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CE 894 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY

UNIT I

FLUID PROPERTIES AND FLUID CHARACTERISTICS


Problems

Properties of Fluids

1. Determine the specific gravity of a fluid having viscosity 0.05 poise and kinematic
viscosity 0.035 stroke. 1.11

2. Determine the viscosity of a liquid having kinematic viscosity 6 strokes and specific
gravity 1.9. 1.12 H W

2
3. If the velocity profile over a plate is given by 𝑢 = 𝑦 − 𝑦 2 in which u is the velocity in
3
meter per second at a distance y meter above the plate, determine the shear stress at y
= 0 and y = 0.15 m. Take dynamic viscosity of fluid as 8.63 poise. 1.3

4. A flat plate of area 1.5 x 106 mm2 is pulled with a speed of 0.4 m/s relative to another
plate located at a distance of 0.15 mm from it. Find the force and power required to
maintain this speed, if the fluid separating them is having viscosity as 1 poise. 1.5

5. Calculate the dynamic viscosity of an oil, which is used for lubrication between a square
plate of size 0.8 m x 0.8 m and an inclined plane with angle of inclination 300. The weight
of the square plate is 300 N and it slides down the inclined plane with a uniform velocity
of 0.3 m/s. The thickness of oil film is 1.5 mm. 1.7

6. The space between two square flat parallel plate is filled with oil. Each side of the plate
is 600 mm. The thickness of the oil films is 12.5 mm. The upper plate, which moves at
2.5 m/s requires a force of 98.1 N to maintain the speed. Determine
1) The dynamics viscosity of the oil in poise and
2) The kinematic viscosity of the oil in strokes if the specific gravity of the oil is 0.95.
Nov 2012 1,9
7. The dynamic viscosity of an oil, used for lubrication between a shaft and sleeve is 6
poise. The shaft is of diameter 0.4 m and rotates at 190 rpm. Calculate the power lost in
the bearing for a sleeve length of 90 mm. The thickness of the oil film is 1.5 mm. 1.14

8. A 400 mm diameter shaft is rotating at 200 rpm in a bearing of length 120 mm. If the
thickness of film is 1.5 mm and the dynamic viscosity of the oil is 0.7 Ns/m2, Determine

(i) Torque required to overcome friction in bearing


(ii) Power utilized to overcoming viscous friction. Assume linear velocity profile.
HW

9. If the velocity profile of a fluid over a plate is parabolic with the vertex 20 cm from the
plate, where the velocity is 120 cm/sec. Calculate the velocity gradients and shear
stresses at a distance of 0, 10 and 20 cm from the plate, if the viscosity of the fluid is 8.5
poise. 1.15

10. The velocity profile of a viscous fluid over a plate is parabolic with the vertex 20 cm from
the plate, where the velocity is 120 cm/sec. Calculate the velocity gradients and shear
stresses at a distance of 0, 5 and 15 cm from the plate, if the viscosity of the fluid is 6
poise. 15 HW

11. A 15 cm diameter vertical cylinder rotates concentrically inside another cylinder of


diameter 15.10 cm. Both cylinders are 25 cm high. The space between the cylinders is
filled with a liquid whose viscosity is unknown. If a torque of 12 Nm is required to rotate
the inner cylinder at 100 rpm. Determine the viscosity of the fluid. 1.17

12. Two large plane surface are 2.4 cm apart. The space between the surface is filled with
glycerine. What force is required to drag a very thin plate of surface area 0.5 m2between
the two large plane surfaces at a speed of 0.6 m/s. if,

(i) The thin plate is in the middle of the two plane surfaces, and
(ii) The thin plate is at a distance of 0.8 cm from one of the plane surfaces? Take
the dynamic viscosity of glycerine = 8.10 x 10 -1 Ns/m2. 1.18
13. The space between two large flat and parallel walls 25 mm apart is filled with a liquid of
absolute viscosity 0.7 Pa.sec. Within this space a thin plate plate, 250 mm X 250 mm is
towed at a velocity of 150 mm/s at a distance of 6 mm from one wall, the plate and its
movement being parallel to the walls. Assuming linear variations of velocity between the
plate and the walls, Determine the force exerted by the liquid on the plate. HW

14. A liquid compressed in a cylinder has a volume of 0.0113 m3 at (6.87 x 106) N/m2
pressure and a volume of 0.0112 m3 at 13.73 MN/m2 pressure. What is its bulk modulus
of elasticity?

