provides information about the scope of job roles. The first step in job specification is preparing the list of all jobs in the organization and its locations. This information about each job in an organization is as follows − . which is descriptive in nature and contains the final statement of the job analysis. whom the HR team is going to hire. This description is very important for a successful recruitment process. knowledge and skills. Job Description Job description is an important document. Job description is generated for fulfilling the following processes −  Classification and ranking of jobs  Placing and orientation of new resources  Promotions and transfers  Describing the career path  Future development of work standards A job description provides information on the following elements −  Job Title / Job Identification / Organization Position  Job Location  Summary of Job  Job Duties  Machines. which are required for the job The immediate products of job analysis are job descriptions and job specifications.  Generating job description based on the information  Determining the skills. And this data gives the employer and the organization a clear idea of what an employee must do to meet the requirement of his job responsibilities. responsibilities and the positioning of the job in the organization. The second step is to generate the information of each job. Materials and Equipment  Process of Supervision  Working Conditions  Health Hazards Job Specification Job specification focuses on the specifications of the candidate.

. job ranking. job classifications. Job evaluation forms the basis for salary and wage negotiations. and determining the relative value/worth of a job in relation to the other jobs in an organization. Recruitment Strategy Recruitment strategy is the second step of the recruitment process. assessing. While preparing a recruitment strategy. where a strategy is prepared for hiring the resources. which are involved in job evaluation. The main objective of job evaluation is to analyze and determine which job commands how much pay.  Physical specifications  Mental specifications  Physical features  Emotional specifications  Behavioral specifications A job specification document provides information on the following elements −  Qualification  Experiences  Training and development  Skills requirements  Work responsibilities  Emotional characteristics  Planning of career Job Evaluation Job evaluation is a comparative process of analyzing. the next step is to decide which strategy to adopt for recruiting the potential candidates for the organization. There are several methods such as job grading. etc. the HR team considers the following points −  Make or buy employees  Types of recruitment  Geographical area  Recruitment sources . After completing the preparation of job descriptions and job specifications.

The development of a recruitment strategy is a long process. Internal Sources Internal sources of recruitment refer to hiring employees within the organization through −  Promotions  Transfers  Former Employees  Internal Advertisements (Job Posting)  Employee Referrals  Previous Applicants External Sources External sources of recruitment refer to hiring employees outside the organization through −  Direct Recruitment . Searching involves attracting the job seekers to the vacancies. The sources are broadly divided into two categories: Internal Sources and External Sources. the organization selects the media through which the communication of vacancies reaches the prospective candidates. This process consists of two steps −  Source activation − Once the line manager verifies and permits the existence of the vacancy. The steps involved in developing a recruitment strategy include −  Setting up a board team  Analyzing HR strategy  Collection of available data  Analyzing the collected data  Setting the recruitment strategy Searching the Right Candidates Searching is the process of recruitment where the resources are sourced depending upon the requirement of the job.  Selling − Here. the search for candidates starts. After the recruitment strategy is done. but having a right strategy is mandatory to attract the right candidates. the searching of candidates will be initialized.

and overall background matching the requirement of the job While reviewing the resumes. In this process. whether they are active and available.  It also helps in giving a quick insight about the candidate’s attitude.  Employment Exchanges  Employment Agencies  Advertisements  Professional Associations  Campus Recruitment  Word of Mouth Screening / Shortlisting Screening starts after completion of the process of sourcing the candidates. Screening is the process of filtering the applications of the candidates for further selection process. ability to answer interview questions. after the resumes are screened. an HR executive must keep the following points in mind. The screening process of recruitment consists of three steps − Reviewing of Resumes and Cover Letters Reviewing is the first step of screening candidates. the resumes of the candidates are reviewed and checked for the candidates’ education. Identifying the top candidates . Screening is an integral part of recruitment process that helps in removing unqualified or irrelevant candidates. In this process. and communication skills. This screening process has two outcomes −  It helps in verifying the candidates. which were received through sourcing. to ensure better screening of the potential candidates −  Reason for change of job  Longevity with each organization  Long gaps in employment  Job-hopping  Lack of career progression Conducting Telephonic or Video Interview Conducting telephonic or video interviews is the second step of screening candidates. work experience. the candidates are contacted through phone or video by the hiring manager.

agency fees. In this process. Recruitment is a costly process. the cream/top layer of resumes are shortlisted.e. In this process. which would have incurred for extensive training and development of unqualified resources. and select the resources as per the . These include the following −  Salaries to the Recruiters  Advertisements cost and other costs incurred in recruitment methods. The costs incurred in the recruitment process are to be evaluated and controlled effectively. hence it is important that the performance of the recruitment process is thoroughly evaluated. job specifications. which makes it easy for the hiring manager to take a decision. i. while the vacancies remain unfilled  Cost incurred in recruiting suitable candidates for the final selection process  Time spent by the Management and the Professionals in preparing job description. A good recruitment strategy will cut down the wastage of time and money. recruitment is a crucial part of developing and maintaining an effective and efficient team.Identifying the top candidates is the final step of screening the resumes/candidates. shortlist. Types of Recruitment For any organization. the question that is to be asked is. Finally. Have you ever thought of. and conducting interviews. whether the recruitment methods used are valid or not? And whether the recruitment process itself is effective or not? Statistical information on the costs incurred for the process of recruitment should be effective.. screen. This process has the following three outcomes −  Shortlisting 5 to 10 resumes for review by the hiring managers  Providing insights and recommendations to the hiring manager  Helps the hiring managers to take a decision in hiring the right candidate Evaluation and Control Evaluation and control is the last stage in the process of recruitment.  Administrative expenses and Recruitment overheads  Overtime and Outstanding costs. the effectiveness and the validity of the process and methods are assessed. how a recruiter finds the right candidates? Recruiters use different methods to source.

