You are on page 1of 45

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The primary function of a transmission system is to transmit


mechanical power from a power source to some form of useful power. Since
the invention of the internal combustion engine in 1769, it has been the goal
of transmission designers to develop more efficient methods of coupling the
output of an engine to a load while allowing the engine to operate in its most
efficient according to the need, that is the vehicle requires less power while
running on the plane road during which the efficiency is higher.

Whereas while riding the hill or curve roads the vehicle requires more
power and the speed required is less. Conventional transmissions allow for
the selection of gear ratios but not continuously, thus limiting the engine to
providing maximum power according to need. Because the engine is forced to
adjust its speed to provide continuously variable output from the transmission
to the load, it operates much of the time in low power and low efficiency
regimes.

A continuously variable transmission is a type of transmission,


however, that allows a variable speed or torque ratio change within a finite
range, thereby allowing the engine to continuously operate in its most efficient
or highest performance range .While the transmission provides a continuously
variable output to the vehicle at the all load conditions. The development of
modern variable transmission drive has generally focused on frictional driven
devices, such as those commonly used in off-road recreational vehicles and
recently in some automobiles. While these devices allow for the selection of a
continuous range of transmission ratios, they are obvious inefficient. The
reliance on friction to transmit power from the power source to the load is a

Page
1
source of power loss because some slipping is possible. This slipping is also
a major contributor to wear, which occurs in these devices. To overcome the
limitations occurring in the current continuous variable transmission employing
frictional positive engagement Engineer’s has been proposed for investigation
at Brigham Young University

1.2 BRIEF HISTORY

Continuously variable transmissions have been in use for many


years. Near the beginning of the twentieth century, cars like the Sturtevant,
Cartercar, and Lambert featured friction dependent CVTs (Puttré,
1991).These friction drive CVTs were common in automotive use until
engines capable of producing higher torques became common and
necessitated the move to geared, fixed-ratio transmissions capable of high
torque transfer and having better wear characteristics than friction dependent
CVTs. Only in the past few years, with the advent of advanced materials and
technology, have friction dependent CVTs returned to commercial application
in the automotive industry.

To provide a foundation and motivation for the research presented,


this chapter first presents a definition of a continuously variable transmission.
For background purposes, a review of the current literature on CVTs is
included. The families in which various embodiments can be classified are
presented, along with a description of the operating principles in each family.
A new family of embodiments of the positive engagement classification is also
presented, along with the principles governing this new classification. This
research focuses most heavily on embodiments in the final classification.

A transmission is a device which allows the transmission of power from


a rotating power source to a rotating load. Conventional transmissions allow

Page
2
for the selection of discrete gear ratios, thus limiting the engine to providing
maximum power or efficiency for limited ranges of transmission output speed.
A continuously variable transmission, however, is a type of transmission that
allows an infinitely variable ratio change within a finite range, thereby allowing
the engine to continuously operate in its most efficient or highest performance
range. Beachley and Frank, 1979, present a sub-classification of the
continuously variable transmission called the infinitely variable transmission
(IVT). While the two terms are often used interchangeably, there is a distinct
difference between them. While a CVT allows an infinitely variable ratio
change within a finite range, an IVT must be capable of producing an output
speed of zero for any input speed, thus giving an infinite speed ratio.

1.3 CLASSIFICATIONS

There are several classifications of CVTs. The following five are most
relevant to the current research: hydrostatic, friction, traction, variable
geometry, and electric.

1.3.1 TRACTION

Traction drives were one of the earliest forms of continuously variable


transmission concepts ever developed. A traction drive is a transmission that
transmits power through rolling contact. The 1906 Cartercar, powered with a
12-hp engine, was developed with just such a transmission. Many current
applications employ traction drives. These include applications such as
machine tools, low-power yard equipment, and recently some automotive
applications.

There are some discrepancies in the definition of traction drives. Some


authors, such as Beachley and Frank (1979), and Chana (1986), categorize
V-belt drives and traction drives together in the friction drive category. Hewko

Page
3
(1986), however, and Singh and Nair (1992), categorize them separately. For
the purposes of this work, we will consider the definition of a traction drive
presented by Hewko (1986). A generic traction drive is “a power transmission
device which utilizes hardened, metallic, rolling bodies for transmittal of power
through an elastohydrodynamic fluid film.” This definition distinguishes traction
drives from variable-sheave drives because sheave contact is static, while
traction drives employ rolling contact. This means that sheave contact does
not exhibit significant elastohydrodynamic fluid film phenomena. In properly
designed traction drives, power is transferred from the driving roller to the
driven roller through the shearing of the fluid film between them, not through
body-to-body contact. This happens because the contact between the rolling
bodies, which generally happens over a finite area in the shape of an ellipse,
traps the fluid and subjects it to extreme compressive stress, usually on the
order of 100,000 to 500,000 psi. This extreme stress increases the
instantaneous viscosity of the fluid by several orders of magnitude, thereby
increasing its shear strength. It is the shear strength of the fluid at this
increased viscosity that determines the amount of torque that can be
transmitted.

