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1, 2018, pp 122-135

graph, line graph of single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph, dual single-valued neutro-

sophic hypergraph and transversal single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph.

pergraph.

1. Introduction

Fuzzy set theory was introduced by Zadeh [17] to solve difficulties in dealing with un-

certainties. Since then the theory of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic have been examined by

many researchers to solve many real life problems, involving ambiguous and uncertain

environment. Atanassov [3] introduced the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy set as an exten-

sion of Zadeh’s fuzzy set [17]. An intuitionistic fuzzy set can be viewed as an alternative

approach when available information is not sufficient to define the impreciseness by the

conventional fuzzy set. In fuzzy sets the degree of acceptance is considered only but in-

tuitionistic fuzzy set is characterized by a membership(truth-membership) function and

a non-membership(falsity-membership) function, the only requirement is that the sum of

both values is less and equal to one. Intuitionistic fuzzy set can deal only with incomplete

information but not the indeterminate information and inconsistent information which

commonly exist in certainty system. In intuitionistic fuzzy sets, indeterminacy is its hesi-

tation part by default. Smarandache [13] initiated the concept of neutrosophic set in 1998.

“It is the branch of philosophy which studies the origin, nature and scope of neutralities,

as well as their interaction with different ideational spectra”[13]. A neutrosophic set is

characterized by three components: truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership, and

falsity-membership which are represented independently for dealing problems involving

imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent data. In neutrosophic set, truth-membership,

falsity-membership are independent, indeterminacy membership quantified explicitly, this

assumption helps in a lot of situations such as information fusion when try to combine the

data from different sensors. A neutrosophic set is a general framework which generalizes

the concept of fuzzy set, interval valued fuzzy set, and intuitionistic fuzzy set. The single

1

Department of Mathematics, University of the Punjab, New Campus, Lahore, Pakistan.

e-mail: m.akram@pucit.edu.pk, sundas1011@gmail.com;

ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7217-7962, http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3969-9336.

3

Department of Pure Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer, Shahid Bahonar University

of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

e-mail: arsham@uk.ac.ir, ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9495-6027.

§ Manuscript received: August 09, 2016; accepted: October 19, 2016.

TWMS Journal of Applied and Engineering Mathematics, Vol.8, No.1
c Işık University, Department

of Mathematics, 2018; all rights reserved.

122

M.AKRAM, S.SHAHZADI AND A.B.SAEID: SINGLE-VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC... 123

valued neutrosophic set was introduced for the first time by Smarandache in 1998 in his

book: F. Smarandache, Neutrosophy / Neutrosophic probability, set, and logic, American

Res. Press, see pages 7-8, 1998, which is also mentioned by Denis Howe, from England, in

The Free Online Dictionary of Computing, 1999. Wang [15] discussed theoretic operators

on single-valued neutrosophic set. Fuzzy hypergraph was introduced by the Kaufmann

[7]. Chen [5] introduced interval-valued fuzzy hypergraphs. Lee-kwang et al. general-

ized the concept of fuzzy hypergraph and redefined it to be useful for fuzzy partition

of a system. Akram and Dudek [1] investigated some properties of intuitionistic fuzzy

hypergraph and gave applications of intuitionistic fuzzy hypergraph. In this paper, we

introduce certain concepts, including single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph, line graph of

single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph, dual single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph and

transversal single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph.

Definition 2.1. [15] Let X be a space of points (objects), with a generic element in

X denoted by x. A single-valued neutrosophic set (SVNS) A in X is characterized by

truth-membership function TA (x), indeterminacy-membership function IA (x) and falsity-

membership function FA (x). For each point x in X, TA (x), IA (x), FA (x) ∈ [0, 1], i.e.,

A = {hx, TA (x), IA (x), FA (x)i : x ∈ X} and 0 ≤ TA (x) + IA (x) + FA (x) ≤ 3.

Definition 2.2. The support of a single-valued neutrosophic set A = {(x, TA (x), IA (x), FA (x)) :

x ∈ X} is denoted by supp(A), defined by supp(A) = {x | TA (x) 6= 0, IA (x) 6= 0, FA (x) 6=

0}. The support of a single-valued neutrosophic set is a crisp set.

Definition 2.3. The height of a single-valued neutrosophic set A = {(x, TA (x), IA (x), FA (x)) :

x ∈ X} is defined as h(A) = (sup TA (x), sup IA (x), inf FA (x)). We call single-valued

x∈X x∈X x∈X

neutrosophic set A is normal if there exist at least one element x ∈ X such that TA (x) =

1, IA (x) = 1, FA (x) = 0.

Definition 2.4. Let A = {(x, TA (x), IA (x), FA (x)) : x ∈ X} be a single-valued neu-

trosophic set on X and let α, β, γ ∈ [0, 1] such that α + β + γ ≤ 3. Then the set

A(α,β,γ) = {x | TA (x) ≥ α, IA (x) ≥ β, FA (x) ≤ γ} is called (α, β, γ)−level subset of

A. (α, β, γ)−level set is a crisp set.

Definition 2.5. Let V = {v1 , v2 , · · · , vn } be a finite set and E = {E1 , E2 , · · · , Em } be a

finite family of non-trivial single-valued neutrosophic subsets of V such that

[

V = supp(Ei ), i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , m,

i

where the edges Ei are single-valued neutrosophic subsets of V , Ei = {(vj , TEi (vj ), IEi (vj ),

FEi (vj ))}, Ei 6= ∅, for i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , m. Then the pair H = (V, E) is a single-valued

neutrosophic hypergraph on V , E is the family of single-valued neutrosophic hyperedges of

H and V is the crisp vertex set of H.