15. A liquid is compressed in a cylinder having a volume of 0.012 m3 at a pressure of 690


N/cm2. What should be the new pressure in order to make its volume 0.0119 m3?
Assume bulk modulus of elasticity ( K ) for the liquid = 6.9 x 104 N/cm2. May 2013 1 2
not ok HW

16. A cylinder of 0.6 m3 in volume contains air at 500C and 0.3 N/mm2 absolute pressure.
The air is compressed to 0.3 m3. Find i) pressure inside the cylinder assuming
isothermal process and ii) pressure and temperature assuming adiabatic process. Take
k = 1.4. 1.21

17. The surface tension of a water in contact with air at 200C is 0.0725 N/m. The pressure
inside a droplet of water is to be 0.02 N/cm2 greater than the outside pressure. Calculate
the diameter of the droplet of water. 1.25

18. Fine the surface tension in a soap bubble of 40 mm diameter when the inside pressure
is 2.5 N/m2 above the atmospheric pressure. HW 1.26
19. Calculate the capillary rise in a glass tube of 2.5 mm diameter when immersed vertically
in a) water and b) mercury. Take surface tensions σ = 0.0725 N/m for water and σ =
0.52 n/m for mercury in contact with air. The specific gravity for mercury is given as 13.6
and angle of contact = 1300. 1.28

20. Calculate the capillary effect in millimeters in a glass tube of 4 mm diameter, when
immersed in i) water and ii) mercury. The temperature of the liquid is 20 0C and the
values of the surface tension of water and mercury at 200C in contact with air are
0.073575 N/m and 0.51 N/m respectively. The angle of contact for water is zero and that
for mercury is 1300. Take density of water at 200C as equal to 998kg/m3. HW 1.29

Continuity Equation and Energy Equation

21. A 30 cm diameter pipe, conveying water, branches into two pipes of diameters 20 cm
and 15 cm respectively. If the average velocity in the 30 cm diameter pipe is 2.5 m/s.
Find the discharge in this pipe. Also determine the velocity in 15 cm pipe if the average
velocity in 20 cm diameter pipe is 2 m/s. 5.2

22. A 40 cm diameter pipe, conveying water, branches into two pipes of diameters 30 cm
and 20 cm respectively. If the average velocity in the 40 cm diameter pipe is 3 m/s. Find
the discharge in this pipe. Also determine the velocity in 20 cm pipe if the average
velocity in 30 cm diameter pipe is 2 m/s. 2 HW

23. Water flows through a pipe AB 1.2 m diameter at 3 m/s and then passes through a pipe
BC 1.5 m diameter. At C, the pipe branches. Branch CD is 0.8 m in diameter and carries
one-third of the flow in AB. The flow velocity in branch CE is 2.5 m/s. Find the volume
rate of flow in AB, the velocity in BC, the velocity in CD and the diameter of CE. 5.3
24. A 25 cm diameter pipe carries oil of sp. Gr. 0.9 at a velocity of 3 m/s. At another section
the diameter is 20 cm. Find the velocity at this section and also mass rate of flow of oil.
5.4

25. A pipe, through which water is flowing, is having diameters, 20 cm and 10 cm at the
cross-sections 1 and 2 respectively. The velocity of water at section 1 is given 4 m/s.
Find the velocity head at sections 1 and 2 and also rate of discharge. 6.2 HW

26. The water is flowing through a pipe having diameters 20 cm and 10 cm at sections 1 and
2 respectively. The rate of flow through pipe is 35 litres/ s. The section 1 is 6 m above
datum and section 2 is 4 m above datum. If the pressure at section 1 is 39.24 N/cm2, find
the intensity of pressure at section 2. 6.4

27. The water is flowing through a taper pipe of length 100 m having diameters 600 mm at
the upper end and 300 mm at the lower end, at the rate of 50 litres/s. The pipe has a
slope of 1 in 30. Find the pressure at the lower end if the pressure at the higher level is
19.62 N/cm2. May 2013 6.6 HW

28. Water is flowing through a pipe having diameter 300 mm and 200 mm at the bottom and
upper end respectively. The intensity of pressure at the bottom end is 24.525 N/cm 2 and
the pressure at the upper end is 9.81 N/cm2. Determine the difference in datum head if
the rate of flow through pipe is 40 lit/s. 6.5

29. A pipe of diameter 400 mm carries water at a velocity of 25 m/s. The pressures at the
points A and B are given as 29.43 N/cm2 and 22.563 N/cm2 respectively while the datum
head at A and B are 28 m and 30 m. Find the loss of head between A and B. 6.7

30. A pipeline carrying oil at specific gravity 0.87, changes in diameter from 200 mm
diameter at a position A to 500 mm diameter at a position B which is 4 meters at a
higher level. If the pressures at A and B are 9.81 N/cm2 and 5.886 N/cm2 respectively
and the discharge is 200 litres/s, determine the loss of head and direction of flow.6.9 HW