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U.S.

History EOC Review

The Gilded Age 1877-1898

Time period of growth and transformation; wealth of few hid poverty of many, corruption

 second industrial revolution – steel, railroads, electricity, oil-based products


 government – Congress supported the free enterprise (capitalism) system-people have freedom to
buy and sell what they want, driven by profit motive
 technology – new inventions led to bigger businesses
o Bessemer process – increase productivity, lower cost
o electricity – Edison, Tesla/Westinghouse
o telephone – Bell, Edison
 entrepreneurship – people took risks, seeking profit, some created monopolies (control market for
a good or service)
o pros – efficient businesses, access to goods and services increased, stable prices
o cons – businesses used schemes (cheated) to crush competition, bad worker conditions,
long hours, low pay
o Andrew Carnegie – steel, controlled all levels of production, low prices; wrote Gospel of
Wealth
o John D. Rockefeller – oil, controlled production for entire industry
o Samuel Gompers – created American Federation of Labor, wanted an 8 hr. work day

Westward Migration and Indian Policies


 population shifted to western states, closed frontier
 Homestead Act 1862 – gave ~160 acres of public land for free if they improved the land
 Transcontinental Railroad – linked east/coast, connected markets and enabled the cattle industry
boom; built primarily by Chinese immigrants
o Great Plains – fertile, treeless grasslands, cheap land, drought-prone
o Klondike Gold Rush 1897 – massive migration of people seeking gold, most left broke
 contact with Native Americans increased, two beliefs
o protect & Americanize
o isolate & destroy

Farm Issues and Populism

Poor eco conditions for farmers led to debt, bankruptcies

 costs of equipment was high, transportation was expensive, sellers set price
 revenue ($ gained) was down, over-production, competition lowered value
 deflation – value of dollar increased
 Populist party – wanted to address farmers struggles by uniting all farmers, but never won an
election
 William Jennings Bryan – ran for president in 1896, Populist, free coinage of silver, lost election

Urbanization, New Immigration, and City Life

Cities grew as people moved in from farms and from other countries

 push factors – reasons to leave, war, persecution, poverty, drought, etc.


 pull factors – reasons to want to go to a place, economic opportunity, jobs, freedom, education
 “new immigration” – before – Britain, Ireland, Germany; AFTER- Italy, Russia, Poland, Greece
 city life – crowded, unsanitary
o tenements – housing for immigrants and the poor, bad conditions, no electricity, heating,
etc
o social – slums, minorities faced discrimination
o political – “political machines” ran cities, corruption
o Chinatowns – concentration of Chinese males
 Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 – first gov’t act to limit immigration, aimed at Chinese

Social Gospel and Americanization of Immigrants

 Social Gospel – whites believed it was their duty to fix society’s ills, help poor, and spread
Christianity
 civil service reform – tried to away with corruption and political machines
 public education – free schools for immigrants to Americanize, literacy rates grew
 settlement houses – classes and social events to Americanize adult immigrants
 labor – no child labor, higher wages
 temperance – Frances Willard wanted to help women & children, through education

Progressive Era and Rise of World Power 1898-1920

American Expansionism and Spanish-American War

Expansionism – growth, U.S. had bigger role in international affairs

 eco growth – over-production of food and goods with low prices


 security – Alfred T. Mahan wanted a stronger Navy and new bases to protect U.S. from
competition
 mission work – spread of Christianity and western culture
o Sanford B. Dole – president of Hawaii before annexation
 vitality – Henry Cabot Lodge and Theodore Roosevelt wanted to take over new lands
(imperialism), keep U.S. competitive

Spanish-American War

 causes – expansionism, yellow journalism, de Lome Letter, U.S.S. Maine explosion


 world power – U.S. sank all of Spain’s naval fleets in 9 weeks, national pride
 economy – trade & investment in Asia, Pacific, Latin America
o Open Door Policy – equal access to Chinese markets
 imperialism – got the Philippines, Guam, & Puerto Rico
o T. Roosevelt – Panama Canal-linked Pacific & Atlantic oceans, made transportation
cheaper & faster
o W.H. Taft – Dollar Diplomacy-invest to gain power

Reform, Politics, and Legislation

Progressive Era wanted many social, eco, and political reforms (changes)

 presidents – T. Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson


o T. Roosevelt – Sherman Anti-Trust Act – broke up trusts and monopolies; formed “Bull
Moose” party
 legislation – expanded political rights and role of govt
 initiative, referendum, recall – people had right to propose laws, vote on laws, fire officials
 conservation – TR liked & protected forests (nature), U.S. Forest Service, National Park Svc.
 business regulation – many acts to limit power of businesses
o The Jungle by Upton Sinclair led to the Pure Food and Drug Act
 monetary policy – Federal Reserve Act-central banking sys. to control $$ supply
 progressive amendments
o 16th – income tax
o 17th – election of Senators by people
o 18th – prohibition of alcohol
o 19th – women’s suffrage (right to vote) *Susan B. Anthony

Race Relations and Reformers

Blacks were facing oppression and didn’t get support: voting restrictions (poll taxes and literacy tests),
Jim Crow laws (segregation), lynchings (murder by mobs), and debt.

