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Lesson 1-2

materials ‫خامات‬ metal ‫معدن‬ resistant ‫مقاوم‬


glass ‫زجاج‬ properties ‫خـــواص‬ resistance ‫مقاومة‬
steel ‫حديد صلب‬ tough ‫صلب‬ transparent ‫شفاف‬
iron ‫حديد‬ toughness ‫صالبـــة‬ transparency ‫شفافية‬
rubber ‫مطاط‬ flexible ‫مرن‬ combustible ‫قابل لالشتعال‬
glass ‫زجاج‬ flexibility ‫مرونـــة‬ combustibility ‫قابلية االشتعال‬
plastic ‫بالستيك‬ heavy ‫ثقيل‬ tension ‫الشــد‬
copper ‫نحاس‬ heaviness ‫ثقل‬ impact ‫ اصطدام‬- ‫يصطدم‬
stainless steel ‫فوالذ مقاوم للصدأ‬ hard ‫صلب‬ object ‫شـــــيء‬
graphite ‫جرافيت‬ hardness ‫صالبة‬ rust ‫يصدأ – صدأ‬
aluminium ‫ألومنيوم‬ light ‫خفيف‬ copper rod ‫قضيب نحاس‬
polyester ‫بوليستر‬ lightness ‫خفـــة‬ impossible ‫مستحيل‬
nylon ‫نايلون‬ strong ‫قوي‬ difficult ‫صعب‬
windsurf board ‫لوح األمواج المتكسرة‬ strength ‫ صالبة‬- ‫قوة‬ easy ‫سهل‬
mast ‫سارية‬ ductile ‫قابل للسحب‬ strike ‫يضرب‬
sail ‫شراع‬ ductility ‫قابلية السحب‬ pull ‫يشد‬
board ‫لـــوح‬ compressive ‫ضاغط‬ squeeze ‫يضغط‬
window ‫نافذة أو شباك‬ compression ‫ضغط‬ press ‫يضغط‬
rope ‫حبل‬ malleable ‫قابل للطرق‬ break ‫يكسر‬
plastic foam ‫بالستيك رغوي‬ malleability ‫قابلية الطرق‬ float ‫يطفو‬
fiberglass ‫ألياف زجاجية‬ tensile strength ‫قوة الشد‬ sink ‫يغطس‬
boom ‫قاعدة الشراع‬ tension ‫الشد‬ stretch ‫يتمدد‬
hull ‫هيكل‬ fragile ‫قابل للكسر‬ consist of ‫يتكون من‬
rudder ‫دفـــة القارب‬ fragility ‫قابلية الكسر‬ tarmac ‫أسفلت‬
bend ‫يثني‬ durable ‫متين‬ prevent ‫يمنع‬
cut ‫يقطع‬ durability ‫متانة‬ slip ‫ينزلق‬
:‫الحظ اآلتي‬
(Be) + ‫صفـــة‬ = (Have) + ‫اســـم‬
- Fiberglass is tough. = - Fiberglass has toughness.
- Iron isn't flexible = Iron doesn't have flexibility.
- Steel is hard = - Steel has …………………….
- Glass is…………….. = - Glass has fragility.
- Nylon is light. (lightness)
- Nylon has lightness.
- Gold has malleability (malleable)
:‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- Glass breaks easily. )‫= (معلوم‬ - Glass can be broken easily. )‫(مجهول‬
- Fiberglass doesn’t break easily. )‫= (معلوم‬ - Fiberglass can’t be broken easily. )‫(مجهول‬
- When fibreglass is struck from the side, it cannot be ……….
a) break b) breaks c) broken d) breaking
:‫الحظ اآلتي‬
‫ اســـــــم‬+ (be) + ‫ صفـــــة‬+ to + ‫= مصدر‬ - It (be) + ‫ صفــــــــــــة‬+ to + ‫مصدر‬
- Fiberglass is difficult to cut. = - It is difficult to cut fibreglass.
- Glass is easy to break = - It is easy………………………..
- It is easy to bend rubber. (Rubber….)
- Rubber is easy to bend.
- Windsurf boards are made of plastic foam, as this material is impossible ……. .
a) to sink b) be sunk c) from sinking d) for sinking
:‫الحظ اآلتي‬
* ‫ ألن‬Because + ‫فاعل‬ + ‫فعل‬ = ‫ بسبب‬Because of + ‫اسم‬
- Fibreglass is used for making boat hulls because it is tough.
- Fibreglass is used for making boat hulls because of its toughness.
- Glass is used for making windows because it is transparent. (because of)
- Glass is used for making windows because of its transparency.
:‫الحظ اآلتي‬
‫ ) بمعني الذي أو التي و يستخدم للربط بين جملتين بينهما اسم غير عاقل مشترك لعدم تكراره‬which ( ‫ضمير الوصل‬
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- The windsurf board is made of plastic foam because plastic foam cannot be sunk. ( which)
- The windsurf board is made of plastic foam which cannot be sunk.
-The boom is made of aluminium because it is impossible to break. (which)
3- Roads are covered with tarmac which prevents tyres from slipping on them. (because)
Answers: (SB page 6 Ex. 5)
(a) Iron is used for making vices ‫ منجلة‬because it is heavy and doesn’t bend easily.
(b) The hulls of boats are often made of fibreglass because of its lightness and because it can’t be
broken or sunk easily.
(c) Copper is normally used for making wires because it is easy to stretch but is difficult to break.
(d) Many tennis rackets are made of graphite because it has great strength and is impossible to
break.
Answers: (SB page 6 Ex. 6)
(a) The windsurf board is made of plastic foam, which is impossible to sink.
(b) The mast and boom are constructed from aluminium, because it is light and strong.
(c) The sail is made of polyester, which cannot be torn but bends easily.
(d) The ropes are made of nylon, which is impossible to stretch and difficult to cut.
Answers: (SB page 6 Ex. 7-8)
(a) Concrete has compressive strength. When it is squeezed or pressed, it cannot be broken or
bent.
(b) Copper has ductility. When it is pulled, it can be stretched, but it cannot be broken.
(c) Gold has malleability. When it is struck with a hammer, its shape can be changed, but it cannot
be broken.
(d) Nylon has tensile strength. When it is pulled, it stretches, but it does not break.
Answers: (WB page 5 Ex. 3)
(a) The steel of this cable has tensile strength. It is strong in tension. It is strong when it is pulled. It
doesn’t stretch or break when it is pulled.
(b) This metal has impact resistance. It is resistant to impact. When a heavy object strikes this
metal, it doesn’t break.
(c) Copper is very ductile. It has good ductility. When you pull a copper rod through a die ‫ قالب السلك‬,
it stretches, but it doesn’t break.
(d) You can see through glass. It is a very transparent material. It has good transparency.
Lesson 3-4
board ‫ لوح‬wear ‫ يرتدي‬reference ‫توصيـــة‬
sail ‫ شراع‬sink ‫ يغطس‬maths ‫الرياضيات‬
boom ‫ عارضة الصارى‬fall ‫ يسقط – يقع‬player ‫العب‬
strength ‫ قوة‬put on ‫ يلبس‬sport ‫رياضــة‬
shore ‫ شاطئ‬push ‫ يدفع‬team ‫فريق‬
sea ‫ بحر‬allow ‫ يسمح‬punctual ‫ منضبط‬- ‫دقيق‬
mast ‫ سارية‬prevent ‫ يمنع‬punctuality ‫ انضباط‬- ‫دقة‬
rope ‫ حبل‬save ‫ يوفر‬keen ‫متحمس‬
lifejacket ‫ سترة النجاة‬mean ‫ يقصد – يعني‬keenness ‫حماســة‬
side ‫ جانب‬write ‫ يكتب‬honest ‫أميـــن‬
strike ‫ يضرب‬work ‫ يعمل – عمل‬honesty ‫أمانــــة‬
stretch ‫ يتمدد‬tell lies ‫ يكذب‬intelligent ‫ذكي‬
squeeze ‫ يكبس – يضغط‬think ‫ يفكر – يعتقد‬intelligence ‫ذكاء‬
bend ‫ يثني‬apply for ‫ يتقدم بطلب‬attentive ‫ يقظ‬- ‫منتبــه‬
pull ‫ يشد‬listen ‫ يستمع‬attentiveness ‫انتباه – يقظــــة‬
press ‫ يضغط‬describe ‫ يصف‬co-operative ‫متعاون‬
change ‫ يغير‬description ‫ وصف‬co-operation ‫التعاون‬
float ‫ يطفو‬personality ‫ شخصية‬best ‫األفضل‬
hold ‫ يمسك‬character ‫ شخصية‬clever ‫ماهر‬
climb ‫ يتسلق‬abilities ‫ قدرات‬cleverness ‫مهارة‬
rise ‫ يرتفع‬science ‫ مخلص‬eager ‫شغوف‬
Answers: (SB page7 Ex. 10)
(a) The rope is for pulling up mast. It's made of nylon. It has tensile strength
(b) The mast is for supporting the sail. It's made of aluminium. It has strength and lightness
(c) The boom is for moving the sail. It's made of aluminium It has strength and lightness
Listening text
I’m going to tell you about some of the parts of a sailing boat. I’m also going to tell you what
materials they are made from, and the properties of those materials.
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First of all, I want to mention the first part, part a. This is the hull of the boat. The hull is usually
made of fibreglass. This material, fibreglass, is used because fibreglass is a very hard material. It
cannot be cut or scratched easily by rocks in the sea.
Secondly, I want to mention the second part, part b. This is the rudder. The rudder is often made of
wood. This material, wood, is used because it doesn’t rust easily.
The third part, part c, is the sail. The sail is often made of polyester. This is because polyester has
great resistance to water. If it falls into the sea, it does not absorb water, so it is easy to pull out of
the water.
The final part which I want to mention is part d. This is the mast. The mast of a boat is usually made
of aluminium. This material, aluminium, is used because it is very light. The sailor can carry it to the
boat easily.
Answers: (WB page 6 Ex. 4)
(a) hull / fibreglass / hardness (b) rudder / wood / resistance to rust
(c) mast / aluminium / lightness (d) sail / polyester / resistance to water
Answers: (WB page 6 Ex. 5)
Ali is one of my best students. He is quite intelligent and he sometimes works hard. He sometimes
comes to school on time, but he rarely does his homework. He is clever at science and Arabic. At
sport, he plays football very well. Most of all, he is a good student.
Exercise on unit one
1- Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1- Glass is easy …………….
a) break b) to break c) breaking d) broken
2- Windsurf boards are made of plastic foam, as this material is impossible ……. .
a) to sink b) be sunk c) from sinking d) for sinking
3- Fibreglass is used for making boat hulls ………it is tough.
a) because b) because of c) owing to d) due to
4- Copper is normally used for making ………..because it is easy to stretch.
a) bridges b) cars c) wires d) windsurf boards
5- The windsurf board is made ………. plastic foam.
a) in b) up c) from d)of
6- The boom is made of aluminum ………is light but does not have flexibility.
a) who b) whom c) whose d) which
7- The ………… is used for pulling up the mast.
a) Iifejacket b) boom c) board d) rope
8- When fibreglass is struck from the side, it cannot be ……….
a) break b) breaks c) broken d) breaking
2- Match one part from (A) with a part from (B):

(A) (B)
1-You can see through glass. a) You can't break it.
2- Copper is very ductile. b) It has good transparency.
3-This iron is very hard. c) It doesn’t rust easily.
4- Knives are made of stainless steel d) It stretches but doesn’t break
3- Rewrite the following sentences, using the word(s) in brackets:
1- The windsurf board is made of plastic foam. It cannot be sunk. ( which)
2- Steel is strong in tension. ( has )
3- Ahmed never tells lies . (honest)
4- The boom is made of aluminium which is impossible to break . (broken)
4- Fill in the spaces with words from the list:
properties - copper - transparency - honest - Aluminium - Iifejacket)
1- My sister is ……… He never tells lies.
2- Glass has the property of ……….. .
3- A……… is used for saving a swimmer from sinking in the water
4- All metals have different………… .
5- …………… is a metal which is used for making wires.
6- A) Translate into Arabic:
1- You must put on your lifejacket before swimming.
2- Steel does not stretch or break when it is pulled.
B) Translate into English:
.‫* يستعمل األلمونيوم في صنع سارية السفينة‬

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Lesson 1-2
maintenance ‫صيانـــة‬ intervals ‫ فترات‬- ‫فواصـــل‬ unblock ‫يسلك‬
maintain ‫يجري صيانة‬ workman ‫عامل‬ adjust ‫يضبط‬
equipment ‫معدات‬ oil pipelines ‫خطوط أنابيب بترول‬ drain ‫يفرغ‬
project ‫مشروع‬ joints ‫ وصالت‬- ‫مفاصل‬ refill ‫يعيد ملء‬
tools ‫أدوات‬ ladder ‫سلم خشبي‬ oil ‫يزيت‬
machine ‫آلــــــة‬ runway ‫ مدرج‬- )‫ممر (طائرة‬ put away ‫يضع شيء فى مكانه‬
wings ‫أجنحة‬ electrical ‫كهربى‬ lie round ‫ يتبعثر‬- ‫يتناثر‬
angle ‫زاويـــة‬ cables ‫كابالت‬ provide ‫ يزود‬- ‫يمد‬
engine ‫موتور‬ need ‫يحتاج‬ train ‫يدرب‬
system ‫ شبكة‬- ‫نظام‬ piston ‫مكبس‬ conduct ‫يوصل‬
wheel ‫عجلة‬ inspect ‫يفتش‬ flight ‫رحلة طيران‬
friction ‫احتكاك‬ service ‫يجري صيانة‬ conduction ‫توصيل‬
cracked ‫مشروخ‬ examine ‫يفحص‬ conductor ‫موصـــــل‬
journey ‫رحلة‬ carry out ‫ينفذ‬ evaporate ‫يتبخـــــر‬
fire extinguisher ‫طفاية حريق‬ check ‫يراجع – يدقق‬ evaporation ‫تبخــــر‬
tyre ‫إطار السيارة‬ insert ‫يُدخِ ل‬ evaporator ‫جهاز تبخير‬
pressure ‫ضغط‬ pick up ‫يلتقط‬ compress ‫يضغط‬
aqueduct ‫قناة لجر الماء‬ replace ‫يستبدل‬ compression ‫ضغط‬
surface ‫سطح‬ complete ‫يكمل‬ air compressor ‫جهاز ضغط الهواء‬
sleepers ‫فلنكات سكة حديد‬ test ‫يختبر‬ transmit ‫ يرسل‬- ‫ينقل‬
electric cables ‫أسالك كهربية‬ repair ‫يصلح‬ transmission ‫ إرسال‬- ‫نقل‬
pillars ‫أعمدة‬ damage ‫يتلف‬ transmitter ‫جهاز ارسال‬
rivets ‫برشام لتثبيت المعدن‬ at least ‫علي األقل‬ essential ‫ هام‬- ‫ضروري‬
plate ‫لـــوح‬ lubricate ‫ يزيت‬- ‫يشحم‬ necessary ‫ هام‬- ‫ضروري‬
floor ‫أرضية‬ lock ‫ يسد‬- ‫يغلق‬ important ‫ هام‬- ‫ضروري‬
:‫الحظ اآلتي‬
‫ الحظ أن أدوات االستفهام اآلتية لها نفس المعني‬-
* How often = how frequently = How many times ‫كم عدد المرات‬
1. How often should the machine be maintained?
- The machine needs maintenance every three months.
2. How regularly has the equipment to be tested.
- The equipment needs to be tested at three-month intervals.
3. How frequently must the cars be inspected,?
- The cars have to be put under inspection at intervals of three months.
:‫الحظ اآلتي‬
Must / have to / has to / should / ought to + ‫المصدر‬ ‫يجب أن‬
‫* تستخدم هذه األفعال المساعدة للتعبير عن اإللزام والضرورة أو النصح واإلرشاد و هي تساوى في المعنى تقريبا‬
- We must check the oil every week.
- He has to lubricate the wheels before every journey.
)needs to ‫) و ( مع المفرد‬need to ‫* يمكن أيضا التعبير عن اإللزام و الضرورة باستخدام األفعال ( مع الجمع‬
- We need to check the oil every week.
- He needs to lubricate the wheels before every journey.
‫* يمكن أيضا أن نعبر عن اإللزام و الضرورة باستخدام التعبيرات اآلتية‬
It's necessary / It's important / it's essential + to + ‫المصدر‬ ‫من الضروري أن‬
- We need to check the oil every week.
- It's necessary to check the oil every week.
- He needs to lubricate the wheels before every journey.
- It's important to lubricate the wheels before every journey.
:‫الحظ اآلتي‬
should / ought to + ‫المصدر‬ ‫يجب أن‬
‫* تستخدم هذه األفعال المساعدة للتعبير عن النصح واإلرشاد و هي تساوى في المعنى تقريبا‬
- We should check the oil every week.
- He ought to lubricate the wheels before every journey.
‫* عند بناء الجملة للمجهول يكون شكل هذه األفعال كالتالي‬
must / have to / has to / should / ought to + be + ‫التصريف الثالث‬
- We must check the oil = The oil must be checked