Recruitment is broadly classified into two different categories − Internal Sources and External Sources. applicants seeking for the different positions are those who are currently employed with the same organization. In other words. we will shed some light on the secrets of hiring and recruiting methods. Let us now discuss more on the various internal sources of recruitment. At the time recruitment of employees. Internal sources of recruitment are the best and the easiest way of selecting resources as performance of their work is already known to the organization. In this chapter. which provides the opportunities for the development and utilization of the existing resources within the organization. Recruitment types explain the means by which an organization reaches potential job seekers. used by the recruiters. the initial consideration should be given to those employees who are currently working within the organization. It is the process of shifting an employee from a lower . This is an important source of recruitment. Internal Sources of Recruitment Internal sources of recruitment refer to hiring employees within the organization internally. Promotions Promotion refers to upgrading the cadre of the employees by evaluating their performance in the organization.requirements of the organization.

instead of searching or sourcing new candidates. who are currently working with the organization. Assume there is a finance company called ABC Ltd. remuneration.position to a higher position with more responsibilities. and status. and an employee from Branch-A resigned from his job responsibilities. Employee Referrals Employee referrals is an effective way of sourcing the right candidates at a low cost. which is time consuming and expensive. the present employees can refer their friends and relatives for filling up the vacant positions. this position has to be filled for the continuation of the project in Branch-A. It is the process of hiring new resources through the references of employees. This job posting is an open invitation to all the employees inside the organization. In this process. Transfers Transfer refers to the process of interchanging from one job to another without any change in the rank and responsibilities. Many organizations fill the higher vacant positions with the process of promotions. Having two branches. depending upon the project requirements and the capabilities of that respective employee. Let’s take an example to understand how it works. internally. It provides equal opportunities to all the employees working in the organization. the recruitment will be done from within the organization and it saves a lot of cost. This internal shifting of an employee from one branch to another branch is called as Transfer. there is a possibility of shifting an employee from Branch-B to Branch-A. Hence. Recruiting Former Employees Recruiting former employees is a process of internal sources of recruitment. Branch-A and Branch-B. This process is costeffective and saves plenty of time. Hence. It can also be the shifting of employees from one department to another department or one location to another location. where they can apply for the vacant positions. In this scenario. facilities. wherein the exemployees are called back depending upon the requirement of the position. . The other major benefit of recruiting former employees is that they are very well versed with the roles and responsibilities of the job and the organization needs to spend less on their training and development. depending upon the requirement of the position. Internal Advertisements (Job Posting) Internal Advertisements is a process of posting/advertising jobs within the organization.

In other words.  If an internal resource is promoted or transferred. hiring employees within the organization.  It helps in developing employee loyalty towards the organization.  It motivates the employees to work hard. in order to motivate their employees. These applicants are those who have applied for jobs in the past. The drawbacks of hiring candidates through internal sources are as follows −  It prevents new hiring of potential resources. Previous Applicants Here. i.  There could be issues in between the employees.. has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. External Sources of Recruitment External sources of recruitment refer to hiring employees outside the organization externally.  It has limited scope because all the vacant positions cannot be filled. the applicants seeking job opportunities in this case are those who are external to the organization. the hiring team checks the profiles of previous applicants from the organizational recruitment database.e. The advantages are as follows −  It is simple. who are promoted and who are not. Although hiring through external sources is a bit expensive and tough.  Employees. as the candidates already know their job and responsibilities. it has . go ahead and reward them with a referral bonus for a successful hire. Pros and Cons of Internal Sources of Recruitment Internal sources of recruitment. because it is cost effective and saves time as compared to hiring candidates from external sources. new resources bring innovative ideas and new thinking onto the table. easy. may end up being unhappy and demotivated. quick. These resources can be easily approached and the response will be positive in most of the cases.  No need of induction and training. then that position will remain vacant. Most organizations. External employees bring innovativeness and fresh thoughts to the organization. Sometimes.Organizations encourage employee referrals. and cost effective. It is also an inexpensive way of filling up the vacant positions. and increases the work relationship within the organization. who are not promoted.

