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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jsvi

Sensitivity analysis and structural damage detection

Muyu Zhang, Rüdiger Schmidt

Institute of General Mechanics, RWTH Aachen University, Templergraben 64, 52062 Aachen, Germany

a r t i c l e i n f o abstract

Article history: The damage index based on the auto correlation function to detect the damage of the

Received 12 December 2014 structure under white noise excitation is studied in detail in this paper. The maximum

Received in revised form values of the auto correlation function of the vibration response signals (displacement,

28 August 2015

velocity and acceleration) from different measurement points of the structure are col-

Accepted 4 September 2015

lected and formulated as a vector called Auto Correlation Function at Maximum Point

Handling Editor: K. Shin

Available online 26 September 2015 Value Vector (AMV), which is expressed as a weighted combination of the Hadamard

product of two mode shapes. AMV is normalized by its root mean square value so that the

inﬂuence of the excitation can be eliminated. Sensitivity analysis for the different parts of

the normalized AMV shows that the sensitivity of the normalized AMV to the local

stiffness is dependent most on the sensitivity of the Hadamard product of the two lower

order mode shapes to the local stiffness, which has a sudden change of the value around

the local stiffness change position. The sensitivity of the normalized AMV has the similar

shape and same trend that shows it is a very good damage indicator even for the very

small damage. The relative change of the normalized AMV before and after damage occurs

in the structure is adopted as the damage index to show the damage location. Several

examples of the stiffness reduction detection of a 12-story shear frame structure are

utilized to validate the results in sensitivity analysis, illustrate the effectiveness and anti-

noise ability of the AMV-based damage detection method and compare the effect of the

response type on the detectability of the normalized AMV.

& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Vibration-based structural damage detection and health monitoring is one of the most important issues related to the

safety, reliability and durability of the engineering structures, especially in mechanical, civil, aerospace and infrastructures

areas [1–4]. Effective methods and tools developed for structural health monitoring and damage detection can help not only

to prevent hazardous events, economic and human life loss, or catastrophic failures but also to prolong the service life of

these structures.

The basic idea of the vibration-based structural damage detection methods is that the structural dynamic properties (e.g.

natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) will change due to the damage-induced changes in the structural

physical properties (e.g. mass, stiffness and damping). So the changes of the structural dynamic properties imply the

changes of the structural physical properties. Therefore, the damage can be detected. The natural frequency method, which

was developed by Lifshitz and Rotem [5] in 1969, is the ﬁrst dynamic parameter used for damage detection [2]. Over the past

few decades, an extensive number of research works have been conducted in the area of vibration-based damage detection.

A wide range of methodologies have been proposed, a great number of techniques have been developed and signiﬁcant

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2015.09.004

0022-460X/& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

196 M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214

advancement has been achieved to solve different kinds of problems encountered in all sorts of structures under a diversity

of situations. A large number of published studies used modal properties like natural frequency [6–8], mode shape [9–11],

frequency response function (FRF) [12,13], ﬂexibility [14], impedance [15], coherence function [16] and transmissibility [17]

etc. for damage detection.

Time domain vibration response based structural damage detection methods are appealing in these years. That is

because the important health information of the structure is involved in its vibration response signals (e.g. displacement,

velocity and acceleration), which can be easily obtained by the recent conventional techniques of the vibration test. In

addition, it also has several advantages such as nondestructive, no requirement of a ﬁnite element model for the structure

and simplicity in calculation that it can be conducted real-time and online. Fassois and Sakellariou [18] classiﬁed the time-

series based damage detection methods and used three case studies of aircraft panel, a scale aircraft skeleton and a simple

nonlinear simulated structure to demonstrate the practicality and effectiveness of these methods. Hou and Noori [19]

examined the characteristic of representative vibration signals under wavelet transformation and developed a wavelet

based approach for damage detection, the usage of this method for the real acceleration data of a building response during

the 1971 San Fernando earthquake showed very promising results. Rezaei and Taheri [20] used the Empirical Modal

Decomposition (EMD) [21] technique to decompose the vibration response signals of the beams obtained from piezoceramic

sensors attached on them. The energies of the decomposed responses were successfully used for damage detection. Li and

Deng [22] combined the EMD and wavelet techniques, which can identify the time and extent of the damage of a shear

building more precisely.

Among others, some researchers used the correlation function of the vibration response for damage detection. Nichols

and Seaver [23–25] proposed the correlation-function-based transfer entropy that was used for detecting the presence of

the damage-induced nonlinearities in a thick composite sandwich plate and a composite UAV wing. Overbuy and Todd [26]

modiﬁed this transfer entropy and used it for the damage identiﬁcation of an experimental 8-dof oscillator. Li and Law [27]

proposed a method based on the wavelet packet energy of cross correlation function of the measured acceleration responses

to quantify the severity of the damage. Afterwards they used the matrix of the covariance of covariance, which is also

obtained by the auto/cross correlation function of acceleration response signals under white noise excitation, successfully

detected the damages of a simply supported plane truss structure [28]. Ni and Xia [29] found the auto/cross correlation

function can be divided into two parts, one is associated with the modal parameters and the other with the excitation. They

used a two-stage method updated these two parts for detecting the damage under multiple unknown excitations

numerically and experimentally. If the damage is introduced in the structure, the dependence between the two measured

signals will decrease, thus the cross correlation between these two signals will also decrease. Taking the idea of that,

Trendaﬁlova [30–32] developed a damage indicator from the normalized cross correlation to detect the presence and locate

the different kinds of delamination in a composite laminate beam subjected to random excitation. Yang and Yu [33] pro-

posed a vector named Cross Correlation Function Amplitude Vector (CorV). It was shown that the CorV is related to the FRF

and it has a speciﬁc shape that is useful for structural damage detection. Based on the concept of CorV and Natural Excitation

Technique (NExT) [34,35], Yang and Wang [36–39] proposed a damage detection method using the Inner Product Vector

(IPV). It was proved that the IPV is a weighted summation of the mode shapes, the effectiveness of which was demonstrated

by delamination damage detection of a simulated composite laminate beam and several damage detection experiments.

Similar to the IPV, Zhang and Schmidt [40] proposed a damage index named Auto Correlation Function at Maximum Point

Value Vector (AMV) based on the auto correlation function. Stiffness reduction detection of a 12-story frame structure

showed that using the AMV one can locate the damage effectively even when noise exist and has a better detectability

compared to the other correlation-function-based damage detection method.

