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 visualise the concept  design BT around a specific  solve complex algorithms- INVESTOR INVESTOR
 own the technology patent business model/ use-case Proof-Of-Work.  provide seed capital  trade coins/tokens on online
 raise capital to fund the  build & launch the specific  validate new transactions towards a new coin/ token exchanges (secondary
project blockchain protocol/ using solutions in the primary market market)
 structure the development currency  record transactions on the  add credibility to an ICO  HODL or exploit short-term
team  implement/integrate latest global ledger- blockchain due to smart investor status market opportunity
 seek strategic partnerships improvement proposals  receive BTC/ transaction  participate in the price  ‘chart’, analyse
to bring in more adopters  document new solutions & fees as reward discovery process of the ICO fundamentals or follow
maintain existing ones FUD/FOMO
What is Blockchain Technology?
Blockchain is a decentralised1, peer-to-peer public electronic ledger that can be openly shared among disparate users to create
an unchangeable record of their transactions and events each one time-stamped and linked to the previous one. Blockchain can also be used
as a private electronic ledger, specific to a corporation, and representing a secure private network developed by the corporation’s IT
providers to meet a specific need2.

Blockchain can only be updated by consensus between participants in the ecosystem and once new data is entered it can never be erased. The
blockchain, therefore, contains a true and verifiable record of each and every transaction and event ever made or ever occurred within
the ecosystem. This allows it great applicability for just about any enterprise involved in record-keeping, transactions, documentation
or registration.

Cryptocurrencies represent the finance side of blockchain technology and are the media used to transact business within the
blockchain. Thus, while cryptocurrencies form a not-so-insignificant part of blockchain technology they are not its only constituent part.
Indeed blockchain technology has applications in such diverse fields as manufacturing, supply chain, shipping, the legal system, government and
governance, medicine (medical records) and the Internet of Things (IoT)3. The prime purpose of blockchain technology within this spectrum
of industry is, therefore, to bring about greater efficiency, transparency and accuracy of data while eliminating the need for central administration
and intermediation. Doing away with these latter two elements will prove disruptive going into the future and pose an existential threat
to companies whose business model is that of a central source or an intermediary.

Some banks are already moving towards blockchain taking advantage of both its ability to create an open, cheaper, more efficient and
exceedingly fast system for the clearance and settlement of financial transactions as well as its potential to improve back-office operations.
These developments may eventually render banks and payment processors altogether redundant not least due to the distributed4 and
peer-to-peer5 nature of the technology. The technology’s ability to provide a transparent, tamper-proof and decentralised
record-keeping system also makes it more appealing from a governance perspective as it is also more secure than
any repository under the control of one entity.

Digital records are continuously updated in real-time across all of the computers using the blockchain ecosystem. This means the (updated) records cannot be tampered with or retroactively altered
without the agreement of everyone using the blockchain. This together with the underlying encryption of data reduces the possibility of hacking while preventing occurrences of fraud. Further, no single
party can control and use the network to push its own agenda.
IBM is developing new shipment-tracking tools, based on blockchain technology, for both shipping giant Maersk and giant retailer Walmart Stores.
IoT is a technology that uses the internet to connect everyday devices (including personal and household devices) as well as machines with one another to create a “machine-to-machine” economy. The
interconnected devices are able to transact with one another without human involvement.
The transactions ledger is distributed with identical copies maintained on each of the computers participating in the network.
Peer-to-peer network refers to computer systems that are connected to each other via the Internet and which allow for transactions to take place between members within the blockchain ecosystem without
the need for an intermediary.
Blockchain, ultimately, aims to supplant the centralised ledger systems we see today, be they those held by banks, lawyers, accountants,
governments and government officials, etc with a distributed and shared ledger whose entries and updates follow a transparent, immutable and
therefore robust process. Participants within the ecosystem are able to establish the current state of agreed-to transactions, balances,
events and outcomes. Titles to assets, digital identities, electoral outcomes, financial disclosures, supply chain information, etc become
traceable in real-time and in instantaneous detail.