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1. It is important to check the wings very week. ( must )
- The wings must be checked every week
2. The engines should be tested every 5,000 km. (necessary)
- It is necessary to test the engines every 5,000 km.
3. It is essential to lubricate the wheels before every journey. ( have to )
-The wheels have to be lubricated before every journey.
Answers: (SB page 10 Ex. 5)
(a) Your car’s tyre pressures have to be checked before a long journey.
(b) The oil in your car ought to be changed every 3,000 km.
(c) It is necessary to complete this project by the end of January.
(d) The computers must be carried carefully.
(e) This program needs to be closed before you switch off the computer.
Answers: (SB 10 Ex. 6)
(a) Ladders have to be carried by at least two men.
(b) All tools should be picked up and put away in their containers.
(c) Oil must be cleaned from the surface of the runway.
(d) Broken fire extinguishers are to be picked up from the floor and have to be repaired or replaced.
(e) Electrical cables need to be checked and if they are damaged they must be repaired.
‫الحظ كيف نعبر عن الفواصل و الفترات الزمنية و المكانية‬
* I visit my uncle every three months
= - I visit my uncle at three-month intervals. ‫ ألنها صفة مركبة‬three-month ‫هنا ال نجمع‬
= - I visit my uncle at intervals of three months.
* The sleepers are located every 80 centimetres along the railway line.
= - The sleepers are located at 80-centimetre intervals ‫ ألنها صفة مركبة‬80-centimetre ‫هنا ال نجمع‬
= - The sleepers are located at intervals of 80 centimetres along the railway line.
Answers: (SB page 10 Ex. 8)
(a) The sleepers are located every 80 centimetres along the railway line.
(b) The pillars are situated at 12-metre intervals along the aqueduct.
(c) The rivets are inserted every 30 centimetres along the plate.
(d) The joints are located at 3-kilometre intervals along the oil pipeline.
Answers: (WB page 7 Ex. 1)
(a) Soft drinks should be served in the school canteen every day.
(b) The computer room should be locked every night.
(c) A school bus should be provided for students who live more than one mile away from school.
(d) The workers in the company should be trained to use first aid ‫ إسعافات أولية‬.
Lesson 3-4
aeroplane ‫طائرة‬ over ‫فوق‬ promotion ‫ترقية‬
aircraft : plane ‫طائرة‬ under ‫تحت‬ sympathy ‫مواساة‬
shape ‫شكـــل‬ slower ‫أبطأ‬ sympathise ‫يتعاطف مع‬
air ‫هواء‬ contain ‫يحتوي علي‬ pass away : die ‫يموت‬
air current ‫تيار الهواء‬ support ‫يسند‬ hurt ‫ يجرح‬- ‫يؤذي‬
split ‫ ينقسم‬- ‫ينشطر‬ purpose ‫غرض‬ condolences ‫تعازي‬
air pressure ‫ضغط الهواء‬ passenger ‫راكب‬ battery ‫بطارية‬
high speed ‫سرعة فائقة‬ function ‫وظيفة‬ fluid ‫سائل‬
approach ‫يقترب‬ fuselage. ‫جسم الطائرة‬ air filter ‫مرشح هواء‬
factors ‫عوامل‬ flap ‫جناح صغير‬ renew ‫يجدد‬
decrease ‫يقل‬ cargo ‫ شحنة‬- ‫حمولة‬ grease ‫ يزيت‬- ‫يشحم‬
increase ‫يزداد‬ pilot ‫طيار‬ re-grease ‫يعيد تشحيم‬
area ‫منطقة‬ strut ‫عمود داعم‬ fuel pipe ‫أنبوب الوقود‬
upper ‫أعلي‬ congratulate ‫يهنئ‬ top up ‫يعيد ملء‬
lower ‫أدني‬ congratulations ‫تهنئة‬ bonnet ‫غطاء المحرك‬
upwards ‫إلي أعلي‬ distinction ‫امتياز‬ handbrake ‫فرامل اليد‬
downwards ‫إلي أسفل‬ propeller ‫مروحة‬ spark plug ‫شمعة إشعال‬
faster ‫أسرع‬ promote ‫يرقي‬ battery terminals ‫أقطاب البطارية‬
:‫الحظ اآلتي‬
‫* تستخدم العبارات التالية للتهنئة‬
- Congratulations. ‫ألف مبروك‬
- Well done ‫أحسنــــــــت‬
‫* تستخدم العبارات التالية للمواساة‬
- I’m sorry. ‫أنا حزين‬ - I’m sorry to hear that. ‫يؤسفني أن أسمع ذلك‬
- Better luck next time. ‫حظ أفضل في المرة القادمة‬
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- Get well soon. ‫أتمني لك الشفاء العاجل‬
- My condolences to you and your family. ‫خالص التعازي لك و ألسرتك‬
:‫الحظ اآلتي‬
‫* تستخدم العبارات التالية في الرد علي االعتذار عن ارتكاب الخطأ‬
- Never mind. ‫ال عليك‬ - It doesn’t matter. ‫و ال يهمك‬
Answers: (SB page 10 Ex. B)
(a) Congratulations to you both! (b) Oh, I’m sorry! I didn’t see you.
(c) My condolences to you and to your mother. (d) Congratulations! Well done!
(e) Oh, I’m sorry to hear that. Get well soon! (f) Oh dear, I’m sorry! Better luck next time!
(g) Never mind. It doesn’t matter!
Answers: (WB page 8 Ex. 4) ‫ كيف نعبر عن اإلضافة بأكثر من طريقة‬: ‫الحظ‬
(a) the air pressure = the pressure of the air (b) the oil level = the level of the oil
(c) the water temperature = the temperature of the water
(d) the fuel tanks = the tanks for the fuel (e) the water pump = the pump for the water
(f) the engine oil = the oil for the engine
Listening text
I’m going to tell you about some of the parts of a small aeroplane. I’m also going to tell you what
materials they are made from, the properties of those materials, and also the functions of the parts.
First of all, let me tell you about part A. This is called the fuselage. It’s made of aluminium.
Aluminium is used because of its lightness. The main function of the fuselage is to contain the
passengers and the cargo.
The second part is part B. This is called a strut. The strut is made of steel, and this metal is used
because of its toughness and strength. The main purpose of the strut is to support the wing.
Finally I’m going to tell you about the third part, part C. This is called the window. This is usually
made of plastic. Plastic is used for the window (and not glass) because it is a very tough material. It
doesn’t break easily. It is also transparent. The main function of the window is to allow the pilot to
see outside the plane
Answers: (WB page 8 Ex. 5)
(a) fuselage; aluminium; lightness; to contain passengers and cargo
(b) strut; steel; toughness and strength; to support the wing
(c) window; plastic; toughness and transparency; to allow the pilot to see outside
Answers: (WB page 8 Ex. 6)
After 5,000 km, Kamal checked the fuel pipes and adjusted the handbrake. Then the battery fluid
was topped up, and the engine oil was drained and refilled.
Then after 10,000 km, the air filter was renewed, and the spark plugs were replaced. Then Kamal
lubricated the doors and bonnet and cleaned and re-greased the battery terminals
Exercise on unit two
2- Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1- The sleepers are located every 80 centimetres along the railway………. .
a) line b) function c) flap d) cargo
2- Your car’s tyre………….. have to be checked before a long journey.
a) press b) shapes c) iron d) pressures
3- Your friend is ill. You say " Get…………………..soon."
a) bad b) good c) well d) clever
4- The computers ………. to be carried carefully
a) have b) must c) has d) shoild
5- My friend, Ahmed is ………….. in games.
a) cooperate b) cooperation c) cooperating d) cooperative
6- The computer room should be………… every night.
a) looked b) booked c) locked d) flocked
7- The equipment needs to be tested at……………. intervals.
a) three month b) three months c) three-month d) three month's
8- Your friend is sad because he failed his computer exam. You wish him …………… luck.
a) better b) higher c) faster d) slower
6- Fill in the spaces with words from the list:
handbrake - oil - company - concrete - plastic - reports
1………. is much lighter than steel.
2- The workers in the …………….. should be trained to use first aid
3- After 5.000 km, you should check the fuel pipes and adjust the ……………
4- Monthly ………. have to be written about all projects .
5- The ………… in your car ought to be changed every 3,000 km.

6
Lesson 1-2
safety ‫ األمـــــان‬prevent ‫ يمنـــع‬position ‫موضع‬
safety rules ‫ قواعد األمان‬panel ‫ لوح‬paint can ‫علبة دهان‬
building site ‫ موقع بناء‬motorbike ‫ دراجة بخارية‬remain ‫ يبقي‬- ‫يظل‬
chemicals ‫ مواد كيميائية‬guard ‫ واقي‬scaffolding ‫سقالــــــة‬
helmet ‫ خوذة‬blade ‫ ريشة‬accident ‫حادث‬
boots ‫ حذاء برقبة‬button ‫ زرار‬- ‫ زر‬result ‫نتيجة‬
gloves ‫ جوانتي‬- ‫ قفاز‬electricity ‫ كهرباء‬transmit ‫ يرسل‬- ‫ينقل‬
goggles ‫ نظارة واقية‬caption ‫ توضيح‬- ‫ شرح‬receive ‫يستقبل‬
equipment ‫ معدات‬connect ‫ يوصل‬gently ‫برفق‬
drill ‫ شنيور‬- ‫ يثقب‬disconnect ‫ يفصل‬smoothly ‫بسهولة‬
switch on ‫ يفتح جهاز‬files ‫ ملفات‬simultaneously ‫في نفس الوقت‬
power ‫ كهرباء‬- ‫ طاقة‬key ‫ مفتاح‬release ‫يخفف الضغط‬
brake lever ‫ ذراع الفرامل‬pedal ‫ دواسة‬focus ‫ مركز‬- ‫بؤرة‬
switch ‫ مفتاح كهربي‬gear lever ‫ فتيس السيارة‬save a file ‫يحفظ ملف‬
break (a rule) )‫ يخالف (قاعدة‬press ‫ يضغط‬adjust ‫يضبط‬
check ‫ يفحص‬hold down ‫ يضغط باستمرار‬point … at ‫ نحو‬......... ‫يوجه‬
remove ‫ يزيل‬move ‫ يحرك‬spread ‫ يفرد‬- ‫يدهن‬
enter ‫ يدخل‬toxic ‫ ســـام‬pack ‫حقيبة ظهر‬
spray ‫ يرش‬materials ‫ خامات‬leak ‫تسريب‬
shake ‫ يرج‬- ‫ يهز‬bulb ‫ مصباح كهربي‬bottle ‫زجاجة‬
.) ‫ فعل‬+ ing ( ‫ قبل ) كحرف جر و يأتي بعدها ( اسم ) أو‬Before ( ‫* نستخدم‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- You must put on your helmet, boots, and gloves before entering the building site.
- Turn off the lamp before removing the bulb.
.) ‫ فاعل‬+ ‫ قبل ) كرابط و يأتي بعدها جملة كاملة ( فعل‬Before ( ‫* نستخدم‬
- You must put on your helmet, boots, and gloves before you enter the building site.
- Turn off the lamp before you remove the bulb.
.) ‫ فعل‬+ ing ( ‫ بعد ) كحرف جر و يأتي بعدها ( اسم ) أو‬After ( ‫* نستخدم‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- Remember to wash your hands after using the chemicals.
- Only go sailing after repairing any leaks in the hull of your boat.
.) ‫ فاعل‬+ ‫ بعد ) كرابط و يأتي بعدها جملة كاملة ( فعل‬After ( ‫* نستخدم‬
- Remember to wash your hands after you have used the chemicals.
- Only switch off the computer after you have closed the program.
.‫ ) جملة منفية عادة‬Without ( ‫ فعل ) و يأتي قبل‬+ ing ( ‫ بدون ) كحرف جر و يأتي بعدها ( اسم ) أو‬Without ( ‫* نستخدم‬:‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- Don’t open the bottles without putting on your gloves first.
- Don’t open the computer without first disconnecting the electrical current.
- You mustn't board ‫ يركب‬the aeroplane without checking your parachute pack first.
.) ‫ فعل‬+ ing ( ‫ أثناء ) كحرف جر و يأتي بعدها ( اسم ) أو‬While ( ‫* نستخدم‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- Keep your gloves on while using the chemicals.
- Hold your breath ‫ اكتم نفسك‬while pressing the button.
- While pressing the button, hold your breath.
.) ‫ فاعل‬+ ‫ بعد ) كرابط و يأتي بعدها جملة كاملة ( فعل‬While ( ‫* نستخدم‬
- Keep your gloves on while you use the chemicals.
- Hold your breath while you press the button.
‫الحظ المثال اآلتـــــــــــي‬
* Put on your helmet before entering the site. (after)
- Enter the site after putting on your helmet.
- Enter the site after you have put on your helmet. (without)
- Don't enter the site without putting on your helmet.
- You mustn't enter the site without putting on your helmet.
Answers: (SB page 17 Ex. 4)
(a) You must wear your safety boots here.
(b) Wash your hands after using chemicals.
(c) You must not use chemicals without wearing your gloves.
(d) Put on your helmet before entering the site.
Answers: (SB page 18 Ex. 5)
(a) Don’t open the computer without first disconnecting the electrical current.