In this paper, the auto-correlation-function-based damage index AMV is studied in detail. Firstly the theory of auto

correlation function of vibration responses (displacement, velocity and acceleration) is studied, based on which the damage

index is formulated. Secondly, sensitivity analysis is used to show the reason to choose this damage index for damage

detection. Damage detection of a 12-story frame structure is used to verify this AMV-based method. Comparison of the

effect of response type on its detectability is later presented. At last, some conclusions are made.

2. Damage index

€ þCxðtÞ

MxðtÞ _ þKxðtÞ ¼ fðtÞ (1)

_

where M is the mass matrix, C is the damping matrix, K is the stiffness matrix, f is a vector of the random force and x(t), xðtÞ

€

and xðtÞ is the vector of displacement, velocity and acceleration, respectively.

M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214 197

Suppose proportional damping C ¼ αM þ βK and real normal modes are assumed, the displacement xi ðtÞ, velocity x_ i ðtÞ

and acceleration x€ i ðtÞ at point i due to input f p at point p can be expressed by

Xn Z t

xi ðtÞ ¼ ψ ir ψ pr U f p ðτÞg r ðt τÞdτ (2)

r¼1 1

X

n Z t

x_ i ðtÞ ¼ ψ ir ψ pr U f p ðτÞg_ r ðt τÞdτ (3)

r¼1 1

X

n Z t

x€ i ðtÞ ¼ ψ ir ψ pr U f p ðτÞg€ ðt τÞdτ

r

(4)

r¼1 1

where ψ ir , ψ pr is the ith and pth component of mode shape Ψr , respectively. And the function

(

ζ ωrn t

sin ðωrd tÞ t Z 0

r

1

r re

g r ðtÞ ¼ m ωd (5)

0 t o0

is the rth modal mass, ωrn is the rth modal frequency, ζ ¼ 12 ωαr þ βωrn is the rth modal damping ratio,

r

where m qr ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ n

ωrd ¼ ωrn ½1 ðζr Þ2 is the damped modal frequency, and g_ r ðtÞ and g€ r ðtÞ is the ﬁrst and second order derivative of gr ðtÞ, respectively

(

ζ ωrn t

ζ ωrn sin ðωrd tÞ þ ωrd cos ðωrd tÞ t Z 0

r r

1

r re

g_ r ðtÞ ¼ m ωd (6)

0 t o0

( h i

ζ ωrn t

ðζ ωrn Þ2 sin ðωrd tÞ 2ζ ωrn ωrd cos ðωrd tÞ ðωrd Þ2 cos ðωrd tÞ

r r r

r

1

mr ωrd e t Z0

g€ ðtÞ ¼ (7)

0 t o0

Deduced from the deﬁnition in [41], the auto correlation function of the vibration response when the time lag T ¼0 can

be expressed as [34]

Xn X n Z 1

Ri ð0Þ ¼ αp ψ ir ψ pr ψ is ψ ps U Gr ðλÞGs ðλÞdλ (8)

r ¼1s¼1 0

where r and s are the modal order, GðtÞ is chosen according to the response type. If Ri is the displacement-response-based

auto correlation function, then GðtÞ ¼ gðtÞ as in Eq. (5). If Ri is the velocity-response-based auto correlation function, then

_

GðtÞ ¼ gðtÞ €

as in Eq. (6). And if Ri is the acceleration-response-based auto correlation function, then GðtÞ ¼ gðtÞ as in Eq. (7).

Substituting the expression of the function GðtÞ into Eq. (8) results in

" #

X

n X

n

Ri ð0Þ ¼ ψ ir ψ is μrs (9)

r¼1 s¼1

where μrs for the different response type can be expressed as follows:

Z 1

μdis

rs ¼ αp ψ pr ψ ps U g r ðλÞg s ðλÞdλ

Z0 1

1

e ðζ ωn þ ζ ωn Þλ sin ðωrd λÞ sin ðωsd λÞdλ

r r s s

¼ αp ψ pr ψ ps U r ωr ms ωs

0 m d d

¼ I rs ϑrs (10)

Z 1

μvel

rs ¼ αp ψ pr ψ ps U g_ r ðλÞg_ s ðλÞdλ

Z0 1

1

e ðζ ωn þ ζ ωn Þλ

r r s s

¼ αp ψ pr ψ ps U U ζ ωrn sin ðωrd λÞ þ ωrd cos ðωrd λÞ

r

0 mr ωrd ms ωsd

U ½ ζ ωsn sin ðωsd λÞ þ ωsd cos ðωsd λÞdλ

s

n o

¼ ½ðωrd Þ2 ðζ ωrn Þ2 I rs 2ωrd ζ ωrn J rs ϑrs

r r

(11)

Z 1

μacc

rs ¼ αp ψ pr ψ ps g€ ðλÞg€ ðλÞdλ

r s

Z 0

1

1

e ðζ ωn þ ζ ωn Þλ

r r s s

¼ αp ψ pr ψ ps

0 mr ωrd ms ωsd

U ½ðζ ωrn Þ2 sin ðωrd λÞ 2ζ ωrn ωrd cos ðωrd λÞ ðωrd Þ2 cos ðωrd λÞ

r r

U ½ðζ ω sin ðω λÞ 2ζ ωsn ωsd cos ðωsd λÞ ðωsd Þ2 cos ðωsd λÞdλ

s s 2 s s

nÞ d

n o

¼ 2ωrd ωrn ωsn ζ ωsn ½ðωsn Þ2 þ 4ðζ ωrn Þ2 þ ζ ωrn ½ðωrn Þ2 þ 4ðζ ωsn Þ2 ϑrs

r s s r

(12)

198 M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214

where the superscripts dis, vel and acc in μrs means the auto correlation function is calculated by displacement, velocity and

acceleration response, respectively, and

αp ψ pr ψ ps

ϑrs ¼ (13)

mr ωrd ms ðI 2rs þ J 2rs Þ

r s

(14)

r s

(15)

As the auto correlation function value at the time lag T ¼0 is also its maximum value, a vector named Auto Correlation

Function at Maximum Point Value Vector (AMV) [40] from n different measurement points of the structure is deﬁned as

R AMV ¼ ½R1 ð0Þ; R2 ð0Þ; …; Rn ð0ÞT (16)

Insert Eq. (9) into Eq. (16)

2 3

n X

X n

6 μrs U ðψ 1r ψ 1s Þ 7

6 r ¼ 1s ¼ 1 7

6 7

6X 7

6 n X n

7 Xn X

6 μ U ðψ 2r ψ 2s Þ 7 n

R AMV ¼6

6 r ¼ 1s ¼ 1

rs 7¼

7 μrs UðΨr 1Ψs Þ (17)

6 7 r ¼1s¼1

6 ⋮ 7

6 n n 7

6 XX 7

4 μ U ðψ ψ Þ 5

rs nr ns

r ¼ 1s ¼ 1

where ° is the Hadamard product [42] symbol. So the vector RAMV is expressed as a weighted combination of the Hadamard

product of two mode shape vectors.