semi-skilled and skilled resources as per the requirements of the organization. Professional Associations . In this scenario. then advertisement is the best source of recruitment. where the details of the job seekers are stored and given to the employers for filling the vacant positions. but when time and number are important. Using advertisements is the best way to source candidates in a short span and it offers an efficient way of screening the candidates’ specific requirements. it is mandatory that the organization provides details to the employment exchange. public. Here the ideal type of recruitment which should be chosen is Advertisement. as the blue-collar and technical workers are hired through this process. Employment agencies are run by various sectors like private. or government. The job vacancy is announced through various print and electronic media with a specific job description and specifications of the requirements. as the competition is very high. These agencies hold a database of qualified candidates and organizations can use their services at a cost. Employment Exchanges As per the law. semi-skilled. Advertisement is the best suitable practice for this kind of hiring. Let us now discuss in detail the various external sources of recruitment. Employment exchange is a government entity. It provides unskilled. Employment Agencies Employment agencies are a good external source of recruitment. choosing the specific recruitment plays a vital role. and skilled workers. This external recruitment is helpful in hiring for unskilled. Assume that there is a Sales Company called XYZ Ltd which has got a new project of selling a product in a short span of time. Direct Recruitment Direct recruitment refers to the external source of recruitment where the recruitment of qualified candidates are done by placing a notice of vacancy on the notice board in the organization. Let’s take an example. because a large volume of hiring in a short span can be done through Advertisement only.tremendous potential of driving the organization forward in achieving its goals. This method of sourcing is also called as factory gate recruitment. Advertisement is one of the costliest way to recruit candidates. for certain job vacancies. Advertisements Advertisements are the most popular and very much preferred source of external source of recruitment.

. Word of Mouth Advertising Word of mouth is an intangible way of sourcing the candidates for filling up the vacant positions. depending upon the requirement of the organization. Pros and Cons of External Sources of Recruitment External sources of recruitment. The benefits are as follows −  It encourages new opportunities for job seekers. the organizations visit technical. In this process. Recruitment Interviews An interview is a purposeful exchange of ideas. because of the large number candidates appearing. where the educational institutions such as colleges and universities offers opportunities for hiring students.  There will be no biasing or partiality between the employees. hiring employees outside an organization. the answering of questions and communication between two or more persons.  The scope for selecting the right candidate is more. as the selection process is very lengthy. Generally. an interview is a process of . and professional institutions for recruiting students directly for the new positions.e. The disadvantages of recruiting through external sources are as follows −  This process consumes more time. There are many reputed organizations with good image in the market. the HR department should be flexible enough to choose between internal or external methods of recruitment. There are many professional associations that act as a bridge between the organizations and the job-seekers. Such organizations only need a word-of-mouth advertising regarding a job vacancy to attract a large number of candidates.  The cost incurred is very high when compared to recruiting through internal sources.  External candidates demand more remuneration and benefits. Campus Recruitment Campus recruitment is an external source of recruitment. has both its benefits and drawbacks. i.  Organization branding increases through external sources. To conclude. management. however they specialize in sourcing mid-level and top-level resources. technical. and managerial personnel.Professional associations can help an organization in hiring professional.

Hence. they can be conducted over telephone or via video conferencing. the interviewer should make sure that he/she understands the key . Interviewing is both an art and a science. where questions are asked and answered. you should prepare a list of questions. interviews have some basic objectives. attitudes. structured or unstructured. for obtaining information about qualities.private meeting conversation between people. The following five P’s should be taken into consideration in order to ensure effective selection and interviewing −  Prepare − Preparation is the first step of conducting an interview. An important thing to do. whom you are interviewing and what kind of information you want from that person. which are as follows−  Through interviews. However. which you want to ask. How to Interview? Various researches have proved that organizations that spend more time on recruitment have benefitted greatly in long term. Interviews can be either formal or informal. as different scholars defined the term differently. Hence.  Interviews provides an applicant the information and the necessary facts about the job and the organization. The primary purpose of an interview is to transfer information from interviewee to interviewer. There are different meanings of the word “interview”. prospectus etc.  Recruiters can obtain additional information about the candidates which are not mentioned in the application forms or resumes. Interviews can be carried out one-to-one or in groups.  Interviews establish a mutual understanding between the applicant and the organization. recruiters can verify the information obtained through application forms and tests. how to interview is a technique that every HR professional should learn and try to implement. Prior to interview. An interview refers to a conversation with one or more persons acting as the role of an interviewer who ask questions and the person who answers the questions acts as the role of an interviewee. when you are planning for an interview is to think. prior to conducting an interview.

Interviews enable both the parties to exchange information. If the requirement is about special education and technical skills.  Interviews are a medium to help collect useful information about potential candidates. which in turn help in the decision-making process to hire the right candidates. will not be completely transparent. Importance of Interview An interview provides an organization the scope to learn more about the applicants. while the applicants get an opportunity to become more familiar with the demands of a given position. Interviews help in gathering a wide range of information about the applicants’ attitude. Hence.  Performance − An interviewer must identify the attitude. who applied for a job. The following points explain the importance of conducting interviews −  Interviews help in selecting the right candidate from a group of applicants. . And the interviewer should go through the resume of the candidate for understanding his/her qualities and efficiencies  Purpose − The interviewer should have knowledge about the purpose of the interview. knowledge and skills of the applicants. who are needed for the success of the organization.  Process − Every interviewer should follow a structured interview process to get better results. then hiring high-performing applicants plays an important role. The interviewer should project the organization as the best place to work to the interviewee. it is the job of an interviewer to un-mask the applicant and discover the inner qualities and skills during the interview. which helps in selecting the right candidate. This good practice of hiring will help in selecting the right candidate for the organization.  People Skills − The applicant. A structured process of interview avoids bias and gives equal and fair chance to all the applicants. elements of the job. ask questions and also help in evaluating the potential for establishing a professional working relationship with the organization. who come for an interview. who comes for an interview. attributes. feelings and motivations. why he/she is conducting it. The best way for accomplishing this process is by using the behavioral based questions and situational questions.