 Plessy v. Ferguson – “separate by equal” Supreme Court made segregation legal


 W.E.B. Du Bois – fought for black rights, education, co-founded the NAACP
 Ida B. Wells – against lynchings

Causes of WWI and U.S. Entry

 causes – MANIA (militarism, alliance system, nationalism, imperialism, and assassination of


Archduke Ferdinand = Europe total war
 U.S. response – neutrality
 U.S. entry 1917 – anti-German sentiment, wanted to spread democracy
o propaganda – anti-German ads
o Lusitania – Germans sank British ship
o unrestricted submarine warfare
o trade ties
o Zimmerman Note – German telegram to Mexico asking to attack U.S. in exchange for
land

Events and Significance of WWI

 U.S. Entry – Apr 1917: declared war on Germany


 Selective Service Act – May 1917: register for draft
 U.S. Troops in France – June 1917: American Expeditionary Force led by Gen. John J. Pershing
 October Revolution – Nov 1917: Lenin (communist) took power in Russia
 14 points – Jan 1918: Wilson: peace, League of Nations, security
 Russian exit – Mar 1918: Russian/German peace treaty
 German offensive – Spring 1918: Germans advanced toward France, U.S. saved Paris
 Allied counter-offensive – Summer/Fall 1918: Allies pushed Germans back
 Armistice – Nov 1918: cease-fire
 Treaty of Versailles – June 1919: Germany forced to admit guilt, lose land, pay war reparations,
demilitarize
 League of Nations/U.S. rejections – Mar 1920: U.S. Senate would not pass treaty
 military technology – new use of poison gas, development of tanks, airplanes, escorted ships,
naval minefields
 home front – “total war” means complete use of nation’s resources
o propaganda – ads to pressure people to volunteer, buy war bonds, conserve energy,
Germans are evil
o govt powers – gov passed many acts that protected country from threats
o women’s roles – thousands served in military and held traditionally male jobs
o Great Migration – blacks left South for jobs in the North

WWI was a major turning point for U.S.

 isolationism – bad experiences led U.S. to turn inward (focus on self)


 international instability – rise of communism, weak League of Nations
 economy – U.S. replaced Britain as financial leader, economic boom

Boom to Bust and FDR’s New Deal 1920-1938

Intolerance and Marcus Garvey’s Response

 red scare – anarchist acts and labor strikes made many fear communist revolution
 Palmer Raids – suspects arrested and deported
 Social Darwinism – applied survival of the fittest to society
o nativists thought WASPs (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) were “most fit”
o eugenics – using marriage and sterilization to remove “unwanted” traits/genes from society
o race riots – blacks competed for jobs, housing; whites violently stormed neighborhoods
and killed hundreds
o immigration restrictions – favoritism for N/W Europeans, banned Asians
o KKK – revived, terrorized non-WASPs
 Marcus Garvey – inspired racial pride, activities to show unity, sold stock in business, convicted
of fraud & deported

Expansion of Political Rights

 women – began to vote due to 19th amendment, not as many and not as much change as was hoped
 American Indian Citizenship Act 1924 – made all Indians U.S. citizens

Economic Growth and Mass Consumerism

Roaring Twenties – birth of modern U.S., cultural transformation, economic boom

 Harding’s “Return to Normalcy” – Pres. Harding shrank (less powerful) U.S. gov’t; let capitalism
roll
 production efficiencies – high demand of goods (mane people buying), fueled mass production by
better machinery, assembly lines, etc.
o Henry Ford – assembly line manufacturing (product moved down line of workers & each
completed a step) to make affordable cars (Model Ts)
o time-and-motion studies – find efficient ways to do work, make workers feel happy =
increased efficiency
 rising wages – low unemployment, higher wages, middle-class grew, affordability of goods
o Ford – shortened work day to 8hrs. doubled pay to $5
 inventions – cars, radio, refrigerator, vacuum, etc.
o Glenn Curtis – better airplanes led to air mail service
 marketing- high and low-end versions of goods, advertising techniques: create problem/provide
solution, celebrity endorsement, sex appeal
 consumer credit – helped people buy things before they could pay