Note from Eq. (9), there is a constant αk related to the excitation in the deﬁnition of the auto correlation function.

Therefore, the vector RAMV is normalized by its root mean square value to eliminate its inﬂuence, expressed as follows:

RAMV

RAMV ¼ ¼ ½R1 ; R2 ; …; Rn T (18)

rmsðRAMV Þ

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Pn

where rmsðRAMV Þ ¼ 1n R2i .

i¼1

Then the relative change of ith element in the vector RAMV is deﬁned as

d u

Ri Ri

DAMV;i ¼ u (19)

Ri

where the superscript d denotes the damaged structural state and u denotes the undamaged structural state. Thus, the

damage index of the AMV-based damage detection method is formulated as DAMV ¼ ½DAMV;1 ; DAMV ;2 ; …DAMV;n T .

3. Sensitivity analysis of the normalized AMV with respect to the local stiffness

Sensitivity analysis is widely used in the engineering ﬁelds [43] to evaluate the effect of the change of one variable on

another. One deﬁnition of the sensitivity is the limitation of the relative change of a variable x to the relative change of

another variable y when the change of y is close to zero [44,45], expressed as

Δx=x y ∂x

ηðx=yÞ ¼ lim ¼ (20)

Δy-0Δy=y x ∂y

The sensitivity of the normalized AMV in Eq. (18) with respect to the local stiffness kj is deﬁned as

ηðRAMV =kj Þ ¼ ½ηðR1 =kj Þ; ηðR2 =kj Þ; …; ηðRn =kj ÞT (21)

kj ∂Ri

ηðRi =kj Þ ¼ (22)

Ri ∂kj

using the deﬁnition of the sensitivity in Eq. (20), where Ri is the ith element in the vector RAMV in Eq. (18).

M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214 199

Substitute Eq. (22) into the Hadamard product of ηðRAMV =kj Þ and R AMV results in

2 3

2 32 3 kj ∂R1

ηðR1 =kj Þ R1 6 ∂kj 7

6 76 7 6 7

6 ηðR2 =kj Þ 7 6 R2 7 6 kj ∂R2 7

ηðR AMV =kj Þ1RAMV ¼ 6 716 7 ¼ 6 ∂kj 7 ¼ kj ∂RAMV (23)

6 ⋮ 76 ⋮ 7 6 7 ∂kj

4 54 5 6 ⋮ 7

4 5

ηðRn =kj Þ Rn ∂R

kj ∂knj

∂½rmsðRAMV Þ 1 1 ∂RAMV

¼ RTAMV U (24)

∂kj n rmsðRAMV Þ ∂kj

1 T ∂RAMV

ηðR AMV =kj Þ1RAMV ¼ ½1nn R AMV RAMV kj (25)

n ∂kj

Deﬁne the sensitivity of μrs with respect to the local stiffness kj as ηðμrs =kj Þ

kj ∂μrs

ηðμrs =kj Þ ¼ (26)

μrs ∂kj

and the sensitivity of the Hadamard product of two mode shapes to the local stiffness kj as η½ðΨr 1Ψs Þ=kj

η ðψr 1ψs Þ=kj ¼ ηðψ 1r ψ 1s =kj Þ; ηðψ 2r ψ 2s =kj Þ; …; ηðψ nr ψ ns =kj Þ T (27)

using the deﬁnition of the sensitivity in Eq. (20), the ith element of η½ðΨr 1Ψs Þ=kj

k ∂ðψ ir ψ is Þ kj ∂ψ ir ∂ψ

ηðψ ir ψ is =kj Þ ¼ j ¼ ψ is þ ψ ir is (28)

ψ ir ψ is ∂kj ψ ir ψ is ∂kj kj

Using the deﬁnition of RAMV in Eq. (17), and note Eqs. (26) and (27), Eq. (25) result in

1 T

ηðRAMV =kj Þ1R AMV ¼ ½1nn R AMV R AMV

n

Xn X n

U η½ðΨr 1Ψs Þ=kj þ η½μrs =kj U ½1n1 1Ψr 1Ψs U μrs (29)

r ¼1s¼1

As shown in Eq. (29), the value of ηðRAMV =kj Þ is related to the sensitivity of the Hadamard product of mode shapes to the

local stiffness kj , i.e. η½ðΨr 1Ψs Þ=kj , the sensitivity of μrs to the local stiffness kj , i.e. ηðμrs =kj Þ, the Hadamard product of mode

200 M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214

shapes Ψr 1Ψs and the value of μrs . Moreover, as the coefﬁcient of the term η½ðΨr 1Ψs Þ=kj and ηðμrs =kj Þ are the same, their

contribution to the value of ηðR AMV =kj Þ are in the same level.

A 12-story shear frame structure is chosen as the numerical simulation model to study the sensitivity of the normalized

AMV to the local stiffness in this paper, as shown in Fig. 1.

Assume the mass of each story is centralized on its ﬂoor with mi of each ﬂoor is 1 kg, the stiffness of each ﬂoor is supplied

by the braces between them and the stiffness in y direction is much larger than the stiffness in x direction. Therefore, only

the movement in x direction is considered and the mechanical model of this 12-story shear frame structure can be

expressed as a 12-dof discrete system. The mass matrix and the stiffness matrix of the system can be written as

M ¼ diag½m1 ; m2 ; …; m11 ; m12 (30)

2 3

k1 þ k2 k2

6 k k2 þ k3 k3 7

6 2 7

6 7

K¼6

6 ⋱ ⋱ ⋱ 7

7 (31)

6 k11 k11 þk12 k12 7

4 5

k12 k12

The stiffness coefﬁcient ki of each ﬂoor is 20,000 N/m. Proportional damping C ¼ αM þ βK is adopted. The excitation force

is applied on the 12th ﬂoor.