In single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph two vertices u and v are adjacent if there

exist an edge Ei ∈ E which contains the two vertices v and u, i.e., u, v ∈ supp(Ei ). In

single-valued neutrosophic hypergraphs H, if two vertices u and v are connected then

there exists a sequence u = u0 , u1 , u2 , · · · , un = v of vertices of H such that ui−1 is

adjacent ui for i = 1, 2, · · · , n. A connected single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph is a

single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph in which every pair of vertices are connected. In

a single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph two edges Ei and Ej are said to be adjacent if

124 TWMS J. APP. ENG. MATH. V.8, N.1, 2018

single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph is denoted by |V | and size (number of edges) is

denoted by |E|. If |supp(Ei )| = k for each Ei ∈ E, then single-valued neutrosophic hy-

pergraph H = (V, E) is k-uniform single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph. The element

aij of the single-valued neutrosophic matrix represents the truth-membership (participa-

tion) degree, indeterminacy-membership degree and falsity-membership of vi to Ej (that

is (TEj (vi ), IEj (vi ), FEj (vi ))). Since the diagram of single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph

does not imply sufficiently the truth-membership degree, indeterminacy-membership de-

gree and falsity-membership degree of vertex to edges, we use incidence matrix MH for

the description of single-valued neutrosophic hyperedes.

Definition 2.6. The height of a single-valued

W neutrosophic hypergraph H = (V, E), is

denoted by h(H), is defined by h(H) = {h(Ei )| Ei ∈ E}.

i

of a single-valued neutrosophic hyperedge is the sum of truth-membership, indeterminacy-

membership, and falsity-membership values of the vertices connected to an hyperedge, it

is denoted by |Ei |. The degree of a single-valued neutrosophic hyperedge, Ei ∈ E is its

cardinality, that is dH (Ei ) = |Ei |. The rank of a single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph is

the maximum cardinality of any hyperedge in H, i.e., max dH (Ei ) and anti rank of a single-

Ei ∈E

valued neutrosophic is the minimum cardinality of any hyperedge in H, i.e., min dH (Ei ).

Ei ∈E

neutrosophic hypergraph if every pair of distinct vertices of H = (V, E) is in at most

one edge of H, i.e., |supp(Ei ) ∩ supp(Ej )| ≤ 1 for all Ei , Ej ∈ E. A 2−uniform linear

single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph is a single-valued neutrosophic graph.

Example 2.1. Consider a single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H = (V, E) such that

V = {v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 , v5 , v6 }, E = {E1 , E2 , E3 , E4 , E5 , E6 }, where E1 = {(v1 , 0.3, 0.4, 0.6), (v3 ,

0.7, 0.4, 0.4)}, E2 = {(v1 , 0.3, 0.4, 0.6), (v2 , 0.5, 0.7, 0.6)}, E3 = {(v2 , 0.5, 0.7, 0.6), (v4 , 0.6,

0.4, 0.8)}, E4 = {(v3 , 0.7, 0.4, 0.4), (v6 , 0.4, 0.2, 0.7)}, E5 = {(v3 , 0.7, 0.4, 0.4), (v5 , 0.6, 0.7, 0.5)},

E6 = {(v5 , 0.6, 0.7, 0.5), (v6 , 0.4, 0.2, 0.7)}, and E7 = {(v4 , 0.6, 0.4, 0.8), (v6 , 0.4, 0.2, 0.7)}.

v2 (0.5, 0.7, 0.6)

b b

E3

v5 (0.6, 0.7, 0.5, )

E1

b b

E5 E6

v4 (0.6, 0.4, 0.8)

E7

b b

E4

The single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph is shown in Figure. 1 and its incidence ma-

trix MH is given as follows:

M.AKRAM, S.SHAHZADI AND A.B.SAEID: SINGLE-VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC... 125

MH E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7

v1 (0.3, 0.4, 0.6) (0.3, 0.4, 0.6) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0)

v2 (0, 0, 0) (0.5, 0.7, 0.6) (0.5, 0.7, 0.6) (0, 0., 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0)

v3 (0.7, 0.4, 0.4) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0.7, 0.4, 0.4) (0.7, 0.4, 0.4) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0)

v4 (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0.6, 0.4, 0.8) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0.6, 0.4, 0.8)

v5 (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0.6, 0.7, 0.5) (0.6, 0.7, 0.5) (0, 0, 0)

v6 (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0.4, 0.2, 0.7) (0, 0, 0) (0.4, 0.2, 0.7) (0.4, 0.2, 0.7)

dH (v) of a vertex v in H is dH (v) = (TEi (v), IEi (v), FEi (v)), where Ei are the edges

v∈Ei

that contain the vertex v. The maximum degree of a single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph

is 4(H) = max(dH (v)). A single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph is said to be regular

v∈V

single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph in which all the vertices have same degree.

X X

dH (v) = dH (Ei ).

v∈V Ei ∈E

the sum of the degreesP Pvi ∈ V and the sum of degrees of each edge Ei ∈ E

of each vertex

are equal. We obtain dH (v) = dH (Ei ).

v∈V Ei ∈E

imum of truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership and maximum falsity-membership

values in the edge Ei , i.e.,

η(Ei ) = { min (TEi (vj ) | TEi (vj ) > 0), min (IEi (vj ) | IEi (vj ) > 0), max (FEi (vj ) | FEi (vj ) > 0)}.

vj ∈Ei vj ∈Ei vj ∈Ei

The strength of an edge in single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph interprets that the edge

Ei group elements having participation degree at least η(Ei ).

height of H is h(H) = (0.7, 0.7, 0.4), the strength of each edge is η(E1 ) = (0.3, 0.4, 0.6), η(E2 ) =

(0.3, 0.4, 0.6), η(E3 ) = (0.5, 0.4, 0.8), η(E4 ) = (0.4, 0.2, 0.7), η(E5 ) = (0.6, 0.4, 0.5), η(E6 ) =

(0.4, 0.2, 0.7) and η(E7 ) = (0.4, 0.2, 0.8), respectively. The edges with high strength are

called the strong edges because the interrelation (cohesion) in them is strong. Therefore,

E5 is stronger than each Ei , for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7.