7
(b) Turn off the lamp before removing the bulb.
(c) Only switch off the computer after closing the program.
(d) Don’t board the aeroplane without checking your parachute pack first.
(e) Only go sailing after repairing any leaks in the hull of your boat.
(f) You mustn’t enter the building site before putting on your helmet.
(g) Please get out of the boat without taking off your life jacket.
(h) You must wash your hands after using toxic materials.
Answers: (SB page 18 Ex. 7)
(a) To take a sharp photo, first adjust the focus, and then, while holding your breath, press the
button.
(b) To save a file, first press the CTRL key, and then, while holding it down, press the S key, then
release the keys.
(c) To paint a car panel, first shake the paint can, and then, while pressing the button, spray the
panel.
(d) To change gear, first press the clutch petal, and then, while you are holding down the pedal,
move the gear lever into position, then release the pedal.
Answers: (WB page 13 Ex. 1)
(a) Fig.1 shows that, during 2012, 55% of accidents happened on scaffolding ‫ سقالة‬. Fig.1
also shows that 25% of accidents were with machinery.
(b) As Fig. 2 shows, in 2010 the number of accidents remained the same, at 60. Then, during 2011,
the number decreased ‫ يزداد‬to 20. Finally, during 2012, the number increased to 80.
Lesson 3-4
project ‫مشروع‬ load ‫حمولة‬ construct ‫ يبني‬- ‫يشيد‬
safety officer ‫ضابط األمن‬ committee ‫لجنــــة‬ construction ‫ بناء‬- ‫تشييد‬
crane ‫ رافعة‬- ‫ونش‬ operate ‫يشغل‬ announce ‫يعلن‬
operator ‫عامل التشغيل‬ village ‫قرية‬ examine ‫يفحص‬
worker ‫عامل‬ staff ‫هيئة العاملين‬ use ‫يستخدم‬
helper ‫مساعد‬ start ‫يبدأ‬ follow ‫يتبع‬
team ‫فريق‬ support ‫يسند‬ regret ‫يأسف‬
ground ‫أرض‬ place ‫ مكان‬- ‫يضع‬ sink ‫يغوص‬
outrigger ‫ذراع امتداد‬ inspector ‫مفتش‬ tell ‫يخبر‬
soleplate ‫لوح قاعدي‬ locate ‫يحدد موقع‬ inform ‫يخبر‬
counterweight ‫ثقل موازن‬ protect ‫يحمي‬ customer ‫زبون‬
obstruction ‫علق – حاجز‬ help ‫يساعد‬ fortunately ‫لحسن الحظ‬
sling ‫مقالع – حبل الرفع‬ attach ‫يربط‬ unfortunately ‫لسوء الحظ‬
rubber sheet ‫لوح من المطاط‬ guide ‫يرشد‬ rule ‫قاعدة‬
tail line ‫حبل الشد‬ pleased ‫مسرور‬ competition ‫مسابقة‬
jib ‫ذراع الونش‬ delighted ‫مسرور‬ damage ‫يتلف‬
interval ‫ فاصل‬- ‫فترة‬ happy ‫مسرور‬ fail ‫يفشل‬
memo ‫مذكرة‬ sorry ‫ حزين‬- ‫آسف‬ prize ‫جائزة‬
:‫الحظ اآلتي‬
.‫ ) لكي نعكس معني الصفة‬non / im / in / un ( ‫* يمكن أن نستخدم‬
‫الصفــــــة‬ ‫معناها‬ ‫عكس الصفة‬ ‫معناها‬
flammable ‫قابل لالشتعال‬ non-flammable ‫غير قابل لالشتعال‬
combustible ‫قابل لالشتعال‬ non-combustible ‫غير قابل لالشتعال‬
malleable ‫قال للطرق‬ non-malleable ‫غير قابل للطرق‬
audible ‫مسموع‬ inaudible ‫غير مسموع‬
elastic ‫مرن‬ inelastic ‫ جامد‬- ‫غير مرن‬
flexible ‫مرن‬ inflexible ‫ جامد‬- ‫غير مرن‬
accurate ‫دقيق‬ inaccurate ‫غير دقيق‬
equal ‫متساوي‬ unequal ‫غير متساوي‬
breakable ‫قابل للكسر‬ unbreakable ‫غير قابل للكسر‬
possible ‫ممكن‬ impossible ‫مستحيل‬
:‫الحظ اآلتي‬
.‫* نستخدم التعبيرات التالية عندما نريد أن نخبر شخص بخبر جيد‬
- I’m pleased to tell you………………….. ..........‫يسعدني أن أخبرك بأنك‬
* I’m pleased to tell you that you’ve won.
- I am pleased to inform you ………..……. ) ‫ ( بشكل رسمي‬..........‫يسعدني أن أخبرك بأنك‬
* I am pleased to inform you that the bank has agreed to lend you LE 10,000.

8
.‫* نستخدم التعبيرات التالية عندما نريد ان نخبر شخص بخبر سيء‬
- I’m sorry to inform you that……………… .............‫أنا آسف أن أخبرك بأن‬
- We regret to inform you that ………….… ...............‫نأسف أن نخبرك بأن‬
* I’m sorry to inform you that you’ve failed.
- Unfortunately, ………….. ........‫لسوء الحظ‬
* Unfortunately, you’ve failed.
Answers: (SB page 20 Ex. B)
(a) I am pleased to inform you that the bank has agreed to lend you LE 10,000.
(b) Thank you for attending the interview last week for the post of engineer in this company. I regret
to inform you that your application ‫ طلب التحاق‬has been unsuccessful.
(c) I refer to your recent complaint ‫ شكوى‬about the car which you bought from our company last
month. We are pleased to inform you that we have accepted ‫ يقبل‬your complaint, and that we are
going to pay you LE 2,000 in compensation ‫ تعويض‬.
(d) I am happy to inform you that I have now repaired your computer and that it is ready for
collection ‫ استالم‬.
(e) I refer to the broken CD player which you asked me to repair last week. I am sorry to let you
know that the CD player is impossible to repair because it is very badly damaged. Unfortunately you
will have to buy a new CD player.
Answers: (WB page 14 Ex. 5)
Fig. 1 shows that this year, 50% of all accidents were caused by falls from scaffolding. Only 20% of
all accidents were from chemicals, and 30% were caused by objects falling on the head.
As can be seen from Fig. 2, however, there was a decrease in the number of accidents caused by
falls from scaffolding, from 130 in 2011 to 90 in 2012. On the other hand, the number of accidents
caused by chemicals increased from 10 in 2011 to 50 in 2012, and the number of accidents caused
by objects falling on the head also increased from 40 in 2011 to 70 in 2012
Exercise on unit three
1- Supply the missing parts in the following dialogue:
Ahmed : Have you ever had an accident, Tamer?
Tamer : Yes ………………... (1) …………………. .
Ahmed : …………………..…(2) …………………. ?
Tamer : It happened on the 10th of December last year.
Ahmed : Where did it happen?
Tamer : ……………………(3) …………………… ?
2- Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1- The safety helmet prevents your head from……….. injured.
a) be b) being c) been d) is
2- Don’t remove the bulb …………… first turning off the lamp.
a) after b) before c) without d) by
3- The switch is ……………. turning the lamp on and off.
a) for b) without c) by d) after
4- The fire extinguisher will prevent the fire from ……………..
a) to spread b) spread c) spreading d) spreads
5- I’m really …………….. , I have to tell you some bad news.
a) delighted b) happy c) pleased d) sorry
6- Many reports contain a section called the ………………. .
a) find b) finds c) finding d) findings
7-The opposite of “flammable” is ………………..
a) inflammable b) non-flammable c) disflammable d) unflammable
8- Oil is a …………….. material.
a) flexible b) durable c) combustible d) breakable
3- Match one part from (A) with a part from (B):
(A) (B)
1- While holding the handle up a) remove it.
2- After turning off the lamp b) is to measure temperature
3- The function of a thermometer c) saving people’s lives.
4- A life jacked is used for d) you close the door.
4- Rewrite the following sentences, using the word(s) in brackets:-
1- Don’t enter the site without put on your helmet. (after)
2- Don’t enter the site if you haven’t put on your helmet. (without)
3- Remove the bulb after turning off the lamp after. (before)
4- Make the motorbike slow and at the same time pull the brake lever (simultaneously)
9
Lesson 1-2
cause ‫سبب‬ absorb ‫ يمتص‬irrigate ‫ يروي‬- ‫يسقى‬
effect ‫تأثير‬absorption ‫ امتصاص‬plant ‫نبات‬
change ‫يتغير‬expand ‫ يتوسع‬river ‫نهر‬
rise ‫يرتفع‬ expansion ‫ توسع‬flow ‫ يتدفق‬- ‫تدفق‬
fall ‫ينخفض‬ environment ‫ بيئة‬become ‫يصبح‬
increase ‫ يزداد‬- ‫زيادة‬ desertification ‫ التصحر‬land ‫أرض‬
decrease ‫ ينخفض‬- ‫انخفاض‬ ice caps ‫ قمم جليدية‬farmer ‫ فالح‬- ‫مزارع‬
erode ‫يتآكل‬desert ‫ صحراء‬carbon dioxide ‫ثاني أكسيد كربون‬
erosion ‫التعرية‬globe ‫ كره أرضيه‬canal ‫قناة‬
global warming ‫االحتباس الحراري‬ rain forest ‫ غابه استوائيه‬force ‫يجير‬
recycle ‫يعيد تدوير‬ rainfall ‫ هطول األمطار‬permit ‫يسمح‬
recycling ‫إعادة التدوير‬ temperature ‫ درجة الحرارة‬let ‫ يسمح‬- ‫يدع‬
flow ‫ يتدفق‬- ‫تدفق‬ coral reefs ‫ الشعاب المرجانية‬piston pump ‫مضخة بمكبس‬
travel ‫ ينتقل‬- ‫يسافر‬ soil ‫ تربة‬valve ‫صمام‬
move ‫يتحرك‬ newspaper ‫ جريدة‬inlet valve ‫صمام الدخول‬
reclaim ‫يستصلح‬ forest ‫ غابة‬outlet valve ‫صمام الخروج‬
reclamation ‫استصالح‬ wind ‫ رياح‬pressure ‫ضغط‬
melt ‫ يذوب‬- ‫ينصهر‬ blow (wind) )‫(رياح‬ ‫تهــب‬ pump ‫مضخة‬
melting ‫ ذوبان‬-‫انصهار‬ build ‫ يبني‬piston ‫مكبس‬
destroy ‫يدمر‬ flood ‫ فيضان‬cylinder ‫أسطوانة‬
destruction ‫تدمير‬ piston ‫ مكبس‬tube ‫أنبوب‬
emit ‫ينبعث‬ pump ‫ مضخة‬cross-section ‫المقطع العرضي‬
emissions ‫انبعاثات‬handle ‫ مقبض‬spring ‫سلك زنبركي‬
Fertile land ‫أرض خصبة‬ engineer ‫ مهندس‬fluid ‫سائل‬
) ‫ ( يدع‬let ‫ ( يجعل ) والفعل‬make ‫ بعد الفعل‬to ‫* يأتي المصدر بدون‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- Pumps make the water flow. = - Pumps let the water flow.
‫ بعد األفعال اآلتية‬to ‫* يأتى المصدر مسبوقا ً بـ‬
- allow / permit ‫ يسمح‬- force ‫يجبر‬ - cause ‫يسبب‬ lead ‫يؤدي‬
- Pumps force the water to flow. = - Pumps cause the water to flow.
- Pipes allow the water to flow.
- Pipes permit the water to flow. (make)
- Pipes make the water flow.
- Heat make the metal expand. ( causes )
- Cold makes the metal contract. ( allows )
- Pumps causes water to flow. ( makes )
) ‫ فعل‬+ ing ( ‫ ) ثم‬from ( ‫ ) معناه يمنع و يأتي بعده مفعول ثم حرف الجر‬prevent ( ‫* الفعل‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- Trees and bushes ‫ شجيرات‬prevent the wind from eroding the soil.
- Valves don't allow water to flow. (prevent)
- Valves prevent water from flowing.
‫ ) بمعني (هذا) ليحل محل جملة كاملة سابقة له‬which ( ‫* يمكن أن نستخدم ضمير الوصل‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- Rainfall decreased, which caused the land to become desert.
- The sea levels rose, which caused the land to flood.
Answers: (SB page 22 Ex. 4)
(a) People destroyed rain forests, which caused the Earth to become warmer.
(b) The sea levels rose, which caused the land to flood.
(c) The Earth became warmer, which caused the corals to die.
(d) The wind eroded the soil, which caused the fertile land to change into desert.
(e) Farmers planted trees, which caused the wind to erode less soil.
Lesson 3-4
carbon dioxide ‫ثاني أكسيد كربون‬ combust ‫ يحترق‬- ‫يحرق‬ desertification ‫التصحر‬
methane gas ‫غاز الميثان‬ combustion ‫احتراق‬ reclamation ‫استصالح‬
global warming ‫احتباس حراري‬ erode ‫يتآكل‬ condensation ‫التكثيف‬
greenhouse ‫صوبة زراعية‬ erosion ‫ تعرية‬- ‫تآكل‬ average ‫ معدل‬- ‫متوسط‬
greenhouse gases ‫ غازات ترفع الحرارة‬destroy ‫يدمر‬ main ‫رئيسي‬
atmosphere ‫ الغالف الجوي‬destruction ‫تدمير‬ mainly ‫بشكل اساسي‬

10
proportion ‫ نسبــــة‬contract ‫ ينكمش‬reflect ‫يعكس‬
fossil fuel ‫ وقود حفري‬contraction ‫ انكماش‬escape ‫يتسرب‬
coral reefs ‫ شعاب مرجانية‬produce ‫ ينتج‬rear ‫يربي‬
fuel ‫ وقود‬absorb ‫ يمتص‬cattle ‫ماشية‬
goods ‫ بضائع‬absorption ‫ امتصاص‬warn ‫يحذر‬
increase ‫ زيادة‬emit ‫ يبعث‬- ‫ يطلق‬staff ‫هيئة العاملين‬
decrease ‫ انخفاض‬emissions ‫ انبعاثات‬space ‫ فضاء‬- ‫فراغ‬
desertification ‫ التصحر‬reduce ‫ يقلل‬less ‫أقل‬
tropical ‫ استوائي‬reduction ‫ تقليل‬more ‫أكثر‬
hardwoods ‫ أخشاب صلبة‬deforestation ‫ إزالة الغابات‬memorandum ‫مذكــــرة‬
pollute ‫ يلوث‬evaporate ‫ يتبخر‬section ‫قســـم‬
pollution ‫ التلوث‬evaporation ‫ التبخر‬aware ‫ واع‬- ‫مدرك‬
farm ‫ مزرعة‬on a large scale ‫ علي نطاق واسع‬recommend ‫ يذكي‬- ‫يرشح‬
Answers: (SB page 23 Ex. 7)
(a) 3- fossil fuels are burnt (b) 4- rice and cattle are farmed
(c) 1- greenhouse gases increase (d) 8- global temperature rises
(e) 6- water in soil evaporates (f) 7- land becomes desert
(g) 2- sea becomes hotter (h) 5- coral reefs die
‫ يقوم العاملين برفع مذكرات تخص سير العمل و تحتوي علي مطالب أو توصيات و اللغة المستخدمة في هذه‬, ‫* في مكان العمل‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
‫المذكرات يجب أن تكون لغة رسمية‬
‫عند تقديم معلومة جديدة في كتابة المذكرة نستخدم احدي هذه العبارات الرسمية‬
- As you know, … - As you will know, … - As you will be aware, …
- As you may know, … - As you may be aware, …
- I would like to inform you that … - I wish to inform you that …
- I would like to recommend that …
Memorandum
To : The staff ‫ العاملين‬: ‫إلى‬
From : Adel Zaki , supervisor 2 2 ‫ مشرف رقم‬، ‫ عادل ذكي‬: ‫من‬
Date : 25 Oct. 2020 2020 ‫ أكتوبر‬22 : ‫التاريخ‬
Re : Lateness . ‫ التأخير‬: ‫بخصوص‬
I would like to inform you that A ‫أود أن أحط سيادتكم علما بأن عدد من العاملين في هذا‬
number of staff in this section are habitually . ‫القسم تعودوا على التأخير عن العمل‬
late for work. They must stop that. ‫هم يجب أن يتوقفوا عن ذلك‬
I would like to recommend that In the ً ‫ و أي أحد سوف يأتي إلى العمل متأخرا‬، ‫في المستقبل‬
future , anyone coming to work late, he will .‫سوف يخصم منه أجور الساعات‬
lose up to hour's pay.
Exercise on unit four
1- Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1- The…………. of the piston pump is to reduce and increase the pressure.
a) effect b) power c) function d) system
2- The sea…………….. rose, which caused the land to flood.
a) levels b) fuel c) goods d) memo
3- Heat cool metals , they………………
a) shrink b) expand c) burn d) escape
4- If you heat iron, it ……………. .
a) cools b) freezes c) condenses d) melts
5- A thermostat prevents a room ………….. too hot or too cold.
a) from becoming b) to become c) becomes d) become
6- The fertile land was ………….. by farmers.
a) deforest b) deforested c) deforesting d) deforestation
7- The fall in air pollution may have been………. a decrease in fuel combustion.
a) because b) when c) while d) because of
8- People…………… rain forests, which caused the Earth to become warmer
a) destroyed b) built c) absorbed d) mended
2- A) Translate into Arabic:
1- A switch is a device which completes and interrupts an electric circuit.
2- An increase in the temperature of a metal makes it expand.
B) Translate into English:
. ‫ يؤدى نقص التربة الخصبة إلى التصحر‬-
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Lesson 1-2
function : job ‫ وظيفة‬pedal ‫ دواسة‬enclose ‫يحيط بـ‬
purpose ‫ غرض‬cable ‫ كابل‬- ‫ سلك‬generator ‫مولد‬
jet pack ‫ نفاث الظهر الشخصي‬accelerate ‫ يسرع – يعجل‬push ‫يدفع‬
fly ‫ يطير‬transmit ‫ يبث‬- ‫ يرسل‬switch ‫مفتاح كهربي‬
wear ‫ يرتدى‬receive ‫ يستقبل‬reflect ‫يعكس‬
speed ‫ سرعة‬pump ‫ مضخة‬reflector ‫عاكس‬
focus ‫ يركز‬control ‫ يسيطر على‬beam of light ‫شعاع من الضوء‬
joystick ‫ مقبض القيادة‬- ‫ ذراع‬float ‫ يطفو‬compress ‫يضغط على‬
landing ‫ الهبوط‬propel ‫ يدفع – يسير‬bulb ‫ مصباح‬- ‫لمبة‬
parachute ‫ مظلة‬receiver ‫ جهاز استقبال‬electric current ‫تيار كهربى‬
steer ‫ يوجه‬- ‫ يحرك‬consist of ‫ يتكون من‬battery ‫بطارية‬
fan ‫ مروحة‬generate ‫ يولد‬loudspeaker ‫مكبر صوت‬
push ‫ يدفع‬amplify ‫ يكبر‬- ‫ يضخم‬fluid ‫سائل‬
compressor ‫ جهاز ضغط‬amplifier ‫ مكبر صوت‬refrigerator ‫ثالجة‬
cool ‫ يبرد‬thrusters ‫ محركات الدفع‬conductor ‫موصل‬
engine ‫ محرك‬radio waves ‫ موجات السلكية‬location ‫موقع‬
act as ‫ يقوم بدور‬engine ‫ محرك‬torch ‫كشـــــاف‬
fuel tank ‫ خزان وقود‬motor ‫ محرك‬accelerator ‫دواسة البنزين‬
thrust ‫ يدفع‬fuselage ‫ جسم الطائرة‬lens ‫عدسة‬
drive ‫ يشغل‬antenna ‫ الاير – هوائى‬canopy ‫قبة البراشوت‬
blade ‫ ريشـــــة‬gear ‫ غيار السرعة‬- ‫ ترس‬rope ‫حبل‬
crew ‫ طاقم طائرة‬transmitter ‫ جهاز ارسال‬electric circuit ‫دائرة كهربية‬
passengers ‫ ركاب‬pilot ‫ طيار‬crew ‫طاقم‬
wing ‫ جنـــاح‬contain ‫ يحتوى على‬generator ‫مولد‬
‫* عندما نسأل عن وظيفة شيء ما نستخدم‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
* What does the………‫ ………اسم‬do?
- What does the fan do? - It pushes the air.
* What is the ………‫………اسم‬for?
- What is the fan for? - It's for pushing the air.
- What is the engine for? - The engine is for driving the two fans.
* What is the purpose / function of the ………‫?………اسم‬
- What is the purpose / function of the fan? - Its purpose is to push the air.
- What is the function of the bulb? - The function of the bulb is to produce light.