Recruiters can ask the candidates to provide an elaborate explanation during the interview. locations and time.  Interviews also help in promotions and transfers of the candidates. Interview Process Interviewing candidates is the final stage in the recruitment process. accurate.  Collect and review applications and resumes and from them. as per the requirements of the organization. The ten different types of interviews are as follows −  Structured Interview − In this type.  Prepare a specific job description and a job specification.  A good interviewer gives good impression about the organization. where the interview questionnaire is not prepared.  Interview the shortlisted candidates based upon the job description and specification. An ideal interview process for selecting the right candidates is as follows −  Determine the requirements of the job. there should be a proper process.  Information given in the application form or resume is very less. Following such an interview process.  Make a plan − how and where to find qualified candidates. and consistent in hiring the candidates. A structured interview is pre-planned. Conduct a thorough job analysis. Hence. Here. Types of Interviews Depending up the requirements. the effectiveness of the .  Unstructured Interview − This type of interview is an unplanned one. select the most potential and qualified candidates for further proceedings. the HR department can hire the best possible candidates for a vacant job position. the interview is designed and detailed in advance. that has to be followed for the right results. the interviews are broadly classified into ten different categories. situations.  Verify the candidates’ background with the references provided by them. which in turn increases the goodwill of the organization. Recruiters should be knowledgeable enough to understand which type of interview should be used when. to find the right person for a specific position.

e. work experience. the interview takes place one-on-one i.e. i. special interests. the candidate will be intimated about the interview well in advance and the interviewer plans and prepares questions for the interview...  Group Interview − In this type of interview. In this type of interview. interview is very less and there is a tremendous waste of time and effort of both the interviewer and the interviewee.  Depth Interview − Depth interview is a semi-structured interview.e. hence it will be a friendly kind of interview. In this type of interview. . three to five members of the selection committee will be asking questions to the candidates on different aspects. is being conducted by a group of people. the interview will be fixed without any written communication and can be arranged at any place. i. the interviewer will come to know whether the candidate can handle the demands of a complex job. A topic will be given to discuss among the candidates and the interviewer judges the innovativeness and behavior of each candidate in the group.  Informal Interview − Such interviews are conducted in an informal way.  Formal Interview − A formal interview held in a formal way. which helps in finding the right candidate for a vacant job position. etc. The final decision will be taken by all the members of the panel collectively.  Stress Interview − Stress interviews are conducted to discover how a candidate behaves in stressful conditions. This is also called as a planned interview. And the interviewer takes a depth interview and tries in finding the expertise of the candidate.  Individual Interview − In an individual interview. an interviewer and a candidate. This is a two-way communication interview. The candidate who maintains his composure during a stress interview is normally the right person to handle a stressful job. there will be a verbal and a visual interaction between two people.  Panel Interview − Panel interview. as the name indicates. There is no procedure of asking questions in this type of interview. where the candidates have to give a detailed information about their education background. all the candidates or a group of candidates are interviewed together. Group interviews are conducted to save time when there is a large number of applications for a few job vacancies..

A good selection process will ensure that the organization gets the right set of employees with the right attitude. Example Suppose there is a software company Global Systems. which are explained in the above list. selection can also be explained as the process of interviewing the candidates and evaluating their qualities. Difference between Recruitment and Selection The major differences between Recruitment and Selection are as follows − . In others words. Hence the interview process needs to be well structured and it has to be executed in a perfect way.  Employee selection is a process of matching organization’s requirements with the skills and the qualifications of individuals. Different authors define Selection in different ways. What is Selection? Selection is the process of picking or choosing the right candidate.  Selection of an employee is a process of choosing the applicants. The best type of interview suitable for hiring a CEO would be a “Structured Interview”. who is most suitable for a vacant job position in an organization. The selection of a right applicant for a vacant position will be an asset to the organization.  Selection is a process of identifying and hiring the applicants for filling the vacancies in an organization. This kind of requirements need a keen observation and a lot of planning.  Exit Interview − Exit interviews are conducted for those employees who want to leave the organization. Here is a list of some of the definitions −  Employee selection is a process of putting a right applicant on a right job. which are required for a specific job and then choosing the suitable candidate for the position. There are different types of interviews. which has an executive requirement for the position CEO. The importance of the exit interview is to discover why an employee wants to leave his job. This kind of position cannot be fulfilled in a short span. which will be helping the organization in reaching its objectives. who have the qualifications to fill the vacant job in an organization. Hiring a CEO for an organization is a big task and it can only be fulfilled with lots of planning.