If we assign η(Ei ) = (Tη(Ei ) , Iη(Ei ) , Fη(Ei ) ) to each clique in single-valued neutrosophic

graph mapped to an edge Ei in single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph, we obtain a single-

valued neutrosophic graph which represents subset with grouping strength (interrelation-

ship).

MH E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7

v1 (0.3, 0.4, 0.6) (0.3, 0.4, 0.6) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0)

v2 (0, 0, 0) (0.3, 0.4, 0.6) (0.5, 0.4, 0.8) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0)

v3 (0.3, 0.4, 0.6) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0.4, 0.2, 0.7) (0.6, 0.4, 0.5) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0)

v4 (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0.5, 0.4, 0.8) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0.4, 0.2, 0.8)

v5 (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0.6, 0.4, 0.5) (0.4, 0.2, 0.7) (0, 0, 0)

v6 (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0.4, 0.2, 0.7) (0, 0, 0) (0.4, 0.2, 0.7) (0.4, 0.2, 0.8)

126 TWMS J. APP. ENG. MATH. V.8, N.1, 2018

b b (0

.5

,0

.4

,0

v5 .8

)

b

(0 v4

.5) .4

,0

b

,0

0.4 .2

,0 8)

.6, .7

2,

0.

(0 ) .

,0

b b .4

v3 (0.4, 0.2, 0.7) v6 (0

neutrosophic hypergraph, a hyperedge with its strength η in the single-valued neutrosophic

hypergraph is mapped to a clique in the single-valued neutrosophic graph, all edges in the

clique have the same strength. Figure. 2 shows corresponding single-valued neutrosophic

graph to the single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H shown in Figure. 1. In corresponding

single-valued neutrosophic graph, the numbers attached to the edges represents the truth-

membership, indeterminacy-membership and falsity-membership of the edges.

Proposition 2.2. Single-valued neutrosophic graphs and single-valued neutrosophic di-

graphs are special cases of the single-valued neutrosophic hypergraphs.

Definition 2.11. A single-valued neutrosophic set A = {(x, TA (x)), IA (x), FA (x) | x ∈ X}

is an elementary single-valued neutrosophic set if A is single-valued on supp(A). An ele-

mentary single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H = (V, E) is a single-valued neutrosophic

hypergraph in which each element of E is elementary.

Definition 2.12. A single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H = (V, E) is called simple

single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph if E has no repeated single-valued neutrosophic hy-

peredges and whenever Ei , Ej ∈ E and TEi ≤ TEj , IEi ≤ IEj , FEi ≥ FEj , then TEi =

TEj , IEi = IEj , FEi = FEj . A single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph is called support

simple, if whenever Ei , Ej ∈ E, Ei ⊂ Ej and supp(Ei ) =supp(Ej ), then Ei = Ej . A single-

valued neutrosophic hypergraph is called strongly support simple if whenever Ei , Ej ∈ E,

and supp(Ei ) =supp(Ej ), then Ei = Ej.

Definition 2.13. Let H = (V, E) be a single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph. Suppose that

(α,β,γ) (α,β,γ)

α, β, γ ∈ [0, 1]. Let E (α,β,γ) = {Ei | Ei ∈ E} and V (α,β,γ) = . H (α,β,γ) =

S

Ei

Ei ∈E

(V (α,β,γ) , E (α,β,γ) ) is the (α, β, γ)-level hypergraph of H = (V, E), where E (α,β,γ) 6= ∅.

H (α,β,γ) is a crisp hypergraph.

Remark 2.1. (1) A single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H = (V, E) is a single-

valued neutrosophic graph (with loops) if and only if H is elementary, support

simple and each edge has two (or one) element support.

(2) For a simple single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H = (V, E), (α, β, γ)-level hy-

pergraph H (α,β,γ) may or may not be simple single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph.

(α,β,γ) (α,β,γ)

Clearly it is possible that Ei = Ej for Ei 6= Ej .

0

(3) H and H are two families of crisp sets (hypergraphs) produced by the (α, β, γ)−cuts

of a single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph share an important relationship with

each other such that for each set H ∈ H there is at least one set H 0 ∈ H0 which

contains H. We say that H0 absorbs H, i.e., H v H0 . Since it is possible H0

M.AKRAM, S.SHAHZADI AND A.B.SAEID: SINGLE-VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC... 127

converse is generally false, If H v H0 and H 6= H0 , then H @ H0 .

Definition 2.14. Let H = (V, E) be a single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph, and let

h(H) = (r, s, t), H (ri ,si ,ti ) = (V (ri ,si ,ti ) , E (ri ,si ,ti ) ) be the (ri , si , ti )−level hypergraphs of H.

The sequence of real numbers {(r1 , s1 , t1 ), (r2 , s2 , t2 ), · · · , (rn , sn , tn )}, 0 < rn < rn−1 <

· · · < r1 = r, 0 < sn < sn−1 < · · · < s1 = s, and tn > tn−1 > · · · > t1 = t > 0, which

satisfies the properties:

0 0 0

(1) if ri+1 < r0 < ri , si+1 < s0 < si , ti+1 > t0 > ti (ti < t0 < ti+1 ), then E (r ,s ,t ) =

E (ri ,si ,ti ) ,

(2) E (ri ,si ,ti ) @ E (ri +1,si +1,ti +1) ,

is called the fundamental sequence of H, and is denoted by F(H) and the set of (ri , si , ti )−level

hypergraphs {H (r1 ,s1 ,t1 ) , H (r2 ,s2 ,t2 ) , · · · , H (rn ,sn ,tn ) } is called the set of core hypergraphs of

H, and is denoted by C(H).