Note from the deﬁnition of μrs in Eqs. (10)–(12), μrs is a function of the frequencies and mode shape elements

μrs ¼ f ðωrn ; ωsn ; ψ pr ; ψ ps Þ (32)

∂μrs ∂μrs ∂ψ pr ∂μrs ∂ψ ps ∂μrs ∂ωrn ∂μrs ∂ωsn

¼ þ þ þ (33)

∂kj ∂ψ pr ∂kj ∂ψ ps ∂kj ∂ωrn ∂kj ∂ωsn ∂kj

∂ωr

where the partial derivative of the natural frequency to the local stiffness, i.e. ∂kjn and the partial derivative of the mode

Ψr are deduced from the basic vibration theories [46–48], respectively. When the propor-

shape to the local stiffness, i.e. ∂∂kj

∂ωr

tional damping is assumed, the partial derivative of the natural frequency to the local stiffness, i.e. ∂kjn can be obtained from

the real part of the following equation:

∂λr 1 2 ∂M ∂C ∂K

r r Ψr λr þ λr þ Ψr

T

¼ (34)

∂kj 2ðλr þ ζ ωn Þ ∂kj ∂kj ∂kj

Ψr is expressed by

where λr ¼ ζ ωrn 7 iωrd , while the partial derivative of the mode shape to the local stiffness, i.e. ∂∂k

r

j

∂Ψr Xn

¼ au Ψu (35)

∂kj u¼1

where

8

>

< ðλ2 λ2 Þ þ ðλ 1

ΨTu λ2r ∂M þ λr ∂k

∂C ∂K

þ ∂k Ψr ; u a r

r λu Þ½α þ β ðωn Þ

u 2 ∂kj j j

au ¼ r u

:

>

: 12Ψr ∂M

∂k Ψr ;

T

j

u¼r

For the 12-story frame structure used in this paper, the mass will not change when the stiffness kj changes is assumed, thus

∂M

¼0 (36)

∂kj

2 3

⋱

∂K 66 1 1 7

7

¼6 7 (37)

∂kj 4 1 1 5

⋱

where in Eq. (37) the value of 1 is on the j 1th row, j 1th column and jth row, jth column, and the value of 1 is on the

j 1th row, jth column and jth row, j 1th column. Besides as proportional damping is assumed

∂C ∂M ∂K

¼α þβ (38)

∂kj ∂kj ∂kj

M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214 201

rs to the local stiffness kj : (a) j ¼ 2; (b) j ¼ 5; (c) j ¼ 8; and (d) j ¼ 11.

rs to the local stiffness kj : (a) j ¼ 2; (b) j ¼ 5; (c) j ¼ 8; and (d) j ¼ 11.

202 M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214

rs to the local stiffness kj : (a) j ¼ 2; (b) j ¼ 5; (c) j ¼ 8; and (d) j ¼ 11.

Substituting Eqs. (36)–(38) into Eqs. (34) and (35), the partial derivative of the natural frequency and mode shape to the

local stiffness kj can be obtained, then substituting Eq. (33) into Eq. (26), the sensitivity of μrs to the local stiffness kj can be

obtained. Figs. 2–4 display the sensitivity of μdis rs (Eq. (10)), μrs (Eq. (11)) and μrs (Eq. (12)) to the local stiffness kj ,

vel acc

In Fig. 2, the sensitivity of μdisrs to the local stiffness kj , i.e. ηðμrs =kj Þ has a peak value when the modal order r ¼1 and s ¼1

dis

at each selected measurement point j, the other values are relatively very small. So when the local stiffness kj changes, only

the lower modal order μdis rs will change. The same phenomenon can be observed in Fig. 3 for the sensitivity of μrs to the local

vel

stiffness kj , i.e. ηðμrs =kj Þ for each selected measurement point j, while for the sensitivity of μrs to the local stiffness kj , i.e.

vel acc

ηðμacc

rs =kj Þ for each selected measurement point j shown in Fig. 4, the values follow another trend, they have relatively larger

random value when the modal order r ¼s.

ratio is very small that 0 o ζ 51, then ωd ωn .

As 0 r sin ðzÞ r 1 when z A ð 1; þ 1Þ, the expression in Eq. (10) has the range

0 r e ðζ ωn þ ζ ωn Þλ sin ðωrd λÞ sin ðωsd λÞ r e ðζ ωn þ ζ ωn Þλ

r r s s r r s s

(39)

R1 R1

For μdis

rs in Eq. (10), note if 0 r AðλÞ rBðλÞ, then 0 AðλÞdλ r 0 BðλÞdλ. We can obtain

Z 1

dis 1 ðζ ωrn þ ζ ωsn Þλ

sin ðωrd λÞ sin ðωsd λÞdλ

r s

μrs ¼ αp ψ pr ψ ps U se

0 mr ω

r ms

d

ω d

Z 1

1 ðζr ωrn þ ζs ωsn Þλ

r αp ψ pr ψ ps U e sin ð ω r

λÞ sin ð ωs

λÞ dλ

0 mr ω d ms ω d

r s d d

Z 1

1

e ðζ ωn þ ζ ωn Þλ dλ

r r s s

r αp
ψ pr ψ ps
U r ωr ms ωs

0 m d d

ψ pr ψ ps
1

αp r r s s r (40)

m ωn m ωn ζ ωrn þ ζ s ωsn

M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214 203

Fig. 5. Value of μrs obtained from different response types when excitation force at 12th ﬂoor: (a) value of μdis

rs ; (b) value of μrs ; and (c) value of μrs .

vel acc

As 0 r
cos ðzÞ
r 1 when z A ð 1; þ 1Þ and 0 o ζ o o1, the expression in Eq. (11) has the range

0 r
e ðζ ωn þ ζ ωn Þλ ½ ζ ωrn sin ðωrd λÞ þ ωrd cos ðωrd λÞ U ½ ζ ωsn sin ðωsd λÞ þ ωsd cos ðωsd λÞ

r r s s r s

re ðζ ωn þ ζ ωn Þλ ωrd ωsd

r r s s

(41)