‫* عند تحديد وظيفة الشيء نستخدم التعبيرات اآلتية‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬


* The function of the ………‫………اسم‬is to …….. ‫………… مصدر‬...
- The function of the pump at the back of the refrigerator is to compress the fluid.
* The purpose of ……………‫………اسم‬..…is to…….. ‫………… مصدر‬...
- The purpose of a loudspeaker or megaphone is to amplify the sound.
* The ………….…‫………اسم‬..… acts as ……………‫……………اسم‬.
- The pump at the back of the refrigerator acts as a compressor of the fluid.
-The loudspeaker or megaphone acts as an amplifier of the sound.
-The loudspeaker or megaphone acts as an amplifier of the sound.
Answers: (SB page 30 Ex. 5)
(a) A parachute consists of a pack, a canopy and some ropes. The pack contains the canopy. The
function of the canopy is to support the man. The ropes are used for attaching the canopy to the
man.
(b) A jet pack consists of an engine, two fans and a fuel tank. The function of the engine is to drive
the fans. The purpose of the two fans is to thrust the air downwards. The fuel tank contains the fuel.
(c) A fan considers of blades, a motor and a body. The blades are for propelling the air. The motor is
used for driving the blades. The body supports the blades and the motor.
(d) A windsurf board consists of the following main parts: the board, the sail and the mast. The
purpose of the board is to float on the water. The sail is for catching the wind. The mast acts as a
support for the sail.
(e)The aircraft consists of a fuselage, wings and engines. The fuselage contains the crew and
passengers. The wings’ job is to lift the aircraft. The engines are for propelling the aircraft

12
Answers: (SB page 30 Ex. 6)
(a) The pump at the back of the refrigerator acts as a compressor.
(b) A loudspeaker acts as an amplifier of the sound.
(c) A battery acts as a generator of electrical current.
(d) An antenna acts as a transmitter and receiver of radio waves.
(e) The pedal (of a car) acts as an accelerator. (f) The cable functions as conductor of electricity.
Answers: (SB page 30 Ex. 7)
(a) The batteries are used for generating power. (b) The body encloses the batteries.
(c) The reflector is to reflect light. (d) The job of the lens is to focus the beam.
(e) The function of the bulb is to produce light. (f) The switch connects the circuit.
Lesson 3-4
jet pack ‫نفاث الظهر الشخصي‬ parachute ‫ مظلة‬control ‫يسيطر‬
device ‫جهاز – آله‬ joystick ‫ مقبض القيادة‬- ‫ ذراع‬direction ‫اتجاه‬
attach ‫ يربط‬- ‫يوصل‬ pull in ‫ يشفط‬operate ‫يشغل‬
user ‫مستخدم‬ belt ‫ سير‬parts ‫أجزاء‬
consist of ‫يتكون من‬ lift ‫ يرفع‬foreign ‫أجنبي‬
act ‫يقوم بدور‬ maximum ‫ حد أقصى‬introduce ‫يقدم‬
cylinder ‫اسطوانة‬ thrust = force ‫ يدفع‬industrial ‫صناعي‬
shock absorber ‫أداة ماصة للصدمات‬ increase ‫ يزود‬work for ‫يعمل لدي‬
landing ‫الهبوط‬ decrease ‫ يقلل‬support ‫ يسند‬- ‫يحمل‬
safely ‫بأمان‬ operation ‫ عمليــــة‬suspend ‫يعلق‬
definition ‫تعريف‬ land ‫ يهبط‬connect ‫يوصل‬
emergency ‫حالة طارئة‬ speed ‫ سرعة‬mount ‫ يركب‬- ‫يضع‬
‫* كيف نقدم أنفسنا أو اآلخرين‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
® I’d like to introduce myself. ‫اسمح لي أن أقدم نفسي‬
® Allow me to introduce my friend. ‫اسمح لي أن أقدم صديقي‬
® Let me introduce my brother. ‫اسمح لي أن أقدم أخي‬
®This is my friend. He’s an engineer. ‫ انه يعمل كمهندس‬.‫أقدم لك صديقي‬
Answers: (SB page 32 Ex. C)
(1) I’d like to introduce Ahmed. He’s a student at this school.
(2) Let me introduce my friend. His name is Mahmoud. He’s a student in my class.
(3) Allow me to introduce my friend. His name is John. He’s a student from England.
(4) I’d like to introduce myself. My name is Ahmed. I’m a student here.
Exercise on unit five
3- Match one part from (A) with a part from (B):
(A) (B)
1- The function of the bulb is a) to focus the beam.
2- The body encloses b) to produce light
3- The job of the lens is c) generating power.
4- The batteries are used for d) the batteries.
4- Rewrite the following sentences, using the word(s) in brackets:-
1- Let me introduce myself. (Allow)
2- You hold the handle up and you close the door at the same time. (While holding)
3- The battery causes the current to flow along the wire. (makes)
4- A loudspeaker functions as an amplifier of sound. (amplify)
6- Fill in the spaces with words from the list:-
current - compressor - amplify - beam - container - Allow
1- Batteries are used for generating electric ………. .
2- The purpose of a loudspeaker or megaphone is to …….. sound.
3- The function of the ……….at the back of the refrigerator is to compress the fluid.
4- The job of the lens is to focus the ………….
5- ………me to introduce my friend. His name is John
7- Write a short paragraph of 5 sentences on:’ ‘How to make an electric torch work”:
Guiding points: torch - not work / first - check - bulb - batteries / hold - body - remove - top /
unscrew - old bulb - replace / finally - take out - batteries - put in.
8- A) Translate into Arabic:
1- A loudspeaker is a device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
2- An antenna functions as a transmitter of radio waves through the air.
B) Translate into English:
‫يجب أن ال تلوث ماء النيل ألنة مصدر حياتنا‬
13
Lesson 1-2
career ‫ حياة مهنية‬- ‫ وظيفة‬service manager ‫ مدير خدمات‬sing ‫يغنى‬
engineer ‫ مهندس‬department ‫ قسم‬singer ‫مغنى‬
engineering ‫ هندسة‬parts supervisor ‫ مشرف قطع غيار‬sales ‫مبيعات‬
diploma ‫ شهادة دبلوم‬structure engineer ‫ مهندس إنشاءات‬sales manager ‫مدير المبيعات‬
degree ‫ درجة علمية‬supervise ‫ يشرف على‬salesperson ‫بائع‬
study ‫ يذاكر‬supervisor ‫ مشرف‬carry ‫يحمل‬
know ‫ يعرف‬supervision ‫ إشراف‬service ‫يجري صيانة‬
university ‫ جامعة‬manage : run ‫ يديــــر‬look after ‫يعتني بـ‬
company ‫ شركة‬manager ‫ مدير‬supply ‫يورد‬
organization ‫ تنظيم‬management ‫ إدارة‬technician ‫عامل فني‬
employee ‫ موظف‬general manager ‫ مدير عام‬repairs ‫اصالحات‬
service ‫ خدمة‬operate ‫ يشغل‬repair ‫يصلح‬
duty ‫ واجب‬operator ‫ عامل على ماكينة‬kind ‫نوع‬
career ladder ‫ السلم الوظيفي‬operation ‫ عمليـــة‬Olympic games ‫األلعاب االولمبية‬
worker ‫ عامل‬design ‫ تصميم‬- ‫ يصمم‬chart ‫ لوحة‬- ‫خريطة‬
craftsman ‫ حرفـــي‬designer ‫ مصمـــــم‬plan ‫ يخطط‬- ‫خطة‬
technologist ‫ خبير فني‬manufacture ‫ يصنع‬specialist ‫اخصائى‬
bodywork ‫ هيكل السيارة‬manufacturer ‫ صاحب مصنع‬boss ‫رئيس عمل‬
paint work ‫ طالء‬- ‫ دهان‬manufacturing ‫ تصنيع‬calculator ‫آلـــ حاسبة‬
‫ ) الشرطية‬If ( ‫* هناك فارق في التكوين و المعني بين الحالتين األولي و الثانية لــ‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
) ‫* في حالة الشرط األولى (الشرط محتمل حدوثه لتوافر الشروط والظروف المطلوبة‬
* If ………… ‫………… مضارع بسيط‬. , will / can / may + ‫المصدر‬
Rehab plans her career.
- If I want to become an engineer, what will I have to do?
- If you want to be become an engineer, you will have to get a diploma .
) ‫* حالة الشرط الثانية ( الشرط مستبعد أو مستحيل ال تتوافر لة الظروف المطلوبة فهو مجرد مثال او افتراض مخالف للواقع‬
* If ………… ‫………… ماضي بسيط‬. , would / could / might + ‫المصدر‬
- If I wanted to become a rock singer, what would I have to do?
- If you wanted to become a Rock singer, you would have to be a good singer.
‫ رحاب ليست مغنية جيدة و ال تريد أن تكون مغنية وإنما تسأل على سبيل الفرض‬: ‫* هنا‬
- If I were the General Manager, I would run the whole company.
Answers: (SB page 34 Ex. 6)
- The Sales Manager supervises (or manages) the Salesperson and reports to the General Manager.
- The Parts and Service Manager supervises the Parts Supervisor and the Service Supervisor. and
reports to the Parts and Service Manager and to the General Manager.
- The Electrical Technician reports to the Service Supervisor.
- The Bodywork Specialist reports to the Bodywork Manager and to the General Manager.
- The Service Supervisor manages the Mechanical Technician, the Electrical Technician and the
General Technician.
- The Mechanical Technician, The Electrical Technician, and The General Technician report to the
Service Supervisor.
Lesson 3-4
operator ‫عامل على ماكينة‬ cost ‫تكلفـــة‬ construction ‫إنشـــــاء‬
operative ‫عامل على ماكينة‬ equipment ‫معدات‬ shopping ‫التسوق‬
craft worker ‫حرفـــي‬ problem ‫مشكلة‬ mall ‫مركز تجاري‬
craftsman ‫حرفـــي‬ production ‫إنتاج‬ specifications ‫مواصفات‬
craftsperson ‫حرفـــي‬ engineering ‫الهندسة‬ calculate ‫يحسب‬
technician ‫عامل فني‬ degree ‫درجة علمية‬ work out ‫يحل مسألة‬
job description ‫المسمي الوظيفي‬ level ‫مستوي‬ produce ‫ينتج‬
job title ‫المسمي الوظيفي‬ university ‫الجامعــــة‬ products ‫منتجات‬
career ladder ‫السلم الوظيفي‬ industry ‫الصناعة‬ improve ‫يحسن‬
machine ‫آلــــــة‬ aviation ‫الطيران‬ qualities ‫سمات‬
assembly line ‫خط التجميع‬ electrical wiring ‫أسالك كهربائية‬ test ‫اختبار‬
components ‫مكونات‬ lighting ‫ إنارة‬- ‫إضاءة‬ set up ‫ يؤسس‬- ‫ينشئ‬
task ‫مهمــــة‬ site engineer ‫مهندس الموقع‬ supervise ‫يشرف علي‬