‘Smart contracts’6, another feature of blockchain technology, automatically execute when certain conditions are met ensuring transactions and
contracts entered into are immutable, irreversible and carry absolutely no counterparty risk.

What is an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) ?

Initial coin offerings (ICOs) are a new way of raising funds for projects running on blockchain
technology. Similar to the role venture capital (VC) plays in financing start-ups in traditional
finance, ICOs are the future of venture investing in the blockchain world. However, while VC as an
asset class has historically delivered good returns investor capital is locked up here for a
long time- up to ten years.

With ICO start-up capital, on the other hand, exponential returns can be earned in a very short
period of time7. When a decentralized application is created, the start-up behind it can sell
the associated coin or token8 early in the process for an amount based on what it thinks it’s
worth at that stage in order to fund its continued development. To help promote their projects, most
blockchain-based start-ups will produce a white paper that describes their background, project and business plan.

ICOs enable cryptocurrency founders raise capital from retail investors who can sell these cryptocurrencies for cash or for some other cryptocurrency
on the secondary market rather than having their money tied up for years as is the case with traditional venture capital or private equity.

However, there has arisen intense debate as to whether these newly-issued coins and tokens represent currencies or securities and whether

Both the Ethereum Foundation and the IOTA Foundation are spearheading advances in ‘smart contract’ capabilities.
IOTA had an issue (ICO) price of less than $0.001 in December 2015. As at 27 June 2018, the coin was trading at about $0.95- a Return on Investment (ROI) of 94,900%. Ethereum’s issue price in the
summer of 2014 was $0.311. As at 27 June 2018 the coin’s market price was roughly $435- an ROI of about $139,770%.
The terms ‘coins and tokens’ and cryptocurrencies are used interchangeably here.
they should be allowed such non-regulatory latitude. Were they to be treated as securities, they would have to come under securities laws9 in
the various jurisdictions of their issue which would mean greater regulation and scrutiny from the respective industry watchdogs. From an
investor perspective, this would take away some of the price volatility associated with cryptocurrencies but would also be viewed as a move to
stifle innovation.

ICOs are also a way developers can demand compensation for what they do.

Founders are effectively company or organisation builders. They visualise the cryptocurrency and its intended real-life application, create
the initial program, articulate its business case in a white paper and proceed to implement the project as part of a larger development team.
A founder will typically act as the lead developer in the cryptocurrency project.

Their role will also include that of recruiting the required expertise and hiring new talent as well as organising project funding.

Founders, therefore, play an active role in getting the cryptocurrency project off the ground and finding and investing resources to develop it.

Miners validate new transactions and record them on the global ledger (blockchain ). They
do this by competing to solve complex algorithmic problems in what is referred to as
Proof-of-Work (PoW)10. This is proof that the miner has spent time and resources to solve
the algorithm. Miners then receive a reward when they derive these solutions. This reward
can be in the form of awarded cryptocurrencies (as is the case with bitcoin miners) or
in the form of transaction fees.

In the case of Bitcoin (BTC) a block (the structure containing transactions) is mined every
10 minutes and every newly created block creates 12.5 bitcoins. When algorithms specific to

The US financial services regulator- the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) announced on 25 September 2017 that it will regulate and treat coins and tokens that ‘look’ like securities as such and, thus,
set up a taskforce to investigate ICOs that act as a cover for scams and possibly Ponzi schemes. Recently, also, the SEC (14 June 2018) has provided much-needed clarity regarding the two top
cryptocurrencies by market value- Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum (ETH) deeming these to be currencies (and not securities). Read the SEC’s December 2017 public statement on cryptocurrencies and ICOs here:
The Proof-of-Work mechanism also allows miners to agree on the order of transactions to be verified and added to the block while ensuring the security of the network is maintained. However, Proof-of-
Work uses huge amounts of electricity. Mining one bitcoin using PoW, for example, consumes up to 300KWh of electricity, enough energy to run an average US household and everything in it for over a
the transactions contained in a block are solved, the transactions are considered confirmed and the bitcoins concerned in the transactions
can then be spent.