Page
4
Chapter 2

NEED OF PROJECT

Fig 2.1 SCHEMATIC OF CONVENTIONAL LAYOUT OF AUTOMOBILE


TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

Conventional transmission system uses single plate clutch , efficiency


of this clutch is less than 70%

Manual transmission gear box has gears namely 0-1-2-3-4-5 hence in


order to move to top gear one has to move form 0 (i.e., neutral to 1) in which
the following operations have to be performed

A. Disengage clutch

B. Change gear

Page
5
C. Gradually engage clutch

Thus three operations are to be performed while moving from one gear
to another, hence in all 15 operations are performed to move to the top gear,
So also, In 1st gear speed cannot exceed 20 km.ph, where as in 5th gear
vehicle cannot be tracked from stand still condition (e.g. At traffic signal).

To add to the problems the transmission system utilizes complete


engine speed range where as engine gives best efficiency over a fixed range
of speed.

Fig 2.2 CONVENTIONAL LAYOUT OF AUTOMOBILE TRANSMISSION


SYSTEM USING MULTI-BALL DISK VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE

Page
6
To solve above problem the MULTI-BALL DISK VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE is
designed which offers the following advantages,

• Acts like clutch as well as gear box.

• Efficiency of transmission more than 90%

• More than gear ratios of 35 possible, (engine can always be operated


in maximum efficiency zone)

• Entire speed range of gear ratios 35 is controlled by single operating


lever that can be directly connected to accelerator lever.

• No disengagement of clutch required while moving from one gear ratio


to another, hence almost 11 operations of the conventional system
are completely avoided.

• As engine is operated in maximum efficiency zone of speed range


better fuel economy is achieved.

• Lower pollution as engine operates at maximum efficiency.

• Maximum operator convenience as no selection of gear ratios is to be


done.

• Vehicular control by foot is reduced from three to two as only the


accelerator pedal and brake pedal are to be operated by driver.

• Lower cost of productions.

• Less investment for mass production as conventional machines are


required for production.

Page
7
Chapter 3

COMPONENTS OF MULTI-BALL DISK VARIABLE


SPEED DRIVE

The Multi-Ball disk Variable speed drive consists of the following parts

1. Motor

Motor is a single phase AC commutator motor, 50 watt power and speed


variable from 0 to 9000 rpm. Speed variations are achieved by means of an
electronic speed variator which changes the current supplied to motor and
thereby the power. Motor shaft carries the motor pulley (1.5 inch diameter).

2. Belt

Belt is an FZ section rubber V-belt, which connects the input reduction pulley
and motor pulley in the open belt drive used as the input transmission drive.

3. Input reduction pulley

Input reduction pulley is an 3 inch diameter aluminium FZ section single


groove pulley mounted and fastened to the input shaft of the drive.

4. Input shaft

Input shaft is an high grade steel (EN24) component housed in ball bearings
6004zz and 6003zz in input bearing housing at the left hand end, and bearing
6201 at the right hand end . The input shaft is integral with the left hand input
disk where as the right hand input disk is keyed to the input shaft. Right hand
input disk is moveable towards the left hand to maintain the contact pressure
thereby the torque is adjusted. To ensure the contact pressure an helical
compression spring is installed and an locknut is carried on the threaded end
of input shaft (M16 x 2 pitch) which ensures the contact pressure.

Page
8
5. Input bearing housing

Input bearing housing houses ball bearings 6004zz and 6003zz which hold
the input shaft at the left hand end. Input bearing housing is held in and
vertical structural member i.e. the left hand casing.

6. Driver disks:

The left hand driver disk is integral with the input shaft and the right hand
driver disk is keyed to the input shaft. The driver disks together drive the top
and bottom set of balls.

7. Balls (4 no’s)

Balls of the multi ball disk drive are high grade steel elements (EN24) , due
ground and lapped with hardness up to 63 HRC. These balls are held in ball
holders. Balls transmit the power from the driver disk to the intermediate
planet disks

8. Ball holder ((4 no’s)

Balls holders are structural steel (EN9) members that receive the balls at one
end and are mounted on the tilt shafts on the other end. The ball holders are
means of speed variation as they change the radii of contact between the
driver disks and the planet driven disks.