14
electrical installation ‫تركيبات كهربائية‬ oil industry ‫ صناعة النفط‬solve ‫يحل‬
incorporated engineer ‫مهندس إشراف‬ education ‫ تعليم‬duties ‫واجبات‬
professional engineer ‫مهندس محترف‬ training ‫ تدريب‬title ‫مسمي وظيفي‬
architectural engineer ‫ مهندس معماري‬project ‫ مشروع‬maintain ‫يجري صيانة‬
‫* في كل مؤسسة يمكن أن يرتقي العامل من وظيفة أدني إلي وظيفة أعلي و هذا ما نسميه السلم الوظيفي‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
* The Career ladder from the basic level to the highest level: ‫السلم الوظيفي من أدنى مستوى إلى أعلى مستوى‬
operates a machine , works on an assembly line, puts
Operator / Operative ‫عامل علي ماكينة‬
components together
Crafts worker / Craftsman ‫ حرفـــي‬carries out skilled tasks
helps to design new products, improves existing ones;
makes or builds things, tests their quality, calculates the
Technician ‫عامل فني‬
costs of producing things; set up, check and maintain
equipment for crafts workers or operatives to use
supervises technicians and crafts workers; solves
technologist ‫خبير فني‬
engineering problems in production and design .
Professional engineer ‫ مهندس محترف‬plans and manages large engineering projects.
‫* يمكن أن نستخدم بعض من التعبيرات التالية عند التفاوض لشراء شيئا ما‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- What if I gave you LE 80? ‫ جنيها؟‬80 ‫ماذا لو أعطيتك‬
- Would you sell me the watch? ‫هل ستبيع لي الساعة؟‬
- I would give it to you for LE 100. ‫ جنيها‬100 ‫سأعطيها لك بــ‬
- I’ll take it. ‫سوف أشتريها‬ - It’s a deal. ‫اتفقنا‬
Answers: (SB page 36 Ex. B)
Mansour : How much does this pen cost?
Shopkeeper : LE 15.
Mansour : That’s too much. I can’t pay LE 15.
Shopkeeper : But it’s very good quality.
Mansour : What if I gave you LE 10? Would you sell me the pen?
Shopkeeper : That’s too little, but I would give it to you for LE 13.
Mansour : How about LE 12?
Shopkeeper : OK, it’s a deal.
Exercise on unit six
1- Match one part from (A) with a part from (B):
(A) (B)
1- An electric torch is a device which a) push the hovercraft forwards
2- The batteries act as b) produces a small beam of light
3- The job of the propeller is to c) design new products.
4- The technician helps to d) generators of power.
5- Read the following passage, then answer the questions below:
Fires need three things in order to burn: oxygen, fuel and heat. A fire can be put out by removing
the air, removing the fuel, or lowering the temperature. In a workshop, a fire may be caused by an
electric fault in the drilling machine. To fight this type of fire, you have to use the carbon dioxide
extinguisher because it is safe with electrical fires. Fire is dangerous and risky to fight. So, you
leave the building by the fire exit signs, close all doors behind you, do not use lifts and report to the
Assembly point outside.
A) Answer the following questions:
1. What three things do fires need to burn? 2. How can you put out a fire?
3. Why must you close door and not use lifts during a fire?
B) Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
4. …………… helps fire to burn more strongly.
a) Water b) Oxygen c) Carbon dioxide d) Fuel
5. ……………. are used to put out fires.
a) Thermostats b) Extinguishers c) Helmets d) Vices
6. It is not ……………. to fight great fires.
a) difficult b) easy c) hard d) necessary
7. During a dangerous fire, you must ………….. the building at once
a) stay b) remain c) sit d) leave
8- A) Translate into Arabic:
1- Don’t work in a building site unless you are wearing a safety helmet.
2- Water mustn’t he used on fire if there is electrical equipment nearby.
B) Translate into English: ‫* تزود مصانعنا بالمعدات الحديثة حيث يعمل بها العمال والفنيون المهرة‬
15
Lesson 1-2
specifications ‫مواصفات‬ station ‫ محطة‬signals ‫إشارات‬
space ‫فضاء‬ field ‫ حقل‬attach ‫ يربط‬- ‫يثبت‬
project ‫مشروع‬ jet ‫ طائرة نفاثة‬steel rule ‫مسطرة صلب‬
volume ‫حجم‬ area ‫مساحة‬ micrometer ‫ميكرومتر‬
top speed ‫أقصي سرعة‬ jumbo jet ‫ طائرة نفاثة ضخمة‬calliper ‫ قدمة‬-‫فرجار‬
shuttle ‫مكوك‬ gravity ‫ جاذبية أرضية‬slip gauge ‫مقياس االنزالق‬
space shuttle ‫مكوك فضاء‬ air pressure ‫ ضغط الهواء‬plus or minus (±) ‫زائد أو ناقص‬
football field ‫ملعب كرة قدم‬ space craft ‫ مركبة فضاء‬measure ‫يقيس‬
space station ‫محطة فضاء‬ sound ‫ صوت‬symbol ‫رمز‬
module ‫ وحدة‬- ‫جزء‬ orbit ‫ مدار‬- ‫ فلك‬launch ‫يطلق‬
about : around ‫تقريبا‬length ‫ الطول‬longer than ‫أطول من‬
one-third ‫ثلث‬width ‫ العرض‬wider than ‫أعرض من‬
percent ‫في المائة‬ weight ‫ الوزن‬faster than ‫أسرع من‬
fuel ‫وقود‬ size ‫ الحجم‬solar panels ‫ألواح شمسية‬
convertible car ‫سيّارة َم ْكشُوفة‬
َ altitude ‫ مرتفع‬generate ‫يولد‬
Sporty ‫ رياضي‬crew ‫ طاقم طائرة‬girder ‫عارضـــة‬
astronaut ‫ رائد فضاء‬Satellite ‫ قمر صناعي‬laboratory ‫مختبر‬
enter ‫ يدخل‬accuracy ‫ الدقـــــــــة‬radio antenna ‫الاير هوائي‬
exit ‫ يخرج‬tolerance ‫ التفاوت‬quarter ‫ربع‬
‫* يمكن التعبير عن صيغة المقارنة بين شيئين بأكثر من طريقة‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
* more than twice as large as ‫أكثر حجما ً أكثر من مرتين‬
- The station is more than twice as large as a football field.
* more than twice the length of ‫أكثر من ضعف طول – مرتين طول‬
- The shuttle is more than three times the size of a house.
* less than a quarter the size of ‫أقل من ربع حجم‬
-The shuttle is less than a quarter the length of a jumbo jet.
* three times larger than ‫أكبر ثالثة أمثال‬
* half as long as ‫ طول‬2/1 * less than half ‫اقل من النصف‬
* more than a quarter ‫أكثر من الربع‬ * over one fifth ‫فوق الخمس‬
* under twice as ................. as ‫اقل من ضعف‬ * about three times ‫حوالى ثالث امثال‬
Answers: (SB page 42 Ex. 5)
(a) The ISS is just under 15% longer than a jumbo jet.
- The length of the ISS is about 15% more than that of a jumbo jet.
(b) The ISS is around 50% wider than a jumbo jet.
- The width of the ISS is about 50% greater than that of a jumbo jet.
(c) The space station is approximately the same height as a jumbo jet.
- The height of the ISS is about the same as that of a jumbo jet.
(d) The ISS weighs about one-eighth more than a jumbo jet.
- The weight of the ISS is around one-eighth more than that of a jumbo jet.
(e) The crew of the space station is just under half as large as that of a jumbo jet.
(f) The altitude of the NileSat 201 satellite is 90 times higher / greater than that of the ISS.
- The NileSat 201 is 90 times as high as the ISS.
(g) The orbit time of NileSat 201 is 16 times greater / longer than that of the ISS.
- The orbit time of NileSat 201 is 16 times as great / long as that of the ISS
Answers: (WB page 33 Ex. 1)
(a) The Convertible is 15% longer than the Sporty.
(b) The Convertible is a tenth wider than the Sporty.
(c) The Sporty is 100 mm lower than the Convertible.
(d) The fuel tank of the Sporty is 20% larger than that of the Convertible.
(e) The top speed of the Sporty is a fifth greater than that of the Convertible.
(f) The Sporty accelerates 50% faster than the Convertible.
(g) The Sporty consumes twice as much fuel as the Convertible.
(h) The Convertible emits half as much CO2 as the Sporty.
16
‫* يمكن التعبير عن درجة الدقة أو التفاوت باستخدام أكثر من حرف جر‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
Answers: (SB page 42 Ex. 6)
(a) A steel rule ‫ مسطرة صلب‬can measure to / with / within a tolerance ‫ تفاوت‬of plus or minus 0.25
millimetres.
(b) A calliper ‫ أداة لقياس سمك الشيء‬can measure to / with / within an accuracy ‫ دقة‬of plus or minus
0.25 millimetres.
(c) A micrometer ً ‫ جهاز لقياس األبعاد الصغيرة جدا‬can measure to / with / within a tolerance of plus or minus
0.002 millimetres.
(d) A slip gauge ‫ مقياس االنزالق‬can measure to / with / within an accuracy of plus or minus 0.00125
millimetres.
Answers: (WB page 33 Ex. 2)
(1) solar panels ‫ ; ألواح شمسية‬to generate electricity for space station; Nov 2000; attached to top of a
girder
(2) laboratory module ‫ ; وحدة المختبر‬to contain scientific equipment and instruments ‫; معدات و أدوات علمية‬
Feb 2001; attached to bottom of girder ‫ عارضة‬, below solar panels
(3) radio antenna; to transmit radio signals to Earth and other spacecraft; April 2001; attached to
bottom of laboratory module
(4) air lock ‫ ;قفل الهواء‬to allow astronauts to exit and enter space station; July 2001; attached to one
end of laboratory module
Lesson 3-4
space station ‫محطة فضاء‬ scientist ‫ عالم‬via ‫ خالل‬- ‫عبر‬
crew )‫طاقم (طائرة‬ material ‫ مادة‬- ‫ خامة‬technician ‫عامل فتي‬
astronaut ‫رائد فضاء‬ fluid ‫ سائل‬central ‫مركزي‬
solar panels ‫ألواح شمسية‬ engineer ‫ مهندس‬agree ‫يوافق‬
module ‫ وحدة‬- ‫جزء‬ industry ‫ الصناعة‬suggest ‫يقترح‬
radiator ‫جهاز أشعة‬ industrial ‫ صناعي‬object ‫يعترض‬
girder ‫عارضة‬ process ‫ عملية‬objection ‫اعتراض‬
robot arm ‫ذراع الروبوت‬ structure ‫ بناء‬vote ‫ينتخب‬
football field ‫ملعب كرة قدم‬ air pump ‫ مضخة هواء‬promote ‫يرقي‬
laboratory ‫مختبر‬ attach ‫ يربط‬- ‫ يوصل‬chairperson ‫رئيس‬
accommodation ‫ تذكية‬- ‫توصيــة‬ together ‫ معا‬chairman ‫رئيس‬
pressure ‫ضغط‬ research ‫ يجري بحث‬- ‫ بحث‬sports club ‫نادي رياضي‬
pressurised ‫مضغوط‬ generate ‫ يولد‬club members ‫أعضاء النادي‬
spaceship ‫سفينة فضاء‬ connect ‫ يوصل‬manager ‫مدير‬
gravity ‫الجاذبية األرضية‬ launch ‫ يطلق‬huge ‫ضخم‬
zero gravity ‫انعدام الجاذبية‬ assemble ‫ يجمع أجزاء‬supervisor ‫مشرف‬
temperature ‫درجة الحرارة‬ assembly work ‫ أعمال التجميع‬orbit ‫يدور حول‬
emergency ‫حالة طارئة‬ maintenance work ‫ أعمال الصيانة‬discuss ‫يناقش‬
‫* يمكن التعبير عن االقتراح بأكثر من طريقة مثل‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
* Let’s........ ‫ مصدر‬........... .......... ‫هيا‬ - Let’s discuss this later.
* Why don’t we ......... ‫ مصدر‬............? .........‫لماذا ال‬ - Why don’t we meet again?
* Shall we ......... ‫ مصدر‬............? ........‫هل لنا أن‬ - Shall we meet tomorrow?
* I suggest that we ..... ‫ مصدر‬...... ....... ‫أقترح أننا‬ - I suggest that we have a vote.
* May I suggest that we ..... ‫ مصدر‬......? ................. ‫هل لي أن أقترح‬
- May I suggest that we have a vote?
‫* للسؤال عن الموافقة علي االقتراح نستخدم‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- Can we agree to ....... ‫ مصدر‬...........? ................‫هل نحن متفقون علي أن‬
- Can we agree to discuss this later?
- Do we all agree that we ....... ‫ مصدر‬...........? ................‫هل نحن متفقون علي أن‬
- Do we all agree that we meet again next week?
- Are we agreed that we ....... ‫ مصدر‬...........? ................‫هل نحن متفقون علي أن‬
- Are we agreed that we have a vote now?
- Are we in agreement to ....... ‫ مصدر‬...........? ................‫هل نحن متفقون علي أن‬
- Are we in agreement to vote now?
- Does anyone object if we ....... ‫ مصدر‬...........? .........‫هل لدي أي أحد اعتراض علي‬
- Does anyone object if we do this?

17
- Are there any objections if we ....... ‫ مصدر‬...........? .........‫هل لدي أي أحد اعتراض علي‬
- Are there any objections if we do this?
Exercise on unit seven
1- Supply the missing parts in the following dialogue:
You and your friends, Ahmed and Ali are planning for a picnic
You : Let’s go to the Barrages ‫ القناطر‬next Friday.
Ahmed : Why ……….(1) ……… go to Helwan?
Ali : May ……………(2)……… go for a walk on the Nile bank.
You : It’s a good idea. Does anyone …………… (3) …………. ?
Ahmed : No, no one objects to this nice idea.
2- Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d :
1- A …….. is an instrument for measuring objects very accurately to a tolerance of ± 0.002 mm.
a) microscope b) micrometer c) radiator d) module
2-A ……….. is a device which is used for converting sunlight into electric power.
a) radiator b) girder c) module d) solar panel
3- A ………… is used to generate electricity.
a) radiator b) solar panel c) girder d) steel rule
4- A ……………. is used to transmit radio signals to Earth and other spacecraft
a) space station b) radio antenna c) spaceship d) aircraft
5- A pair of callipers is an instrument for measuring ……of round objects.
a) dimensions b) diameters c) lengths d) volumes
6- The ……….of the space station is about three times the size of a football field.
a) area b) volume c) height d) distance
7- Let’s…………… swimming.
a) to go b) go c) going d) gone
8-………….. there any objections if we begin the project next week?
a) is b) Are c) Do d) Does
1- Match one part from (A) with a part from (B):
A B
1- Solar panels are used to contain scientific equipment and instruments
2- The laboratory module is used to transmit radio signals to Earth and other spacecraft
3- The radio antenna is used to to allow astronauts to exit and enter space station
4- The air lock are used to generate electricity for space station
4- Rewrite the following sentences, using the word(s) in brackets:-
1- The rise in temperature causes the expansion of mercury. (makes)
2- The batteries function as generators of power. (used for)
3- A loudspeaker functions as an amplifier of sound. (The function …. )
4- The ear will stop as a result of depressing the brake pedal. (if / depressed)
6- Fill in the spaces with words from the list:
antenna - space station - laboratories - pressure - object - solar panels
1- Does anyone ............... if we do this?
2- Scientists are able to do scientific experiments in ………
3- The function of the……....... is to generate electricity from sunlight.
4- The job of an… is to transmit radio signals to Earth and to other spacecraft.
5- The function of an air pump is to pump air under ……… to the modules.
7- Write a short paragraph of 5 sentences on:
“Measuring tools and instruments”
You may use the following guiding words:
steel rules - available - length - 150 mm to 1 m / steel rules - make of - steel / callipers - used to -
together - with - a steel rule / micrometers - accurate measurement / slip gauges - high-carbon steel
8- A) Translate into Arabic:
1- A refrigerator is an appliance used for keeping foods and drinks cool.
2- Can we agree to discuss this later?
B) Translate into English
‫* يجب أن نتبع تعليمات األمان أثناء العمل لنحمى أنفسنا من اإلصابات‬

