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“Building Management Information Systems The
Requirement Analysis, System Design, System
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DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2039.5684

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Implementation & Maintenance” Muhammad Usman. Paul Okakwu. “Building Management Information Systems: The Requirement Analysis. A. KANO-NIGERIA.DEPARTMENT OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE. BAYERO UNIVERSITY. Patricia Emeh. Gwarzo . System Design. Abubakar Shamaki. Ilyasu Abdulkarim. System Acquisition and.

The development and use of management information systems (MIS) is a modern phenomenon concerned with the use of appropriate information that will lead to better planning. Data is like raw materials while the information is equivalent to the finished goods produced after processing the raw material. information has a precise meaning and it is different from data. It is an important resource needed to develop other resources. Information has certain characteristics. to plan. and perhaps profoundly change the way they conduct business. to co-ordinate and to control”. Organizing. While Peter F. its own tools and its own techniques”.Drucker argued that ”Management is work and as such it has its own skills.W. In MIS a clear distinction is made between data and information. It is a process consisting of Planning. information and information systems. MANAGEMENT It is the effective utilization of human and material resources to achieve organizational objective. Changing circumstances and environments have necessitated the need for the proper dissemination of information at various levels of management. acquisition. These concepts must be fully grasped before the idea behind building MIS can be appreciated.B.INTRODUCTION: Every aspect of management in the modern age relies heavily on information to thrive. To Henry Fayol – management means “To Manage is to forecast. Taylor – management is “Art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that it is done the best and cheapest way”. Management is the art of getting things done through and with people” INFORMATION The word „information‟ is used commonly in our day to day working. to organise. K. Directing. better decision making and better results. to command. Nothing moves without information and it is generally believed that information is power and that he who has it has power. information. Adeoti-Adekeye (1997) Today it is widely recognized that information systems knowledge is essential for managers because most organizations need information systems to survive and prosper. These are:  Improves representation of an entity  Updates the level of knowledge . In a sense. Laudon. Staffing. implementation. W. Information brings clarity and creates an intelligent human response in the mind. In trying to understand the requirement. and maintenance of building management information systems. reshape jobs and work flows. Reporting. (2006). Co-Coordinating. J. In MIS. Information systems can help companies extend their reach to faraway locations. offer new products and services. The information has a value in decision making while data does not have. design. Budgeting (POSDCORB) According to F. & Laudon. it is important to understand certain fundamental concepts like Management.

(2003) defined information system is a form of communication system in which data represent and are processed as a form of social memory. etc . transform. created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. (2004). process. There is no universally accepted definition of MIS. which is processed to provide output in the form of information reports. In this usage. efficient and effective co-ordination of the production. ongoing basis. not all information is useful. at the right time. storage and retrieval and dissemination of information from external and internal sources. or more complex machines. Tools and machines need not be material. MIS is a system using formalized procedures to provide management at all levels in all functions with appropriate information based on . Devis and Olson defines information as a data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the recipient and is of real or perceived value in the current or the prospective actions or decisions of the recipient. W. The quality of information could be called good or bad depending on the mix of these characteristics. such as a space station or particle accelerator. in hands of the right people. store. which aid the manager‟s decision-making process. images or voice representing quantities. technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems. Brian Arthur (1992) defines technology in a similarly broad way as "a means to fulfill a human purpose" INFORMATION MANAGEMENT: Information management has been defined as the organization-wide capability of creating. both material and immaterial. in the right place. this where MIS comes in. such as a crowbar or wooden spoon. maintaining. An information system can also be considered a semi-formal language which supports human decision making and action. TECHNOLOGY Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities. summaries. It is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools. actions and objects. Best (1988) defines information management as the economic. the term “Management Information System” can be seen as a database management system tailored to the needs of managers or decision makers in an organization. Has a surprise value  Reduces uncertainty  Aids in decision making.. and analyze data and to report results. at the lowest cost. J A. make useful. INFORMATION SYSTEMS (IS) An information system (IS) is a computerized database designed to accept. retrieving and making immediately available the right information. in order to improve the performance of the organization. Anything which helps manager improve his/her decision making will obviously lead to better result. control. Data is defined as groups of non-random symbols in the form of text. MIS is a system. It is often construed as a larger system including not only the database and the software and hardware used to manage it but also including the people using and benefiting from it and also including all necessary manual and machine procedures and communication systems Hevner et al. however. usually on a regular. there is an overload of information therefore. for use in decision making (Langemo. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (MIS) Managers make decisions all the time. In the same vein. where data is the input. According to O'Brien. in the best media. 1980).