If r1 < r ≤ 1, s1 < s ≤ 1, 0 ≤ t < t1 , then E (r,s,t) = {∅} and H (r,s,t) does not exist.

Definition 2.15. Suppose H = (V, E) is a single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph with

F(H) = {(r1 , s1 , t1 ), (r2 , s2 , t2 ), · · · , (rn , sn , tn )} and rn+1 = 0, sn+1 = 0, tn+1 = 0. Then H

(r ,s ,t )

is called sectionally elementary if for each Ei ∈ E and each (ri , si , ti ) ∈ F(H), Ei i i i =

(r,s,t)

Ei for all (r, s, t) ∈ (ri+1 , si+1 , ti+1 ), (ri , si , ti ) .

Definition 2.16. Suppose that H = (V, E) and H 0 = (V 0 , E0 ) are single-valued neutro-

sophic hypergraphs. H is called a partial single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph of H 0 if

E ⊆ E0 . If H is partial single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph of H 0 , we write H ⊆ H 0 . If

H is partial single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph of H 0 and E ⊂ E0 , then we denote as

H ⊂ H 0.

Example 2.3. Consider the single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H = (V, E), where

V = {v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 } and E = {E1 , E2 , E3 , E4 , E5 }, which is represented by the following

incidence matrix:

MH E1 E2 E3 E4 E5

v1 (0.7, 0.6, 0.5) (0.9, 0.8, 0.1) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0.4, 0.3, 0.3)

v2 (0.7, 0.6, 0.5) (0.9, 0.8, 0.1) (0.9, 0.8, 0.1) (0.7, 0.6, 0.5) (0, 0, 0)

v3 (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0.9, 0.8, 0.1) (0.7, 0.6, 0.5) (0.4, 0.3, 0.3)

v4 (0, 0, 0) (0.4, 0.3, 0.3) (0, 0, 0) (0.4, 0.3, 0.3) (0.4, 0.3, 0.3)

Clearly, h(H) = (0.9, 0.8, 0.1), E1∗ = E (0.9,0.8,0.1) = {{v2 , v3 }}, E2∗ = E (0.7,0.6,0.5) =

{{v1 , v2 }} and E3∗ = E (0.4,0.3,0.3) = {{v1 , v2 , v4 }, {v2 , v3 }, {v2 , v3 , v4 }}. Therefore, funda-

mental sequence is F(H) = {(r1 , s1 , t1 ) = (0.9, 0.8, 0.1), (r2 , s2 , t2 ) = (0.7, 0.6, 0.5), (r3 , s3 ,

t3 ) = (0.4, 0.3, 0.3)} and the set of core hypergraph is C(H) = {H (0.9,0.8,0.1) = (V1 , E1∗ ),

H (0.7,0.6,0.5) = (V2 , E2∗ ), H (0.4,0.3,0.3) = (V3 , E3∗ )}.

Note that, E (0.9,0.8,0.1) v E (0.4,0.3,0.3) and E (0.9,0.8,0.1) 6= E (0.4,0.3,0.3) . As E5 ⊆ E2 , H is

not simple single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph but H is support simple. In single-valued

neutrosophic graph H = (V, E), E (r,s,t) 6= E (0.9,0.8,0.1) for (r, s, t) = (0.7, 0.6, 0.5), H is not

sectionally elementary.

The partial single-valued neutrosophic hypergraphs, H 0 = (V 0 , E 0 ), where E 0 = {E2 , E3 ,

E4 , E1 } is simple, H 00 = (V 00 , E 00 ), where E 00 = {E2 , E3 , E5 } is sectionally elementary, and

H 000 = (V 000 , E 000 ), where E 000 = {E1 , E3 , E5 } is elementary.

128 TWMS J. APP. ENG. MATH. V.8, N.1, 2018

is ordered. That is, if C(H) = {H (r1 ,s1 ,t1 ) , H (r2 ,s2 ,t2 ) , · · · , H (rn ,sn ,tn ) }, then H (r1 ,s1 ,t1 ) ⊆

H (r2 ,s2 ,t2 ) ⊆ · · · ⊆ H (rn ,sn ,tn ) . The single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H is simply

ordered if C(H) is ordered and if whenever E ∗ ∈ Ei+1 ∗ \ Ei∗ , then E ∗ * Vi .

Proposition 2.3. If H = (V, E) is an elementary single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph,

then H is ordered. Also, if H = (V, E) is an ordered single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph

with C(H) = {H (r1 ,s1 ,t1 ) , H (r2 ,s2 ,t2 ) , · · · , H (rn ,sn ,tn ) } and if H (rn ,sn ,tn ) is simple, then H is

elementary.

Definition 2.18. A single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H = (V, E) is called a E t

tempered single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph of H ∗ = (V, E ∗ ) if there is a crisp hy-

pergraph H ∗ = (V, E ∗ ) and single-valued neutrosophic set E t is defined on V , where

TE t : V → (0, 1], IE t : V → (0, 1], and FE t : V → (0, 1] such that E = {CE | E ∈ E ∗ },

where

∧{TE t (y) | y ∈ E}, if x ∈ E;

TCE (x) =

0, otherwise.

∧{IE t (y) | y ∈ E}, if x ∈ E;

ICE (x) =

0, otherwise.

∨{FE t (y) | y ∈ E}, if x ∈ E;

FCE (x) =

0, otherwise.

We let E t ⊗ H ∗ denotes the E t tempered single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph of H ∗

determined by the crisp hypergraph H ∗ = (V, E ∗ ) and the single-valued neutrosophic set

Et.

