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SOLID-LIQUID

SEPARATION:
FILTRATION

Charles L. Cooney
Downstream
Processing Course
FILTRATION THEORY
Poiseulle’s Law
1 dV ∆P
=
A dt µ ( R m + Rc )

Filtration Rate
Broth Resistance to Flow
Viscosity

Cake Resistance V=filtrate volume


αW A=Filter area
Rm = t=Time
∆P=Pressure Driving Force
A µ=Broth viscosity
Specific Cake Resistance W=Mass of filter cake
R=Resistance
α = α ' ∆P S
α=Specific cake resistance
S=Compressability factor
The filter resistance is much
less than the cake resistance
Rc<<Rm

1 dV ∆P
= α ' ∆P S W
A dt µ( A )

When the filter cake is incompressible, S=0


1 dV ∆P
= α' W
A dt µ( A )

When the filter cake is very compressible, S=1.0


1 dV 1
= α' W
A dt µ( A )
Flocculation of Cells
Sedimentation Rate

d p ( ρp − ρs )
2

VS = gc
18µ
Filtration Rate

dV k∆P
= 2
dt VS 0
S0=K’(1/Dp)2

S02 = K’’/Dp4

4
dV k0 ∆PD
=
p

dt V
Mechanism of
Flocculation
• Particle bridging
• Charge neutralization
• Charge patch
neutralization
Net Force Force Magnitude

- - - -
1. Repulsion F1 F2 (1-x1)(1-x2)

- ++ - + -
2. Attraction F1 F2 x1(1-x2)

3. Attraction - ++ - - +
F1 F2 (1-x1)x2

4. Repulsion - ++ ++ - + +
F1 F2 x1x2
K1 K2 Langmuir Isotherm
N S
+ x= =
Species 1 Species 2 Na K+S
Divalent Ion

Figure by MIT OCW.


Recovery of Penicillin G
from 200 m3 Fermentation
Broth Penicillin G 5000 kg
Flocculants
200 m3 batch Biomass 6000 kg dry wt

Rotary Filter Biomass disposal 98%


30 m2x2

Penicillin (5990 kg) + solvent

Extraction 97%

Penicillin (5760 kg) + solvent


Penicillin G recovery 96%
Potassium Acetate
Penicillin G K+
salt (5350 kg)

Acetone Wash Centrifugation 99.8%

Penicillin G K+ salt (5340 kg)

Vacuum Dry 99.4%

Penicillin G K+ salt Penicillin G K+


salt recovery 99.2%
(5300 kg)

Figure by MIT OCW.