electricity. tutorials. Information is available and can be obtained freely. This is very important because implementing and managing MIS is an expensive project. and in turn disseminates information to units and stakeholders in need. mobilizing resources. processing. ICT handbook. On the other hand. information exchange and networking help to share experiences. facilitators or relevant partners.) Human Resources: All persons who are involved in collecting. 2009) Financial Resources: NGOs. telephone line. 1991). this part looks at the concrete actions required for developing and establishing an operational MIS within an organization. The number and skill level of the human resources required to operate the MIS depend on the scale of organisation‟s activities and the amount of data to be handled. etc. but some will have to be recorded or collected. data collectors.data from both internal and external sources. specialized MIS staff is required particularly in a computerized environment. If funding is available. Infrastructure and Material Resources: under this requirement resources needed for MIS include: Provision of basic facilities: building/room. Capacity-building is important for the MIS because the system must be managed and operated in a systematic and technical manner. information is becoming an increasingly important resource organizational development. MIS. the equipment can be purchased or rented. These resources are mainly required for MIS operations of data storage. 2009. User guidebook. to enable them to make timely and effective decisions for planning. ((UNESCO Bangkok. Such a legal status would on the one hand create necessary conditions for organizations/institutions to take action to set up and operate the MIS. Internet access. Computer hardware and software. furniture. directing and controlling the activities for which they are responsible (Argyris. businesses. processing. expertise and learning. this will encourage local authorities and partners to cooperate in providing political. rules and regulations. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS Based on the MIS functions and operations described in the previous sections. industries. The amount of work and the expertise required to operate the MIS in an organisation are enormous. The following are some the requirement for establishing MIS in an organization: Legal Framework: The establishment of MIS should be backed by the adoption of government policies that clearly confer a legal status for the MIS to be an official information and reporting system for a country corporate and learning centers. analyzing and/or disseminating data and information contribute to the operations of the MIS. . MIS Capacity-building: This include training provided to improve the competencies of specific target groups at the management and staff levels. The adoption of MIS development policies and legal status would give additional impetus and backing to the active mobilization and acquisition of information resources for the MIS. and building capacity. the capacity of these staff is very important. administrative and resources support. calculators. recording. therefore. filing cabinet. production and dissemination. Information Resources: Today. Reference documentation: policy. for instance managers. training materials. Other necessary materials include: stationery. (UNESCO Bangkok. The MIS relies on the supply of data and information. and community bodies trying to build MIS should be capable to fund and maintain the project. the kind of resources needed and the organizational steps to take in defining a legal framework.