18
Lesson 1-2
definitions ‫ تعريفات‬thermometer ‫ ترموميتر‬traffic lights ‫إشارات مرور‬
robot car ‫ سيارة اتوماتيكية‬fire extinguisher ‫ طفاية حريق‬generate ‫يولد‬
vehicles ‫ مركبات‬electric saw ‫ منشار كهربي‬measure ‫يقيس‬
tools ‫ أدوات بدائية‬plane ‫ فارة‬extinguish ‫يطفئ‬
appliances ‫ أجهزة منزلية‬electric car ‫ سيارة كهربية‬return ‫يعود‬
instrument )‫علمية‬ / ‫(قياس‬ ‫أداة‬ human ‫ بشري‬- ‫ إنساني‬resist ‫يقاوم‬
device ‫ جهاز لغرض ما‬distant ‫ بعيد‬copper ‫نحاس‬
hole ‫ ثقب حفرة‬able to ‫ قادر علي‬transmit ‫ ينقل‬- ‫يبث‬
temperature ‫ درجة حرارة‬unable to ‫ غير قادر علي‬physical ‫ طبيعي‬- ‫فيزيائي‬
rotating sensor ‫ جهاز استشعار دوار‬put out ‫ يطفئ‬hammer ‫ جاكوش‬- ‫يدق‬
detect ‫ يستنتج‬conductive ‫ قابل للتوصيل‬scratch ‫يخدش‬
robot ‫ إنسان آلي‬ductile ‫ قابل للسحب‬stretch ‫ يمد‬- ‫يتمدد‬
hand drill ‫ شنيور يدوي‬elastic ‫ مرن‬tiles ‫بالط‬
driver ‫ سائق‬malleable ‫ قابل للطرق‬original ‫أصلي‬
materials ‫ خامات‬non-malleable ‫ غير قابل للطرق‬shape ‫شكل‬
movement ‫ حركة‬tough ‫ متين‬power ‫يزود بالطاقة‬
map ‫ خريطة‬hard ‫ صلب‬shock ‫صدمة‬
area ‫ منطقة‬- ‫ مساحة‬metallic ‫ معدني‬heat ‫ يسخن‬- ‫حرارة‬
object ‫ شيء‬non-metallic ‫ غير معدني‬change ‫تغيير‬
dimensions ‫ أبعاد‬electrical wires ‫ أسالك كهربية‬corrosion ‫تآكل‬
‫) و معناها الذي أو التي للربط بين جملتين بينهما اسم مشترك و تستخدم عادة في‬which- that ( ‫* نستخدم ضمائر الوصل‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
‫التعريف باألشياء‬
- A robot car is a vehicle. A robot car can drive itself.
- A robot car is a vehicle that / which can drive itself.
- A micrometer is an instrument. A micrometer measures very small dimensions.
- A micrometer is an instrument that / which measures very small dimensions.
( ‫ ) يمكن أن نحذف ضمير الوصل و‬am / is / are + ‫) إذا أتي بعدهم ( تصريف ثالث‬which- that ( ‫* ضمائر الوصل‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
‫ ) و نترك التصريف الثالث‬am / is / are
- A thermometer is an instrument. It is used for measuring temperature.
- A thermometer is an instrument which / that is used for measuring temperature.
- A thermometer is an instrument used for measuring temperature.
- A hand drill is a tool that is used / which is used to make holes in hard materials.
- A hand drill is a tool used to make holes in hard materials.
- A sensor is a device used for detecting physical changes. (which)
- A sensor is a device which is used for detecting physical changes.
- A robot-car is a vehicle driven by a computer. (that)
Answers: (SB page 46 Ex. 4 / 5)
(a) A fire extinguisher is a device used for putting out fires.
(b) An electric car is a vehicle that is powered by electricity.
(c) A thermometer is an instrument which is used for measuring temperature.
(d) A plane is a tool that makes wood smooth ‫ أملس‬.
(e) An electric saw is an appliance used for cutting wood quickly
Answers: (SB page 46 Ex. 7)
1. Conductive ‫ قابل للتوصيل‬: able to transmit or carry heat or electricity
2. Ductile ‫قابل للسحب‬ : able to be stretched into thin wire without breaking
3. Elastic ‫مرن‬ : able to be stretched and to return to its original shape
4. Malleable ‫قابل للطرق‬ : able to be hammered into shape without breaking
5.Tough ‫متين‬ : able to resist shock or impact without breaking
6. Hard ‫صلب‬ : unable to be scratched
Answers: (SB page 46 Ex. 8)
(a) Ceramic is a hard, non-malleable material that resists heat and corrosion.
(b) Vulcanised rubber ‫ مطاط ملدن (صلب ) بعد معالجته بمادة الكبريت‬is an elastic, nonmetallic substance that is
used for making car tyres.
(c) Copper is a ductile, conductive metal that is used to make electrical wires.

19
Answers: (WB page 46 Ex. 8)
‫االسم‬ ‫المعني‬ ‫الصفة‬ ‫التعريف‬
brittleness ‫قابلية الكسر‬ brittle can be easily broken
conductivity ‫قابلية التوصيل‬ conductive can conduct electricity or heat easily
ductility ‫قابلية السحب‬ ductile can be stretched easily without breaking
elasticity ‫المرونة‬ elastic returns to its original shape after stretching
hardness ‫الصالبة‬ hard can't be cut or scratched easily
malleability ‫قابلية الطرق‬ malleable can be shaped or bent easily by hammering
Lesson 3-4
chip ‫ شريحة‬appliances ‫ أدوات منزلية‬fertile land ‫أرض خصبة‬
refrigerator ‫ ثالجة‬password ‫ كلمة المرور‬fortress ‫حصن‬
touch screen ‫ شاشة باللمس‬voice-activated ‫ منشطة صوتيا‬daylight hours ‫ساعات النهار‬
antenna ‫ الاير‬- ‫ هوائي‬intelligent ‫ ذكي‬- ‫ عصري‬fast ‫يصوم‬
DVD ‫ مشغل أقراص‬function ‫ وظيفة‬arts ‫فنون‬
sensor ‫ جهاز استشعار‬convert ‫ يحول‬craft ‫حرفة‬
air conditioner ‫ تكييف هواء‬compare ‫ يقارن‬park ‫حديقة عامة‬
hi-fi ‫ مشغل الصوت‬link ‫ يربط‬control ‫يسيطر‬
light switch ‫ مفتاح كهربي‬branch ‫ فرع‬spring ‫الربيع‬
pad ‫ وسادة‬activate ‫ ينشط‬season ‫فصل‬
fingerprint ‫ بصمة‬recognise ‫ يتعرف علي‬swim ‫يعوم‬
digital signal ‫ إشارة رقمية‬Citadel ‫ القلعة‬dive ‫يغوص‬
radio signal ‫ إشارة ال سلكية‬library ‫ مكتبة‬sail ‫يبحر‬
transceiver ‫ جهاز إرسال واستقبال‬desert ‫ صحراء‬walk ‫يمشي‬
‫) و معناه الذي فيه أو حيث بدال من اسم المكان‬where ( ‫* نستخدم ضمير الوصل‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
)where( ‫* في هذه الحالة نحذف االسم المشترك و حرف الجر الدال علي المكان و نربط بضمير الوصل‬
- The New Valley is a place the desert has been changed into fertile land in the new valley.
- The New Valley is a place where the desert has been changed into fertile land.
‫) و معناه الذي فيه أو عندما بدال من اسم الزمان‬when ( ‫* نستخدم ضمير الوصل‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
)when( ‫* في هذه الحالة نحذف االسم المشترك و حرف الجر الدال علي الزمان و نربط بضمير الوصل‬
- Ramadan is a time. Muslims fast during daylight hours in Ramadan
- Ramadan is a time when Muslims fast during daylight hours .
Answers: (SB page 48 Ex. B)
(a) Sham El Nessim is a day on which Egyptians walk in parks and enjoy the beginning of spring.
(b) The Citadel in Cairo is a place where Salah El Din built his fortress.
(c) The new library in Alexandria is a place in which millions of the world’s greatest books will be kept.
(d) Ramadan is a time when Muslims fast during daylight hours for one month.
(e) The New Valley is a place where the desert has been changed into fertile land.
(f) The Red Sea coast is a place where you can swim, dive and sail in a clear sea.
(g) Khan El Khalili is a place in which Egyptian arts and crafts can be bought.
(h) Ras El Bar is the place where the eastern branch of the River Nile reaches the sea.
Exercise on unit eight
1- Match one part from (A) with a part from (B):
A B
1- Khan El Khalili is a market where a) able to transmit or carry heat or electricity
2- Conductive means b) detecting physical changes.
3- A sensor is a device used for c) for measuring temperature.
4- A thermometer is an instrument d) you can buy Egyptian arts and crafts
2- Fill in the spaces with words from the list:
space - sensor - saw - flexible - tool - rusts
1- A ………. material can be bent.
2- Iron …………. easily.
3- Area means …………… .
4- A hand drill is a …………… used to make holes in hard materials.
5- A ………..is a device which detects a change and transmits a signal to a computer.
8- A) Translate into Arabic:
1- A thermometer is an instrument which is used for measuring temperature.
2- The New Valley is a place where the desert has been changed into fertile land.
B) Translate into English
.‫* السد العالي مصدر رئيسي لتوليد الطاقة الكهرومائية في مصر‬
20
Lesson 1-2
purpose ‫غرض‬ casing = cover ‫غطاء‬ connection ‫وصلـــــة‬
air bag ‫وسادة هوائية‬ electric ‫كهربي‬ test ‫اختبار‬
dummy ‫نموذج شكلي‬ shock ‫صدمة‬ circuit ‫دائرة كهربية‬
crash-test ‫اختبار االصطدام‬ danger ‫خطورة‬ socket ‫دواية‬
inflate ‫ينتفخ‬ electric drill ‫شنيور كهربي‬ crocodile clip ‫مشبك تمساحى‬
protect ‫يحمي‬ earth wire ‫سلك أرضي‬ earth strip ‫طرف أرضي‬
start ‫يبدأ‬ earthed plug ‫قايس أرضي‬ battery ‫بطارية‬
stop ‫يتوقف‬ cap ‫غطاء للرأس‬ strain ‫ يتعب‬- ‫يرهق‬
stretch ‫ يمتد‬- ‫يتمدد‬ carry out ‫ينفذ‬ injure ‫ يجرح‬- ‫يصيب‬
bend ‫ يلوي‬- ‫يثني‬ provide ‫ يزود‬- ‫يمد‬ damage ‫يتلف‬
wear ‫يرتدي‬ tightly ‫بإحكام‬ prevent ‫يمنع‬
appliance ‫أداة منزلية‬ boots ‫حذاء برقبة‬ escape ‫يتسرب‬
vehicle ‫مركبة‬ injury ‫إصابة‬ avoid ‫يتجنب‬
training ‫تدريب‬ fire alarm ‫جهاز إنذار الحريق‬ install ‫يركب‬
car model ‫نموذج سيارة‬ grip ‫يمسك‬ connect ‫يوصل‬
safety ‫أمان‬ lamp ‫مصباح‬ disconnect ‫يفصل‬
site ‫موقع‬ add ‫يضيف‬ powerful
‫ ) بمعني ( لكــــــي) و تعبر عن الغرض‬so as to / to / in order to + ...‫ مصدر‬....( ‫* نستخدم الروابط‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- He pressed the brakes in order to stop the car.
- He pressed the brakes so as to stop the car. - He pressed the brakes to stop the car.
‫ ) بمعني ( لكــــــي) و تعبر عن الغرض‬so that / in order that + ‫ فاعل‬+ ‫ فعل‬....( ‫* نستخدم الروابط‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- He pressed the brakes in order that he could stop the car.
- He pressed the brakes in that that he could stop the car.
) so as not to / not to / in order not to + ...‫ مصدر‬....( ‫* اذا كان الغرض منفي نستخدم‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- You should wear a cap over long hair in order not to catch your hair in a machine.
- You should bend your knees when you lift a load so as not to strain your back.
) so that / in order that + ‫ فاعل‬+ ‫ فعل‬....( ‫* يمكن بناء جملة الغرض للمجهول بعد الروابط‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- I'm pulling the hand brake so that I can stop the car.
- I’m pulling the hand brake in order that the car can be stopped.
Answers: (SB page 54 Ex. 4)
(a) You should bend your knees when you lift a load so as not to strain your back.
(b) You should wear a cap over long hair in order not to catch your hair in a machine.
(c) You should wear safety boots in order to protect your feet from falling objects.
(d) You should wear a seat belt in your car to prevent injury in an accident.
(e) We should install a fire alarm in our factory in order that workers can escape safely.
(f) Dummies are used in all crash tests so that humans are not injured.
Answers: (SB page 54 Ex. 5)
(a) The plug has an earth strip to connect the drill to earth.
(b) The drill is connected to earth in order not to give you a shock if it’s damaged.
(c) The earth test is carried out in order that you can check that the strip is working.
(d) Wires are connected to the drill and the strip so as to create a circuit.
(e) The wires have crocodile clips to grip the drill and strip tightly.
(f) A battery is connected to the circuit in order to provide the power.
(g) A lamp is added to the circuit so that you can see that the circuit is complete.
Lesson 3-4
crash ‫تصادم‬ demonstrate ‫ يوضح‬- ‫يبين‬ rear = back ‫خلفي‬
dummy ‫نموذج شكلي‬ crash-test ‫اختبار االصطدام‬ alternating ‫ متناوب‬- ‫متغير‬
runway ‫ممر‬ copy ‫يقلد‬ average ‫ معدل‬- ‫متوسط‬
human ‫إنسان‬ attach ‫ يربط‬- ‫يثبت‬ construct ‫ يبني‬- ‫يشيد‬
sensor ‫جهاز استشعار‬ reverse ‫يسير للخلف‬ definition ‫تعريف‬
lead block ‫كتلة من الرصاص‬ prepare ‫ يجهز‬- ‫يعد‬ reason ‫سبب‬
passenger seat ‫مقعد الركاب‬ check ‫يفحص‬ metal disc ‫قرص معدني‬
boot ‫صندوق السيارة‬ examine ‫يختبر‬ rubber pad ‫وسادة مطاطية‬
vehicle ‫مركبة‬ protect ‫يحمي‬ spine ‫هيكل عظمي‬
barrier ‫ سد‬- ‫عائق‬ measure ‫يقيس‬ grip ‫يمسك‬

21
equal ‫يساوي‬ film ‫ يصور‬consist of ‫يتكون من‬
‫* يمكن أن نكون سؤال بصورة رسمية أو بصورة غير رسمية و كال السؤالين يعطي نفس المعني‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
* What is the function of an air bag? (Formal question)
- What is an air bag for? (Informal question)
* What is the definition of a speed sensor? (Formal question)
- What exactly is this? (Informal question)
Answers: (SB page 56 Ex. A)
(a) What is the function of the air bag? = What’s this for?
- It protects the face and body in a crash.
(b) What is the purpose of putting a dummy in the car? = Why do you do that?
- So that we can see what will happen to the driver.
(c) What is the definition of a speed sensor? = What exactly is this?
- It’s a device which measures speed.
(d) What material is the seat belt constructed from? = What’s this made of?
- It’s made of nylon.
(e) What is the reason for using nylon? = Why is this used?
- It’s durable and has good tensile strength.
(f) What is the speed of the vehicle? = How fast does it go?
- It travels at 56 kph.
(g) What does the dummy’s spine consist of? = What are its main parts?
- It consists of metal discs and rubber pads.
Exercise on unit nine
1. Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1- A speed sensor is a device which measures.............. .
a) speed b) length c) size d) height
2- An earth test should be carried out…….. make sure that the earth wire is working correctly.
a) because b) in order that c) in order to d) because of
3- The function of the air bag is……… the face and body in a crash.
a) to protect b) protect c) protected d) protection
4- How .............. does it go? - It travels at 56 kph.
a) far b) deep c) long d) fast
5- Glass is used for windows because it is ……………. .
a) conductive b) transparent c) corrosion-resistant d) malleable
6- Copper is used in wires ………….. its ductility.
a) so that b) due to c) so as to d) because
7- The wires have ................. clips to grip the drill and strip tightly.
a) crocodile b) lion c) cat d) snake
8- We wear safety boots to protect our…………. from falling things.
a) feet b) heads c) shoulders d) eyes
1- Match one part from (A) with a part from (B):
A B
1- Glass is not used for making safety goggles a) to put out electrical fires.
2- Cast iron is used for making vices b) due to its brittleness
3- Carbon dioxide can be used c) because of its great tensile strength
4- The seat belts are made of polyester d) owing to its hardness.
2- Rewrite the following sentences, using the word(s) in brackets:-
1- The test is carried out in order that you can check that the strip is working. (so as to)
2- He pressed the brakes in order to stop the car. (so that)
3- You should wear a seat belt in your car for preventing injury in an accident. (in order to)
4- What material is the seat belt constructed from? (made of)
3- Fill in the spaces with words from the list:
pads - goggles - bulb - strength - workshop - head
1- Nylon is durable and has good tensile………………
2- A hammer is a tool with a handle and a ……………… .
3-………..are worn when working with machine tools to protect your eyes.
4- You must never smoke while you are working in a ………………. .
5- The dummy spine consists of metal discs and rubber...............
4- A) Translate into Arabic :
1- A refrigerator is an appliance used for storing food and drink at low temperatures.
2- You should bend your knees when you lift a load so as not to strain your back.
B) Translate into English: . ‫يستخدم الزجاج لصناعة الشبابيك ألنة شفاف‬