Example 2.4. Consider the single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H = (V, E), where V =

{v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 } and E = {E1 , E2 , E3 , E4 }, which is represented by the following incidence

matrix:

MH E1 E2 E3 E4

v1 (0.3, 0.4, 0.6) (0, 0, 0) (0.1, 0.4, 0.5) (0.3, 0.4, 0.5)

v2 (0, 0, 0) (0.1, 0.4, 0.3) (0, 0, 0) (0.3, 0.4, 0.5)

v3 (0.3, 0.4, 0.6) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0)

v4 (0, 0, 0) (0.1, 0.4, 0.3) (0.1, 0.4, 0.5) (0, 0, 0)

Define E t = {(v1 , 0.3, 0.4, 0.5), (v2 , 0.6, 0.5, 0.2), (v3 , 0.5, 0.4, 0.6), (v4 , 0.1, 0.4, 0.3)}. Note

that

T{v1 ,v3 } (v1 ) = TE T (v1 )∧TE T (v3 ) = 0.3, I{v1 ,v3 } (v1 ) = IE t (v1 )∧IE t (v3 ) = 0.4, F{v1 ,v3 } (v1 ) =

FE T (v1 ) ∨ FE T (v3 ) = 0.6, and T{v1 ,v3 } (v3 ) = TE T (v3 ) ∧ TE T (v1 ) = 0.3, I{v1 ,v3 } (v3 ) =

IE t (v3 ) ∧ IE t (v1 ) = 0.4, F{v1 ,v3 } (v3 ) = FE T (v3 ) ∨ FE T (v1 ) = 0.6, then C{v1 ,v3 } = E1 . Also

C{v2 ,v4 } = E2 , C{v1 ,v4 } = E3 , C{v1 ,v2 } = E4 . Thus H is E t tempered.

Theorem 2.1. A single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H = (V, E) is a E t tempered

single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph of some crisp hypergraph H ∗ if and only if H is

elementary, support simple and simple ordered.

Proof. Suppose H = (V, E) is a E t tempered single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph of

some crisp hypergraph H ∗ . Clearly, H is elementary and support simple. We show that H

is simply ordered. Let C(H) = {H (r1 ,s1 ,t1 ) = (V1 , E1∗ ), H (r2 ,s2 ,t2 ) = (V2 , E2∗ ), · · · , H (rn ,sn ,tn )

= (Vn , En∗ )}. Since H is elementary, it follows from Proposition 2.3 H is ordered. To show

that H is simply ordered, suppose there exist E ∈ Ei+1 ∗ \ Ei∗ . Then there exist v ∈ E

such that TE (v) = ri+1 , IE (v) = si+1 , and FE (v) = ti+1 . Since TE (v) = ri+1 < ri , IE (v) =

M.AKRAM, S.SHAHZADI AND A.B.SAEID: SINGLE-VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC... 129

si+1 < si , and FE (v) = ti+1 > ti , it follows that v ∈ / Vi and E * Vi , hence H is simply

ordered.

Conversely, suppose H = (V, E) is elementary, support simple and simply ordered. For

C(H) = {H (r1 ,s1 ,t1 ) = (V1 , E1∗ ), H (r2 ,s2 ,t2 ) = (V2 , E2∗ ), · · · , H (rn ,sn ,tn ) = (Vn , En∗ )}, funda-

mental sequence is F(H) = {(r1 , s1 , t1 ), (r2 , s2 , t2 ), · · · , (rn , sn , tn )} with 0 < rn < rn−1 <

· · · < r1 , 0 < sn < sn−1 < · · · < s1 , and 0 < t1 < t2 < · · · < tn . H (rn ,sn ,tn ) = (Vn , En∗ ) and

single-valued t

neutrosophic set E on Vn defined by

r1 , if v ∈ V1 ;

TE t (v) =

r , if v ∈ Vi \ Vi−1 , i = 2, 3, · · · , n.

i

s1 , if v ∈ V1 ;

IE t (v) =

s , if v ∈ Vi \ Vi−1 , i = 2, 3, · · · , n.

i

t1 , if v ∈ V1 ;

FE t (v) =

ti , if v ∈ Vi \ Vi−1 , i = 2, 3, · · · , n.

∗

We show that E = {CE | E ∈ En },where

∧{TE t (y) | y ∈ E}, if x ∈ E;

TCE (x) =

0, otherwise.

∧{IE t (y) | y ∈ E}, if x ∈ E;

ICE (x) =

0, otherwise.

∨{FE t (y) | y ∈ E}, if x ∈ E;

FCE (x) =

0, otherwise.

Let E ∈ En∗ . Since H is elementary and support simple there is a unique single-valued

neutrosophic hyperedge Ej in E having support E ∈ En∗ . We have to show that E t tem-

pered single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H = (V, E) determined by the crisp graph

Hn∗ = (Vn , En∗ ), i.e., CE∈En∗ = Ei , i = 1, 2, · · · , m.

As all single-valued neutrosophic hyperedges are elementary and H is support simple, then

different edges have different supports, that is h(Ej ) is equal to some member (ri , si , ti )

of F(H). Consequently, E ⊆ Vi and if i > 1, then E ∈ Ei∗ \ Ei−1 ∗ , T (v) ≥ r , I (v) ≥ s ,

E i E i

and FE (v) ≤ ti for some v ∈ E.