In short.) these are acquired by the organisation through purchase. a batch. Identify critical success factors. logistics. construction. The modern information technology offers a number of different system configurations. where it is required to decide between the various configuration alternatives made of a variety of hardware and software option. maintainer. the processes and the productivity of the organization. and adopt latest technology. Proper selection of hardware and software should link with goals and objectives of organizations. The information technology decision.operational versus functional. personnel. A complete system includes processes and people. Feasibility studies can affect planning of MIS. each being a candidate. testing.. modifications.SYSTEM DESIGN To achieve success it is necessary to make plan first. MIS plan should be flexible enough to deal with changing according to time. Identify critical business applications. or exchange and may also include improvements.g. and intellectual property (e. Develop key performance indicators. Internet/Intranet. or major repairs. Identify business decisions. therefore. Study organization and structure. supporter and trainer who are all components of the overall system. The designer has to take number of strategic decision to achieve goal and objectives of organization the strategy are: a) Development strategy: An online. the Mini or the Superman. is a technical decision. Client/Server Systems. The configurations are the LAN or the WAN. Accounting versus analysis. Constructing MIS plan take information as resource. The information technology affects the people. etc. lease. situation. At the same time you have to develop process model. Use proper data entry methods and plan can be made from proper resources of organizations. as a solution to satisfy the needs of the MIS. and training as well as the human operator. The choice of IT is a strategic decision. that is: Study business environment. services. Ascertain the business strategy. making long-term impact on the effectiveness of the MIS of the enterprise. d) Manpower composition: Analyst. manufacture. Computer. integration. Determine MIS goals supporting business goals and Develop IT support structure to meet data and information needs SYSTEM ACQUISITIONS Major system acquisitions include equipment. as a vehicle. replacements. programmer skill and know-how. software. and the front end and the Back Office Systems. to handle the management information system. database versus multiple databases c) Resources for system development: In house versus external. data. the hardware and software which is selected for MIS plan should be technically sound and up to date. Technology platform b) System development strategy: Any approach to the system development. customised development versus the use of packages. selection of proper hardware and software should be part of strategic level decisions. . Identify missions and goal. A business enterprise or an organization requires making a decision of choosing appropriate information Technology (IT). a real time.

and participation. playing the role of a catalyst. persuasion. The Lewin‟s model suggests three steps in this process. Many a times. Kappos and Rivard (2008). The other requirement of the organization is to be fitted to this configuration. and the third step is Refreezing. The first step is unfreezing the organization to make the people more receptive and interested in the change. The hardware choice and its configuration in terms of memory. this process is implemented through an external change agent. To properly adopt the right IS to accomplish organizational goals. user participation. In such situations.Another important factor which influences the information technology decision when it comes to acquiring systems is the organization and its infrastructural arrangement of the offices. warehouses. This itself can be achieved by improving the human factors. However. MAINTENANCE After the new system is installed and conversation is complete. factories and the customers. the quality of the services provided may be regarded as poor. Finally the information technology choice is governed by the requirement of the mission critical application(s) of the organization. the communication requirement becomes a dominating factor in choice of the information technology. and eliminating the organizational problems before implementing the system. disk and communication are decided on the base of processing needs of the mission critical applications. and training (CRUT). This change can occur in a number of ways. (IS) maintenance can be conducted through systems control. Most organizations would demand hardware typical to that particular location and also be able to communicate with other hardware-software platforms. where the change is consolidated and equilibrium is reinforced. (2) the factors inherent in the design of the system and (3) the factors arising out of the interaction between the system and its users. it must be maintained while it is in production to correct errors. The significant problem in this task is the resistance to change. and providing incentives to the users. such as a consultant. if the (IS) used in organizations are not properly maintained. Burton and Dans (2000). The resistance can occur due to three reasons as factors:- (1) the factors internal to the user of information. The second step is Choosing a course of action where the process begins and reaches the desired level. or improve processing efficiency. These elements are selected because they are hypothetically and practically . reliability. management should consider utilizing systems that can be controlled and maintained. IMPLEMENTATION OF MIS Implementation of the MIS in an organization is a process where organizational transformation takes place. meet requirements. The problem of resistance can be handled through education. Information systems (IS) have been known to aid organizational management in providing quality services to their customers.

we are going to use the CRUT model maintenance to analyze. User Participation. Control IS control is the beginning of data preservation in an organization. Without the element of control. and cost overruns (Subramanian. user participation. schedule slippages. and training are included because they contribute to proper control of an organization‟s IS. Therefore. 2009). and Training (CRUT) Model As organizations become heavily involved in IS adoption. Control. . Klein. management is more likely to pay attention to factors that would enable them to properly maintain the quality of the IS. Management should consider exercising control to uphold roles and responsibilities and avoid scope divergence. 2007). Organizational management may preserve the quality of their organization‟s IS by exercising control over the systems. The element of control is also central because without accurate control of IS. Jiang. the other elements would be inefficient.significant in maintaining the IS quality used in organizations. Reliability. & Chien-Lung. CRUT Model The elements in the CRUT model for IS maintenance are connected with each other. The elements of reliability. it would be difficult to determine the effectiveness of the systems. Sharma & Yetton.