For μvel

rs in Eq. (11), we can obtain

Z

vel

1

1

e ðζ ωn þ ζ ωn Þλ

r r s s

μrs
¼
αp ψ pr ψ ps U

0 mr ωrd ms ωsd

U½ ζ ωrn sin ðωrd λÞ þ ωrd cos ðωrd λÞ U½ ζ ωsn sin ðωsd λÞ þ ωsd cos ðωsd λÞdλ

r s

Z 1

1
ðζr ωrn þ ζs ωsn Þλ

r αp
ψ pr ψ ps
U
e

0 m ωd m ωd

r r s s

U½ ζ ωrn sin ðωrd λÞ þ ωrd cos ðωrd λÞ U½ ζ ωsn sin ðωsd λÞ þ ωsd cos ðωsd λÞ
dλ

r s

Z 1

1

e ðζ ωn þ ζ ωn Þλ ωrd ωsd dλ

r r s s

r αp
ψ pr ψ ps
U r ωr ms ωs

0 m d d

ψ pr ψ ps
1

¼ αp (42)

mr ms ζ r ωrn þ ζ s ωsn

Similar to Eq. (41), the expression in Eq. (12) has the range

0 r
e ðζ ωn þ ζ ωn Þλ U ½ðζ ωrn Þ2 sin ðωrd λÞ 2ζ ωrn ωrd cos ðωrd λÞ ðωrd Þ2 cos ðωrd λÞ

r r s s r r

U ½ðζ ωsn Þ2 sin ðωsd λÞ 2ζ ωsn ωsd cos ðωsd λÞ ðωsd Þ2 cos ðωsd λÞ

s s

r e ðζ ωn þ ζ ωn Þλ ðωrd Þ2 ðωsd Þ2

r r s s

(43)

204 M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214

Fig. 6. Sensitivity of Ψ1 1Ψ1 , Ψ1 1Ψ2 and Ψ2 1Ψ2 to the local stiffness kj : (a) j ¼ 2; (b) j ¼ 5; (c) j ¼ 8; and (d) j ¼ 11.

For μacc

rs in Eq. (12), we can obtain

Z

acc
1

1

μ
¼
αp ψ ψ e ðζ ωn þ ζ ωn Þλ

r r s s

rs
pr ps

mr ωrd ms ωsd

0

h i

U ðζ ωrn Þ2 sin ðωrd λÞ 2ζ ωrn ωrd cos ðωrd λÞ ðωrd Þ2 cos ðωrd λÞ

r r

U½ðζ ωsn Þ2 sin ðωsd λÞ 2ζ ωsn ωsd cos ðωsd λÞ ðωsd Þ2 cos ðωsd λÞdλ

s s

Z 1

1
ðζr ωrn þ ζs ωsn Þλ

r αp
ψ pr ψ ps
e

0 m ωd m ωd

r r s s

h i

U ðζ ωrn Þ2 sin ðωrd λÞ 2ζ ωrn ωrd cos ðωrd λÞ ðωrd Þ2 cos ðωrd λÞ

r r

U½ðζ ωsn Þ2 sin ðωsd λÞ 2ζ ωsn ωsd cos ðωsd λÞ ðωsd Þ2 cos ðωsd λÞ
dλ

s s

Z 1

1

e ðζ ωn þ ζ ωn Þλ ðωrd Þ2 ðωsd Þ2 dλ

r r s s

r αp
ψ pr ψ ps

0 mr ωrd ms ωsd

ψ pr ψ ps
ωrn ωsn

αp (44)

mr ms ζ r ωrn þ ζ s ωsn

i rh and/or s iincrease, the natural frequency ωn and/or ωn increase, then the value of

r s

When the hmodal order

ζ ωn þ ζ ωn ¼ 2 α þ βðωn Þ þ 2 α þ βðωn Þ will increase
since

r r s s 1 r 2 1 s 2

the
proportional

damping is assumed, so the value of

1

will decrease.

ζ r ωrn þ ζs ωsn
For Eqs. (40) and (42), the value

of
μdis
vel

rs and μrs will decrease with the
increase

of the modal order.

Moreover,
μdis rs

has ωr ωs in the denominator, so
μdis
has a much larger decrease rate than
μvel
when the modal order

n n rs rs

M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214 205

Fig. 7. Sensitivity of the normalized AMV to the local stiffness kj : (a) j ¼ 1; (b) j ¼ 2; (c) j ¼ 3; and (d) j ¼ 4. (For interpretation of the references to color in

this ﬁgure, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

Fig. 8. Sensitivity of the normalized AMV to the local stiffness kj : (a) j ¼ 5; (b) j ¼ 6; (c) j ¼ 7; and (d) j ¼ 8. (For interpretation of the references to color in

this ﬁgure, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

rs j has ωn ωn in the numerator that

r s

it cannot

be predicted

when the modal order increases,

so jμacc μdis and μvel are dependent on the lower order modal

rs j is related to all the modal

orders.

As a result, the value of rs rs

parameters, while the value of μacc rs

is dependent on all order modal parameters. The value of μ is plotted in Fig. 5. Fig. 5

rs

(a), (b) and (c) is the value of μrs , μvel

dis

rs and μrs calculated from Eqs. (10), (11) and (12), respectively.

acc

206 M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214

Fig. 9. Sensitivity of the normalized AMV to the local stiffness kj : (a) j ¼ 9; (b) j ¼ 10; (c) j ¼ 11; and (d) j ¼ 12. (For interpretation of the references to color

in this ﬁgure, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

The results in Fig. 5 coincide well with the results obtained from Eqs. (39)–(41). For the value of μdis rs in Fig. 5(a), it has a

peak value when the modal order r ¼1 and s ¼ 1, and when the modal order r and/or s increase, the value of μdis rs decreases to

zero very fast. For the value of μvel

rs in Fig. 5(b), it has a similar trend. For the value of μacc

rs in Fig. 5(c), it has peak values when

the modal order r ¼s, and the peak values decrease when the modal order increases. As a result, only the lower order modal

parameters will affect the value of μrs . As the sensitivity of the normalized AMV to the local stiffness ηðRAMV =kj Þ has the

expression in Eq. (29), only the lower order modal parameters will affect the value of ηðRAMV =kj Þ. Therefore, only the

sensitivity of Ψ1 1Ψ1 , Ψ1 1Ψ2 and Ψ2 1Ψ2 to the local stiffness kj is considered here. The results are shown in Fig. 6, j is also

set at measurement point 2, 5, 8 and 11, respectively. The title of ‘Ψ1 1Ψ1 ’, ‘Ψ1 1Ψ2 ’ and ‘Ψ2 1Ψ2 ’ in Fig. 6(a)–(d) means that

ﬁgure is the result of the sensitivity of Ψ1 1Ψ1 , Ψ1 1Ψ2 and Ψ2 1Ψ2 to the local stiffness kj , respectively.