Blockchain is pure programming and different blockchains and cryptocurrencies can be built on different languages. Typical blockchain
developers, therefore, possess standard software skills and experience in programming languages like Java Script and Python or specific
skills in cryptography and machine-learning.

Blockchain developers focus on developing the fundamental technology and its protocols – the “core” of the blockchain and its
implementation. This work is performed either on the public blockchain11, involving actual work with coins in ICOs and associated services
offered to the public, or on private blockchains run for specific companies. For example, Barclays is looking into blockchain technology to
improve operations specifically in regard to trade finance and identity integration.

As in the wake of the dot-com market implosion blockchain developers now, as software developers then, are continuing to work on
what will become robust networks and foundations of the blockchain ecosystem and the cryptocurrencies that go with it.

ICO Investors- the primary market

Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) refer to the avenue through which coins
and tokens (collectively known as cryptocurrencies) are issued for the first
time providing the platform for founders of a use case product,
service or asset that utilises blockchain technology to raise funds from
the public. The issue of these coins and tokens, therefore, provides funds
for open-source software projects and other services that are hard to finance
via traditional structures. Retail investors, in particular, have shown a keen interest
in getting involved in this project financing phase. Institutional investors, on
the other hand, have largely shied away from participation primarily concerned
with the lack of regulation.

By avoiding a drawn-out underwriting process and intermediaries that take fees cryptocurrency founders are able, therefore, through ICOs
to take advantage of this disintermediation to raise funds to finance their projects. Indeed. there is a plethora of investors particularly keen on
investing in cryptocurrencies used in blockchain-based transactions and activities. As an example the Ripple (XRP) project, which aims to make

Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Ripple (XRP), EOS and Litecoin (LTC) represent cryptocurrencies run on public blockchains.
global money transfers more efficient and less costly, saw its associated cryptocurrency- XRP rise 36,000% in 2017 alone on the back of investor
interest. It’s technology- xCurrent (already being implemented by global banks like Santander and UBS) completes cross-border bank transfers
in seconds compared to the traditional SWIFT technology which can take up to 3 days to complete similar transfers. At the same time, Ripple’s
RippleNet network is now able to process 50,000 transactions per second while the traditional VISA network currently processes a mere 24,000
transactions per second.

However, cryptocurrencies are a very nascent industry and investing in them is done at great risk to the investor although the opportunities
for exponential returns remain.

As the technology and infrastructure around coins mature, cryptocurrencies with a genuine business case could find themselves rapidly
increasing in value. This possibility is what makes them very attractive to early stage investors. Investors wanting to stake their claim in the
future of a particular blockchain currency, project or token, can do so via these ICOs. Alternatively, they can trade the cryptocurrencies on
several online exchanges and earn returns from short-term to mid-term price action.

Amara’s law states that “we tend to overestimate the effect of a technology
in the short-run and underestimate the effect in the long-run.”
Clearly, the story of blockchain technology and its associated cryptocurrencies is yet to be written.

Post-ICO Investors- the secondary market

Secondary markets are where investors buy and sell coins and tokens from other investors typically on online exchanges. It is up to
individual exchanges to provide the necessary safeguards against hacks, scams and fraud in contrast to regulated stock exchanges where
industry watchdogs keep a keen eye on market-makers. These online exchanges provide investors the platform to sell when the need
arises or when return opportunities present themselves. As applications evolve and companies are set up to advance blockchain
technology in other fields, a broader range of blockchain-related investment opportunities in public companies should emerge.

Although cryptocurrencies undergo incredulously high levels of volatility, with extreme price gyrations and constantly changing reports
of bust and bubble, the reality is that no industry analyst or insider can state with any degree of certainty how this market will pan out
in the near to mid-term. For some, current valuations still present an incredible value proposition given the long-term potential of some
of the cryptocurrencies leading these to pursue a HODL12 strategy. These secondary markets help drive the prices of cryptocurrencies
towards their genuine, fair market values although this in itself remains a topic of much debate. Despite not providing finance to issuing
companies these markets present the opportunity to draw capital from the sale of a coin or token by the seller.