Since E ⊆ Vi , we claim that TE t (v) = ri , IE t (v) = si , FE t (v) = ti for some v ∈ E, if

not then TE t (v) ≥ ri−1 , IE t (v) ≥ si−1 , FE t (v) ≤ ti−1 for all v ∈ E which implies E ⊆ Vi−1

and since H is simply ordered, E ∈ Ei∗ \ Ei−1 ∗ , then E * V

i−1 , a contradiction. Thus

CE = Ei , i = 1, 2, · · · , m, by the definition of CE .

pergraph and F(H) = {(r1 , s1 , t1 ), (r2 , s2 , t2 ), · · · , (rn , sn , tn )}. If H (rn ,sn ,tn ) is a simple

hypergraph, then there is a partial single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H 0 = (V, E0 ) of

H such that following statements hold.

(2) F(H 0 ) = (H) and C(H 0 ) = C(H).

hypergraph. We obtain the partial fuzzy hypergraph H 0 = (V, E0 ) of H = (V, E) by

removing all edges from E that are properly contained in another edge of H, where E0 =

{Ei ∈ E | if Ei ⊆ Ej and Ej ∈ E, then Ei = Ej }. Since H (rn ,sn ,tn ) is simple and

all edges are elementary, any edge in H contain another edge then both have the same

support. Hence F(H 0 ) = H and C(H 0 ) = C(H). By the definition of E0 , H 0 is elementary,

support simple. Thus by the Theorem 2.1 H 0 is a E t tempered single-valued neutrosophic

graph.

130 TWMS J. APP. ENG. MATH. V.8, N.1, 2018

Definition 2.19. Let L(G∗ ) = (C, D) be a line graph of G∗ = (V, E), where C = {{x} ∪

{ux , vx } | x ∈ E, ux , vx ∈ V, x = ux vx } and D = {Sx Sy | Sx ∩ Sy 6= ∅, x, y ∈ E, x 6= y}

and where Sx = {{x} ∪ {ux , vx }}, x ∈ E. Let G = (A1 , B1 ) be a single-valued neutrosophic

graph with underlying set V . Let A2 be the single-valued neutrosophic vertex set on C, B2

be the single-valued neutrosophic edge set on D. The single-valued neutrosophic line graph

of G is a single-valued neutrosophic graph L(G) = (A2 , B2 ) such that

(i) TA2 (Sx ) = TB1 (x) = TB1 (ux vx ),

IA2 (Sx ) = IB1 (x) = IB1 (ux vx ),

FA2 (Sx ) = FB1 (x) = FB1 (ux vx ),

(ii) TB2 (Sx Sy ) = min{TB1 (x), TB1 (y)},

IB2 (Sx Sy ) = min{IB1 (x), IB1 (y)},

FB2 (Sx Sy ) = max{FB1 (x), FB1 (y)} for all Sx , Sy ∈ C, Sx Sy ∈ D.

Proposition 2.4. L(G) = (A2 , B2 ) is a single-valued neutrosophic line graph of some

single-valued neutrosophic graph G = (A1 , B1 ) if and only if

TB2 (Sx Sy ) = min{TA2 (Sx ), TA2 (Sy )},

IB2 (Sx Sy ) = min{IA2 (Sx ), TA2 (Sy )},

FB2 (Sx Sy ) = max{FA2 (Sx ), FA2 (Sy )},

for all Sx Sy ∈ D.

Definition 2.20. Let H = (V, E) be a single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph of a simple

graph H ∗ = (V, E), and L(H ∗ ) = (X, ε) be a line graph of H ∗ . The single-valued neu-

trosophic line graph L(H) of a single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H is defined to be a

pair L(H) = (A, B), where A is the vertex set of L(H) and B is the edge set of L(H) as

follows:

(i) A is a single-valued neutrosophic set of X such that

TA (Ei ) = max(TEi (v)),

v∈Ei

IA (Ei ) = max(IEi (v)),

v∈Ei

FA (Ei ) = min (FEi (v)) for all Ei ∈ E,

v∈Ei

(ii) B is a single-valued neutrosophic set of ε such that

TB (Ej Ek ) = min{min(TEj (vi ), TEk (vi ))},

i

TB (Ej Ek ) = min{min(TEj (vi ), TEk (vi ))},

i

TB (Ej Ek ) = max{max(TEj (vi ), TEk (vi ))}, where vi ∈ Ei ∩ Ej , j, k = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n.

i

where E1 = {v1 , v3 }, E2 = {v1 , v2 }, E3 = {v2 , v4 }, E4 = {v3 , v6 }, E5 = {v3 , v5 }, E6 =

{v5 , v6 }, and E7 = {(v4 , v6 }, H = (V, E) as E = {E1 , E2 , E3 , E4 , E5 , E6 , E7 }, such that

E1 = {(v1 , 0.3, 0.4, 0.6), (v3 , 0.7, 0.4, 0.4)}, E2 = {(v1 , 0.3, 0.4, 0.6), (v2 , 0.5, 0.7, 0.6)},

E3 = {(v2 , 0.5, 0.7, 0.6), (v4 , 0.6, 0.4, 0.8)}, E4 = {(v3 , 0.7, 0.4, 0.4), (v6 , 0.4, 0.2, 0.7)},

E5 = {(v3 , 0.7, 0.4, 0.4), (v5 , 0.6, 0.7, 0.5)}, E6 = {(v5 , 0.6, 0.7, 0.5), (v6 , 0.4, 0.2, 0.7)},

E7 = {(v4 , 0.6, 0.4, 0.8), (v6 , 0.4, 0.2, 0.7)}.

The single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H = (V, E) is shown in Figure. 1.