if there is bad hire with a bad selection process. In this process. effort. and proficiency. who will be a successful applicant. etc. selection is very important and the process should be perfect for the betterment of the organization. Importance of Selection Selection is an important process because hiring good resources can help increase the overall performance of the organization. In contrast. it is important to evaluate various attributes of each candidate such as their qualifications. If a selection is wrong. and also time. then the cost incurred in induction and training the wrong candidate will be a huge loss to the employer in terms of money. experiences. Advantages of Selection A good selection process offers the following advantages−  It is cost-effective and reduces a lot of time and effort. For meeting the goals of the organization. the most suitable candidate is picked after the elimination of the candidates.  It helps eliminate the candidates who are lacking in knowledge. Hence. . who can meet the requirements of the jobs in an organization. Both recruitment and selection work hand in hand and both play a vital role in the overall growth of an organization. then the work will be affected and the cost incurred for replacing that bad resource will be high. Recruitment Selection Recruitment is defined as the process Selection is defined as the process of of identifying and making the potential choosing the right candidates for the vacant candidates to apply for the jobs. The organization has to follow a proper selection process or procedure. ability.  It helps avoid any biasing while recruiting the right candidate. skills. who are not suitable for the vacant job. The purpose of selection is to choose the most suitable candidate. positions. Recruitment is called as a positive Selection is called as a negative process with process with its approach of attracting its elimination or rejection of as many as many candidates as possible for the candidates as possible for identifying the vacant jobs right candidate for the position. overall attitude. as a huge amount of money is spent for hiring a right candidate for a position.

It helps the interviewer to discover the inner qualities of the applicant and helps in taking a right decision. etc. the attitude. Hence the selection procedure should be perfect.  Medical Examination − Medical examination is a process.  Checking References − Reference checking is a process of verifying the applicant’s qualifications and experiences with the references provided by him.  Final Selection − The final selection is the final process which proves that the applicant has qualified in all the rounds of the selection process and will be issued an appointment letter. and the behavior of the candidate as an individual and also as a professional. in which the physical and the mental fitness of the applicants are checked to ensure that the candidates are capable of performing a job or not. experience. Selection Process and Steps As we have discussed that Selection is very important for any organization for minimizing the losses and maximizing the profits. A good selection process helps in selecting the best candidate for the requirement of a vacant position in an organization. A good selection process should comprise the following steps −  Employment Interview − Employment interview is a process in which one-on- one session in conducted with the applicant to know a candidate better. skills. . knowledge.  It provides a guideline to evaluate the candidates further through strict verification and reference-checking.  It helps in comparing the different candidates in terms of their capabilities. work attitude. These reference checks help the interviewer understand the conduct. This examination helps the organization in choosing the right candidates who are physically and mentally fit.

If the candidate expects and demands for a higher salary than the offered salary.  The candidate has exceptional skills which are rare in the market. Tips for Good Salary Negotiation Hiring managers should keep the following points in mind while negotiating salary with a potential candidate −  Research about the job posting well in advance and have a clear understanding of the demand and supply of skilled professionals in the job market.  Do not let the candidate know the maximum salary that can be offered. In such cases.  Do not reject a candidate if his expectations are beyond the budget. Salary Negotiations Salary negotiation is done ahead of issuing an offer letter. which are already assigned for each and every position. have a budget for each position and they are under pressure to hire the right candidates without overshooting their assigned budget. then the employer can raise the package (if the budget permits) in the following cases −  The candidate is highly talented with a potential to deliver great results. the HR team offers lucrative packages in order to attract talented professionals. where both the candidate and the employer should benefit. rather try to make them understand the fringe benefits that is being offered in the package. A Win-Win Situation The negotiations should be a win-win situation.  Make the candidates understand the break-up of the total package that is offered.A selection process with the above steps will help any organization in choosing and selecting the right candidates for the right job. wherein the actual worth of a right candidate will be evaluated. Some organizations have salary grades. acceptable and agreed by both the parties – the employer and the employee. most of the time. Sometimes there is high demand for a skill and the market does not have sufficient supply of qualified candidates to fill the gap. hence the new employee also receives the salary as per the grade for which the candidate is qualified and selected for. This is the heart of recruitment and selection process. Hiring managers. The remuneration offered should be balanced. .

At other times. hiring managers tend to go overboard and offer an extraordinary package to attract a right candidate. it is not so. especially if the resources are limited. because it’s a stressful and demanding process until the candidate joins the company. remuneration. or. and a few terms related to the company policies. Sometimes. Take a confirmation from the candidate that he/she should join as per the date of joining mentioned in the offer letter. the HR team should take quick action at his stage. set a reasonable deadline to accept the offer. it is very important to maintain balance between hiring the right candidates and working within the boundaries of the assigned budget. Making a Job Offer Making a job offer is the final stage of recruitment and selection. role. Hence. The outcome of this process can be one of the following −  the candidate may accept and start working with the organization. do not wait for the right time. Once a candidate is selected. benefits. which describes the designation.Salary negotiation is extremely important. How to Make a Job Offer? Making a job offer is a delicate process and it should be handled carefully.  the candidate may accept a better job offer from another organization. At this stage. The following points should be kept in mind while making a job offer −  Do Not Delay − Issue an offer letter as soon as a candidate is selected. responsibilities. as it can either make or break a selection.  Put the job offer on the table − While issuing an offer letter. if he gets one. job location. after issuing an offer.  Set a deadline to accept the offer − Once the offer is issued to the candidate. . Contact the selected candidate over phone and give him a verbal confirmation that he/she is selected to fill the position vacant. a potential candidate rejects the offer because it was not up to his expectation. Most HR professionals tend to believe that making an offer is a simple process. Hence. a lot of responsibility lies on the shoulders of the HR with regards to the process after making an offer. but in many cases. Making an offer is a crucial part of recruitment and selection. he/she will be issued an offer letter.