 A huge proportion of the 2,000-plus currencies and tokens issued thus far are yet to
demonstrate any real practical use and may, therefore, never gain any mainstream adoption. Some
countries have reacted to this by banning ICOs altogether13. Other governments, particularly in the west,
have taken a less stringent approach.

 Only greater regulation can attract the scale of institutional investment needed for
cryptocurrencies to reach their full potential. The conundrum the industry finds itself in, however, is
that such a development would defeat the very purpose of building decentralised systems using
blockchain technology.

 Regulators in the industry have been slow to provide clarity or intervene in a timely
manner to instances of potential scams or Ponzi schemes. Some issuers are, therefore, unwittingly
getting rich on the back of uninformed or overly-eager investors who are investing in coins and tokens of questionable value.

 The volatility surrounding prices of cryptocurrencies has attracted a large number of speculators who care little about their
underlying use-case or that of the technology they propose to advance. This group of investors are in on account of the Greater
Fools Theory—the idea that someone “dumber” than them will buy their tokens for more than they paid. This is a pretty good bet
as such market herding could lead to a bubble in the cryptocurrency market. As earlier stated, however, this remains a subject
of major debate.

 A lot of otherwise productive developers are devoting their effort and expertise to working on shallow, quick money ICOs
rather than devoting their skills to developing the underlying blockchain infrastructure and its protocols.

Acronym for ‘Holding On for Dear Life’ in industry jargon and a misspelling of the term ‘HOLD’ as applied in traditional finance. It refers to the strategy of holding a cryptocurrency for the long-term
without giving consideration to existing price performance or market development(s).
In April 2018, both China and India banned the buying and selling of cryptocurrencies by financial institutions.
 Constant ‘Fear, uncertainty and doubt’ (FUD)14, ‘Fear of missing out’ (FOMO)15 and ‘pump-and-dump’ schemes leads to
market participants basing their investment decisions on an irrational exuberance rather than on market fundamentals. As
a result the price of coins and tokens overshoots to the downside on the back of FUD or overextends to the upside following

Last word
Blockchain’s future lies primarily in its ability to positively influence our lives through its innate qualities of efficiency, immutability, irreversibility
and disintermediation. Despite scepticism from many a quarter, this nascent technology is clearly revolutionary and so long as it contributes to
greater governance and trust in both the real economy and in our domestic lives it is difficult not to see the case for its mass adoption.

For cryptocurrencies that are the backbone of blockchain finance, much will be determined by the approach governments and policy-makers
adopt towards both their issue and use. Tighter regulation, although on face value appearing to prepare the ground for the entry of billions of
dollars of institutional money into the market, such regulation defeats the very purpose of blockchain technology whose DNA is geared towards
decentralisation and public consensus16 . In the same vein, without regulation, overzealous investors stand the risk of being duped by
unscrupulous issuers of “dodgy” cryptocurrencies out to make a quick buck. This is the conundrum the industry currently finds itself in.

PK Mwangi Global Consulting are management consultants in the fields of finance, investment and cryptocurrencies.

The practice of bad actors in the market driving the price of a coin down through misconstrued or blatantly incorrect news shared to convince holders of a coin to sell their holdings.
A practice employed by market participants to drive the price of a coin upwards through hype and exaggerated sentiment rather than through an analysis of the coin or market fundamentals.
As opposed to an over-arching central authority.

This is a promotional document and as such the views expressed do not constitute investment (or any other) advice nor a recommendation to buy, sell or trade
cryptocurrencies. PK Mwangi Global Consulting does not guarantee its accuracy, completeness or timeliness and as such the information is subject to change.

Past performance is not a guide to future performance.

Investing in cryptocurrencies is inherently risky and could lead to huge or even total monetary loss. Investors should, therefore, only invest money which they
can afford to lose.

We accept no liability for any actions taken, or not taken, as a result of the information contained in this material. Reliance upon this information is, therefore,
at the sole discretion of the reader.

Any research in this document has been obtained and may have been acted upon by PK Mwangi Global Consulting for its own purpose.

June 2018
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