9. Planet Driven disks (2 no’s)

Planet disks are integral with the shafts and are mounted in ball bearings
6201zz on left hand side, and bearing 6004zz on the right hand side. These
bearings are supported in the intermediate bearing housings. Planet driven
disk shafts carry the driver planet gears which are keyed to the right hand end
of the shafts.

Page
9
10. Planet Driver gears (2 no’s)

Planet driver gears are high grade steel (EN24) gears of 2 module and 22
teeth. These planet gears are keyed to the right hand end of the planet driven
disk shafts which together drive the central sun driven gear.

11. Central Sun driven gear

Central Sun driven gear is high grade steel (EN24) gear of 2 module and 58
teeth. The planet gears keyed to the right hand end of the planet driven disk
shafts together drive the central sun driven gear. The central sun driven gear
is mounted on the output hub.

12. Output hub

The output hub is the driven output member that carries the central sun driven
gear. It houses the ball bearing 6007zz held in position by means of an
internal circlip on the output bearing housing.

13. Output shaft

Output shaft is the output member integral with the output shaft, provisions of
central drill are made on the output shaft for output speed measurement.

14. Intermediate bearing housing (4no’s)

Intermediate bearing housings on left hand side are structural steel parts that
house ball bearing 6201zz and that on the right hand side house bearings
6004zz. These bearings together hold the planed driven disk shafts.
Intermediate bearing housings are mounted in the left and right hand side
casing plates.

15. Gear sector (2 no’s)

Gear sectors are elements that connect the tilt shafts on which the ball
holders are mounted. Gear sectors are partial gears with 2 module and 40

Page
10
teeth arrangement. The gears facilitate simultaneous motion of the two tilt
shafts in opposite direction and thereby changing the radii of contact equally
on both sides of the mean. Gear sectors are mounted on the right hand end of
the tilt shafts.

16. Tilt shafts

Tilt shafts are plain carbon steel (EN9) elements held in tilt shaft bushes
mounted on the casing plates, these shafts carry the ball holders, handle and
gear sectors. These shafts effect the speed change of the device.

17. Handle

Handle is of plain carbon steel (EN9) mounted on the tilt shaft, rotating the
handle in either clockwise or counter-clockwise direction will effect the speed
change. Handle is made of three pats that is the boss mounted on tilt shaft,
M8 stud and the 25 mm round knob.

18. Clamp nut

Clamp nut is carried on the threaded end of input shaft (M16 x 2pitch) it
ensures the contact pressure between the driver disks, balls and the planet
driven disks.

19. Casing

Casing is in the form of the left hand and right hand mild steel casing plates,
two support plates and the base legs. Casing plates house the input and
output bearing housings, intermediate bearing housings and the tilt shaft
bushes.

Page
11
Page
12
Chapter 4

ASSEMBLING AND WORKING

4.1 Assembling

• Welding of the housing in the left-hand and right-hand casing


respectively.

• Fixing of the bearing in the respective bearing housing.

• Welding of the left-hand driver disk on input shaft and mounting shaft in
central bearing of right-hand casing.

• Fixing of the left-hand ball holders along with balls on gear sector shaft.

• Welding of driven disk on output shaft respectively, and mounting the


output shaft in the bearing of the left-hand casing.

• Mounting of right-hand ball holder on gear sector shaft.

• Mounting of right-hand driven disk on input shaft.

• Mounting lock-nut along with spring to adjust the force acting on the
balls and the disks.

• Mounting of right hand casing

• Assembling Planet gears on respective output shafts.

• Mounting Sun Gear to mesh with Planet gear

• Welding hub on the gear.

Page
13
4.2 Working

The balls and disks are brought into engagement by the helical
compression spring arrangement, whose tension is adjusted by the Clamp
nut. Motor drives the input pulley mounted on the input shaft. Also, the Driver
disk mounted on the input shaft rotates at the same speed. Driver disks drive
the four balls placed in the ball holders .Thus, this balls causes the rotation of
the driven disk mounted on the output shaft. The shaft transmits the torque to
the respective planet gears which are in mesh with the sun gear. The planet
gears mounted on the driven disk shafts drive the central gear mounted on
the driven hub thus power is transmitted to the output shaft.

Various speeds (35 gear ratios) are achieved by operating the handle
connected to the ball holders, which are interlinked by two gear sectors. The
movement of the ball holders gives the range of speeds as explained above,
and the speed changes are achieved without de-clutching action.

Page
14
Chapter 5
DESIGN

Design consists of application of scientific principles, technical


information and imagination for development of new or improvised machine or
mechanism to perform a specific function with maximum economy and
efficiency.