there is a time-gap of one month or so after a candidate accepts the Offer Letter till the time he joins the organization. ask the candidate to send a signed copy of the offer letter. interviewing. It is crucial at this stage to follow a correct process in order to close the deal and ensure that the selected candidate joins the organization as per the terms issued in the offer letter.  Stay connected − Even after the offer is accepted by the candidate. What Next after Issuing a Job Offer? Employees usually have to serve a notice period before switching jobs. it is best to make the initial offer and discuss about the terms of the employment. Preparing a Job Offer Letter Once the salary negotiations are completed. as a token of acceptance of the job offer. shortlisting. the recruiter should be in touch with the candidate through mails/messages/calls till he/she joins the company. background verification etc. Once the offer letter is prepared and issued to the selected candidate. The process is not over till the candidate joins. During this time-gap. . the offer is prepared and released to the candidate. After finding the right resource for the vacant job in the organization. the role of a recruiter is important because the candidate may or may not join. which includes legal. sourcing. the next step is preparing and issuing a job offer letter. till he/she joins the organization. scheduling. even after accepting the offer letter! Hence. it is the responsibility of the hiring manager to be in touch with the selected candidate. selecting and finally issuing the offer letter. During the confirmation of the job offer through phone call or mail. A formal job offer should include the following −  Name of the employee  Title or designation of the job  The remuneration or salary offered  Employment commencement date  Roles and responsibilities of the job  Terms and conditions (contract/temporary/permanent) of the job  Compensations and benefit  Conditions during the probationary period  Additional condition. So. The process of recruitment and selection starts right from understanding the requirements.

If a candidate responds positively. because it will help in knowing the status of the candidate joining the organization as per the joining date mentioned in the offer letter.This communication and the relationship between the recruiter and the candidate will help the process to complete and reduce the risks of the candidate not joining the company. Hence. which consists of the details of the previous employers and their references. previous company offer letter. rate me as an interviewer.  Employment verification process − Collecting an employment verification document. Later on. On a scale of one to ten. It also helps in knowing the status of the candidate joining the organization.  Following up for the joining date − Finally. do follow up with regards to the resignation acceptance document/mail fkkkrom the current employer. then it is an indicator that he/she is actually interested in joining the organization. . communication plays a vital role in the process of recruitment and selection. id proof. address proof. I will give you 9/10 because I think that no one is perfect in this world.kkk  Contacting the candidates − Be in contact with the candidate through calls or mails or messages. keep following up with the candidate about the joining date. make sure that the candidate resigns his current job and shares a copy of the resignation document/mail.  Resignation from current employment − As soon as an offer letter is issued to the candidate. etc. It provides information regarding the behavior and attitude of the candidate. The following steps are important after a candidate accepts the Job Offer −  Documentation process − This process includes collecting documents such as educational certificates. Sir you are the HR of this company and I am just a student who came here to get job in your company but still if you wanna know. which helps in building a relationship between the recruiter and a potential employee. relieving letters. All the above points help the employer in identifying the interest and the seriousness of a candidate in joining the organization. Thank you so much sir for giving me this opportunity to judge you.

To establish various sources of candidates .The candidate might be hired internally or from external sources . “for better prospects”. If you have been made redundant. Now they can ask you another question. Your wrong words can give an impression that only you were the one whose position was made redundant. The purpose of recruitment is to: . which hardly might be the case.Attract the maximum number of candidates to the organization and encourage them to apply . May be you can say something like. One of them was mine but I have learnt a lot during my tenure at XYZ company and I am sure I can add a lot of value to a position like the one we are discussing about”. The best answer to offer for this question is to say. what do you mean by better prospects? To this you can say. screening and hiring the most suitable candidate for a job vacancy.To identify the potential candidates within the organization for future man power requirements . better prospects in terms of experience. “Over last 8 months a lot of restructuring was going on in the company and 40 positions became surplus.Create strong database and select the best candidate for the position .Recruitment is the process of identifying.Make the hiring exercise a cost effective one Importance of recruitment is: . and exposure. Why do you want to leave your present job? The reasons for switching the job could be numerous.The process must be performed in timely and cost effective manner . put your words across very carefully.To identify the outside candidates and hire them to meet the man power requirements . .Ascertain the current and future manpower requirements of the organization . What is Recruitment ? .It can also be termed as a process linking the employers and the employees Explain the purpose and importance of recruitment.