Society and Culture of Roaring Twenties

Whites left areas and formed own neighborhoods, blacks formed own too; culture changed

 jazz – new music style by blacks, blues; the radio spread “jazz fever”; white/black bands formed,
influenced music everywhere
 Harlem Renaissance – African-American literary and artistic movement
o Langston Hughes – author, rejected stereotypes
 Prohibition – unenforceable in cities (cops were bribed), organized crime (mafia, bootleggers),
speakeasies (illegal private bars), gangsters (Al Capone)
 women – increased per-marital promiscuity
o flappers – short hair, short skirts, smoking/drinking/dancing; symbolized single women
o the Great Gatsby
 city culture was viewed as immoral by rurals; Midwest and South took prohibition and Bible
seriously
o Scopes “Monkey” Trial – Clarence Darrow was lawyer for Scopes (science teacher who
taught evolution aka broke the law); defended him against William Jennings Bryan; trial
was on the radio and showed the north/south culture clash
 entertainment culture spread, Hollywood was born, lots of extra time for “fun”
o Charles Lindbergh – first man to fly solo across the Atlantic = hero

The Great Depression 1929-WWII

Major turning point for U.S., citizens relied on gov’t – period of economic major downturn

Causes Effects
 taxes went up  wages went down
 world trade went down  factories closed – unemployment went
 overproduction of goods/food up
 buying stock on margin (pay little,  Hoovervilles – shanty towns
borrow a lot)  breadlines, homelessness, crime went
 market speculation – prices went above up
value = stock market crash  escapism went up (film, radio, alcohol)
 bank failures – no loans repayment  U.S. deported many immigrants
 federal monetary policy – low money
supply, govt didn’t help

The Dust Bowl

Severe drought and bad farming practices turned topsoil to dust. High winds created dust storms in Great
Plains.

 1931-1939 destruction – crops blew away, people lost farms = miserable


 mass migration – 1 million people left GP

Trust in Federal Government and FDRs New Deal

 Pres. Harding – corrupt, Teapot Dome


 Pres. Coolidge – gained trust, capitalist policies, eco boom,
 Pres. Hoover – blamed for not doing anything during Great Depression, dismissed bonus marchers
(vets who wanted early bonus), cold-hearted
 F. D. Roosevelt – won in 1932, promised New Deal, many bold experiments, nice, caring; fireside
chats
 New Deal Laws
o banking/stock market – FDIC guaranteed bank deposits
o unemployed – PWA (built infrastructure), CCC (built trails and parks)
o farmers – AAA (paid farmers NOT to produce), helped keep farms
o housing – Homeowners Loan Act
o Prohibition – 21st amendment repealed 18th, cancelled prohibition
o workers/industry – NRA (price/wage fixing); union rights
o social security – gov’t paid retirement, unemployment benefits
o public-owned power – TVA (hydroelectricity)
o Supreme Court – power back to federal, FDR added judges to get ND policies approved =
court-packing scheme
 critics of ND – said it was costly, raised taxes, gave gov’t more power
o American Liberty League – reduced people’s rights
o socialists/communists – wanted states to run economy
o blacks/women/farmers – bias against them
o Father Coughlin – tuned people against FDR , blamed Jews for GD
o Francis Townsend – federal pension
o Huey Long – “share our wealth” redistribution plan
 Eleanor Roosevelt – FDRs wife, helped write and promote ND, changed First Lady role, national
public figure

1939-1945: WWII

U.S Entry Into WWII

 1930s isolationism- high tariffs cut foreign trade; FDR’s “Good Neighbor Policy” removed U.S
troops from Latin America.
 Axis Powers:
o JAPAN - Hideki Tojo
o ITALY - Benito Mussolini
o GERMANY - Adolf Hitler
 Allies
o United States
o Great Britain – Winston Churchill
o USSR (Soviet Union, Russia, same thing)– Josef Stalin
o France
 Start of WWII(1939) - Hitler signed non-aggression pact w/USSR (Russia), invaded Poland
 U.S entry into war in 1941 - U.S helped British/Allies, ended oil sales to Japan
 Dec 7, 1941 - Japanese surprise attack on U.S Naval base (PEARL HARBOR, Hawaii), Congress
declares war on JAPAN

Home Front during WWII

WWII Era: was a turning point for the U.S., led to the Cold War/end to isolationism/civil rights efforts

 Political - federal powers increased (control of production/rationing)


 Economic - ended Great Depression; wages and employment went up (esp. women/minorities);
factories converted/built for war supplies
 Geographic - millions relocated; Great Migration increased
 Social – increased marriages & births (Baby Boom began after end of war)
 U.S Office of War Information - promoted patriotism; Victory Gardens(grow own food),
recycling/conservation(materials for war effort), women at work during war
 Medical - first employer health insurance; healthcare went up, increased life expectancy
 Constitutional- there was a fear of spies
o Executive Order 9066 – sent 110,000 Japanese to internment camps, fear of loyalty to
Japan