Hence a careful design approach has to be adopted. The total


designed work has been split up into two parts;

SYSTEM DESIGN

MECHANICAL DESIGN

SYSTEM DESIGN

System design mainly concerns with various physical


constrains, deciding basic working principle, space requirements,
arrangements of various components etc.
Following parameters are looked upon in system design.
Selection of system based on physical constraints. The mechanical design
has direct norms with the system design hence system is designed such that
distinctions and dimensions thus obtained in mechanical design can be well
fitted in to it.
A. Arrangement of various components made simple to utilize every possible
space.
B. Ease of maintenance and servicing achieved by means of simplified
layout that enables quick decision assembly of components.
C. Scope for future improvement.

Page
15
MECHANICAL DESIGN

In mechanical design the components are listed down and stored on


the basis of their procurement in two categories,

• Design parts

• Parts to be purchased.

For designed parts detailed design is done and dimensions there


obtained are compared to next dimensions which are already available in
market. This simplifies the assembly as well as the post production and
maintenance work. The various tolerances on work are specified .The process
charts are prepared and passed to manufacturing stage.

The parts to be purchased directly are selected from various


catalogues and are specified so as to make Procurement.

In mechanical design at the first stage selection of appropriate material


for the part to be designed for specific application is done.

This selection is based on standard catalogues or data books;

For e.g.:- (PSG DESIGN DATA BOOKS)

(SKF BEARING, CATALOGUE) ,etc.

Page
16
APPROACH TO MECHANICAL DESIGN

In design of the parts we shall adopt the following approach:-


Selection of appropriate material

• Assuming an appropriate dimension as per system design.


• Design check for failure of component under any possible
system of forces.

Our present model is a demonstrative set up in order to show the motion and
power transmission capabilities of the proposed ‘TWIN WORM SYSTEM’

Thus, selecting a drive motor as follows

5.1 DRIVE MOTOR

TYPE - SINGLE PHASE AC MOTOR.


POWER - 1 /15HP(50WATTS)

VOLTAGE - 230 VOLTS , 50 Hz

CURRENT - 0.5 AMPS

SPEED - MIN = O rpm

MAX = 9000 rpm

OPERATING SPEED = 4000 rpm

Calculating Motor Torque

2xΠ xNxT
P = ----------------
60

60 x Π x 50
T = ---------------
2 Π x 4000
T = 0.119 N-m

Page
17
Power is transmitted from the motor shaft to the input shaft of drive by means
of an open belt drive,

Motor pulley diameter = 38 mm

Input shaft pulley diameter = 76 mm

Reduction ratio = 2

Input shaft speed = 4000/2 = 2000 rpm

Torque at Input shaft = 2 x 0.119 = 0.238 Nm

5.2 DESIGN OF OPEN BELT DRIVE

Page
18
Motor pulley diameter (d) = 38 mm

Input shaft pulley diameter (D) = 76 mm

Reduction ratio = 2

Coefficient of friction (µ ) = 0.23

Maximum allowable tension in belt = 200 N

Center distance (X) = 200mm

α = sin-1 (D-d/2C)

α = sin-1 (76-38)/2x200

α = 10.950

θ = 180 - 2α= 169.090

θ = 2.95c

Now mass of belt /m length = 0.23 kg/m

V = Π DN/(60 x 1000)

V=Π x76 x2000/(60 x1000) = 7.958m/sec

Tc = m V2

Tc= 0.23 x(7.958) 2

Tc = 14.56 N

T1 = Maximum tension in belt – Tc

T1= 200-14.56 = 185.4 N

Tension in slack side of belt

T1
---- = eθµ
T2
185
------ = e(0.23 X 2.95)
T2

Page
19
T2 = 94.06 N
T2 = 19.756 N
Tension in tight side of belt (T1) = 185.4N

Tension in slack side of belt (T2) = 94.06N

POWER TRANSMITTING CAPACITY OF BELT

P = ( T1 - T2) v

= (185.4 – 94.06) 7.958

P= 0.913 kw

RESULT TABLE

1. BELT SELECTED FZ 2280

2. Tight side Tension T1 = 185.4 N

3. Slack side Tension T2 = 94.06 N

4. Motor pulley dia.( φ D1) D1 = 38mm

5. Pulley (a) diameter (φ D2) D2 = 76mm

As the pulley is overhang let us check for the safe diameter of the input shaft

Refer load diagram

Page
20
72 44 15 56

19.62N ( T1+ T2 – W ) = 277.007


A C B D

98.5 50.5 48

Ra + Rb = 277.007+19.62 = 296.627 N
ΣMa = 0
( 19.62 x 98.5 ) + ( -Rb x 149 ) + ( 277.007 x 197 ) = 0
Therefore, Rb = 379.21 N
Ra = -102.203 N.
Maximum Bending Moment,
M = 18202.08 Nmm
Equivalent Torsional Moment,
Te = √ (Kt x T)2 + (Km x M)2