For each case in Fig. 6, η½ðΨr 1Ψs Þ=kj has a sudden change of the value around the local stiffness change location, i.e. the

measurement point j, which will largely affect the value of ηðR AMV =kj Þ that discussed in later section.

4.3. Results of the sensitivity of the normalized AMV to the local stiffness

Using Eq. (29), the sensitivity of the normalized AMV to different local stiffness kj , j ¼ 1; 2; …; 12 for different response

types (displacement, velocity and acceleration) can be obtained, as shown in Figs. 7–9. For each ﬁgure, the red solid line is

the value calculated from displacement-response-based auto correlation function, the green dotted line is the value cal-

culated from velocity-response-based auto correlation function and the blue dash dotted line is the value calculated from

acceleration-response-based auto correlation function.

From Figs. 7–9, we can observe one common phenomenon of each case for the sensitivity of normalized AMV to the local

stiffness kj , i.e. ηðR AMV =kj Þ when the AMV is obtained by displacement response and velocity response that the value of

ηðRAMV =kj Þ has a sharp change around the measurement point j. Furthermore, before point j the value is positive while after

point j the value is negative, which means when there is local stiffness kj deduction in the jth ﬂoor, the value of the

normalized auto correlation function at the time lag T ¼ 0, i.e. Ri will decrease before point j, and it will increase after point j.

That is, before and after kj decreases, the relative change of Ri will change sharply around the local stiffness change location,

i.e. the measurement point j. So the local stiffness change location can be observed using the value of Ri from different

measurement points, and the damage index obtained from Eq. (19) can be used for damage localization when the response

type is chosen as displacement or velocity. For the case of the value of ηðRAMV =kj Þ when the AMV is obtained by acceleration

response in Figs. 7–9, the trend is different. It has a sharp change around the local stiffness change location, and for the other

points, it is normally the same. As a result, the relative change of Ri before and after kj decreases is normally the same before

and after the stiffness change location, i.e. measurement point j, and it has a highest relative change rate at measurement

point j. So using the value of Ri from different measurement points, local stiffness change location can also be observed, the

M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214 207

Fig. 10. Value of μrs obtained from different response types when excitation force at 1st ﬂoor: (a) value of μdis

rs ; (b) value of μrs ; and (c) value of μrs .

vel acc

damage index calculated from Eq. (19) can also be used for damage localization when the response type is chosen as

acceleration.

The shape and trend of the sensitivity analysis results for each case in Figs. 7–9 can be explained using Eq. (29). The value

of ηðR AMV =kj Þ is dependent on the value of μrs, Ψr 1Ψs , ηðμrs =kj Þ and η½ðΨr 1Ψs Þ=kj . Compare the values of ηðμrs =kj Þ in Figs. 2–4

and the values of η½ðΨr 1Ψs Þ=kj in Fig. 6, ηðμrs =kj Þ is far smaller than η½ðΨr 1Ψs Þ=kj for each case. As from the expression in Eq.

(29) the contribution of ηðμrs =kj Þ and η½ðΨr 1Ψs Þ=kj to the value of ηðRAMV =kj Þ are in the same level, so the value of

η½ðΨr 1Ψs Þ=kj contribute far more than the value of ηðμrs =kj Þ to the value of ηðRAMV =kj Þ. Besides, as different elements in

Ψr 1Ψs are in the same level, the value of ηðRAMV =kj Þ depends most on the value of η½ðΨr 1Ψs Þ=kj and the value of μrs .

Furthermore, as the value of μrs drops to close to zero sharply when the modal order increases, as shown in Fig. 5, the value

of ηðR AMV =kj Þ is only related to the lower modal order value of η½ðΨr 1Ψs Þ=kj . As a result, as there is a sharp change around

the local stiffness change location for the lower modal order value of η½ðΨr 1Ψs Þ=kj , as shown in Fig. 6, the value of

ηðRAMV =kj Þ also have a sharp change around the local stiffness change location that are shown in Figs. 7–9.

As to the difference between the displacement- and velocity-response-based ηðRAMV =kj Þ and acceleration-response-

based ηðRAMV =kj Þ, this is because of the value of μrs . From Section 4.2, the values of μdis rs and μrs have the same trend, they

vel

both have peak values when the modal order r and s are relatively very small compare to the value of μacc rs . So the dis-

placement- and velocity-response-based ηðRAMV =kj Þ dependent mostly on the relatively smaller modal order value of

η½ðΨr 1Ψs Þ=kj , that makes them similar to the trend of η½ðΨ1 1Ψ1 Þ=kj , while the acceleration-response-based ηðR AMV =kj Þ has

the trend of the combination of the several lower modal order values of η½ðΨr 1Ψs Þ=kj .

From Sections 4.1 to 4.3 we can see that the value of μrs takes a very important part to determine the shape and trend of

the value of ηðRAMV =kj Þ. As it can be seen from the expression of μrs in Eqs. (10)–(12), μrs is also related to the excitation point

p. In Sections 4.1–4.3 all the cases are for the excitation point at the 12th ﬂoor, which is near the tip of the structure.

If the excitation point is near the end of the structure, i.e. at the 1st ﬂoor, the value of μrs is shown in Fig. 10, in which

(a) is the value of μdis
of
μrs and

rs , (b) is the value

vel

(c)
is the value of μrs . The value of μrs also coincide

acc

well

with the results

obtained from Eqs. (39) to (44) that
μdis rs

and
μvel
decrease when the modal order increases and
μacc
is dependent on all

rs rs

the modal orders. Comparing Figs. 5(a) and 10(a) we can see that the shape and the trend of the value of μdis rs barely changes,

so the value of the displacement-response-based ηðRAMV =kj Þ will not change much when the excitation point changes. As a

result, the detectability of the displacement-response-based AMV is all the same for the different excitation points.

208 M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214

rs and μrs . The shape and trend of μrs in Fig. 10(b) is not similar to Fig. 5(b), on

acc vel

the other hand, it is more similar to Fig. 5(c) that has peak values when the modal order r ¼ s and the peak values decrease

when the modal order increases. So the shape and trend of the velocity-response-based ηðRAMV =kj Þ when the excitation

point is located at the 1st ﬂoor is similar to the shape and trend of the acceleration-response-based ηðRAMV =kj Þ when the

excitation point is at 12th ﬂoor. As a result, the detectability of the velocity-response-based AMV will change when the

excitation point changes. However, it can still be used for damage detection. For the value of μaccrs in Fig. 10(c), it also has peak

values when the modal order r ¼ s, but the peak values increase when the modal order increases, which is opposite as in

Fig. 5(c). So the value of ηðRAMV =kj Þ will be affected more by the higher modal order values of η½ðΨr 1Ψs Þ=kj , which do not

have the sharp change around the local stiffness change location that makes the normalized AMV can’t locate the damage.