European Theater of WWII

 Germany-Soviet Nonaggression Pact - allowed Germany to focus on 1 front


o blitzkrieg - lightning war (bombers quickly followed by tanks, infantry)
o Allies - communist USSR’s Joseph Stalin not trusted, but FDR and Great Britain’s
Winston Churchill nurtured U.S/G.B “special relationship”
 Eastern front - many soviet casualties, 1st victory at Stalingrad
 Western Europe - U.S/G.B bombed Germany
o D-Day - June 6,1944, Allies landed 150,000 troops at Normandy (beaches of France)
Hitler kills himself; Germany surrenders (May 1945)
 Nazi concentration camp liberations - as Allies advanced, “Holocaust” came to light. Hitler’s
racist “final solution” killed 6 million Jews and others
 Important U.S Individuals: EUROPE
o George Marshall – top general and military strategist
o Dwight Eisenhower – top Allied commander in Europe, later became president
o George Patton – bold commander, tank expert, admired by troops
o Tuskegee Airmen – squadron 100 % black, great success, helped desegregate military later
on

Pacific Theater of WWII

 Japanese expansion – Japan was taking over territory in China, China joined Allies in Dec. 1941
o Flying Tigers – volunteer fighter pilots, led first U.S. attack on Japanese
o Japan continued to expand and attack, defeated U.S. in the Wake Islands and Guam, bombed
half of U.S. planes in the Philippines, U.S. surrenders
 Bataan Death March - brutal forced march of POWs (prisoners of war)
 Battle of Midway - 1st U.S victory/turning point, fought with planes from carriers
 U.S. advance – used “island hopping” strategy to move toward Japan mainland
 Japanese honor code said no surrender, many suicide attacks
o Kamikaze pilots flew explosive-filled planes
 Atom bomb - Manhattan Project: secret project to develop world’s 1st nuclear weapon; U.S. wanted to
gain Japan’s unconditional surrender. U.S bombed Hiroshima Aug 6, 1945 and Nagasaki 3 days later.
Japan only surrendered after the second bomb.
 Important U.S. individuals: PACIFIC
o Douglass Macarthur – army commander in Pacific, retook Philippines
o Chester Nimitz – Navy commander, led the Battle of Midway
o Navajo Code Talkers – Native Americans who used their language to develop an unbreakable
code
o Harry Truman – president after FDR died in Apr 1945, made decision to use atom bomb,
ended war
 deaths – more civilian deaths than military, 70% were Soviet, Chinese, Polish

1945-1962: Cold War and the Affluent Society

The Cold War and Fear of Communism

Cold war 1945-1989 – period of indirect fighting, arms race between U.S. and USSR; caused by mistrust
and animosity

 Soviet Aggression - Soviets occupied E. Europe; E. Asia at wars end (had joined against Japan)
driven by repeat invasions, high WWII losses; Stalin took over new territories = spread of
communism
o “Iron Curtain” – used to describe the boundary between communism/democracy

Events that led to tensions

 arms race - USSR tested atomic bomb, shocked U.S.; both developed new tech weapons
 communist revolution in China - Mao Zedong won wars, established communism
 Soviet Spies - U.S/G.B discovered citizens passing information to USSR
o Julius and Ethel Rosenberg – gave USSR info on a-bomb
 House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) - investigated individuals for communist
connections
 McCarthyism - Senator Joe McCarthy accused many of disloyalty with little or no evidence,
created “witch hunt” atmosphere
 Space Race
o 1957: USSR launches Sputnik, first satellite
o 1960: USSR shot down U.S. plane w/guided missile
o USSR led in missile technology aka could deliver a-bomb
o National Defense Education Act – passed to better science education, created NASA
 Civil defense - U.S gov’t promoted bomb shelters, school drills

U.S. leads anti-communist response

 Truman Doctrine (1947) – meant to help non-communist countries resist communism anywhere in
the world; policy of containment (iron curtain)
 Marshall Plan (1948) - U.S. financial aid that helped Europe rebuild, defended against spread of
communism
 Berlin Airlift (1948-49) – Berlin (capital of Germany) was divided into East (communist) and
West (non-communist), USSR wanted to control all of it, blocked access to W. Berlin; Truman
responded by dropping food, fuel, gifts from military planes until USSR gave up
 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) - U.S. and its allies said any attack on any member and
all would respond
 Korean War (1950-1953) – Korea was divided at wars end; 2 gov’ts (north-communist/south-
democratic), North invades South, U.S. helps South; Koreas remain divided aka stalemate (tie)