22
Lesson 1-2
inventions ‫اختراعات‬ jump ‫يقفذ‬ fan ‫مروحة‬
snake ‫ثعبان‬ surfboard ‫لوح الطفو‬ piston ‫مكبس‬
robotic snake ‫ثعبان آلي‬ team ‫فريق‬ pull ‫يشد‬
crawl ‫يزحف‬ tighten ‫يربط‬ plumber ‫سباك‬
scaffolding ‫سقالـــــة‬ loosen ‫ يحل الربط‬- ‫يفك‬ goggles ‫نظارة واقية‬
pipe ‫ماسورة‬ floor ‫أرضية‬ inlet valve ‫صمام إدخال‬
motorcyclist ‫راكب دراجة بخارية‬ valve ‫محبس‬ outlet valve ‫صمام إخراج‬
helmet ‫خوذة‬ chamber ‫تجويف‬ loudspeaker ‫مكبر الصوت‬
operation ‫عملية‬ jack ‫كوريك‬ convert ‫يحول‬
glasses ‫نظارة‬ powerful ‫قوي‬ magnet ‫مغناطيس‬
digital ‫رقمي‬ thrusters ‫محركات الدفع‬ main parts ‫أجزاء رئيسية‬
technician ‫عامل فني‬ robot ‫إنسان آلي‬ cone ‫شكل مخروطي‬
together ‫معا‬ carefully ‫بحرص‬ wire coil ‫ملف سلك‬
invent ‫يخترع‬ engineer ‫مهندس‬ poles ‫أقطاب‬
inventor ‫مخترع‬ hole ‫فتحة – ثقب‬ vibrate ‫يهتز‬
drop ‫يسقط‬ wrench ‫مفتاح ربط‬ sound waves ‫موجات صوتية‬
design ‫يصمم‬ motorbike ‫دراجة بخارية‬ amplifier ‫مكبر‬
carry ‫يحمل‬ life jacket ‫سترة النجاة‬ produce ‫ يصدر‬- ‫ينتج‬
‫) هي أفعال تتبع بحروف جر تغير معناها تماما‬Phrasal verbs( ‫* األفعال االصطالحية‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- Take ‫يأخذ‬ - Take off ‫يخلع‬ - Take apart ‫يفك‬
- Put ‫يضـع‬ - Put on ‫ يرتدي‬- put together ‫ يركب‬- ‫يجمع‬
.‫* عندما تكون هذه األفعال متعدية لمفعول فان المفعول أحيانا يكون له أكثر من مكان بالنسبة لحرف الجر‬
- Pick up the wrench. - Pick the wrench up.
- Pick it up. (it = the wrench) - Pick up it. ( X ‫) خطأ‬
.‫* األفعال اآلتية مفعولها يأتي بعد حرف الجر سواء كان المفعول اسم أو ضمير‬
crawl into ‫ يزحف إلى داخل‬- The insect crawled into the hole - The insect crawled into it
creep along ‫ يزحف بطول‬- The snake crept along the pipe - The snake crept along it
climb up ‫ يتسلق‬- He climbed up the cliff. - He climbed up it .
walk into ‫يدخل إلى‬ - The girl walked into the room. - The girl walked into it.
jump over ‫ يقفز من فوق‬- He jumped over the hurdles - He jumped over them
‫* األفعال اآلتية مفعولها يأتي قبل أو بعد حرف الجر إذا كان اسم أما إذا كان المفعول ضمير فيجب أن يأتي قبل حرف الجر فقط‬
pick up ‫ يلتقط‬- The man picked up the hammer. The man picked it up
put down ‫ يضع جانبا‬- The boy put down the tools. The boy put them down
take off ‫ يخلع مالبس‬- He take off this helmet. The motorcyclist took it off.
take apart ‫ يفكك‬- He took apart the computer. He took it apart.
put together ‫ يجمع‬- He put together the parts of the bike. He put them apart.
Answers: (SB page 58 Ex. 4)
(a) The robotic snake can crawl to a wrench and pick it up. Then it can crawl to the scaffolding and
climb up it.
(b) The motorcyclist walked to his motorbike and jumped on it. Then he picked up his helmet and
put it on.
(c) Ahmed loosened his life jacket and took it off. Then he stood on the edge of the surfboard and
fell off it.
(d) Kamal picked up his safety goggles and put them on. But then he dropped his glasses on the
floor and accidentally stood on them.
(e) The plumber picked up the blocked pipes and looked down them. Then he put them down.
Answers: (SB page 58 Ex. 5)
(a) The piston pulls up the inlet valve. Then it pushes it down again.
(b) The piston pulls down the outlet valve. Then it pushes it up again.
(c) The engineer took the robot apart. The technician cleaned it up and the inventor put it together again.
(d) Mahmoud jacked up ‫ يرفع‬the car. Ahmed took off and repaired the tyres, and Ali put them on
again.
(e) A strong fan sucks the air in ‫ يشفط‬. Then a powerful thruster pushes it out ‫ يطرد‬again.
23
Lesson 3-4
snakebot ‫االنبوب الثعبان االلى‬ contain ‫يحتوى على‬ consist of ‫يتكون من‬
sensor ‫جهاز استشعار‬ explore ‫يستكشف‬ grip ‫يمسك‬
wheel ) ‫عجلة ( سيارة‬ control ‫يتحكم‬ connect….to ‫ يوصل‬- ‫يربط بـ‬
wire ‫سلك‬ controller ‫منظم‬ resemble ‫يشبه‬
surface ‫سطح‬ touch ‫يلمس‬ feel ‫يشعر‬
snake ‫حية – ثعبان‬ scaffolding ‫سقالة‬ cause ‫يتسبب‬
move ‫يتحرك‬ power ‫طاقة كهربية‬ link ‫يربط‬
movement ‫حركة‬ information ‫معلومات‬ micro-computer ‫كمبيوتر صغير‬
lever ‫زراع‬ direction ‫اتجاه‬ central computer ‫كمبيوتر مركزي‬
crawl ‫يزحف‬ purpose ‫غرض‬ gears ‫تروس‬
function ‫وظيفة‬ structure ‫هيكل – تركيب‬ module ‫وحدة برمجية‬
operation ‫عملية‬ rock ‫صخرة‬ planet ‫كوكب‬
rod ‫قضيب معدني‬ transmit ‫ينقل – يبث‬ coast ‫ساحل‬
‫* يمكن أن نقدم أنفسنا لآلخرين كالتالي‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
* Let me introduce myself. ‫دعني أقدم نفسي‬
* Allow me to introduce myself. ‫أسمح لي أن أقدم نفسي‬
* I'd like to introduce myself. ‫أود أن أقدم نفسي‬
* My name is ......... ‫ اسم‬....... I'm a…....... ‫ وظيفة‬........... I work for.......... ‫ مكان العمل‬...............
(a) Let me introduce myself. My name is
Khalid. I’m a student at Tahrir Industrial School.
(b) Allow me to introduce myself. I’m Khalid. I study at Ashmoun Industrial School.
(c) I like action films. What kind of films do you like?
(d) I’m 17 years old. How old are you?
(e) I support the Egyptian national team. Which football team do you support ‫? يشجع‬
(f) I come from Ashmoun in Egypt. Where do you come from?
(g) I’m a student. What do you do?
(h) Did you see the TV programme about Mars ‫ ? كوكب المريخ‬This is what happened: a spaceship
landed on Mars last week, and water was found there.
(i) The Red Sea coast ‫ ساحل‬is a place where you can swim and dive in clean water.
(j) Sham El Nessim is a day when people go out to welcome the spring ‫ الربيع‬.
(k) Khan El Khalili is a place in which you can buy Egyptian crafts and food.
(l) In Egypt, tea is often drunk with mint, whereas ‫ بينما‬in England, tea is often taken with milk.
(m) In Egypt, bread is eaten a lot, but in England, potatoes are eaten a lot.
(n) This is how taamiyya is made: first chickpeas ‫ حمص‬are mashed. Then they are made into balls
and fried ‫ يقلي‬.
(o) This is how kofta is made: first, meat is minced ‫ يفرم‬and made into tubes. Then they are
skewered ‫ يضع في أسياخ‬and grilled ‫يشوي‬.
Exercise on unit ten
5- Read the following passage, then answer the questions below:
Last week I bought an electric kettle. Before using it, I read its instruction manual. Then I began
cleaning the kettle. I filled it to the maximum level, boiled the water and threw the water away .
When I used the kettle, I decided to fill it with water. I first disconnected the kettle from the
electricity supply. I poured the water in through the spout ‫ صنبور‬. I fitted the appliance connector into
the socket, plugged the lead into the mains supply and switched on by pushing the button down.
When the water boiled, the thermostat in the kettle automatically switched the appliance off and the
temperature indicator ‫ مؤشر‬changed from orange to red.
A) Answer the following questions:
1. What is kettle used for?
2. What did the writer do before using the new kettle?
3. How, did the writer switch the kettle on?
B) Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d :
4. The …….. in the kettle will automatically switch the appliance off
a) socket b) indicator c) thermostat d) button
5. Before filling the kettle with water , ……….. it from the electricity supply
a) connect b) disconnect c) switch on d) plug in
6. The writer poured the water into the kettle through the ……… .
a) spout b) supply c) mains d) thermostat
7. When the water boiled the temperature indicator water changed into………
a) orange b) red c) blue d) black

24
Lesson 1-2
achievement ‫انجــــاز‬ test ‫اختبار‬ check ‫يفحص‬
appraisal ‫توصية‬ specifications ‫مواصفات‬ checklist ‫ قائمة‬،‫الئحة‬
report ‫ يبلغ‬- ‫تقرير‬ technical ‫فني‬ fit ‫يركب‬
robot ‫إنسان آلي‬ drawing ‫الرسم‬ hand over ‫ يوصل‬- ‫يسلم‬
project ‫مشروع‬ manufacture ‫ تصنيع‬- ‫يصنع‬ insulate ‫يضع مادة عازلة‬
design ‫ تصميم‬- ‫يصمم‬ department ‫قسم‬ add ‫يضيف‬
invent ‫يخترع‬ modification ‫تعديل‬ team ‫فريق‬
explain ‫ يفسر‬- ‫يشرح‬ radiator ‫شبكة تبريد الهواء‬ series ‫سلسلة‬
promise ‫ وعد‬- ‫يوعد‬ bearings ‫زوايا العَجَل‬ model ‫نموزج‬
agree ‫يوافق‬ connections ‫وصالت‬ achieve ‫يحقق‬
mention ‫ يذكر‬- ‫يقول‬ lubricating oil ‫زيت التشحيم‬ broken ‫مكسور‬
complete ‫يكمل‬ lubricate ‫يشحم‬ switch ‫مفتاح كهربي‬
put together ‫ يركب‬- ‫يجمع‬ recharge ‫يعيد شحن‬ replace ‫يستبدل‬
assemble ‫ يركب‬- ‫يجمع‬ top up ‫يمأل‬ together ‫معا‬
‫* يمكن أن نحول الكالم من المباشر إلي غير المباشر كالتالي‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
‫ تغيير الضمائر حسب معنى‬- ) that ( ‫ الربط بـ‬- ‫ حذف األقواس‬-
)told( ‫ ) الي‬said to ( ‫ تغيير الفعل‬- ‫ تغيير الزمن إلي الماضي‬-
- Salah said, "I have started the project"
- Salah said that he had finished the project
- He said to me," I will test the model soon."
- He told me that he would test the model soon.
- "My team will check all the parts of the car", Ali said to me. (Ali told me)
- Ali told me that his team would check all the parts of the car
- The manager said to Salah ," We will promote you " (promised)
- The manager promised Salah that they would promote him.
Answers: (SB page 66 Ex. 4)
1. Salah reported that he had planned the specifications of the new robot in January.
2. Salah wrote that he had completed the design and had begun the technical drawings.
3. Salah said that he had produced the drawings and had passed them to his team.
4. Salah stated that his team had put together a working model for the robot.
5. Salah explained that since July many modifications had been made to the model.
6. Salah told his manager that his team would carry out a series of tests on the working model.
7. Salal said that he would write a full report on how to manufacture the robot.
8. Salah reported that the project would be handed over to the manufacturing department.
‫* تحويل الجملة إلي المبني للمجهول في زمن الماضي البسيط‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
‫) مع الجمع‬were( ‫) مع المفرد و‬was( ‫ نستخدم الفعل المساعد‬- ‫ نبدأ بالمفعول‬- ‫ نحذف الفاعل‬-
‫ نضع الفعل األساسي في التصريف الثالث‬-
- Mahmoud lubricated the bearings on the 19th of March.
- The bearings were lubricated on the 19th of March.
‫* تحويل الجملة إلي المبني للمجهول في زمن المضارع التام‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
‫ نبدأ بالمفعول‬- ‫ نحذف الفاعل‬-
‫) والتصريف الثالث‬have / has( ‫) بين‬been( ‫ نستخدم الفعل المساعد‬-
- Ali has recharged the batteries.
- The batteries have been recharged.
Answers: (SB page 66 Ex. 5)
(a) The new radiator has been fitted and checked.
(b) Mahmoud lubricated the bearings on the 19th of March.
(c) The broken switches have not been replaced yet.
(d) The connections were insulated on the 18th of March.
(e) Ali has recharged the batteries.
(f) The lubricating oil has not been topped up yet.
(g) Ahmed took apart the brake system and checked it on the 17th of Ma
Answers: (SB page 66 Ex. 6)
(a) Kamal explained that the new radiator had been fitted and checked.
(b) Mahmoud told the supervisor that he had lubricated the bearings on the 19th of March.
(c) The supervisor said that the broken switches had not been replaced yet.
25
(d) Kamal wrote in his report that the connections had been insulated on the 18th of March.
(e) Ali stated that he had recharged the batteries.
(f) Kamal reported that the lubricating oil had not been topped up yet.
Lesson 3-4
appraisal ‫توصية‬ supervisory skills ‫مهارات اشرافية‬ copy ‫ نسخة‬- ‫ينسخ‬
job title ‫مسمي وظيفي‬ communication ‫اتصال‬ communicate ‫يتصل بــ‬
description ‫وصف‬ administrative ‫اداري‬ discipline ‫انضباط‬
project ‫مشروع‬ inventor ‫مخترع‬ excellent ‫ممتاز‬
design ‫تصميم‬ secretary ‫سكرتير‬ adequate ‫مالئم‬
device ‫ آلة‬- ‫جهاز‬ department ‫قسم‬ attentive ‫ منتبه‬- ‫يقظ‬
production ‫إنتاج‬ unit ‫وحدة‬ innovative ‫ مبدع‬- ‫مبتكر‬
schedule ‫جدول مواعيد‬ manage : run ‫يدير‬ flexible ‫مــــرن‬
test ‫ اختبار‬- ‫يختبر‬ manager ‫مدير‬ cooperative ‫متعاون‬
cost ‫تكلفة‬ assist ‫يساعد‬ positive ‫ايجابي‬
staff ‫هيئة عاملين‬ prepare ‫ يجهز‬- ‫يعد‬ responsible ‫مسئول‬
calculate ‫يحسب‬ boss ‫رئيس العمل‬ buoyant ‫ متفائل‬،‫مرح‬
robot ‫إنسان آلي‬ produce ‫ينتج‬ helpful
promote ‫يرقي‬ supervise ‫يشرف علي‬ feedback ‫تعليق‬
promotion ‫ترقية‬ plan ‫يخطط‬ criticism ‫النقد‬
training ‫تدريب‬ implement ‫ينفذ‬ constructive - ‫بناء‬
deadline ‫آخر موعد‬ report ‫ تقرير‬- ‫يبلغ‬ keen ‫متحمس‬
technical skills ‫مهارات فنية‬ motivate ‫ يشجع‬- ‫يحفز‬ concerning ‫بخصوص‬
Answers: (WB page 66 Ex. 4)
MEMO
To: Manager, Projects Department
From: Khalid Hamza, Design Technician
cc: Managing Director
Date: 24 May 2012
Re: Plans for new robotic project
You will remember that I had a meeting with you last week concerning the above. At that meeting,
you asked me to prepare plans for the new project.
I am pleased to inform you that I have now prepared these plans. I would like to discuss these plans
with you and the production team.
I would like to recommend that you should call another meeting as soon as possible with me and
the production staff, so that we can work out a schedule for the project.
Exercise on unit eleven
1- Match one part from (A) with a part from (B) :-
(A) (B)
1- He is able to think up new ideas. a) He is positive.
2- He is keen on his work. b) He is innovative.
3- He doesn't become angry when people criticise him. e) He is helpful.
4- He is constructive d) He is buoyant.
2- Rewrite the following sentences, using the word(s) in brackets to give the same meaning:
1- Mahmoud lubricated the bearings on the 19th of March. (The bearings)
2- He communicates his ideas well. (communicative)
3- Hani said," My team has put together a working model for the robot. (said that)
4- - Ali has recharged the batteries. (have)
3- Fill in the spaces with words from the list:
positive - criticism - company - buoyant - flexible - memo
1- It’s easy to persuade Ahmed to change his mind about things He is ……………
2- An organisation means a ……………..
3- You write a…………… to people in the same organisation as yourself
4- You are lazy. This is a ………….. of insulting.
5- Ahmed is very cheerful. He is ………… .
4- A) Translate into Arabic:
1- A power drill is a tool which is used for drilling holes in metal.
2- My friend works in the administrative department of a big company.
B) Translate into English :
.‫يجب علي الفنيين أن يكونوا متعاونين مع رئيسهم في العمل‬