disk and communication are decided on the base of processing needs of the mission critical applications. Finally the information technology choice is governed by the requirement of the mission critical application(s) of the organization. Organizational management should not relinquish their responsibilities for making decisions about IS functions to any employees. the terms user participation and user involvement had been employed interchangeably in IS examination (Jun & King. such responsibilities should be given to the IS specialists in the organization (Franz. IS that are unable to sense if a breach has occurred and has less security measures that would protect information may be considered untrustworthy. infrastructure and material to develop such systems. employees. CONCLUSION In conclusion. On the other hand. however these factors and concept were mentioned above. 1985). User Participation User participation in the quality of IS is important for effective maintenance. For instance. to build management information system in an organization some requirements and factors has to put in place to achieve effective MIS for better service delivery towards organizational goals.Reliability Reliability is defined as the ability of merchandise to work effectively under obligatory circumstances for a pre-assigned time. . involvement in IS usage procedure manuals. organizational leaders should be responsible in ensuring that their staffs are informed as IS users through ongoing systems accountability training programs and the creation of training manuals. systems may not accomplish the intended tasks and information may be lost. Prior to the 1980s. In addition. An early study by Barki and Hartwick (1989) suggested that users‟ responsibilities and accountabilities should be categorized according to IS roles depending on user involvement in the systems process. The other requirement of the organization is to be fitted to this configuration. A profusion of technology is insufficient to implement effective MIS in organization without the full utilization of human resources. (Agmon & Ahituv. 1987). One methodology for fully utilizing human resources has been maximizing productivity by stressing team effort. etc. 2008). instead. Barki and Hartwick (1989) further asserted that IS participants should be accountable as users for their behavior and activities to achieve overall success on a project. for instance. IS Training Offering various training programs for IS employees would enable them to use the systems to achieve the organizations‟ goals. IS user involvement is the activities contributed by IS users on the development of IS. Organizational management may determine if the IS are dependable based on how quickly they detect problems regarding their functions. The issue of fully developing and utilizing available human resources is currently receiving careful scrutiny in the MIS literature. Unreliable systems may result in unforeseen problems. IS user participation is the input of systems production services of the individuals who make use of IS on a regular basis. The hardware choice and its configuration in terms of memory. for instance. customers.

A. (2008). 355-372. (1991). Swanson. Prentice Hall: New Jersey W. MIS Quarterly 24. MIS Quarterly. MIS Quarterly. REFERENCES (to be in alphabetic) Laudon. International Journal of Information Management.. pp. and task interdependence on successful information systems implementation. P. K. 0024-253 Best. 16(3). p. J. (2007). and Their Development and Use. 31(2). M. March. 318-327. S. S. & Laudon. 291 Developing Management Information Systems for Community Learning Centres: A Guidebook . 32(3). D. C. (2006) Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm. MCB University Press. (1988). Vol. 219-238. 5. “Management Information Systems: The Challenge to Rationality and Emotionality”. The contingent effects of training. MIS Quarterly. & Rivard. The influence of the information systems development approach on maintenance. technical complexity. & Yetton. System life Expectancy and the maintenance effort. R. Burton and Enrique Dans. Management Science. 8 No. A Three-Perspective Model of Culture.2(June 2000) Sharma.. Vol.P.B. 601-634. 1. Kappos. (1992). 2009 Dekleva. 1997. View publication stats . Information Systems. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. 13-24. Adeoti-Adekeye (1997) The Importance of Management Information Systems Library Review. Argyris. “The Future of Information Management”. 46 No. no. 9th ed. E. pp.