Te = √ 190.962 + 18202.08 2

Te = 18203.08 Nmm

Π x s x d3
Te= -----------------
16

Page
21
Π x 50 x d3 =18203.08
Te= ------------
16
d = 12.28 mm

SELECTION OF BELT

Selection of belt ‘FZ 2280’ from STD manufacturers catalogue


MAKE: HELICORD

5.3 DESIGN OF INPUT SHAFT.

Page
22
MATERIAL SELECTION: -

Ref:- PSG (1.10 & 1.12) + (1.17)

DESIGNATION ULTIMATE TENSILE YEILD STRENGTH


STRENGTH N/mm2
N/mm2

EN 24 800 680
(40Ni2Cr1Mo28)

ASME CODE FOR DESIGN OF SHAFT

Since the loads on most shafts in connected machinery are not


constant, it is necessary to make proper allowance for the harmful effects of
load fluctuations. According to ASME code permissible values of shear stress
may be calculated from various relations.

smax = 0.18 ut

= 0.18 x 800

= 144 N/mm2
OR

smax = 0.3 yt
=0.3 x 680
=204 N/mm2

considering minimum of the above values ;

smax = 144 N/mm2


Shaft is provided with key way; this will reduce its strength. Hence
reducing above value of allowable stress by 25%

Page
23
smax = 108 N/mm2

This is the allowable value of shear stress that can be induced in the
shaft material for safe operation.

TO CALCULATE INPUT TORQUE

T = 0.238 N-m

Assuming 100% overload.

T design =2xT
= 2 x 0.238 x 103
= 0.476 x 103 N.mm.

CHECK FOR TORSIONAL SHEAR FAILURE OF SHAFT.

Assuming minimum section diameter on input shaft = 16 mm , as per


manufacturing considerations we have an H6h7 fit between the pulley and
shaft and to achieve this tolerance boring operation is to be done and
minimum boring possible on the machine available is 16mm hence consider
the minimum section on the shaft to be 16mm

Assuming minimum section diameter on input shaft = 18 mm

d = 18 mm

Td = Π /16 x s act x d3

16 x Td
sact = --------------------
Π xd3

16 x 0.476 x 10 3
= --------------------
Π x (18) 3
sact = 0.415 N/mm2

As sact < s all

Page
24
I/P shaft is safe under torsional load

5.4 DESIGN OF PLANET DRIVEN DISK SHAFT.

MATERIAL SELECTION: -

Ref:- PSG (1.10 & 1.12) + (1.17)

DESIGNATION ULTIMATE YEILD STRENGTH


TENSILE N/mm2
STRENGTH
N/mm2

EN 24 800 680

ASME CODE FOR DESIGN OF SHAFT

Since the loads on most shafts in connected machinery are not


constant , it is necessary to make proper allowance for the harmful effects of
load fluctuations
According to ASME code permissible values of shear stress may be
calculated from various relations.

smax = 0.18 ult

= 0.18 x 800

= 144 N/mm2
OR

smax = 0.3 yt

=0.3 x 680

=204 N/mm2

Page
25
Considering minimum of the above values ;

smax = 144 N/mm2

Shaft is provided with key way; this will reduce its strength. Hence
reducing above value of allowable stress by 25%

smax = 108 N/mm2

This is the allowable valve of shear stress that can be induced in the
shaft material for safe operation.

TO CALCULATE INPUT TORQUE

T = 0.238 N-m

Assuming 100% overload.

T design = 2 x T
= 2 x 0.238 x 103
= 0.476 x 103 N-mm.

Now when mechanism runs at maximum torque condition i.e. the speed ratio
is maximum, which is given as 80/22 =3.636 (refer construction figure)
Torque at the planet driven disk shaft is

T design = 0.476 x 3.636 =1.73 N-m

CHECK FOR TORSIONAL SHEAR FAILURE OF SHAFT.

Assuming minimum section diameter on input shaft = 16 mm , as ball bearing


6201 fits at the left hand end of this shaft

Page
26
Assuming minimum section diameter on input shaft = 16mm

d = 16 mm

Td = Π /16 x sact x d3

16 x Td
sact = -------------
Π xd3

= 16 x 1.73 x 10 3
---------------------
Π x (16) 3

sact = 2.151 N/mm2

As sact < sall

Planet driven disk shaft is safe under torsional load

5.5 DESIGN OF KEY

Selecting parallel key from standard data book for given application.