Key outcomes of Korean War

 Containment policy - U.S. used force to stop spread of communism


 Limited war- U.S. used no nuclear weapons
 U.S./China - viewed each other as aggressors; no diplomatic relations for 20 years
 Military/industrial complex - permanent armaments industry
 Technology - jet aircraft, mobile army hospitals, medevac helicopters
 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) – Fidel Castro led communist revolution in Cuba. USSR (Nikita
Khrushchev) shipped nuclear weapons to Cuba, Pres. JFK demanded ships leave and set up naval
blockade...ships left
* Most direct, tense confrontation of Cold War

1950’s America and the Affluent Society

 1950’s era - widespread prosperity, baby boom, led to material-rich, family-focused, religious
culture-> anti-conformist reaction

 Widespread prosperity - wartime rationing bonds led to high savings rate, more gov’t spending on
defense and education, vets got help with buying houses and going to college, more use of credit
cards = more purchasing power, millions eager to start families leads to “baby boom”, new
products/processes
 Business growth – spread of conglomerates (different businesses bundled together) and franchises
 Migrations - Great Migration continues; blacks to city centers/jobs; whites to new suburbs; all to
Sun Belt (FL, NV, AZ, CA) nighborhoods outside of the city center
 Suburbia - planned communities where houses are mass produced and most look the same
 Petroleum-based materials/new products - plastics developed (toys, electronics, Tupperware);
coolants led to the development of air conditioning...allowed migration to Sun Belt; first
computers
 Transportation - new roads, highways, and interstates; doubling of cars enabled migrations, air
travel displaced train travel
 Communication – more than 80% households had phones and televisions by 1960
o television and commercials entertained, informed, and influenced
o videotapes allowed mass distribution of programming
 Agriculture – less farms producing more food; cost to buyers went down
 Medicine - low infant mortality; new vaccines and medical practices (surgeries)
 Religious resurgence - non-believers viewed as Anti-American, spread of Christianity
 Counter-culture – themes of rebellion and spontaneity appealed to teens/youth and to those that
didn’t fit into white middle class
o emergence of rock n roll music, experimenting with drugs, alcohol, and sex
 Global diffusion - U.S. culture/counter-culture spread and influenced world via film, radio, T.V,...
Europe no longer defined western culture

1947- 1975: Civil Rights Movements, 1960s, Vietnam

Legal Side of Major Phase of Civil Rights Movement

 legal segregation/discrimination ended by 1965


 legal victories:
o Executive Order 9981(1948) – Pres. Truman desegregated military
o Brown v. Board of Education (1954) – called for the integration of schools
o 1957 Civil Rights Act – weak black civil rights
o 1964 Civil Rights Act – made racial segregation at any public place and discrimination in
hiring illegal
o 24th amendment – prohibited poll taxes
o 1965 Voting Rights Act – banned literacy tests

Activist Side of Black Civil Rights Movement

Individuals and groups lobbied, protested, boycotted, and litigated for civil rights.

 NAACP – led legal efforts against racial injustice


o Thurgood Marshall – won Brown v. BoE, became first black SC Justice
 Rosa Parks – refused to give up seat on bus to whites, active in NAACP, triggered Montgomery
Bus Boycott
 Martin Luther King Jr. – led bus boycott, used spotlight to lead non-violent protests, marches, sit-
ins, freedom rides; leader of Southern Christian Leadership Conference; “I Have a Dream” speech

People/groups who resisted the civil rights movement:

 Orval Faubus – Gov. of Arkansas, used state troops to block integration of a school; Eisenhower
sent in fed. troops to protect black students
 George Wallace – Gov. of Alabama, “segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation
forever”
 Lester Maddox – Gov. of Georgia, showed resistance by selling ax handles at his restaurant, sold
restaurant to not serve blacks, believed integration was “ungodly...un-American”
 Congressional bloc of Southern Democrats – tried to block civil rights legislation
 Ku Klux Klan – endorsed segregationists, threatened/harmed activists

Radical individuals/groups:

 Malcom X – taught self-reliance, black nationalism, separatism, saw whites as the enemy,
encouraged violence
 Black Panthers – armed militant group, patrolled ghettos, clashed with police, wanted reparations
(payment for slavery)
 inner-city riots – late 1960s, vandalism, looting, violence, black-on-black crime

Assassination of MLK 1968 – shot by sniper, movement lost strongest, most unifying voice, crushed
optimism

Activist Side of Latino Civil Rights Movement

Mexican-Americans, Latinos/Chicanos also fought discrimination:

 League of United Latin American Citizens: led Hector P. Garcia, led legal efforts, formed the
Mexican-American Legal Defense and Education Fund
 Cesar Chavez/Dolores Hurta – co-founded United Farm Workers union, led nonviolent marches,
boycotts
 youth organizations – protested discrimination (mainly in schools) via walkouts, active in Chicano
Mural Movement (public art depicting heritage)
 La Raza Unida – Mexican-American political party formed in Texas

Women’s, Native American, Other Movements

1960s era – turbulent time of activism, idealism, new youth culture (sex, drugs, rock n roll), violence
(Vietnam, assassinations, riots)

 women – many were discontent with the housewife role; National Organization for Women
wanted equal job opps, pay, fought sexism
o Roe v. Wade – legalized abortion
 Native Americans – wanted to recover land taken illegally, American Indian Movement – militant
group
 environmental – environmental movement began ~1962
o first Earth Day in 1970
o Environmental Protection Agency
o Clean Air Act
o Clean Water Act
 consumer – consumer reports led to new laws (car safety esp.)
 homosexual – sparked by Stonewall riot (club raid)

JFK, LBJ’s Great Society, and Constitutional Issues

 JFK’s election/presidency – young, energetic, handsome, beat Nixon, got support of South by
focusing on poor/economy, assassinated in 1963 Lyndon B. Johnson became president
o JFK’s General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) – rewarded pro-U.S. nations with
free trade
 LBJ’s Great Society – “war on poverty,” expanded federal government and changed society
(positive)
o voting by blacks and women significantly increased
o Immigration Act of 1965 – replaced racist 1920s laws, more immigrants from Latin
America, Caribbean, Asia
o Medicare/Medicaid – helped elderly/poor get medical care
o education funding by number of low income students

 Barry Goldwater – challenged LBJs plans as unconstitutional, beaten by LBJ in 1964, but some of
his views were later adopted
o affirmative action – policies to favor minorities, women
o Title IX – made sex discrimination illegal in edu programs

Other court cases:

 Tinker v. Des Moines – said that students has SOME right to free speech at school (arm bands to
protest Vietnam War)
 Wisconsin v. Yoder – said parents freedom of religion to keep kids out of school (Amish)

Vietnam War

 Domino Theory – one nation’s fall to communism leads to others


 Ho Chi Minh – revolutionary, president of North Vietnam (communist), supported Viet Cong
(guerillas in South)

Key Events:

 U.S. involvement – 1950-1963 to support French


 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – Aug. 1964, Congress gave war-making power to LBJ
 escalation – 1965-1968, increased troop levels, despite tactics commies did not give up
 Tet Offensive – Jan. 1968, Viet Cong (commies) attacked and killed innocents in South
Vietnam; turning point in war, led to credibility gap
 credibility gap – public doubted LBJ, didn’t run for pres again, Nixon wins election
 Vietnamization – 1969-Jan.1973, removal of U.S. troops little by little, U.S. served as advisors
 ceasefire – Jan. 1973, agreed to complete withdrawal
 Fall of Saigon – 1975, North beats South, country reunites as communist nation

Anti-war movement – protests against war & draft, negative/graphic media reports

Outcomes – over 58,000 U.S. dead; 26th amendment made voting age 18 (“old enough to fight, old
enough to vote”); War Powers Act limited president’s war-making powers; commies took over
Cambodia, Laos

1969 Moon Landing

Failure in Vietnam left U.S. weak and divided (race, class, gender, culture, politics)

 Moon landing- Apollo 11, JFK promised it would happen, happens in 1969, world watches; shows
that U.S./mankind can accomplish great things
Glossary of Important Terms

Armistice – an agreement made by opposing sides in a war to stop fighting for a certain time; a truce.

Allies – to unite formally, as by treaty, league, marriage. A person, group, or nation that is associated with
another or others for some common cause or purpose.

Arms Race – a competition between nations for superiority in the development and accumulation of
weapons, especially between the US and the former Soviet Union during the Cold War.

Anarchy – a state of disorder due to absence or non-recognition of authority.

Bootleggers – an illegal business of transporting (smuggling) alcoholic beverages where such


transportation is forbidden by law.

Belt - Area or region. Sunbelt is where this area gets more sun. Rustbelt is the region where they produce
Steel-production.

Boss Tweed – Was known for being the “boss” of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine
that played a major role in taking Millions from New York
City.

Bankruptcies – The state of being bankrupt. A person or organization declared in law unable to pay
outstanding debts.

Bank failures – the closing of a bank by a federal or state banking regulatory agency.

Berlin Airlift – a military operation in the late 1940s that brought food and other needed goods into West
Berlin by air after the government of East Germany, which at that time surrounded West Berlin, had cut
off its supply routes.