Employee referral program .Conducting the interviews and deciding on the candidate What are the various internal and external sources of recruitment? There can be two kinds of sources of recruitment for organizations .Transfer . The sources of these employees could be many: .Identifying the vacancy . It can be considered as the first strategic step towards the success of an organization. Internal recruitment can be done by: . The recruitment process tries to get the best manpower for the organization.To help in increasing the success of hiring process Explain recruitment process.It means getting the absolutely new candidate to the company. .Advertising the requirement .Lowering the position of an employee in the hierarchy for various reasons External recruitment .Taking the employee higher up in the hierarchy .Unsolicited applicants . Internal recruitment .transferring an employee from one location/ department to other.College campuses .Internal and External.. The process consists of following major steps: .Receiving and managing the applications .These could be the retired or retrenched employees .Arranging the interviews .Promotion .Preparing the job specifications and description of the potential candidate .Job notifications in the print/ online media .It means getting the candidate from within the organization to fulfil a vacancy.Demotion .Placement agents .Ex-employees .Short listing the candidates .

A recruitment policy defines the recruitment objectives and clearly defines the framewor to work within.The factors which are under the control of organization are called internal factors.) Expansion plans iv. It can be termed as the first step in developing an efficient recruitment process. A good recruitment policy should focus on: .) Human Resource Planning iii.) Brand image of the organization iii. Internal factors .) Politico-social environment iv. There can be various internal and external factors which affect the recruitment process.) Legal conditions v.) Cost of recruitment External factors .) Economic condition of the market vi.) Recruitment policy of the competitors What should be the focus of recruitment policy of a company? A good recruitment policy helps the organization in developing an effective recruitment process..) Recruitment policy of the organization ii.Being unbiased towards all candidates .) Availability of talent ii. These could be - i.These are the factors which are not under the control of the organization.Labour contractors Explain the internal and external factors affecting recruitment.Employment exchange . These could be - i.

Recruitment of contractual employees .Developing cost effective recruitment process . merit based selection .Terms of recruitment .Using the services of placement agents .Payment terms and conditions for placement agents .Its objectives . politically.Helping the employees identify their potential .Time available .Preferred recruitment sources What are the main components of a recruitment policy? The main components of a recruitment policy are: . The main advantages of doing so are as follows: . legally and economically friendly List some factors that affect the recruitment policy of a company.Sources of recruitment .Employment terms and conditions What are the advantages of outsourcing the recruitment services? Many organizations outsource their recruitment services to the placement agencies.Promoting transparent.Political environment .Being socially.Policies of the competitors . Various factors which can affect the recruitment policy of a company are: .Social and economic .Recruiting the best talent .Appointing an authority for final decision .Cost of recruitment .Obtaining requirements from departments ..Selection process .Government laws .

.It allows the organizations to focus on core and strategic activities .Paper less process .Screening the database of candidates on job portals The advantages of e-recruitment are: .Day in . . Poaching in recruitment means hiring the employee of a competitor who is working in the same capacity as desired by you.day out access to the database . What are the advantages of e-recruitment? E-recruitment means using internet for the recruitment services.Large pool of candidates to choose from . Three main techniques used in e-recruitment are: .Screening the database brings in only relevant candidates .Lower cost of advertising the job openings . The employee is usually hired by offering him better salary and perks.Advertising on job portals .Helps in saving time .Reduction in recruitment cost Explain Poaching/ Raiding.It provides access to the expertise of the placement agents .Building a recruitment section on company's website. .It leads to optimal use of resources and time . This is a major challenge faced by the HR managers as it causes the leakage of talent from an organization and effects its productivity..more organised Differentiate between recruitment and selection. List the e-recruitment techniques.Recruitment process get a pool of candidates for the selection process to work and choose the best one.Recruitment aims at searching for the talent and promoting the candidates to apply for the position while selection is the process o screening the candidates to fill a position with the most suitable candidate. .

reliable.Placement consultant shortlist some candidates and sends the CVs . . What is recruitment management system? What are its features and benefits? .Precise estimation of time and cost of recruitment.It works as a good interface between various parties involved in the whole process . . . a company should keep following things in mind: .Company's representative shortlists the CVs sent by consultants .It helps in better communication. . How would you maximize your ROI on recruitment? Recruitment is a time and money consuming activity. . The process of recruitment through placement agents consists of following steps: .Brief the consultant about the profile and the candidate .Recruitment management system is a tool for effective management of recruitment process.The system helps in efficient management of system by automatically maintaining the database of candidates. In order to maximize the ROI through recruitment activities. .There is no contractual agreement between the employee and the employer in the recruitment process while after the selection a contract is agreed upon by the employee and the employer.Develop effective ways to measure critical results.Estimate the tangible and intangible benefits that have come from the recruitment exercise.Interview is scheduled by the agent .. It helps in quick. Establishing the clear goals doesn't leave a place for confusion in the system.Ensure that the people working in the recruitment process are well trained. . Explain the process of recruitment through placement agents.Recruitment encourages more and more people to apply while selection eliminates unsuitable candidates to zero down on the bes one.Clearly define the achievements you expect from the recruitment process. accurate and unbiased processing of various applications.