For Shaft Above 17


Diameter
Up to 22
Key cross section Width 6

Height 6

Material of key ‘EN9’

Sut = 520 N/mm2

Syt = 340 N/mm2

sall = 0.18 x 520= 93.6 N/mm2


sall = 0.3 x 340 = 102 N/mm2

Page
27
selecting parallel key; =
6 x 6 x 20

Check for direct shear failure of key:-

T = L x d/2 x w x sact

20 x 5 x 20 x sact
3
1.73 x 10 = --------------------------------
2

sact = 1.73 x 103 x 2


20 x 6 x 20

sact = 1.44 N.mm2

As sact < sall

Key is safe under shear load

Check for crushing failure of key

T = Lx d/2 x t/2 x sact

1.73 x10 = 20 x 20/2 x 5/2 x sact

c act = 1.73 X 103X 2 X 2


20 X 20 X 5

c act = 2.88 N.mm2

As c act < c all

Key is safe under crushing load

5.6 Design of spring

Mean Diameter (D) = 28mm

Wire Diameter (d) = 3mm

Page
28
Number of active coils (n) =6

Modulus of rigidity (G) = 84Mpa

Design shear stress( s) = 680Mpa

Spring Index(C) = D/d

= 28/3 = 9.33

Shear stress factor (Ks) = 1+1/(2C) = 1+1/(2 x 9.33) Ks = 1.053

Neglecting the effect of curvature

Π x d3 x s
W = -----------------
8 x D xKs

Π x 33 x680
W = -------------------
8 x 28 x 1.053

W = 244.53 N

Deflection of spring per turn δ 8 x W x D3 8 x 244.53 x 283


= --- = --------------- = -------------------- = 6.31mm
n G x d4 84 x 103 x 34

Considering the effect of curvature


Whal’s stress factor,
4C -- 1 0.615 (4 x 9.33) – 1 0.615
K= --------- + -------- = ----------------- + --------- = 1.15
4C – 4 C (4 x 9.33) -- 4 9.33

Π x d3 x s
W = ------------
8xCxK

Π x 33 x680
W = ------------------ = 223.99 N
8 x 9.33 x 1.15

Page
29
δ 8 x W x D3 8 x 223.99 x 283
-- = -------------- = ---------------------- = 5.71mm
n G x d4 84 x 103 x 34
5.7 SPECIFICATIONS OF GEARS

Type of Gear used:-Spur gear


No. of planet gear = 2
No. of sun gear = 1
No. of Teeth on planet gear(T1) = 22
No. of Teeth on sun gear (T2) = 58
Pitch circle Diameter of planet gear (D1) = 44mm
Pitch circle Diameter of sun gear (D2) = 116mm
Therefore module (m) = 2

T2 58
Gear Ratio = ---- = --- = 6.67
T1 22

6.1 INPUT BEARING HOUSING

Page
30
6 CounterBoring --”-- --”-- Boring 10 12 22
Ø 38through tool
length15mm

7 CounterBoring
PART --”--
NO : MBDVSD-3 --”--
MATERIALBoring
SPECIFICATION: EN 910 12 22
Ø 42through tool
RAWMATERIAL SIZE: Ø 70 X 40
PART NAME : IP_BRG_HSG
length12mm
QUANTITY :- 01NO’S.
Sr. Description Tools Time in minutes
8 Turning step Ø --”-- --”-- Straight Vernier 10 45 55
of
No 50mm to turning
Operation
20Length tool

Jigs & M/c Cutting Measurin Settin M/c Total


Fixture g g
Tools Tools Tim Time
Instrume
Time e
nt

1 Clamping 3- jaw Lathe - - 10 - 10


. stock chuck

2 Facing b/s to --”-- --”-- Turning Vernier 1 1


. 28mm thick & facing caliper
tools

3 Drilling Ø --”-- Lathe Twist 10 4 14


. 25through drill
length

4 Boring Ø --”-- --”-- Boring 10 12 22


. 30through tool
length

5 CounterBorin --”-- --”-- Boring 10 12 22


. gØ tool
35through
length25mm

Page
31
6.2 OUTPUT BEARING HOUSING

Page
32
PART NO : MBDVSD-17 MATERIAL SPECIFICATION: EN24
MATERIAL SPECIFICATION: EN 9
PART
PARTNAME : PLANET
NO : MBDVSD GEAR
– 00 RAW MATERIAL SIZE: ∅ 60 X 20
RAWMATERIAL SIZE: Ø 50 X 50
PART NAME : OP_BRG_HSG
QUANTITY :- 01NO’S.
Sr. Description of Tools Time in minutes
Sr. Description Tools Time in minutes
Operation
No of Operation
No
Jigs & M/c Cutting Measuri Settin M/c Tot
Jigs & M/c Cutting Measurin Setti M/c Total
Fixture ng g al
Fixture Tools Tools g Instrume ng Tim
Tools Tools Time Tim
e Time
Tim
nt
Instrume
Time e e
nt
1. Clamp stock Three Lathe - - 20 - 20
1 Clamping 3-jaw
jaw Lathe - - 10 - 10
. stock chuck
chuck