Brown V. Board of Education – overturned (cancelled out) Plessy v. Ferguson by declaring that
segregation in schools was unconstitutional

Capitalism – An economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by
private owners for profit, rather than by the state.

Corruption – dishonest or illegal behavior by those in power, typically involving bribery.

Communism – a Society in which all property is publicly owned (aka by the government) and each
person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.

Conservative – holding to traditional attitudes and values and cautious about change or innovation,
typically in relation to politics or religion.

Containment Policy – The United States policy using numerous strategies to prevent the spread of
communism abroad.
Conformists – a person who conforms to accepted behavior or established practices.

Counter – to go against.

Camp David Accords – were signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister
Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David.
The two framework agreements were signed at White House, and were witnessed by United States
President Jimmy Carter.

Casualties – deaths in war

Deflation – The reduction of the general level of prices in an economy.

D Day – the day (June 6, 1944) in World War II on which Allied forces invaded northern France by
means of beach landings in Normandy.

Diplomacy – the art of dealing with people in a sensitive and effective way.

Dayton Accords – is the peace agreement reached at Wright Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio,
US, in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14th. These accords put an end to the 3
1/2 year-long Bosnia War one of the Yogoslav Wars.

Détente – to stop, the easing of hostility or strained relations, especially between countries.

Entrepreneurship – Is the willingness to take risks and develop, organize and manage a business venture
in a competitive global marketplace that is constantly evolving.

Eugenics – using marriage and sterilization to remove “unwanted” traits/genes from society.

Expansionism – the belief that a country should grow larger: a policy of increasing a country’s size by
expanding its territory.

Executive Order 9066 – an order signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942, authorizing the
Secretary of War to prescribe certain areas as military zones, clearing the way for the deportation of
Japanese Americans.

Executive Order 9981 – an Executive order issued on July 26, 1948, by President harry S. Truman, it
abolished racial discrimination in the United States Armed forces and eventually led to end of segregation
in the services.

Embargo – an official ban on trade or other commercial activity with a particular country.

Endangered Species Act – a species of animals or plant that is seriously at risk of extinction. Running
out of.

Federal monetary Policy – the goals of monetary policy are to promote maximum employment stable
prices and moderate long-term interest rates.
Fireside chats – One of a series of radio broadcasts made by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to the
nation, beginning in 1933.

Flying Tigers – the first American Volunteer Group of the Chinese Air force in 1941-1942, nicknamed
the Flying Tigers, was composed of pilots for the United States Army Air corps, Navy, and Marine Corps,
recruited under presidential authority.

Famine – Shortage or lack of food.

Great Migration – Was the movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern U.S. to
the urban Northwest, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1910 and 1970.

Hoovervilles – a shantytown built by unemployed and destitute people during the Depression of the early
1930’s.

Holocaust – The destruction or slaughter on a mass scale, especially caused by fire or nuclear war. The
killing of 6 million Jews.

Harry Truman – President who desegregated the military. Responsible for dropping the atomic bomb
after being in office for 3 months.

Imperialism – a policy of extending a country’s power and influence through diplomacy or military
force. Ruled by an emperor.

Initiative – a process that enables citizens to bypass their state legislature by placing proposed statutes
and, in some states, constitutional amendments on the ballot.

Isolationism – the belief that a country should not be involved with other countries: a policy of not
making agreements or working with other countries.

Iron curtain - a National barrier separating the former Soviet bloc and the West prior to the decline of
communism that followed the political events in Eastern Europe in 1989. **not an actual, physical
barrier; theoretically

Island Hopping – Was the phrase given to the strategy employed by the U.S. to gain military bases and
secure the many small islands in the Pacific.

Impeachment – Charge (the public holder of a public office) with misconduct. Remove from office.
Process to fire the President.

Idealism – the practice of forming or pursuing ideals, especially unrealistically.

Integration – opposite of segregation; to bring together, include

Kamikaze Pilots – Were Japanese suicide pilots who attacked allied warships in the Pacific Ocean during
the Second World War. The name means “divine wind” and refers to ta typhoon that destroyed an enemy
fleet in the 13th century.
Korematsu v. the United States – court ruled that Executive Order 9066 WAS constitutional and
Korematsu, a Japanese American, DID have to obey it and relocate to an internment camp

Labor – work, especially hard physical work.

Laissez Faire - The theory or system of government that upholds the economic order, believing that
government should intervene as little as possible in the direction of economic affairs. French for “Let it
Be.”

League of Nations – An international organization, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, created after


the First World War to provide a forum for resolving international disputes.