26
Lesson 1-2
job hunting ‫البحث عن وظيفة‬ equipment ‫معدات‬
personal skills ‫مهارات شخصية‬
electronics ‫الكترونيات‬ main ‫رئيسي‬
social skills ‫مهارات اجتماعية‬
company ‫شركة‬ experience ‫خبرة‬
information ‫معلومات‬
maintain ‫يجري صيانة‬ educate ‫يعلم‬
institution ‫معهد‬
maintenance ‫الصيانة‬ education ‫تعليم‬
duties ‫واجبات‬
industrial ‫صناعي‬ captain ‫قائد‬
advertise ‫يعلن عن‬
training ‫تدريب‬ CV ‫سيرة ذاتية‬
advertisement ‫اعالن‬
responsibilities ‫مسئوليات‬ curriculum vitae ‫سيرة ذاتية‬
distinction ‫امتياز‬
diploma ‫دبلوم‬ position : post ‫وظيفة‬
visual ‫بصري‬
audio engineer ‫مهندس صوت‬ career ‫حياة مهنية‬
ambition ‫طموح‬
employ ‫يوظف‬ nationality ‫جنسية‬
industry ‫الصناعة‬
employer ‫صاحب العمل‬ date of birth ‫تاريخ الميالد‬
attach ‫يرفق‬
train ‫ يتدرب‬- ‫يدرب‬ details ‫تفاصيل‬
photocopy ‫صورة ضوئية‬
qualifications ‫مؤهالت‬ gain ‫ يحصل علي‬- ‫ يكتسب‬successful ‫ناجح‬
.‫* تحويل الجملة إلي المبني للمجهول في زمن الماضي البسيط‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
‫) مع الجمع‬were( ‫) مع المفرد و‬was( ‫ نستخدم الفعل المساعد‬- ‫ نبدأ بالمفعول‬- ‫ نحذف الفاعل‬-
‫ نضع الفعل األساسي في التصريف الثالث‬-
- Mahmoud lubricated the bearings on the 19th of March.
- The bearings were lubricated on the 19th of March.
.‫* تحويل الجملة إلي المبني للمجهول في زمن المضارع التام‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
‫ نبدأ بالمفعول‬- ‫ نحذف الفاعل‬-
.‫) والتصريف الثالث‬have / has( ‫) بين‬been( ‫ نستخدم الفعل المساعد‬-
- Ali has recharged the batteries.
- The batteries have been recharged.
.‫* يستخدم المضارع التام للتعبير عن حدث تم في الماضي و له أثر اآلن و ال نذكر متى تم الحدث‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- I’ve worked in Cairo for two years. - Have you ever worked as a technician?
- I’ve been employed as a technician since 2000. - Have you ever been trained as a doctor?
.‫* يستخدم الماضي البسيط للسؤال عن حدث تم في الماضي و ليس له أثر اآلن و نذكر متى تم الحدث‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- When did you work as a technician? - Where was he employed as a technician?
- I worked in Alexandria many years ago.
.‫ ) للتعبير عن عادة في الماضي و ليست موجودة الآلن‬+ ‫* يستخدم الفعل المساعد ( مصدر‬ :‫الحظ اآلتي‬
- I used to work as a repair man in the 1990s.
- Ali used to get up early.
Answers: (SB page 70 Ex. 4)
(a) maintains and repairs all electronic equipment (b) Delta Electronics
(c) Technical Education Diploma (d) Tahrir Industrial School, Cairo
(e) electronic maintenance (f) Delta Electronics
(g) first prize in English at Tahrir Industrial School (h) captain of school football team
Lesson 3-4
equipment ‫معدات‬ technique ‫ تقنية‬- ‫أسلوب‬ required ‫مطلوب‬
maintenance ‫الصيانة‬ certificate ‫شهادة‬ responsible ‫مسئول‬
skills ‫مهارات‬ application ‫طلب لوظيفة‬ constructive ‫بناء‬
technology ‫تكنولوجيا‬ negotiation ‫تفاوض‬ purchase ‫يشتري‬
feedback ‫تعليق‬ digital ‫رقمي‬ at least ‫علي األقل‬
criticism ‫النقد‬ fixed ‫ثابت‬ apply for ‫يتقدم لوظيفة‬
location ‫مكان التصوير‬ portable ‫يمكن حمله‬ deadline ‫آخر موعد‬
senior ‫كبير‬ experienced ‫ذو خبرة‬ degree ‫درجة علمية‬
junior ‫صغير‬ innovative ‫مبتكر‬ necessary ‫ضروري‬
troubleshooting ‫إصالح الخطأ‬ motivated ‫ مندفع‬،‫متحفز‬ carry out ‫ينفذ‬
qualification ‫مؤهل‬ qualified ‫مؤهل‬ based in ‫مقره في‬
experience ‫خبرة‬ exciting ‫مثير‬ coast ‫ساحل‬
interview ‫مقابلة شخصية‬ co-operative ‫متعاون‬ range ‫ نطاق‬- ‫مدي‬
guidelines ‫إرشادات‬ positive ‫ايجابي‬ enthusiastic ‫متحمس‬
knowledge ‫معرفة‬ attitude ‫موقف‬ field ‫مجال‬
under pressure ‫تحت ضغط‬ job advert ‫إعالن عن وظيفة‬ model ‫نموزج‬

27
Exercise on unit twelve
1- Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1- Ahmed told his friend that he ……….the Red Sea Film Studios the previous month.
a) visited b) have visited c) had visited d) would visit
2- I haven’t seen my uncle ……………. 2001.
a) since b) for c) ago d) yet
3- He ran fast …………….. he could catch the bus.
a) to b) in order to c) so as to d) so that
4- Falling water ………….. turbines to produce electricity.
a) copies b) discovers c) fixes d) causes
5- The motorcyclist put on his goggles. Then he………….
a) took off them b) them took off c) took them off d) off took them
6- I’ve been ……………. as a technician since 2000.
a) employed b) employ c) employer d) employs
7- I ……………. work as a technician many years ago.
a) use b) use to c) used to d) used for
8- A: Have you ever worked in a TV repair shop? B: Yes, I ………… .
a) do b) did c) have d) haven’t
3- Match one part from (A) with a part from (B):
(A) (B)
1- Magnetistion a) is a vehicle which is driven by a computer.
2- A robot car b) is a tool that makes holes in materials
3- An air-powered car c) is a process in which iron becomes a magnet.
4- A hand drill d) is driven by a two-cylinder, compressed-air engine.
4- Rewrite the following sentences, using the word(s) in brackets to give the same meaning:
1- A football is heavier than a tennis ball. (as........... as)
2- An earth test should be carried out in order to make sure that the earth wire is working correctly.
(in order that )
3- The robot was taken apart by the engineer. (The engineer )
4- He mended the car three weeks ago. (The car)
6- Fill in the spaces with words from the list:
rules - positive - vices - panel - circuit - recharged
1- A ……….. is a path for electricity.
2- Workmen should follow the safety ……..in the building sites and factories.
3- A solar…….......... is a device used for converting sunlight into electrical power.
4- Ali ………… the battery as it was empty.
5- When you have a problem, you should be………… .
8- A) Translate into Arabic:
1- All electrical appliances should be tested before use.
2- A loudspeaker is a device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
B) Translate into English:
‫نحن نعيش في عصر العلم والتكنولوجيا الحديثة‬
Test one
1- Supply the missing parts in the following dialogue:
Ahmed : (1)………….......……...............………….?
Salah : This is a bicycle.
Ahmed : What is it made of ?
Salah : (2)………….........……….................……….
Ahmed : (3)………........………...............………….?
Salah : because steel is hard.
2- Choose the correct answer from a,b,c,or d:
1- You can see through glass . It is................
a) ductile b) buoyant c) transparent d) soft
2- Hs works well in the team . He is...............
a) cooperative b) tough c) hard d) resistant
3- Paper is easy to bum . It is...............
a) tough b) combustible c) strong d) hard
4- Workers in the company should be trained on first.........
a) Time b) month c) year d) aid
5- A............ material lasts along time.
a) Ductile b) resistant c) durable d) rust
6- This metal is strong . It has................
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a) flexibility b) brittleness c) honesty d) strength
7- A windsurf board is covered ............ fiberglass.
a) with b) on c) of d) from
8- The material which does not sink in water is................
a) transparent b) buoyant c) heavy d) flexible
3- Match a part from A with a part from B:
(A) (B)
1- steel is a- are made of nylon
2- Rubber is b- should be served in the school canteen
3- The ropes c- easy to bend.
4- Soft drinks d- impossible to bend
4- Rewrite the following sentences using the word(s)in brackets-:
1- The sail is made of polyester which cannot be cut. ( because)
2- He pressed the brakes in order to stop the car. (so that)
3- Ahmed is intelligent . ( intelligence)
4- We use iron for making vices . (.. is used ..)
5- Read the following passage, then answer the questions below:-
Different materials are used for making different things. Copper is used for making electric wires
because it is easy to stretch, but it is difficult to break. We use iron for making vices because it is
heavy and doesn't bend easily. Most screws are made of stainless steel because of its hardness
and toughness. Graphite is very strong, so squash and tennis rackets are made of it. Ropes are
usually made of nylon. Nylon cannot be stretched and cannot be cut easily. Tarmac has
compressive strength and so roads are made of it. Aluminum is very strong, but also very light.
Many useful things are made of it such as cooking pots and parts of tools and machines. Wood has
many uses. It is used for making furniture, doors, windows, chairs, desks and parts of ships and
boats.
A- Answer the following questions-:
1 -What is copper used for? 2- Mention 3 things made of wood.
3- Why are roads made or tarmac ?
B- Choose the correct answer from a ,b, c or d-:
4- Iron is used for making vices because it is................
a) heavy b) light c) transparent d) ductile
5- Roads are made of.........
a) wood b) tarmac c) steel d) graphite
6- The underlined word "!t" refers to.............
a) iron b) wood c) steel d) Aluminum
7- "Squash" is a.................
a) material b) game c) boat d) board
6- Fill in the spaces with the words from the list:
power - ductile - lies - broken - aluminum
1- The boom is made of ........................which is tough.
2- Glass can be ...........................easily.
3- Copper is used for making wires because it is....................
4- He is honest. He never tells....................
5- Turn off the ............... before removing the bulb
7- Write s short paragraph of 5 sentences on; "Sailing boat"
Guiding points:
consist of - four carts - board - boom -sail- mast/ made of - plastic foam/ boom -Aluminum / life
jacket / sail - polyester - resistant to water
8- A) Translate into Arabic: -
1- You must put on your Lifejacket before swimming. 2- Concrete doesn't break or bend.
B) Translate into English-:
. ‫يستعمل األلومونيوم في مصنع سارية السفينة‬
Test two
1- Supply the missing parts in the following dialogue:
Mona : Fatma . I have some great news! I've passed my examination in computer skills.
Fatma: (a) ..........................................................................
Mona : Thanks. But why are you looking sad . Fatma ?
Fatma: I'm sad because my grandmother passed away this morning.
Mona : (b) ............................................................................
Fatma: Thanks for your sympathy I'm also sad because I failed my computer exam
Mona : (c)..............................................................................
29
Fatma : Thank you.
2- Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d.'
1- The aeroplane wheels should be checked after every …………..
a) flight b) meal c) day d) walk
2- The program needs to be ................... before switching off the computer.
a) switch b) open c) opened d) closed
3- Ladders.......... be carried by at least two men.
a) have b) have to c) has d) are
4- The driver lubricates parts at 10000 .............. intervals.
a) kilometers b) years c) kilometer d) weeks
5- If the meter points at wrong number, it should be.............
a) used b) broken c) heated d) adjusted
6- Ship masts are made of Aluminum because it is............
a) rust resistant b) rust c) transparent d) old
7- When concrete is struck from the side, it cannot be broken because it has.....
a) brittleness b)hardness c) flexibility d) strong
8- The pipe has some dirt inside. please, ................. it
a) Take b) drink c) unblock d) block
3- Match a part from A with a part from B:
A B
1- Tools should be (a) have to be repaired or replaced.
2- Broken fire extinguishers (b) please, unblock it
3- Change the oil (c) put in their containers
4- The pipe has some dirt inside (d) every 5000 kilometers
4- Rewrite the following sentences using the word(s)'fn brackets, to give the same meaning:-
1- How often must the engine be checked ? (ought )
2- The propellers must be tested every month . (It is important ...)
3- The driver checks the tyres every 5000 kilometers. (intervals)
4- Aluminum is a metal which resists rust. (resistant)
5- Read the following passage, then answer the question below:
How does an aeroplane work? and what makes it rise into the air? It is the shape of the wing . Air
approaches the wing at high speed and splits into two air currents . One air current goes over the
upper surface of the wing .The other one goes under the lower surface . Because of the shape of
the wing, the upper air current moves faster than the lower air current. The higher pressure from
below pushes the wing upwards to the lower pressure area. You can make the plane rise more by
changing the angle of the wing. When you lower the ailerons, the angle of the wing changes.
)A) Answer the following; questions-:
1- When does air splits into two air currents? 2- To where do the two air currents go?
3- What makes the upper air current travel more quickly than the lower current?
(B)choose the right answer from a . b. c or d:
4- The function of an aileron is to............. a) change the wing b) change, the angle of the wing
c) change the plane d) change the pilot.
5- The wing moves upwards when pressure from below is..............
a) higher b) lower c) pressure d) under
6- Changing the angle of the wing makes the plane........
a) tail b) rise c) decrease d) slow
7- The underlined word it refers to...........
a) the wing b) the plane c) the aileron d) the angle
6- fill in the spaces with the words from the list:
chemicals - lock - hot - head - break
1- if the engine is not lubricated , it will become. .....................
2- When copper is pulled , it does not. ....................
3- Safety helmets should be worn to protect your…………..
4- .................must be kept away in strong containers.
5- Security staff should ................. the factory gates every night.
7- Write a short paragraph of 5 sentences on: “Rubber and its uses”
You may use the following guiding word and phrases:
" useful - material / flexible - bend - stretch / used - car tyres / clothes made of / shoes – boots "
8- A. Translate into Arabic:
1- Steel is difficult to bend. 2- Rubber is a very flexible material.
B. Translate into English;
. ‫يجب حمل أجهزة الكمبيوتر بعناية‬
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