2. Turning OD Ø Turnin 5 10 15
2 48mm
Facingthrough
b/s to --”-- --”-- g tool Vernier
Turning 1 1
. length
17mm thick & facing caliper
3. Drilling Ø Three Lathe toolsTwist Vernier 5 12 17
3 15mm
Drillingthrough
Ø jaw
--”-- Lathe Twistdrill
drill 10 4 14
out length chuck
. 20through
4. Boring
length Ø Boring 10 15 25
17through out tool
4 Boring Ø --”-- --”-- Boring 10 12 22
length
. 25through tool
5. Facing
length
Both Three Lathe Facing Vernier - 5 5
side to total jaw
CounterBoring
5 length 10 mm --”--
chuck --”-- tool
Boring 10 12 22
. Ø 32through tool
length10mm
6. Gear Cutting Three Hobbin Hob Vernier 20 45 65
6 Turning step --”-- --”-- Straight Vernier 10 45 55
jaw g m/c
. Ø 34mm to chuck turning
5ength tool

Page
33
PART NO : MBDVSD-18 MATERIAL SPECIFICATION : EN24

PART NAME : SUN GEAR RAW MATERIAL SIZE: ∅ 130 X 20

Sr. Description of Tools Time in minutes


Operation
No

Jigs & M/c Cutting Measurin Settin M/c Tota


Fixture g g l
Tools Tools Instrume Tim
nt Time e Tim
e

1. Clamp stock Three Lathe - - 20 - 20


jaw
chuck

2. Turning OD Ø Turning 5 10 15
120mm through tool
length

3. Drilling Ø Three Lathe Twist Vernier 5 12 17


25mm through jaw drill
out length chuck

4. Boring Ø Boring 10 15 25
84through out tool
length

5. Facing Both Three Lathe Facing Vernier - 5 5


side to total jaw
length 10 mm chuck tool

6. Gear Cutting Three Hobbin Hob Vernier 20 45 65


jaw g m/c
chuck

Page
34
Page
35
Chapter 7
BILL OF MATERIALS

SR PART DESCRIPTION QTY MATERIAL


NO. CODE

1. MBDVSD- IP_DISK_SHAFT 01 EN24


1

2. MBDVSD IP_DISK 01 EN24


-2

3. MBDVSD IP_ BRG_HOUSING 01 EN9


-3

4. MBDVSD LH_INT_ 02 EN9


-4 BRG_HOUSING

5. MBDVSD RH_ INT_ 02 EN9


-5 BRG_HOUSING

6. MBDVSD OP_BRG_HOUSING 01 EN9


-6

7. MBDVSD LH_CASING_PLATE 01 EN9


-7

8. MBDVSD RH_CASING_PLATE 01 EN9


-8

9. MBDVSD INT_DISK_SHAFTS 02 EN24


-9

1 MBDVSD HELICAL COMP. 01 SPRING


0. –10 SPRING STEEL

1 MBDVSD LOCK NUT 01 EN9


1.

1 MBDVSD BALL HOLDER 04 EN9

Page
36
–12

1 MBDVSD BALL HOLDER SHAFT 02 EN9


3. -13

1 MBDVSD GUIDE BUSHES 04 EN9


4. -14

1 MBDVSD STEEL BALLS 04 STD


5. -15

1 MBDVSD GEAR SECTORS 02 EN9


6. -16

1 MBDVSD- PLANET GEARS 02 EN24


7. 17

1 MBDVSD SUN GEAR 01 EN24


8. -18

1 MBDVSD- OP_DRUM_SHAFT 01 EN24


9. 19

2 MBDVSD- HANDLE BOSS 01 EN9


0. 20

2 MBDVSD- HANDLE 01 STD


1. 21

2 MBDVSD- MOTOR 01 STD


2. 22

2 MBDVSD- MOTOR PULLEY 01 AL


3. 23

2 MBDVSD- REDUCTION PULLEY 01 AL

Page
37
2 MBDVSD- BELT 01 STD
5. 25

2 MBDVSD- BRG 6004 0 STD


6. 26 3

2 MBDVSD- BRG6201 03 STD


7. 27

2 MBDVSD- BRG6207 01 STD


8. 28

2 MBDVSD- BRG6003 01 STD


9. 29

3 MBDVSD- BASE LEGS 01 MS


0. 30

3 MBDVSD- MOTOR BRACKET 01 MS


1. 31

3 MBDVSD- INT. CIRCLIP 01 STD


2. 32

Page
38
Chapter 8

COSTING

8.1 MATERIAL PROCUREMENT

Material is procured as per raw material specification and part


quantity. Part process planning is done to decide the process of manufacture
and appropriate machine for the same.