Lobbyist/Lobbying – is the act of attempting to influence decisions made by officials in a government,


most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies.

Monopolies – the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service.

Monetary policy – is the process by which the monetary authority of a country controls the supply of
money, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the
currency.

Muckrakers – a person who intentionally seeks out and publishes the misdeeds, such as criminal acts or
corruption, of a public individual for profit or gain.

Manhattan Project – Was the research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons
during World War II.

Market Speculation – a practice of engaging in risky financial transactions in an attempt to profit from
fluctuations in the market value of a tradable good.

Nationalism – a feeling that people have of being loyal to and proud of their country often with the belief
that it is better and more important that other countries.

Oppression – prolonged cruel or unjust treatment or control.

Over Production – excessive production; production in excess of need or stipulated amount.

Obamacare – Affordable Care Act. Health insurance made available for those who don’t have insurance.

Poverty – The state of being extremely poor.

Propaganda – Information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote publicize a


particular political cause or point of view. Sells you an IDEA.
Prohibition – The prevention by law of the manufacture and sale of alcohol, especially in the US between
1920 and 1933.

Proprietorship – is a type of business entity that is owned and run by one natural person and in which
there is no legal distinction between the owner and the business.

Palmer raids – were a series of raids by the United States department of justice intended to capture,
arrest and deport radical leftists and communists from the United States.

Plessy v. Ferguson – legalized segregation in public places by calling for “separate but equal”
accommodations

Referendum – an event in which the people of a county, state vote for or against a law that deals with a
specific issue: a public vote on a particular issue.

Recall – is a procedure that allows citizens to remove and replace a public official before the end of a
term of office.

Red Scare – the promotion of fear of a potential rise of communism or radical leftism.

Robber Barons – a ruthless powerful U. S. capitalist or industrialist of the late 19th century considered to
have become wealthy by exploiting natural resources, corrupting legislators, or other unethical means.

Rationing bonds – restrictions of raw materials, goods or services. Rationing commonly occurs when
governments fear a shortage and want to make sure people have access to necessities, such as after a
natural disaster of during a war.

Resurgence – an increase or revival after a period of little activity, popularity, or occurrence.

Reaganomics – the economic policies of the former US president Ronald Reagan, associated especially
with the reduction of taxes and the promotion of unrestricted free – market activity.

Roe v. Wade – legalized abortions in the U.S.

Settlement houses – an institution in an inner-city area providing educational, recreational, and other
social services to the community.

Speakeasies – an illegal liquor store, nightclub, or bar; prominent during the Prohibition era

Sputnik – a series of Soviet artificial satellites, the first of which was the first satellite to be place in orbit.

Scandal – an action or event regarded as morally or legally wrong and causing general public outrage.

Stock – a stock is a type of security that signifies ownership in a corporation and represent a claim on part
of the corporation’s assets and earnings.

Sandra Day O’Connor – appointed by Reagan and was the first female appointed to the Supreme Court.

Sharecropping – is a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return
for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act – The first federal act that outlawed monopolistic business practices. The first
measure passed by the U. S. Congress to prohibit trusts.

Segregation – to separate or exclude; in U.S. history, refers to the separation of blacks and whites in
public places

Tenements – a room or a set of rooms forming a separate residence within a house or block of
apartments.

Temperance – abstinence from alcoholic drink.

Total War – a war in which every available weapon is used and the nation’s full financial resources are
devoted.

Thurgood Marshall – was a lawyer who was best known for his high success rate in arguing before the
Supreme Court and for the victory of Brown V Board of Education. Was the first African American
Justice.
Tariffs – a tax or duty to be paid on a particular class of imports or exports.

Title IX – is a comprehensive federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in any federally
funded education program or activity.

Vitality – the state of being strong and active; energy. The power giving continuance of life, present in all
living things.

Victory Gardens – a vegetable garden, especially a home garden, planted to increase food production
during a war

Women’s Suffrage – the right for women to vote.

Yellow Journalism – Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and
attract readers.

Important amendments:

18th Amendment – Prohibition of alcohol. Banned the sale, distribution

19th Amendment – Gave women the right to vote.

24th Amendment – United States ratified the 24th amendment to the constitution, prohibition any poll tax
in elections for federal officials.

26th Amendment – Lowered or Changed the voting age to 18.


Alphabet Soup aka Important Acronyms:

PWA – Public Works Administration

CCC – Civilian Conservation Corps

AAA – Agricultural Adjustment Act

NRLC – National Right to Life Committee

NRA - National Rifle Association

TVA – Tennessee Valley Authority

NAACP – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement

EPA – Environmental Protection Agency

FEMA – Federal Emergency Management Agency

NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization