Commonly used shorthand for dictionaries

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Common Latin Abbreviations (Current usage/news)
Abbreviation -----------ca. cf. e.g. et al. etc. ibid. i.e. N.B. P.S. viz. Usage notes ----------ca. This works best with dates and in parenthesis. The house was built during the Depression (ca. 1932). cf. e.g. This can be replaced with "see" or "compare". Style manuals disagree on the use of periods. Where possible, the words "for example" (spelled out and in English) can be used to improve clarity. They purchased luxury goods (for example, champaign). etc. i.e. Where possible, the words "and so on" to improve clarity. Style manuals disagree on the use of periods. the words "that is" are preferred. Where possible, Latin ----circa confer exempli gratia et alii et cetera ibidem id est Nota Bene post scriptum videlicet English usage ------------approximately compare for example and the others and so on in the same place as the previous reference that is note well an addition to the main text namely

John left the city of his birth (that is, New York). N.B. This is capitalised.

Commentary and usage suggestions on Latin abbreviations found on the web... Latin Abbreviations (University of Michigan, US)

of course. these are the most commonly used in references. such as in footnotes. . Anyway. evaluated. for example) seem to insist on them. should you come across them. UK) The rule about using these Latin abbreviations is very simple: don't use them. telling each other what to expect from their sources. Most sources recommend avoiding the use of Latin abbreviations except within parenthetical notes and some sources say not to use Latin abbreviations at all (use the English terms instead) except within citations or reference lists.. If you do use one. qualified references for the reader. UK) Nowadays many publishers discourage the use of these Latin expressions and their abbreviations in footnotes and endnotes (presumably because so few people know what they mean!). It was a natural mode of discourse for them--they all studied Latin.Commonly used shorthand for dictionaries Page 2 of 4 All of these antiquated Latin abbreviations at one time had an important purpose. parenthetical language which sifted through. or feel the urge to start using them yourselves. Abbreviations (Capital Community College. Eighteenthcentury scholars used all of these designations as a way of talking to each other in code. They functioned as a secondary. US) Do not italicize or underline these abbreviations. It is very poor style to spatter your page with these things. Their use is only appropriate in special circumstances in which brevity is at a premium. and it could be disastrous to use them without being quite sure what they mean. make sure you punctuate it correctly. Abbreviations (University of Sussex. Abbreviations of Latin Expressions (English Plus+. but some publishers (Oxford University Press. footnotes etc. Some common Latin expressions (University of Edinburgh. use the English equivalent or write out the whole word. US) In standard writing.

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