Type of candidates required depending on their .Lack of proper job analysis . competitor's employees..performance.Lack of self motivation .Process to evaluate and hire candidates What challenges have you faced as a recruiter? Major challenges a recruiter faces are: .job portals.If the candidate is selected.Achievements in the last projects .Result orientation What are the elements of an effective recruitment strategy? The purpose of a recruitment strategy is to hire the best talent a company desires in a timely and cost effective manner.Lack of job prioritization . Following are the important qualities. . experience. campuses.Flexibility and adaptability . Following are the main elements of an effective recruitment strategy: .Lack of candidates in some particular domain .Assigned recruiters . he is given an offer after the negotiation else the consultant sends another candidate What qualities would you look for in consultants before getting them on board for your recruitment activities? If a company decides to outsource its recruitment activities. employee referral .Experience and expertise in the sector .Interview conducted by the company's representative .Lack of agility in the process . domain knowledge.Sources to tab .Identifying the jobs .Changing trends of the market .Resources they possess . it looks for a consultant to do this job. a company should look for in the consultant before hiring them - .

pregnancy etc. These people are called expats.Professional qualifications and expertise .Adaptability and Flexibility . marital status. Sometimes the companies require only expats for certain positions - depending on their recruitment strategy. disability.) Regular performance and behavioural feedback v. age.Level of self-motivation What do you understand by "Equal Employment Opportunity"? Equal employment opportunity means an equal and fair treatment for all people.Cultural sensitivity .) Training iv.) Respectful treatment ii. There is no discrimination among the employees or candidates on the basis of: race.Open mindedness .Family conditions . Motivation can be defined as the enthusiasm of an employee which causes him to take actions at work.Any past international work experience . sex. Which non-monetary factors do you think help in building up the motivation level of employees? Following are some of the effective ways to motivate employees: i. Explain Employee Motivation.) Recognising the individual and performance iii. what qualities will you try to judge during the interview? When there is a shortage of skills and talents at a particular geographical location. While hiring expats it is important to judge following qualities in them: . They help the organizations in creating a good image for themselves and discharging their social responsibilities.If you are required to recruit expats. the company tries to hire people from other geographical locations. Equal employment Opportunities help in overall development of both the society as well as the organization.) Clear communication from the management . sexuality.

) Challenges viii. . ii.) Working in teams How is Mayo's theory different from Taylor's theory of motivation? i.) More involvement of manager in their work life iii.) Involvement in activities that desire responsibility vii.) Suggestions and feedback from the employees are heard ii.) Employees are trusted and treated with respect v.vi.) Communication among the team members and with the superiors is open in nature iv.) Taylor’s theory focuses on the negative aspect of a worker’s behaviour while Mayo’s theory focuses on positive aspects.) Communication between them and managers ii.) Clearly defined goals and plan of action What kind of work culture do you think increases the motivation level of an employee? Following are some of the characteristics of the culture that increases motivation level of an employee: i.) Employees see a path to grow and are regular trained for development Explain Taylor's theory of motivation.) Workers do not enjoy work.) Employees are well informed about the things affecting them iii. They are highly motivated by factors like: i. Frederick Taylor put forward a theory about worker’s motivation.) They need constant supervision iii. Its main features are: i.) Employees work and deliver as a team vi.) They are motivated mainly by the “salary” What are the main points of Mayo's theory of motivation? Mayo’s theory believes that money is not the only motivation for workers.

Recognition . These needs are classified as grouped as below: Level 1 – Basic needs – Food. .Thus the incentives offered to the workers at each level have to be different. does the higher need come into picture. clothes. Motivators are the factors that give satisfaction.Challenges .motivate them. shelter Level 2 – Safety needs – Security and protection Level 3 – Social needs Level 4 – Esteem needs Level 5 – Self actualization What is Herzberg's theory of motivation? Herzberg came out with two-factor theory of motivation which believed that there are certain factors which enthuse motivation in workers while others de.) Taylor’s theory treats money as the biggest motivation while Mayo’s theory lays more emphasis on non-monetary factors. For e. . Do you think it applies in real life? . For e. Only when a lower need is satisfied.ii.Job security etc.Responsibility The other set of factors are hygiene factors – their presence doesn’t motivate the employees but their absence surely de-motivates them. The factors demotivating the workers are called the hygiene factors.g.Work conditions . Explain Maslow's theory of hierarchy of needs.Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs believes that each individual has some needs arranged in hierarchical order.Salary .g. . – .

.Theory X takes a negative view of the employees while the Theory Y takes a positive view. .Theory X believes in doing the business in an authoritarian way while Theory Y tries to remove .he barriers employees find in the way of their work.Who proposed theory X and Y of motivation? What were the major differences between X and Y observations? Theory X and Y of motivation was proposed by Douglas McGregor..Theory X believes that money is the only motivation for work while Theory Y believes that the satisfaction that employees achieve after doing a work well is a bigger motivation..Theory X believes that employees are lazy and do not like work while Theory Y believes that employees enjoy work.. . . The major difference between these theories are: .