The line graph L(H) of single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H is L(H) = (A, B),

where

A = {(E1 , 0.7, 0.4, 0.4), (E2 , 0.5, 0.7, 0.6), (E3 , 0.6, 0.7, 0.6), (E4 , 0.7, 0.4, 0.4), (E5 , 0.7, 0.7, 0.4), (E6 ,

0.6, 0.7, 0.5), (E7 , 0.6, 0.4, 0.7)} is the vertex set and B = {(E1 E2 , 0.3, 0.4, 0.6), (E1 E5 , 0.7, 0.4, 0.4),

(E1 E4 , 0.7, 0.4, 0.4), (E2 E3 , 0.5, 0.7, 0.6), (E3 E7 , 0.6, 0.4, 0.8), (E4 E5 , 0.7, 0.4, 0.4), (E4 E6 , 0.4, 0.2, 0.7),

M.AKRAM, S.SHAHZADI AND A.B.SAEID: SINGLE-VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC... 131

(E4 E7 , 0.4, 0.2, 0.7), (E5 E6 , 0.6, 0.7, 0.5), (E6 E7 , 0.4, 0.2, 0.7)} is the edge set of the single-

valued neutrosophic line graph of H.

b b

) (0 (0

4 . 7, (0.3, 0.4, 0.6) .5

, 0. 0. ,0

.7

. 4 4, ,0

, 0 0 .6

. 7 . 4 )

)

(0

b

E5 (0.7, 0.7, 0.4) (0.7, 0.4, 0.4) E 4 (0.7, 0.4, 0.4)

b b E3 (0.6, 0.7, 0.6)

(0

7)

0.

.4

5)

)

2,

.8

,0

0.

,0

.2

,0

7,

.4

.4

,0

.

,0

,0

(0

.7

.6

.6

)

(0

(0

b

(0.4, 0.2, 0.7) b

neutrosophic hypergraph H.

graph of a single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph is connected.

denoted by [H]2 , is a single-valued neutrosophic graph G = (A, B), where A is the single-

valued neutrosophic vertex of V , B is the single-valued neutrosophic edge set in which any

two vertices form an edge if they are in the same single-valued neutrosophic hyperedge such

that

IB (e) = min{IEk (vi ), TEk (vj )},

FB (e) = max{FEk (vi ), FEk (vj )},

for all Ek ∈ E, i 6= j, k = 1, 2, · · · , m.

single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph.

single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H ∗ = (E, V); E = {e1 , e2 , · · · , en } set of vertices

corresponding to E1 , E2 , , · · · , En , respectively and V = {V1 , V2 , · · · , Vn } set of hyperedges

corresponding to v1 , v2 , · · · , vn , respectively.

V = {v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 , v5 } and E = {E1 , E2 , E3 }, where E1 = {(v1 , 0.5, 0.4, 0.6), (v2 , 0.4, 0.3, 0.8)}, E2 =

{(v2 , 0.4, 0.3, 0.8), (v3 , 0.6, 0.4, 0.8), (v4 , 0.7, 0.4, 0.5)}, and E3 = {(v4 , 0.7, 0.4, 0.5), (v5 , 0.4, 0.2, 0.9)}.

132 TWMS J. APP. ENG. MATH. V.8, N.1, 2018

b b

b

v5 (0.4, 0.2, 0.9)

E2

b

b

E3

matrix:

MH E1 E2 E3

v1 (0.5, 0.4, 0.6) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0)

v2 (0.4, 0.3, 0.8) (0.4, 0.3, 0.8) (0, 0, 0)

v3 (0, 0, 0) (0.6, 0.4, 0.8) (0, 0, 0)

v4 (0, 0, 0) (0.7, 0.4, 0.5) (0.7, 0.4, 0.5)

v5 (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0.4, 0.2, 0.9)

E = {e1 , e2 , e3 }, V = {V1 , V2 , V3 , V4 , V5 }, where V1 = {(e1 , 0.5, 0.4, 0.6), (e2 , 0, 0, 0), (e3 , 0, 0, 0)},

V2 = {(e1 , 0.4, 0.3, 0.8), (e2 , 0.4, 0.3, 0.8), (e3 , 0, 0, 0)}, V3 = {(e1 , 0, 0, 0), (e2 , 0.6, 0.4, 0.8), (e3 , 0, 0, 0)},

V4 = {(e1 , 0, 0, 0), (e2 , 0.7, 0.4, 0.5), (e3 , 0.7, 0.4, 0.5)} and V5 = {(e1 , 0, 0, 0), (e2 , 0, 0, 0), (e3 , 0.4, 0.2,

0.9)}.

V2

V4

V1

b b

V3 b

e1 e2 V5

e3

The dual single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph is shown in Figure. 5 and its incidence

matrix MH ∗ is defined as follows:

MH ∗ V1 V2 V3 V4 V5

e1 (0.5, 0.4, 0.6) (0.4, 0.3, 0.8) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0)

e2 (0, 0, 0) (0.4, 0.3, 0.8) (0.6, 0.4, 0.8) (0.7, 0.4, 0.5) (0, 0, 0)

e3 (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0.7, 0.4, 0.5) (0.4, 0.2, 0.9)

the transpose of the incidence matrix of H and 4(H) = rank(H ∗ ). The dual single-valued

neutrosophic hypergraph H ∗ of a simple single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H may or

may not be simple.

Proposition 2.6. The dual H ∗ of a linear single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph without

isolated vertex is also linear single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph.

M.AKRAM, S.SHAHZADI AND A.B.SAEID: SINGLE-VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC... 133

Proof. Let H be a linear hypergraph. Assume that H ∗ is not linear. There is two dis-

tinct hyperedges Vi and Vj of H ∗ which intersect with at least two vertices e1 and e2 .

The definition of duality implies that vi and vj belong to E1 and E2 (the single-valued

neutrosophic hyperedges of H standing for the vertices e1 , e2 of H ∗ respectively) so H

is not linear. Contradiction since H is linear. Hence dual H ∗ of a linear single-valued

neutrosophic hypergraph without isolated vertex is also linear single-valued neutrosophic

hypergraph.

Definition 2.23. Let H = (V, E) be a single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph. A single-

valued neutrosophic transversal τ of H is a single-valued neutrosophic subset of V with

the property that τ h(E) ∩ E h(E) 6= ∅ for each E ∈ E, where h(E) is the height of hyperedge

E. A minimal single-valued neutrosophic transversal τ for H is a transversal of H with

the property that if τ 0 ⊂ τ, then τ 0 is not a single-valued neutrosophic transversal of H.

Proposition 2.7. If τ is a single-valued neutrosophic transversal of a single-valued neutro-

sophic hypergraph H = (V, E), then h(τ ) > h(E) for each E ∈ E. Moreover, if τ is a min-

imal single-valued neutrosophic transversal of H, then h(τ ) = ∨{h(E) | E ∈ E} = h(H).

Theorem 2.2. For a single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H, T r(H) 6= ∅, where T r(H)

is the family of minimal single-valued neutrosophic transversal of H.

Proposition 2.8. Let H = (V, E) be a single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph. The fol-

lowing statements are equivalent:

(i) τ is a single-valued neutrosophic transversal of H

(ii) For each E ∈ E, h(E) = (r0 , s0 , t0 ), and each 0 < r ≤ r0 , 0 < s ≤ s0 , t ≥ t0 ,

τ (r,s,t) ∩ E (r,s,t) 6= ∅

If the (r, s, t)−cut τ (r,s,t) is a subset of the vertex set of H (r,s,t) for each (r, s, t), 0 < r ≤

r0 , 0 < s ≤ s0 , t ≥ t0 ,then

(iii) For each (r, s, t), 0 < r ≤ r0 , 0 < s ≤ s0 , t ≥ t0 , τ (r,s,t) is a transversal of H (r,s,t)

(iv) Every single-valued neutrosophic transversal τ of H contains a single-valued neu-

trosophic transversal τ 0 for each (r, s, t), 0 < r ≤ r0 , 0 < s ≤ s0 , t ≥ t0 , τ 0 (r,s,t) is a

transversal of H (r,s,t)

Observation: If τ is a minimal transversal of single valued neutrosophic graph H,

then τ (r,s,t) not necessarily belongs to T r(H (r,s,t) ) for each (r, s, t), satisfying 0 < r ≤

r0 , 0 < s ≤ s0 , t ≥ t0 . Let T r∗ (H) represents the collection of those minimal single valued

neutrosophic transversal, τ of H, where τ (r,s,t) is a minimal transversal of H (r,s,t) , for each

(r, s, t), 0 < r ≤ r0 , 0 < s ≤ s0 , t ≥ t0 , i.e., T r∗ = {τ ∈ T r(H) | h(τ ) = h(H) and τ (r,s,t) ∈

T r(H (r,s,t) )}.

Example 2.7. Consider the single-valued neutrosophic hypergraph H = (V, E), where

V = {v1 , v2 , v3 } and E = {E1 , E2 , E3 }, which is represented by the following incidence

matrix:

MH E1 E2 E3

v1 (0.9, 0.6, 0.1) (0, 0, 0) (0.4, 0.3, 0.2)

v2 (0.4, 0.3, 0.2) (0.4, 0.3, 0.2) (0.4, 0.3, 0.2)

v3 (0, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) (0.4, 0.3, 0.2)

Clearly, h(H) = (0.9, 0.6, 0.1), the only minimal transversal τ of single-valued neutro-

sophic hypergraph H is τ (H) = {(v1 , 0.9, 0.6, 0.1), (v2 , 0.4, 0.3, 0.2)}. The fundamental se-

quence of H is F(H) = {(0.9, 0.6, 0.1), (0.4, 0.3, 0.2)}, τ (0.9,0.6,0.1) = {v1 } and τ (0.4,0.3,0.2) =

{v1 , v2 }. Since {v2 } is the only minimal transversal of the H (0.4,0.3,0.2) , E (0.4,0.3,0.2) =

134 TWMS J. APP. ENG. MATH. V.8, N.1, 2018

{{v1 , v2 }, {v2 }, {v1 , v2 , v3 }}, it follows that the only minimal transversal τ of H is not a

member of T r∗ (H). Hence T r∗ (H) = ∅.

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Muhammad Akram has received his MSc degrees in mathematics and computer

sciences, M.Phil. in (computational) mathematics and PhD in (fuzzy) mathematics.

He is currently a professor in the Department of Mathematics at the University of

the Punjab, Lahore. Dr. Akram’s research interests include numerical algorithms,

fuzzy graphs, fuzzy algebras, and fuzzy decision support systems. He has published

3 monographs and 230 research articles in international peer-reviewed journals. Dr

Akram’s total impact factor is more than 100. His current H-index on Google scholar

is 20 and i10-index is 70. He has been an editorial member of 10 international aca-

demic journals. He has been reviewer/referee for 105 international journals including

Mathematical Reviews (USA) and Zentralblatt MATH (Germany). He has supervised several M.Phil and

PhD students.

M.AKRAM, S.SHAHZADI AND A.B.SAEID: SINGLE-VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC... 135

Sundas Shahzadi has submitted her Ph.D. dissertation for award of degree in the

Department of Mathematics, University of the Punjab, Lahore Pakistan. She received

her undergraduate as well as postgraduate degrees in mathematics from Bahauddin

Zakariya University, Multan. She received her M.Phil degree in mathematics from

University of the Punjab, Lahore. She received awards for academic excellence. Her

current research interests include fuzzy graphs, neutrosophic graphs and its generaliza-

tions. She has published 12 research articles in international peer-reviewed journals.

is currently an associate professor in the Department of Pure Mathematics at the

Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran. He has published about 210 research

papers in international journals and conference proceedings. His current research

interests include fuzzy sets and applications, fuzzy logic, algebraic logic, and algebraic

structures.

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