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Chapter 5.

PREDICTION OF MICROMECHANICAL
BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID ELLIPTICAL FIBER
REINFORCED LAMINA FOR IN-PLANE
TRANSVERSE LOAD

5.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with the micromechanical analysis of a T-300/S-Glass-Epoxy hybrid


lamina subjected to in-plane transverse load. A three-dimensional finite element method
is used for the prediction of in-plane transverse Young‟s modulus (E2) and Poisson‟s
ratios (ν21 and ν23) and the stresses at fiber-matrix interfaces. The finite element model of
representative volume element of hexagonal pattern is generated in ANSYS software.
The cross-section of fibers is taken as ellipse with major axis equal to twice the minor
axis and the volume fractions of both the fibers are taken as same. The effect of fiber
volume fraction on the properties and stresses is discussed.

5.2 FE MODEL FOR IN-PLANE TRANSVERSE LOAD

The dimensions of FE model are taken as 50, 86.6 and 10 units in x- y- and z- directions
respectively as shown in Fig. 5.1. The dimensions of ellipse are obtained according to the
fiber volume fraction and the major to minor axis ratio is maintained as 2 (Major axis
parallel to through-the-thickness direction or out-of-plane transverse direction). The
details of FE model are similar as explained for longitudinal load case (Chapter-4) except
the direction of load which is applied in in-plane transverse direction (x or 2-direction) of
the lamina.

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Pressure load in in-plane transverse direction

Fig. 5.1 FE mesh on one-eighth portion of the unit cell


(one quarter in cross section and half in length direction)

5.3 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

Variation of mechanical properties with respect to fiber volume fraction is plotted in Figs.
5.2-5.4. E2 increases with increase in Vf. S-Glass-Epoxy composite has higher modulus
and T300-Epoxy least modulus. This is due to the lower modulus of T300 fiber in
transverse direction. Hybrid-Epoxy property lies between the two bounds of individual
fiber composites. The Poisson‟s ratio ν21 against Vf is shown in Fig. 5.3. T300-Epoxy has
lower values than S-Glass-Epoxy. This variation is due to larger stiffness in longitudinal
and less stiffness in transverse directions of T300 fiber than S-Glass fiber. T300-Epoxy
composite shows decreasing trend where as in S-Glass-Epoxy, this property decreases up
to certain value of Vf followed by an increase. Fig. 5.4 shows the variation of ν23 with Vf.
ν23 of all composites decreases with Vf. The uneven trends in Poisson‟s ratios illustrates
the variation of stiffness in 1-, 2- and 3- directions of composites with increase in Vf
resulting in variations in rates of decrease in strains in respective directions with increase
in Vf.

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Normal and circumferential shear stresses along the fiber-matrix interface are shown in
Figs. 5.5 and 5.6. These two stresses are found to be same in both fiber and matrix
materials. The normal stress is almost constant and tensile up to θ = 150 and the variation
is marginal between 150 and 350. This is due to the reason that the external load is
uniform and this portion of interface is almost normal to the direction of external load.
Maximum tensile and maximum compressive stresses are found to be more in top
interface than at bottom interface. This is due to the reason that glass fiber at the top
interface is having more transverse modulus than T-300 fiber placed at the bottom. The
interface reactions depend on stiffnesses of the constituent materials and their intensity is
more when mismatch between the material properties is more. At the starting point,
stresses in composite with higher volume fraction are less. This may be due to the
distribution of total reaction over wide area. As the angle increases, the trends are
changed and beyond θ = 800, in many cases, the nature of the stress is changed to
compressive, which is due to the Poisson‟s effect. Due to the constraints such as plane
section remains plane during deformation, at bottom interface for higher volume
fractions, the normal stress is still tensile (Fig. 5.5).

Fig. 5.2 Variation of E2 with respect to Vf

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Fig. 5.3 Variation of ν21 with respect to Vf Fig. 5.4 Variation of ν23 with respect to Vf

Fig. 5.5 Variation of normal stress with respect to θ

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Figure 5.6 shows the variation of circumferential shear stress at the fiber-matrix interface.
The stresses are zero at the starting point, increases up to θ = 750 in many cases, up to 620
for 75% volume fraction and later decreases. The stresses are more in top interface except
at 75% Vf and θ beyond 600.

Fig. 5.6 Variation of circumferential shear stress with respect to θ

Figure 5.7 shows the variation of circumferential normal stress in fiber material at fiber-
matrix interface. The magnitude of these stresses are low up to 450 when compared to
other portion of interface and are maximum at θ = 900. Stresses at top and bottom
interfaces follow similar trend. At θ = 900, composite with maximum volume fraction is
experiencing maximum stress at bottom interface, whereas the maximum stress is
observed for lower volume fraction at top interface. Figure 5.8 shows the variation of
circumfetertial stress in matrix material at fiber-matrix interface. In this case no variation
in sign of the stresses is observed. Which indicates that the relative elastic flow of
constituent materials at the interface in the circumferential direction is opposite up to
certain angle (450 to 500) and same at higher angles.

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Fig. 5.7 Variation of circumferential normal stress in fiber with respect to θ

Fig. 5.8 Variation of circumferential normal stress in matrix with respect to θ

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Figure 5.9 shows the variation of fiber directional normal stress in fiber material at the
fiber-matrix interface. There is no significant variation of these stresses with respect to
angular location. Almost all the stresses are negative due to the longitudinal compression
of the composite subjected to in-plane transverse load. Maximum stress is observed for
low volume fraction of fiber at bottom interface. Figure 5.10 shows the variation of fiber
directional stress in matrix material at fiber-matrix interface. Except at top interface for
low volume fractions, all the stresses are positive indicating the reaction nature to the
stresses acting on fiber. These stresses are less in magnitude relative to those acting on
fiber. The stresses are almost constant up to 450. Deviations at higher angles may be due
to the parallel constraint imposed on z- faces.

Fig. 5.9 Variation of Fiber directional normal stress in fiber with respect to θ

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Fig. 5.10 Variation of Fiber directional normal stress in matrix with respect to θ

5.4 CONCLUSIONS

Micromechanical behaviors of a hybrid elliptical fiber reinforced composite lamina


subjected to in-plane transverse load has been analyzed in this chapter. Representative
volume element from the hexagonal arrangement of the fiber is modeled and the
mechanical properties (E2, ν21 and ν23) of the lamina with three different material
combinations are determined. The stresses at fiber-matrix interface are evaluated. The
following conclusions are drawn.

 Increase in Vf results in increase in Young‟s moduli and decrease in majority of


Poison‟s ratios.
 At higher volume fractions, the normal stress near θ = 600 is found to be
maximum in tension that may cause de-bonding between the fiber and the matrix.
This stress is maximum at θ = 00 for lower volume fractions.

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 The shear stress is found to be maximum at Vf = 0.1 and θ around 750 at top
interface, which may damage the interface due to shearing action. This stress is
maximum at θ = 650 for Vf = 75% at bottom interface.
 The circumferential stresses are maximum at θ = 900 in most of the cases in both
fiber and matrix materials. These stresses may try to produce cracks in matrix and
damage the fiber surface at the interface.
 The fiber directional stresses are maximum in fiber at lower volume fractions, and
these stresses try to separate fiber and matrix due to longitudinal shearing action.

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