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After proportioning all concrete ingredients their mixing is done. The mixing process should
ensure homogeneous mass uniform color. Segregation should not take place during the mixing

Mixing is done by two following methods:

1. Hand Mixing

2. Machine Mixing

This method is adopted where the quantity of concrete is very small or where mixing machine is
not available.
Cement and sand are first of all mixed dry on a clean hard impermeable platform. Dry mixing is
continued until the mixture attains uniform color. Now, this mix is spread on the measured stock
of coarse aggregate in required amount and these are mixed again to have uniform color.
Shovels are used for this mixing purpose.

Make hollow in the middle of the mixed pile and add 75% of the required amount of water. Mixing
is done and the remaining quantity of water is added to acquire the uniform workability. In this
method of mixing, about 10% more cement is used to make good the cement lost due to possible
water flowing out of the mix and also to make good strength characteristic to inferior result of
hand mixing.

For hand mixing, the materials are stacked on a water-tight platform, which may be either of
wood, brick or steel. The materials should be thoroughly mixed, at least three times, in dry
condition before water is added. The prepared mix should be consumed in 30 minutes after
adding water. The mixing by hand is allowed in case of small works of unimportant works where
small quantity of concrete is required. For important works, if hand mixing is to be adopted, it is
advisable to use 10 percent more cement than specified.

On large works where concreting work is quite large, machine mixing of concrete proves
economical. Concrete produced by machine mixing is more homogeneous and can be prepared
with comparatively less w/c ratio.
The concrete mixers may either be batch type or continuous type. Batch mixers mix and
discharge each load of materials separately, whereas continuous mixers produce steady stream
of concrete so long as it is in operation. Latter type mixers are not in common use. Batch type
mixers are mostly adopted.