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PREDICTION OF MICROMECHANICAL

BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID ELLIPTICAL FIBER

REINFORCED LAMINA FOR IN-PLANE

TRANSVERSE LOAD

5.1 INTRODUCTION

lamina subjected to in-plane transverse load. A three-dimensional finite element method

is used for the prediction of in-plane transverse Young‟s modulus (E2) and Poisson‟s

ratios (ν21 and ν23) and the stresses at fiber-matrix interfaces. The finite element model of

representative volume element of hexagonal pattern is generated in ANSYS software.

The cross-section of fibers is taken as ellipse with major axis equal to twice the minor

axis and the volume fractions of both the fibers are taken as same. The effect of fiber

volume fraction on the properties and stresses is discussed.

The dimensions of FE model are taken as 50, 86.6 and 10 units in x- y- and z- directions

respectively as shown in Fig. 5.1. The dimensions of ellipse are obtained according to the

fiber volume fraction and the major to minor axis ratio is maintained as 2 (Major axis

parallel to through-the-thickness direction or out-of-plane transverse direction). The

details of FE model are similar as explained for longitudinal load case (Chapter-4) except

the direction of load which is applied in in-plane transverse direction (x or 2-direction) of

the lamina.

58

Pressure load in in-plane transverse direction

(one quarter in cross section and half in length direction)

Variation of mechanical properties with respect to fiber volume fraction is plotted in Figs.

5.2-5.4. E2 increases with increase in Vf. S-Glass-Epoxy composite has higher modulus

and T300-Epoxy least modulus. This is due to the lower modulus of T300 fiber in

transverse direction. Hybrid-Epoxy property lies between the two bounds of individual

fiber composites. The Poisson‟s ratio ν21 against Vf is shown in Fig. 5.3. T300-Epoxy has

lower values than S-Glass-Epoxy. This variation is due to larger stiffness in longitudinal

and less stiffness in transverse directions of T300 fiber than S-Glass fiber. T300-Epoxy

composite shows decreasing trend where as in S-Glass-Epoxy, this property decreases up

to certain value of Vf followed by an increase. Fig. 5.4 shows the variation of ν23 with Vf.

ν23 of all composites decreases with Vf. The uneven trends in Poisson‟s ratios illustrates

the variation of stiffness in 1-, 2- and 3- directions of composites with increase in Vf

resulting in variations in rates of decrease in strains in respective directions with increase

in Vf.

59

Normal and circumferential shear stresses along the fiber-matrix interface are shown in

Figs. 5.5 and 5.6. These two stresses are found to be same in both fiber and matrix

materials. The normal stress is almost constant and tensile up to θ = 150 and the variation

is marginal between 150 and 350. This is due to the reason that the external load is

uniform and this portion of interface is almost normal to the direction of external load.

Maximum tensile and maximum compressive stresses are found to be more in top

interface than at bottom interface. This is due to the reason that glass fiber at the top

interface is having more transverse modulus than T-300 fiber placed at the bottom. The

interface reactions depend on stiffnesses of the constituent materials and their intensity is

more when mismatch between the material properties is more. At the starting point,

stresses in composite with higher volume fraction are less. This may be due to the

distribution of total reaction over wide area. As the angle increases, the trends are

changed and beyond θ = 800, in many cases, the nature of the stress is changed to

compressive, which is due to the Poisson‟s effect. Due to the constraints such as plane

section remains plane during deformation, at bottom interface for higher volume

fractions, the normal stress is still tensile (Fig. 5.5).

60

Fig. 5.3 Variation of ν21 with respect to Vf Fig. 5.4 Variation of ν23 with respect to Vf

61

Figure 5.6 shows the variation of circumferential shear stress at the fiber-matrix interface.

The stresses are zero at the starting point, increases up to θ = 750 in many cases, up to 620

for 75% volume fraction and later decreases. The stresses are more in top interface except

at 75% Vf and θ beyond 600.

Figure 5.7 shows the variation of circumferential normal stress in fiber material at fiber-

matrix interface. The magnitude of these stresses are low up to 450 when compared to

other portion of interface and are maximum at θ = 900. Stresses at top and bottom

interfaces follow similar trend. At θ = 900, composite with maximum volume fraction is

experiencing maximum stress at bottom interface, whereas the maximum stress is

observed for lower volume fraction at top interface. Figure 5.8 shows the variation of

circumfetertial stress in matrix material at fiber-matrix interface. In this case no variation

in sign of the stresses is observed. Which indicates that the relative elastic flow of

constituent materials at the interface in the circumferential direction is opposite up to

certain angle (450 to 500) and same at higher angles.

62

Fig. 5.7 Variation of circumferential normal stress in fiber with respect to θ

63

Figure 5.9 shows the variation of fiber directional normal stress in fiber material at the

fiber-matrix interface. There is no significant variation of these stresses with respect to

angular location. Almost all the stresses are negative due to the longitudinal compression

of the composite subjected to in-plane transverse load. Maximum stress is observed for

low volume fraction of fiber at bottom interface. Figure 5.10 shows the variation of fiber

directional stress in matrix material at fiber-matrix interface. Except at top interface for

low volume fractions, all the stresses are positive indicating the reaction nature to the

stresses acting on fiber. These stresses are less in magnitude relative to those acting on

fiber. The stresses are almost constant up to 450. Deviations at higher angles may be due

to the parallel constraint imposed on z- faces.

Fig. 5.9 Variation of Fiber directional normal stress in fiber with respect to θ

64

Fig. 5.10 Variation of Fiber directional normal stress in matrix with respect to θ

5.4 CONCLUSIONS

subjected to in-plane transverse load has been analyzed in this chapter. Representative

volume element from the hexagonal arrangement of the fiber is modeled and the

mechanical properties (E2, ν21 and ν23) of the lamina with three different material

combinations are determined. The stresses at fiber-matrix interface are evaluated. The

following conclusions are drawn.

Poison‟s ratios.

At higher volume fractions, the normal stress near θ = 600 is found to be

maximum in tension that may cause de-bonding between the fiber and the matrix.

This stress is maximum at θ = 00 for lower volume fractions.

65

The shear stress is found to be maximum at Vf = 0.1 and θ around 750 at top

interface, which may damage the interface due to shearing action. This stress is

maximum at θ = 650 for Vf = 75% at bottom interface.

The circumferential stresses are maximum at θ = 900 in most of the cases in both

fiber and matrix materials. These stresses may try to produce cracks in matrix and

damage the fiber surface at the interface.

The fiber directional stresses are maximum in fiber at lower volume fractions, and

these stresses try to separate fiber and matrix due to longitudinal shearing action.

66

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