GENERAL MATERIAL USED

EN24- ALLOY STEEL

EN9- PLAIN CARBON STEEL

MS-MILD STEEL

STD- STANDARD PARTS SELECTED FROM PSG DESIGN


DATA/MANUFACTURER CATALOGUE

8.2 RAW MATERIAL COST

The total raw material cost as per the individual materials and their
corresponding rates per kg is as follows,

Total raw material cost = Rs 3600/-

Page
39
8.3 MACHINING COST

OPERATION RATE TOTAL TIME TOTAL


COST Rs/-
Rs /HR HRS

LATHE 80 20 1600

MILLING 90 10 900

DRILLING 60 4 240

HOBBING - - 1800

TOTAL 4540

8.4 MISCELLANEOUS COSTS

OPERATION COST(Rs)

GAS CUTTER 300

SAWING 120

TOTAL 420

Page
40
8.5 COST OF PURCHASED PARTS:-

SR DESCRIPTION QTY COST


NO.

1. MOTOR 01 2150

2. BELT 01 110

3. GRUB SCREW 09 36

4. BEARINGS 08 980

The cost of purchase parts = Rs 3276/-

8.6 TOTAL COST

TOTAL COST = Raw Material Cost +Machine Cost + Miscellaneous Cost +


cost of Purchased Parts +Overheads

Hence the total cost of machine = Rs 12336/-

Chapter 9

Page
41
ADVANTAGES OF MULTI-BALL_DISK VARIABLE
SPEED DRIVE

1. Acts like clutch as well as gear box.

2. Proper balanced power transmission and Efficiency of transmission


more than 90%

3. No disengagement of clutch required while moving from one gear ratio


to another, hence almost 11 operations of the conventional system are
completely avoided.

4. As engine is operated in maximum efficiency zone of speed range


better fuel economy is achieved.

5. Lower pollution as engine operates at maximum efficiency.

6. Maximum operator convenience as no selection of gear ratios is to be


done.

7. Vehicular control by foot is reduced from three to two as only the


accelerator pedal and brake pedal are to be operated by driver.

8. Lower cost of productions.

9. Less investment for mass production as conventional machines are


required for production.

10. Easy to maintain proper pressure between the contact surfaces


thereby resulting in trouble-free operation.

Chapter 10

Page
42
APPLICATIONS OF MULTI-BALL_DISK
VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE

Light electric vehicles (LEVs)

1. Automobiles

2. Low speed vehicles (lawn tractors and golf carts)

3. Agricultural equipment

4. Speed drives for machine tool spindles ,

Machine tool spindles are


required to be driven at various speeds depending upon the size of the work
and material to be cut in such case the gear less variable speed reducer can
be used along with all geared headstock to give a continuously variable speed
drive.

5. Variable speed drives for conveyers in assembly line and automatic


assembly parts.

6. Variable Speed drive in automatic transfer lines and pick and place
robotic device.

Page
43
Chapter 11

FUTURE SCOPE

The following are the future scope of the suggested developments that
could be done in the project for improving its Performance, Efficiency,
Durability, etc. in the future,

1. To ensure the entire project into a shell filled with the lubricating oil.
This would increase the heat dissipation capacity of the Machine,
which will increase the life of rollers and ten disk and would lubricate all
the parts of the Machine internally.

2. To make the arrangement completely mechanized for smooth


operation of the machine and to reduce fatigue of operator on long
term concern, i.e. the travel of the Steel Rollers on the lead screw,
Engagement and Disengagement of the Steel Rollers.

3. To obtain reverse motion, we have to use an gear pair after the output
shaft.

Page
44
Chapter 12

REFERENCES

Machine Design
- S D Ambatkar-TechMax Publication. Edition
2010, 2nd Reprint

Mechanisms –Linkages- and Mechanical Drives


–I A Chironis –Eurasia Publication Edition 2004,
th
24 Reprint
Modern transmission systems
- A W Judge – Edition 2003, 22nd reprint.
PSG Design Data book
-Coimbtore College of Technology-DVP Publication.
th
Edition 2001-16 Reprint

Machine Design
– R S Khurmi.-S.Chand Publication-Edition 2005-27th
Reprint

Page
45