As a result, the detectability of the acceleration-response-based AMV becomes worse when the excitation point moves from

the tip to the end of the structure.

In this section, stiffness reduction detection of the 12-story shear frame structure shown in Fig. 1 is used as the simu-

lation example to verify the AMV-based damage index. The ﬁrst 12 natural frequencies of the structure can be easily

obtained when the mass matrix M in Eq. (30) and stiffness matrix K in Eq. (31) are known, they are 2.83, 8.44, 13.91, 19.17,

24.12, 28.69, 32.82, 36.42, 39.45, 41.85, 43.60 and 44.66 Hz. Stiffness coefﬁcient of the ﬂoor 2, 5, 8 and 11 is 5% reduced as the

damage, respectively. The corresponding different damage cases are listed in Table 1. When the damage appears in the

structure, the relative change of the ﬁrst natural frequency compared to the undamaged structure is also shown in Table 1.

As can be seen from Table 1, the relative change of the ﬁrst natural frequency is less than 0.5%. Since the simulated damage

in this paper is very small, the natural frequency is not a good indicator for the damage.

As the white noise excitation that covers all the frequencies is used in the deduction of the auto correlation function in

Section 2.1, the white noise with a frequency range of 0–50 Hz that covers all the ﬁrst 12 frequencies of the 12-story frame

Table 1

Damage cases of the frame structure.

Damaged ﬂoor 2 5 8 11

Stiffness coefﬁcient reduction/% 5

Frequency change (%) 0.40 0.30 0.15 0.03

u d

Fig. 11. Damage detection results of damage case D2: (a) before damage: normalized AMV Ri ; (b) after damage: normalized AMV Ri ; (c) damage index;

and (d) damage location index. (For interpretation of the references to color in this ﬁgure, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214 209

u d

Fig. 12. Damage detection results of damage case D5: (a) before damage: normalized AMV Ri ; (b) after damage: normalized AMV Ri ; (c) damage index;

and (d) damage location index.

u d

Fig. 13. Damage detection results of damage case D8: (a) before damage: normalized AMV Ri ; (b) after damage: normalized AMV Ri ; (c) damage index;

and (d) damage location index. (For interpretation of the references to color in this ﬁgure, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

structure is adopted as the excitation in this section. The excitation has a sample frequency of 1024 Hz with duration of 16 s

and magnitude of 1 N, which is applied on the 12th ﬂoor of the frame structure. Different types of responses from the

undamaged structure and different damage cases are obtained from the Wilson-θ method.

The value of the auto correlation function can be easily calculated using the inner product [49] of the responses. After the

auto correlation function of the responses before and after damage are obtained, the damage index can be calculated by Eqs.

210 M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214

u d

Fig. 14. Damage detection results of damage case D11: (a) before damage: normalized AMV Ri ; (b) after damage: normalized AMV Ri ; (c) damage index;

and (d) damage location index. (For interpretation of the references to color in this ﬁgure, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

(18) and (19). In order to make the damage more clearly to be seen, the AMV-based damage location index is deﬁned by

D0AMV ;i þ 0:5 ¼ DAMV;i þ 1 DAMV;i (45)

where the local maxima of D0 corresponding to the abrupt change in the damage index D. The abrupt change of the damage

index is considered as a result of the damage occurring in the structure. Then the damage is located between the mea-

surement points i and iþ1 if the local maxima of D0 appears in the measurement point iþ0.5.

Figs. 11–14 show the damage detection results of the four different damage cases using different response type. For each

ﬁgure in Figs. 11–14, the upper left named (a) is the value of the normalized AMV before damage, the upper right named

(b) is the value of the normalized AMV after damage, the lower left named (c) is the damage index and the lower right

named (d) is the damage location index. Compare each ﬁgure (a) and ﬁgure (b) in Figs. 11–14, the change of the normalized

AMV before and after damage can be hardly noticed. But through the difference between them, the damage location

appears. For each ﬁgure, the red solid line is the value calculated using displacement responses, the green dotted line is the

value calculated using velocity responses and the blue dash dotted line is the value calculated using acceleration responses.

The damage indexes in Figs. 11(c), 12(c), 13(c) and 14(c) coincide well with the sensitivity analysis results in Section 4.3.

Take the red solid line in Figs. 8(d) and 13(c) for example. The red solid line in Fig. 8(d) is the sensitivity analysis result of the

normalized AMV calculated from displacement-response-based auto correlation function when the local stiffness change

location is set at the 8th ﬂoor, the red solid line in Fig. 13(c) is the value of damage index calculated by displacement

responses when the 8th ﬂoor has a 5% stiffness reduction. In Fig. 8(d), the value of ηðRi =k8 Þ is positive from measurement

point 1 to measurement point 7 and they are almost the same, but it drops sharply at measurement point 8, where it is

negative. After that, from measurement point 8 to measurement point 12, the value slowly increases to another level again.

As a result, ηðRi =k8 Þ has the minimal value at measurement point 8. That is, when the local stiffness in the 8th ﬂoor, i.e. k8

decreases, R7 will decrease while R8 will increase, and the difference between the decrease rate and increase rate is very big.

Thus, before and after the value of k8 decreases, the relative change of R7 (means the damage index at measurement point

7), i.e. DAMV ;7 has a negative value while the relative of change of R8 (means the damage index at measurement point 8), i.e.

DAMV;8 has a positive value and there is a large difference between DAMV;7 and DAMV;8 , which can be seen in Fig. 13(c).

Moreover, for the value of ηðRi =k8 Þ, from measurement point 1 to measurement point 7 it is almost the same and from

measurement point 8 to measurement point 12 it just has a small difference. So the relative change of R1 –R7 and the relative

change of R8 –R12 before and after k8 decreases each just has a very slight change. That is, the value of DAMV;1 –DAMV;7 as well

as DAMV ;8 –DAMV;12 do not change much, which can be also seen in Fig. 13(c). The other measurement points and cases have

the same phenomenon and can be explained in the similar way. As the sensitivity analysis results in Section 4.3 only uses

the modal parameters (frequency and mode shape) of the structure and the damage detection results in this section only

M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214 211

Fig. 15. Displacement-response-based damage location index under different SNRs of noises: (a) damage case D2; (b) damage case D5; (c) damage case D8;

and (d) damage case D11.

uses the time domain vibration responses (displacement, velocity and acceleration) of the structure, their well agreement

shows the normalized AMV studied in this paper is a good damage indicator to detect the damage.

The damage location index of the AMV method is plotted in Figs. 11(d), 12(d), 13(d) and 14(d), in which all these four

cases show the damage location correctly. The AMV-based damage location index has a peak value at point 1.5 in Fig. 11(d),

which indicates the damage occurs between measurement point 1 and measurement point 2, that is, the damage is in the

2nd ﬂoor. Similarly, there is a peak value at point 4.5, 7.5 and 10.5 in Figs. 12(d), 13(d) and 14(d) respectively, which indicates

the damage occurs at the 5th, the 8th and the 11th ﬂoor of the structure respectively. The damage locations detected by the

AMV-based damage location index are just the four damage cases simulated in Table 1. So the AMV method is effective in

detecting the damage.

From the results in Figs. 11–14, the damage location index calculated from displacement and velocity responses are

normally the same, but the damage location index calculated from acceleration responses follow another trend. Although it

can also locate the damage, it has false positive in Figs. 12(d) and 13(d). This is because the different types of abrupt changes

of the damage index, for the displacement- and velocity-response-based damage index it is a ‘step change’ [35] while for the

acceleration-response-based damage index it is an ‘impulse change’ [35]. For the ‘step change’, the difference of the damage

index in Eq. (42), one sudden change of the damage index gives just one peak value of the damage location index that makes

the damage more clearly to be detected, but this is not the case for the ‘impulse change’ that one sudden change of the

damage index result in two peak values of the damage location index which gives false positive. As a result, it is better to use

the damage index instead of the damage location index to locate the damage when the acceleration response is used.

Besides, the acceleration-response-based AMV method also has advantage compared to the displacement- and velocity-

response-based AMV method. It has a much larger peak value around the damage location when the damage is small, as

shown in Figs. 13 and 14. So it has a better detectability of the small damage.

The measurement noise will affect the response of the structure, which is very common in real application. So in this

section noise is added to the response signals to verify the anti-noise ability of the AMV-based damage detection method.

Suppose the measurement noise simulated here is Gaussian noise and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) [50] is deﬁned as

Pox

SNR ðdBÞ ¼ 10log10 (46)

PoN

where Pox is the power of the signal and PoN is the power of the noise. Noises with three different SNRs, i.e. 30 dB (noise

212 M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214

Fig. 16. Velocity-response-based damage location index under different SNRs of noises: (a) damage case D2; (b) damage case D5; (c) damage case D8;

and (d) damage case D11.

Fig. 17. Acceleration-response-based damage location index under different SNRs of noises: (a) damage case D2; (b) damage case D5; (c) damage case D8;

and (d) damage case D11.

M. Zhang, R. Schmidt / Journal of Sound and Vibration 359 (2015) 195–214 213

level 3.2%), 20 dB (noise level 10.0%) and 10 dB (noise level 31.6%) are added to the different response signals, respectively.

For each SNR, response type and structural health state, 300 sets of simulations are performed.

The mean value of the AMV-based damage location index from different SNRs, response types and structural health

states calculated from each 300 sets of simulations are plotted in Figs. 15–17. Fig. 15 shows the damage detection results

using the displacement responses, Fig. 16 shows the damage detection results using the velocity responses and Fig. 17 shows

the damage detection results using the acceleration responses. For each ﬁgure (a), (b), (c) and (d), they are the results for

structural health states D2, D5, D8 and D11, respectively. For each structural health state, the damage location index cal-

culated from the vibration responses with no noise, 30 dB noise, 20 dB noise and 10 dB noise are plotted in one ﬁgure for

comparison. As shown in these ﬁgures, even when the SNR of the noise is as low as 10 dB, there is nearly no change or just

some very small ﬂuctuations of the damage location index compared to the results when there is no noise, which the

damage can be correctly located using the way in Section 5.1. As a result, the AMV-based damage location index can locate

the damage for each structural health state, response type and SNR, which shows the anti-noise ability of the method is very

good and therefore can be used in real application.

Similar to the results in Section 5.1, the displacement- and velocity-response-based AMV have no false positive while the

acceleration-response-based AMV gives false positives in Fig. 17(b) and (c) when the measurement noise exists. On the other

hand, compared to the damage detection results in Figs. 15–17, the ﬂuctuations of the damage location index is the smallest

for the acceleration-response-based AMV and the largest for the displacement-response-based AMV when there is noise in

the response signals. So the measurement noise will affect the detectability of the acceleration-response-based AMV least

and displacement-response-based AMV most.

6. Conclusions

In this paper, the damage index based on the auto correlation function named AMV is studied in detail. The displace-

ment-, velocity- and acceleration-response-based AMV is expressed as a weighted combination of the Hadamard product of

two mode shapes, which can be directly obtained using the structural vibration response signals. Sensitivity analysis results

show that the sensitivity of the normalized AMV to the local stiffness is dependent most on the sensitivity of the Hadamard

product of the two lower modal order mode shapes to the local stiffness, which has a sharp change around the local stiffness

change location that is suitable for damage localization. Damage detection results of a 12-story frame structure prove the

results in sensitivity analysis and show the displacement-, velocity- and acceleration-response-based AMV can all locate the

simulated damages even when the low SNR noise exists. Although the acceleration-response-based AMV gives some false

positives, it has its own advantages that it has the best damage detection results for the small damage and it has the best

anti-noise ability.

The AMV-based damage detection method uses only the vibration response signals of the structure under white noise

excitation. While it requires no ﬁnite element model or modal analysis, it can be easily conducted in real time and online,

which is suitable for the health monitoring of the structure. As displacement-, velocity- and acceleration-response-based

AMV all can locate the damage well, one can choose the most convenient way to acquire the response signal for damage

detection.

Acknowledgments

The ﬁrst author would gratefully acknowledge the ﬁnancial support from the China Scholarship Council with the No.

2011629074. The authors are also grateful to Dr. Zhichun Yang, Dr. Le Wang and Dr. Michael Ban for their kind help and

discussion.

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