{df¶ gyMr

Jm`Ìr nÄMXer

Aܶm¶

^y{‘H$m
1. N>ÝXm| H$m ñdê$n

boIH$

1. doX Ho$ nyaH$ A§J Am¡a Cnm§J
2. N>ÝX H$m AW©, {Zd©MZ Am¡a doXmW© _| à`moJ
3. N>ÝXm| H$m dJuH$aU Am¡a ê$n
gÝX^©
2. Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©

AéU Hw$_ma CnmÜ`m`

ZmJ npãbeg©
11 E.`y.E. Odmha ZJa,
{Xëbr-110007, ^maV

1. VÝÌmZwgma _ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©
2. Jm`Ìr VWm n#mXer _ÝÌ _| g_Vwë`Vm
3. doX _| 15 AW©
4. N>ÝX Ûmam AW©
5. Jm`Ìr H$m N>ÝXmW©
6. {ÌnmX Jm`Ìr Ho$ AW©
7. Jm`Ìr H$m _yb àUd
8. _hm-ì`mö{V
9. eãXmW©
10. nm¡am{UH$ AW©
11. {ÌVma `m Jwá àUd
12. {ed-hZw_mZ
13. emº$-ì`m»`m
14. Hw$N> AÝ` {ÌH$
15. Yr `moJ
16. Jm`Ìr H$m ñdê$n
17. JUn{V-H$m{Îm©Ho$`

n¥îR>

1-2
3-19

3
4
7
11
20-52

20
20
21
23
24
27
29
32
34
37
39
41
43
44
47
47
49

Aܶm¶

n¥îR>

18. doX-_mVm
3. g¥pîQ> VWm Jm¶Ìr

51
53-76

1. eyݶ go Amaå^
2. g¥pîQ> Ho$ {d{dY {dMma
3. eyݶ ¶m {dÝXþ Ho$ ñVa
4. Jm¶Ìr VWm {Ì{dY g¥pîQ>
5. ~«÷-Jm¶Ìr
6. Jm¶Ìr VWm {díd Ho$ nX
4. Yr ¶moJ

53
54
59
66
69
74
77-96

1. Yr ¶moJ
2. ‘h{f© X¡damV dU©Z
3. EH$Ëd ÑpîQ>
4. {ÛËd
5. {ÌËd
6. MVwînmX kmZ
7. nÄM nd©
8. nÄM nd©
9. fS²> Xe©Z
10. ‘hm{dÚm
11. {d{dY ^oX
5. Jm¶Ìr VÝÌ

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

^y{‘H$m
_ZmoO{dËd {g{Õ
_Z H$s n[a^mfm
_Z-~w{Õ-AhL²>H$>ma
gmYZm H«$_
nmVÄOb gyÌm| H$m VmËn`©

77
77
82
84
88
89
93
93
94
94
96
97-122

97
97
97
97
98
100

Aܶm¶

7. gmam§e
8. › H$ma dU©Z
9. Jm¶Ìr Cn{ZfX²
10. Jm¶Ìr ahñ¶mon{ZfX²
11. gmam§e

n¥îR>

101
102
111
117
120

1
^y{_H$m

h_mao emñÌm| _| Jm`Ìr H$m _hÎd H$m\$s d{U©V h¡Ÿ& Bg J«ÝW H$m CÔoí` CZH$s
nwZé{º$ Zht h¡Ÿ& Jm`Ìr EH$ N>ÝX h¡, VWm Cg ê$n _| Cgo gd© à_wI H$hm J`m h¡JrVm _| ^JdmZ² H¥$îU Zo N>ÝXm| _| AnZo H$mo Jm`Ìr H$hm h¡Ÿ& Bg N>ÝX _| doX Ho$
A{YH$m§e gyº$ h¢Ÿ& CÝht _| EH$ gyº$ Jm`Ìr _ÝÌ H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ gmW › VWm
3 `m 7 ì`mö{V`m| H$m ^r à`moJ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& `h Jm`Ìr _ÝÌ hr doX _mVm H$hm J`m
h¡Ÿ& AWd© doX (19/71) _| EH$ ñdVÝÌ gyº$ H$mo hr doX_mVm H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& {H$ÝVw
_h{f© X¡damV Zo dmL²>_mVm ê$n _| F$H²$ (10/114/4) H$mo _mZm h¡Ÿ& Bg ê$n _|
g¥pîQ> VWm eãX ê$n _| doX H$s CËn{Îm H¡$go hmoVr h¡, BgH$s ì`m»`m H$ht Zht h¡Ÿ&
g¥pîQ> H$m Amaå^ {dÝXw, AmoL²>H$ma, ì`mö{V, VWm Jm`Ìr nmXm| Ho$ Ûmam H¡$go hmoVr h¡,
BgH$s ì`m»`m H$aZo H$s MoîQ>m H$s J`r h¡Ÿ&
à»`mV doXk VWm VmpÝÌH$ lr ^mñH$aam` ^maVr Zo d[adñ`m-ahñ` _| _ÝÌm|Ho$ 15
AW© H$ho h¢Ÿ& `hr AW© doX _| ^r H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& doX Ho$ _w»`V: 3 AW© _mZo OmVo h¡AmÜ`mpË_H$, Am{YX¡{dH$, VWm Am{Y^m¡{VH$Ÿ& `h {dídm| Ho$ 3 {d^mOZ na AmYm[aV
h¡-eara Ho$ ^rVa H$m, AmH$me _|, VWm h_mao {ZH$Q> H$s n¥Ïdr H$mŸ& AmH$me _| {Z_m©U
Ho$ 5 MaU Wo, {OZHo$ AZwê$n `km| H$m 5 àH$ma H$m {d^mOZ H$B© ê$nm| _| hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
BgHo$ AZwgma {gI _V _| 3 {díd-gV²-lr-AH$mb, VWm 5 {H«$`mAm| Ho$ àVrH$ 5
H$H$ma h¢Ÿ& BZHo$ Ûmam 2 àH$ma Ho$ {d^mOZ H$m ahñ` ñnîQ> hþAm Ÿ& XmoZm| àH$ma {_bmZo
na 15 àH$ma Ho$ AW© doX _ÝÌm| Ho$ h¢Ÿ& BZ 15 AWm] H$s ì`m»`m d[adñ`m-ahñ` _|
h¡Ÿ& BZ AWm] Ho$ AZwê$n AW© H$aZm gå^d Zht bJmŸ& AV: ~«÷ Ho$ àVrH$ Ho$ ê$n _|
{OZ XodVmAm| H$s nyOm H$s OmVr h¡, CZ g^r H$m {ZX}e EH$ hr Jm`Ìr _ÝÌ go H¡$go
hmoVm h¡, BgH$s ì`m»`m H$s J`r h¡Ÿ& `h g^r XodVmAm| Ho$ EH$Ëd Ho$ ê$n _| g_Pm`m
J`m h¡Ÿ& ~«÷ EH$ hr h¡, na Cgo H$B© ê$nm| _| XoIm OmVm h¡Ÿ& Hw$amZ _| ^r Aëbmh Ho$
100, 103, `m 108 Zm_ h¢Ÿ& BZHo$ AbJ AbJ AW© h¢Ÿ& BgH$m AW© `h Zht h¡ {H$
Aëbmh H$B© h¢, na EH$ hr H$mo H$B© ê$nm| _| XoIm OmVm h¡Ÿ& dñVwV: g^r ê$n Cgr Ho$

2
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
§h¢Ÿ& nwamUm| _| ^r ^JdZ Ho$ {d{^Þ ê$nm| Ho$ 108, `m 1000 Zm_m| H$m nmR> d{U©Vh¡Ÿ&
{deofH$a {dîUw-ghòZm_ Ho$ 1000 Zm_, _ÜdmMm`© Ho$ _V go F$½doX Ho$ 1000 gyº$m|
Ho$ Zm_ ê$n _| gmam§e h¢Ÿ&
BZ g~ VÎdm| H$s MMm© Ho$ {b`o N>ÝX emñÌ H$m gm_mÝ` n[aM`, VWm {dñVma
go Jm`Ìr Ho$ ì`mö{V g{hV eãXm| H$m AW© {X`m J`m h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ A{V[aº$ Jm`Ìr Ho$
H$B© AÝ` ê$n h¢, `ÝÌ, `k à{H«$`m, Am{XŸ& Hw$amZ _| amoJ Xya H$aZo dmbo {OVZo _ÝÌ
h¢, CÝh| n§. hZr\$ emñÌr, àÜ`mnH$ amîQ´>r` g§ñH¥$V g§ñWmZ, {Xëbr, EH$ hr Jm`Ìr
_ÝÌ H$m ê$n _mZVo h¢ VWm {g\©$ Jm`Ìr Ûmam hr {M{H$Ëgm H$aVo h¢Ÿ&
doXm| H$s ì`m»`m Ho$ {b`o AnZo `wJm| Ho$ ì`mgm|, dmë_r{H$ VWm H¥$îU Û¡nm`Z Zo
am_m`U VWm ^mJdV H$s aMZm H$s WrŸ& `o XmoZmo J«ÝW ^r Jm`Ìr _ÝÌ H$s ^r ì`m»`m
h¢, Š`m|{H $Jm`Ìr hr gyú_ ê$n _| doX h¡Ÿ& h_ bmoJ lÕm Ho$ H$maU Jm`Ìr _ÝÌ Ho$
~‹S>o ~‹S>o AW© H$aVo h¢Ÿ& Omo eãX Zht h¢, CZH$m AW© H$aZo H$s Amdí`H$Vm Zht h¡Ÿ&
N>ÝX Ho$ ê$n _| Jm`Ìr Ho$ 4 MaU h¢, na _ÝÌ Ho$ ê$n _| 3 hr h¢Ÿ& 3 MaU `m IÊS>
3 dmŠ`m§e h¢, {OZH$m AbJ AbJ AW© H$a CÝh| Omo‹S>m OmVm h¡Ÿ& `hr _r_m§gm Xe©Z
H$s à{H«$`m h¡, AÝd` H$a MaU Zht Vmo‹S>Zm Mm[h`oŸ&
Jm`Ìr H$m kmZ hr doX n‹T>Zo H$m A{YH$ma XoVm h¡Ÿ& `h à{H«$`m `kmondrV _| H$s
OmVr h¡Ÿ& ^aÛmO JmoÌ _| _oao {nVm doX AÜ``Z H$s ApÝV_ H$‹S>r WoŸ& CZH$o Ûmam àmßV
kmZ Ho$ A{V[aº$ H$B© gÝVm| Zo H¥$nm H$a _wPo Bg kmZ H$m A{YH$mar ~Zm`m h¡-`Wm
àmo. am_gOrdZ {ÌnmR>r ({Vén{V), ñdm_r {ZíMbmZÝX gañdVr (nwar nrR> Ho$
e‘>amMm`©), ñdm_r O`oÝÐ gañdVr (H$mÄMr nrR>), O¡Z _w{Z _hoÝX« Hw$_ma Or
(VoamnÝW), O¡Z _w{Z àgÝZ gmJa Or, {ÌXÊS>r ñdm_r (~Šga Ho$ ñd. {dîdŠgoZmMm`©
Or ) Am{XŸ& BZH$s H¥$nm Ho$ H$maU nyU© doXmÜ``Z Ho$ {~Zm hr Jm`Ìr H$s ì`m»`m H$s
Y¥îQ>Vm H$a ahm hÿ±Ÿ&
H$Q>H$,
AéU Hw$_ma CnmÜ`m`
Amo{‹S>em
Xmob ny{U©‘m, {d.g§.2066 ¶m 28-2-2010

3
AÜ`m` 1
N>ÝXm| H$m ñdê$n
1. doX Ho$ nyaH$ A§J Am¡a Cnm§J

-

F${f`m| Zo {Og H$mb _| d¡{XH$ _ÝÌm| H$m Xe©Z `m {Z_m©U {H$`m Cg g_`
CZH$m AW© g_PZo bm`H$ {dkmZ Am¡a ^mfm H$m {dH$mg hmo MwH$m Wm Ÿ& ~mX _|
{dkmZ bwá hmoZo go CZH$m AW© g_PZo Ho$ {b`o doX Ho$ 6 A§J VWm Cnm§Jm| H$s aMZm
H$aZr n‹S> r Ÿ& fS>§J nwéf hmoZo Ho$ H$maU 6 Xe©Z VWm 6 àH$ma H$s Xe© dmH²$ `m {b{n
h¢ Ÿ& Cgr n«H$ma d¡km{ZH$ AW© g_PZo Ho$ {b`o doX Ho$ 6 A§J h¢ Ÿ& Cnm§J Ho$ ê$n _|
6 Xe©Zm| H$mo 3 `w½_m| _| aIm OmVm h¡ Ý`m`- d¡eo{fH$, gm§»`-`moJ, _r_m§gm-doXmÝV &
n§. _YwgyXZ AmoPm Zo ~«÷ {gÕmÝV _| 3 AmpñVH$ VWm 3 ZmpñVH$ Xe©Zm| H$m
{d^mOZ {H$`m h¡ ja nwéf
gm§»`
Mmdm©H$
Aja
d¡eo{fH$
~m¡Õ
Aì``
_r_m§gm(nyd©, CÎma)
O¡Z
Ý`m` VWm `moJ H$mo g^r go gå~Õ _mZm J`m h¡ Ÿ& n§ _moVrbmb emñÌr Zo
JrVm {dkmZ ^mî` ^y{_H$m _| 6c6 Xe©Zm| H$m dJuH$aU {H$`m h¡ Ÿ& Bgr àH$ma doX
Ho$ 6 A§J ^r CZHo$ C„oI H«$_ Ho$ AZwgma 3 `w½_m| _| h¡ (1) {ejm-H$ën, ì`mH$aU-{Zéº$, Á`mo{Vf-N>ÝX doX Ho$ A§J Am¡a Cnm§J ^r doX
(2)
hr h¡, Š`m|{H$ CZHo$ {~Zm _ÝÌm| H$m AW© Zht hmoVm Ÿ& O¡go ^y…, ^wdŸ…, ñd… Am{X
bmoH$m| H$m doX _| C„oI h¡ na CZH$m {dñV¥V dU©Z nwamUm| _| hr h¡ Ÿ& CZH$s _mn
Á`mo{Vf VWm nwamUm| _| h¡ Ÿ& _mnXÊS> H$m dU©Z N>ÝX emó _| h¡ Ÿ& N>ÝX H$s Á`mo{Vf
AmYm[aV ì`m»`m Ho$ {~Zm N>ÝXmo_m ñVmo_ Am{X H$m H$moB© AW© Zht hmoVm h¡ Ÿ&
(3)
F${f`m| Zo _ÝÌ H$m Xe©Z {H$`m Bg AW© _| dh Anm¡éfo` h¡ Ÿ& Bg _ÝÌ Ho$
eãXm| H$m AW© A§Jmonm§Jm| go hr àH$Q> h¡ VWm CÝht F${f`m| Ûmam {Z{_©V h¡ Ÿ& Cg àg§J
_| hr _ÝÌ H$m eãX ê$n _| Xe©Z hmoVm h¡ Ÿ& ì`{º$JV ê$n _| F${f _ÝÌH¥$V h¢ Ÿ&
AbJ-AbJ F${f`m| Zo ~«÷ H$m AbJ AbJ eãXm| _| dU©Z {H$`m h¡ Ÿ& ì`{º$JV

4
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
aMZm ê$n _| _ÝÌ `m CgH$m ñnï>rH$aU nm¡éfo` h¡, {H$ÝVw CZH$m EH$Ëd aMZm ê$n _|
_ÝÌ `m CgH$m ñnï>rH$aU nm¡éfo` h¡, {H$ÝVw CZH$m EH$Ëd ~«÷-gyÌ go ñnï> hmoVm
h¡ Ÿ& AV… ~«÷ gyÌ Ho$ doXmÝVXe©Z Ûmam g_PZo na dh EH$Ëd Anm¡éfo` h¡ Ÿ&
H$mbmÝVa _| A§Jm| Ho$ gr{_V AW© hmo J`o Ÿ& eãXm| H$s CËn{Îm, pñW{V Ed§ b`
H$m à{VnmXZ H$aZm {Zd©MZ VWm CgH$m emó {Zéº$ h¡ Ÿ& `mñH$ _w{Z a{MV {Zéº$
Ho$ A{V[aº$ ~«m÷U J«ÝWm| `m _ÝÌ g§{hVm _| ^r Omo {Zd©MZ {_bVo h¢, dh ^r
{Zéº$ h¢ & eãXm| H$s CËn{Îm Am¡a ê$nmÝVa d¡km{ZH$ VÏ`m| `m {H«$`mAm| na AmYm[aV
h¢ Ÿ& O¡go ^m¡{VH$ `m agm`Z {dkmZ _| Hw$N> JwUm| VWm _mn {d{Y Ho$ AmYma na eãXm|
H$s n[a^mfm Xr OmVr h¡, Cgr n«H$ma d¡{XH$ kmZ-{dkmZ na BZH$m {Zd©MZ AmYm[aV
h¡ Ÿ& CZ {Zd©MZm| `m n[a^mfmAm| Ho$ Ûmam hr doX H$m AW© h¡ Ÿ& BgH$m nyaH$ ì`mH$aU
h¡ Ÿ& eãX Ho$ Ad`dm| _yb YmVw, à{Vnm{XH$, àË`` CngJ© VWm Aì`` H$s ì`m»`m
Am¡a CZH$m g§`moJ hr CZH$m {df` h¡ Ÿ& eãX g_yh H$m 12 àH$ma go AW© _r_m§gm h¡
VWm CZH$m EH$Ëd CÎma _r_m§gm doXmÝV h¡ Ÿ& Bg àH$ma nyaH$ `w½_m| Ho$ A{V[aº$ ^r
AÝ` A§Jm| VWm _ÝÌ g§{hVm go BZH$m gå~ÝY h¡ Ÿ& {ejm H$m AW© {g\$© dU© CƒmaU
{ejm Zht h¡ Ÿ& ì`mH$aU gå~ÝYr nm{UZr` {ejm Am{X dU© CƒmaU {ejm h¡ Ÿ&
dU©-Ajam| H$mo {Og ê$n _| {bIm OmVm h¡ Cgo Š`m n‹T> m Om`oJm VWm CƒmaU Ho$
AZwgma Š`m AW© n[adV©Z hmoJm `h {ejm H$m {df` h¡ Ÿ& `k {dkmZ H$s {ejm
^m¡{VH$, agm`Z {dkmZ `m _ÝÌ {dkmZ Ho$ à`moJm| H$s Vah h¡ Ÿ& {ejm {_bZo na
CZH$m à`moJ H$a ì`mdhm[aH$ H$m`© H$aZm H$ën h¡ Ÿ& CXmhaUmW© V¡{Îmar` Cn{ZfX² Ho$
VrZ IÊS>m| _| àW_ ^mJ erjm-d„r (erjm - [ejm gå~ÝYr, d¡{XH$ ê$n) h¡ Ÿ& 5
A[YH$aUm| AÜ`mË_, A{YX¡d, A{YÁ`mo{Vf, A{Y^m¡{VH$, A{Y{dÚm VWm {Xem Am¡a
bmoH$m| H$s ì`m»`m h¡ Ÿ&
{díd H$s d¡km{ZH$ ì`m»`m, bmoH$m| H$m AmH$ma, J{V Am{X H$s ì`m»`m
Á`mo{Vf h¡ Ÿ& AV… Á`mo{Vf H$mo "{M{V' H$hm J`m h¡ Ÿ& BZH$m _mnXÊS> `m XoeH$mb-{XH²$-nmÌ- H$s _mn BH$mB`m± Am¡a n[a_mU H$s BH$mB`m± N>ÝX h¡ Ÿ& `h {M{V H$s
_mn H$m AmYma VWm CZH$s n[aU{V ^r h¡, AV… Bgo {d{M{V H$hm J`m h¡ Ÿ&(1,4)
(2) N>ÝX H$m AW©, {Zd©MZ Am¡a doXmW© _| à`moJ -

N>ÝX AmYm[aV Xe©Z ZmgXr` gyº$ (F$H²$ 10/128) Ho$ àW_ _ÝÌ _| AmdaU

1. N>ÝXm| H$m ñdê$n
5
(5)
dmX H$m C„oI "{H$_mdard…' eãX go h¡ Ÿ& Bg_| Hw$b Xg dmX `m 10 àH$ma go
g¥{ï> CËn{Îm H$s ì`m»`m h¡, {OgH$m {dñV¥V dU©Z n§._YwgyXZ AmoPm Zo XedmX ahñ`
VWm AbJ-AbJ dmX-nwñVH$m| _| {H$`m h¡ Ÿ& g¥{ï> H$s CËn{Îm g_ê$n A{dpÀN>Þ ag
Ho$ AmdaUm| Ûmam {d^mOZ go hw`r h¡ Ÿ& AmdaU hr N>ÝX h¡ {OgHo$ VrZ VÎd h¢ (6) d`-dñVw H$m CnmXmZ `m gm_J«r d` h¡ Ÿ& `h àmU Ho$ ê$nmÝVa h¢ Ÿ& d`moZmYdñVw H$s n[aÀN>oX gr_m h¡ Ÿ& `hr N>ÝX h¡ Ÿ& `h ^r àmU h¡ Ÿ& d`wZ-dñVw Ho$ ApñVËd
H$m {dkmZ d`wZ h¡ - BgH$s gm_J«r H$m nañna gå~ÝY VWm gr_m Ho$ ~mha Ho$ nXmW©
go {d^oX h¡ Ÿ& N>ÝX Ho$ _yb YmVw (1) M{X (MÝX) Am‡mXZo, Xrám¡ M (nm{U{Z YmVw 1/56)
(2) N>X g§daUo (10/248) AmÀN>m{XV H$aZm Ÿ&
(3) N>X AndmaUo (10/260) ñd[aV, 10/362 AXÝV)-hQ>mZm, {N>nmZm
(4) N>{X (N>ÝX) g§daUo (10/46)& n§. `w{Y{ð>a _r_m§gH$ Zo N>{X (N>ÝX)
H$mo hr _yb YmVw _mZm h¡ (d¡{XH$ N>ÝXmo _r_m§gm- am_bmb H$nya Q´>ï>-AÜ`m` 1)
N>ÝX Ho$ d¡{XH$ {Zd©MZ - dñVw H$m gr_m Ûmam AdÀN>oXZ hr N>ÝX h¡ Ÿ& (7)
gr_m go Amd¥V hmoZo Ho$ H$maU dñVw CgHo$ ~mha Zht OmVr h¡ Ÿ& n§. _YwgyXZ AmoPm
Zo N>mXZ Ho$ 11 {df`m| H$m dU©Z N>ÝX… g_rjm _| {H$`m h¡ - (8)
1. Cng§ì`mZ Ÿ(^rVar AmdaU `m dó), 2, n`m©YmZ (~mhar AmdaU `m
dó) 3. M{M©VH$ (~mhar bon, {dMmaU), 4. AdamoY (~mYm), 5. ì`m{á ({dñVma
`m _mn), 6. Xy{fVH$aU, 7. ñdê$n H$aU 8. D$O©Z (J{V `m e{º$ XoZm), 9.
{d{dVm (joÌ H$m Hw$N> ^mJ AbJ H$aZm), 10. JmonZ ({N>nmZm), 11. AÝVYm©Z
(bmon, AXe©Z)Ÿ&
N>ÝX Ho$ n`m©`m| H$s ì`wËn{Îm 1. Amd¥{V, g§d¥{V-Am, g_² CngJ© + d¥Äm² daUo+ {º$Z² Ÿ& AmdaU, g§daU
go ê$n, ^md hmoVm h¡, daU AW© ^r h¡ Ÿ&
2. VÝÌU - V{Ì Hw$Qw>å~YmaUo (YmVw 10/135 gm`U) `m V{Ì YmaUo (MÝÐ
10/65) YmaU `m {Q>H$m`o aIZm Ÿ&
3. AdpÀN>{V - Adnyd©H$ N>oXZo go {º$Z² àË`` Ÿ& AIÊS> `m Agr_ H$mo IÊS>
`m gr_m ~Õ H$aZm Ÿ&

6
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
4. MÝXZ - M{X ‡mXZo Xrám¡ M (1/56) nÚ-~ÕVm `m dñVw Ho$ ñdê$n H$s
Am‡mXH$Vm Ÿ& CUm{X _| MÝXoamXoíM N>… go N>ÝX hþAm h¡ Ÿ& M{X H$mpÝVH$_m© (`mñH$)
h¡, H$mpÝV, BÀN>m, J{V Am{X AW© _| ^r h¡ AV… N>ÝXm| go dñVw H$s J{V h¡ Ÿ& AmoPm
Or Ho$ XodVm {Z{dV² VWm `w{Y{ð>a _r_m§gH$ Ho$ d¡{XH$ N>ÝXmo _r_m§gm _| M[X YmVw H$m
J«hU Zht h¡ Ÿ& M{X H$m gå^dV… {ZnmVZ go N>{X hmoJ`m h¡ (MS²²>T>r-H$ÀN>m)&
5. h[aXmZ - BÝÐ Ho$ Aíd h[a h¢ Ÿ& BZ Xmo h[a`m| go _mg Ho$ Xmo nj hmoVo
h¢ Ÿ& `h F$H²$ gm_ ^r h¢ - F$H²$ gm_o d¡ h[a (eVnW ~«m. 4/4/3/6)& BÝÐ d`
h¡ CgHo$ Xmo gr_m-{dÝXw h[a h¢, CZHo$ XmZ (H$mQ>Zo `m XoZo go) gr_m ~Õ N>ÝX `m
d`moZmY h[aXmZ hmoVm h¡ & h[aO (Horizon) H$m AW© {j{VO ^r hmoVm h¡
doX _| N>ÝXm| Ho$ à`moJ-N>ÝXm| H$mo doX _| new, d«O JmoñWmZ, gy`© apí_, Aíd,
àOmn{V H$m aW, A{¾ Ho$ gmV Ym_, `m A{¾ H$m VZy (eara), `m doX ^r H$hm J`m
h¡ Ÿ& AWm] H$m g_Ýd` - Omo XrIVm h¡ dh new h¡, N>ÝX `m AmdaU _| gr{_V ê$n
XrIVm h¡ Ÿ& {Z_m©U `m ^moOZ gm_J«r AÞ h¡, dh ^r H$B© Qw>H$‹S> m§o _| ~§Q>m h¡ Ÿ& _mn
Ho$ {b`o J{V H$s Amdí`H$Vm h¡, _mnXÊS boH$a H«$_e… 1,2,3... _mn Ho$ gmW AmJo
~‹T> m OmVm h¡, AV… N>ÝX J{V h¡ VWm J{V H$m ñWmZ ~«O h¡ Ÿ& gy`© apí_ go ^r J{V
`m Xÿar H$s _mn h¡, AV… apí_ `m Jmo VWm CgH$m ñWmZ J{V h¡ Ÿ& O¡go 1 Ìw{Q>
(goH$ÊS> H$m 33,750 ^mJ) _| àH$me {OVZr Xya OmVm h¡ dh `moOZ h¡ Ÿ& g^r bmoH,$
Ym_, `m eara {dñV¥V gmo_ Ho$ gYZ ê$n A{¾ h¢, CZH$m eara N>ÝX `m AmH$ma àH$ma
dmbm h¡ Ÿ& gånyU© {díd _| {nÊS> H$s _mn, J{V, _{h_m hr doX Ì`r h¡, `o VrZm| VWm
CZH$m _yb AZÝV N>ÝX ê$nr AWd© ^r N>ÝX h¡ Ÿ& AV… N>ÝX doX h¢ Ÿ& J{V H$maH$ ê$n
_| N>ÝX Aíd ^r h¢ Ÿ&
N>ÝXm| H$m doXmW© _| à`moJ… -

(1) dmH²$ `m Ajam| H$m n[a_mU N>ÝX h¢ Ÿ&(10) `h Jm`Z Am¡a H$mì` _|
Cn`moJr hmoZo Ho$ A{V[aº$ dmŠ` IÊS>m| H$m ^r {ZX}e H$aVm h¡ Ÿ& dmŠ` EH$ N>ÝX hmoVm
h¡, nyU© AW© Ho$ dmŠ`m§e N>ÝX Ho$ nX h¢ Ÿ& ~‹S> o N>ÝXm| _| EH$ nX _| ^r EH$ `m Xmo
`{V XoH$a {d^º$ {H$`m OmVm h¡ Ÿ& N>ÝX, nX Am¡a `{V Ho$ ~mX hr eãXm| H$m AÝd`
H$a CZH$m AW© {ZX}e hmoVm h¡ Ÿ&
(2) Xoe Am¡a H$mb H$s gr_m H$m {ZX}e- {nÊS>m| H$m AmH$ma N>ÝXm| go {Z{X©ï>
hmoVm h¡ Ÿ& CZH$m n[adV©Z H$mb gmnoj h¡ AV… dh ^r N>ÝXm| na AmYm[aV h¡ Ÿ& dñVw

1. N>ÝXm| H$m ñdê$n

7

Ho$ Ad`dm| H$s g§»`m, _mn g§»`m Am{X H$s _mn ^r N>ÝXm| go hmoVr h¡ Ÿ&
(3) N>ÝXm| H$m dJuH$aU Am¡a ê$n-

A{¾ H$s 7 {Oˆm Ho$ H$maU 7 bmoH$, 7 A{M©, gmV ñda Am{X h¢ Ÿ&(11) g~H$s
_mn 7 N>ÝXm| go h¡ Ÿ& g§JrV Ho$ 3 gáH$m| H$s Vah Bg_| ^r 3 gáH$ h¢ Ÿ& CZHo$ nyd©
_mn XÊS> Ho$ AmYma ê$n 5 _m N>ÝX h¡ Ÿ& ha N>ÝX _| 4 nX h¢ Am¡a à{V nX Ajam|
H$s g§»`m 1-5, 6-12, 13-19, 20-26 h¡ Ÿ&
(12)
àmJ² Jm`Ìr n#mH$ -J«ÝWm| Ho$ AZwgma Zm_ ^oX
nmXmja Hw$b Aja F$H²$ àm{Vem»¶ Cn{ZXmZ gyÌ ZmaX-emó V¡{Îmar¶ ~«m÷U
(3/3/1)
1
4
_m
Cº$m
H¥${V
_m
2
8
à_m
AË`wº$m
àH¥${V
à_m
3
12
à{V_m
_Ü`m
g§H¥${V
à{V_m
4
16
Cn_m
à{Vð>m
A{^H¥${V
Aòr{d
5
20
g_m
gwà{Vð>m
AmH¥${V
[damQ²>
{ÛVr` gáH$-A{V N>ÝX
àW_ gáH$- ~¥hVr N>ÝX
nmXmja Hw$b Aja N>ÝX nmXmja
Hw$b Aja
N>ÝX
6
24 Jm`Ìr
13
52
A{VOJVr
7
28
CpîUH²$
14
56
e¹$ar
8
32
AZwïw>n²
15
60
A{Ve¹$ar
9
36
~¥hVr
16
64
A{ï>
10
40
n§{º$
17
68
AË`{ï>
11
44
{Ìïw>n²
18
72
Y¥{V
12
48
OJVr
19
76
A{VY¥{V
V¥Vr` gáH$- H¥${V N>ÝXnmXmja
Hw$b Aja
N>ÝX(qnJb)
{ZXmZ gyÌ
20
80
H¥${V
{gÝYw
21
84
n«H¥${V
g{bb
22
88
AmH¥${V
Aå^g²

8

Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer

23
24
25
26

92
{dH¥${V
JJZ
96
g§H¥${V
AU©d
100
A{^H¥${V
Amn…
104
CËH¥${V
g_wÐ
N>ÝX H$s Aja-g§»`m _| 4-4 H$m AÝVa hmoZo Ho$ H$maU 2 Aja H$_ go boH$a 2
Aja A{YH$ VH$ dhr N>ÝX _mZm OmVm h¡2 Aja H$_={damQ²>, 1 Aja H$_- {ZM¥X² &
1 Aja A{YH$= ^y[aH²$, 2 Aja A{YH$= ñdamQ²>Ÿ&
`o _w»` ^oX Amfu H$hbmVo h¢ Ÿ& BgHo$ A{V[aº$ 7 AÝ` àH$ma go dJ© h¢ {OZH$m
H$maU ñnï> Zht h¡ Ÿ&
N>ÝX

X¡dr

Amgwar

àmOmnË`m

Amfu

`mOwfr

gmåZr

AmMu

~«m÷r

Jm`Ìr 1 15
8 24
6
12
18
36
CpîUH²$ 2 14 12 28
7
14
21
42
AZwïwn² 3 13 16 32
8
16
24
48
~¥hVr 4 12
20 36
9
18
27
54
n§{º$ 5 11 24 40
10
20
30
60
[Ìïw>n² 6 10 28 44
11
22
33
66
OJVr 7 9
32 48
12
24
36
72
BZ_| ~¥hVr N>ÝXm| VH$ Ho$ hr dJ© h¢ & {H$ÝVw nVÄO{b Ho$ {ZXmZ gyÌ Ho$ AZwgma
A{VN>ÝXm| Ho$ ^r 4 àH$ma Ho$ dJ© h¢ Ÿ&
N>ÝX

X¡dr

Amgwar

àmOmnË`m

Amfu

A{VOJVr
e¹$ar
A{Ve¹$ar
A{ï>
AË`pï>
Y¥{V
A{VY¥{V

8
9
10
11
12
13
14

8
7
6
5
4
3
2

36
40
44
48
52
56
60

52
56
60
64
68
72
76

1. N>ÝXm| H$m ñdê$n

9

(13)

N>ÝXm| H$m ê$n-

N>ÝX
ê$n
XodVm
_m
n¥{Wdr
A{¾
à_m
AÝV[aj
dm`w
à{V_m
Úm¡
gy`©
Aòr{d
{Xem
gmo_
Jm`Ìr
AOm
d¥hñn{V
{Ìïw>n²
{haÊ`
BÝÐ
OJVr
Jm¡
àOmn{V
AZwïw>n²
Am`w
{_Ì
CpîUH²$
Mjw
nyfm
{damQ²>
Aíd
déU
~¥hVr
H¥${f
nO©Ý`
n§{º$
nwéf
na_oð>r
àmJ²-Jm`Ìr-n#mH$ _mn H$m AmYma h¢ Ÿ& EH$ AW© h¡ {H$ gm§»` Xe©Z Ho$ AZwgma 5
VÝ_mÌm`| h¢, AW©mV² 5 _yb BH$mB`m| go `mpÝÌH$ {díd H$s _mn hmo gH$Vr h¡ Ÿ& {ÛVr`
AW© h¡ {H$ _mn H$s _yb BH$mB© _m `m n¥{Wdr h¡ Ÿ& Cggo ~‹S> r BH$mB© à_m h¡ Ÿ& à_m
H$m CXmhaU O¡Z Á`mo{Vf _| {_bVm h¡ Ÿ& 500 `moOZ H$mo à_mU `moOZ H$hm J`m
h¡ Ÿ& ^mJdV-{dîUw Am{X nwamUm| _| Bgr à_mU `moOZ H$o AZwgma AÝV[aj bmoH$m| H$s
_mn h¡ Ÿ&(14) à{V_m gyú_ ê$n h¢ Am¡a N>moQ>r BH$mB`m± h¡ Ÿ& Aòr{d _yb BH$mB`m| Ho$
g§`moJ go ~Zr BH$mB`m± h¢ Ÿ& V¥Vr` AW© h¡ {H$ _m bå~mB© H$s _mn, à_m J{V (dm`w)
`m g_` _mn, à{V_m COm© (Úm¡, gy`©) `m nXmW© H$s _mn, Aòr{d {dÚwV² Mwå~H$s`
JwUm| VWm nañna gå~ÝY H$s _mn h¢ Ÿ& `h nhbo AW© Ho$ g_mZ h¡ Ÿ&
~¥hVr N>ÝX(15)AW©
~¥hVr N>ÝX
AW©
Jm`Ìr
~«÷dM©g
n§{º$
`k
CpîUH²$
Am`w
{Ìïw>n²
BpÝÐ`,dr`©
AZwïw>n²
ñdJ©
OJVr
new
~¥hVr
lr, `e
{damQ²
lr, AÞH$m Am`VZ
Bg_| _w»`V: Jm`Ìr, {Ìïw>n², OJVr bmoH$m| H$s _mn h¢ Ÿ& gm¡a_ÊS>b Ho$ ^rVa

10
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
Jm`Ìr, CpîUH²$, AZwïw>n² {d{^Þ joÌm| H$s _mn h¢ & AmH$me-J§Jm joÌ VH$ Jm`Ìr,
{Ìïw>n², OJVr h¢ Ÿ& gm¡a_ÊS>b H$s _mn F$H²$ (10/130/4,5) _| h¡ & A{VN>ÝXm| H$mo
Am`VZ H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& (16) Jm`Ìr joÌ H$m Am`VZ Y¥{V-A{VY¥{V hm|Jo `h n¥Ïdr H$mo
_mnXÊS> _mZ H$a Xmo Ho$ KmVm| _| _mn H$aZo go hmoJm Ÿ& H¥${V N>ÝX H$Um| H$s _mn
h¡ Ÿ&(17)
4. N>ÝXm| Ho$ AÝ` ê$n - {Ì{dY ê$n

N>ÝX
nXmW© (18)
dU© (19)
nXmW© ê$n

Jm`Ìr
{Ìïw>n²
OJVr
Am¾o`
EoÝÐ
{dídoXod
~«m÷U
j{Ì`
d¡í`
(20)
Amof{Y
dmV
Amn…
(21)
Jm`Ìr Ho$ {d{dY ê$n - 1) d¡ídmZa A{¾ - eara H$m AmH$ma
{ÌnmX Jm`Ìr Ho$
8 Ajam| Ho$ AZwgma 8 àmXoe = 8 c 10.5 = 84 A§Jwb h¡ Ÿ&
(2) nm{W©d Jm`Ìr (22) - An² Ho$ H«$_e… 8 ê$nmÝVa h¢ - Ÿ1. An², 2. \o$Z, 3.
D$f…(jma), 4. {gH$Vm(~mby), 5. eH©$am (aoV), 6. Aí_m (nËWa), 7. A`…
(bm¡h Am{X YmVw), 8. {haÊ` (gwdU©)Ÿ&
(3) Am{XË` Jm`Ìr (23) - Am{XË` Ho$ 4 `w½_ - {_Ì-déU, ^J-A§e, YmVmA`©_m, g{dVm-{ddñdmZ² Ÿ&
(4) Úm¡ Jm`Ìr (24) - Úw bmoH$ Ho$ VrZ nmX-Á`mo{V, Jm¡, Am`w-g^r Aï>mja h¡ Ÿ&
(5) gdm©pË_H$m Jm`Ìr (25) - A{¾ Ho$ 8 ê$n-n¥{Wdr, An², A{¾, dm`w, {dÚwV²,
gmo_, a{d, AmË_m Ÿ&
(6) bmoH$ Jm`Ìr (26) - 7 AmaÊ` new, 7 J«må` new, 5 C{X²^‚m, 5 Ord Ÿ& MVwînmX
Jm`Ìr Ho$ AZwgma dmH²$, ^y, eara, öX` Mma nmX h¢ Ÿ&
(7) g§dËga - 24 nj Jm`Ìr Ho$ 24 Aja h¢ Ÿ& (27) n¥Ïdr, AÝV[aj VWm Úw H$s 88 {Xem`| ^r Jm`Ìr h¢ Ÿ&
(8) bmoH$ - _Zwî` go ~‹S> o _ÊS>b - n¥Ïdr, gm¡a, ~«÷mÊS>, ñd`å^y - g^r _Zwî` go
H«$_e…224 `m H$mo{Q> JwUm ~‹S> o h¢ Ÿ&
gÝX^©

(1)

doXm§Jm| Ho$ `w½_ -

1. N>ÝXm| H$m ñdê$n

11

(H$) {ejm H$ënmo ì`mH$aU§ {Z麧$ Á`mo{Vfm§ {M{V…&
N>ÝXmo {d{M{V[aË`of fS>“mo doX CÀ`Vo Ÿ&&1Ÿ&&
(I) N>ÝX… nmXm¡ Vw doXñ` hñVm¡ H$ënmo@W nR>çVoŸ&
Á`mo{Vfm_`Z Mjw{Z©éº§$ lmoÌ_wÀ`Vo Ÿ&&2Ÿ&&
{ejm K«mU§ Vw doXñ` _wI§ ì`mH$aU§ ñ_¥V_² &
Vñ_mËgm“_YrË`¡d ~«÷bmoHo$ _hr`Vo Ÿ&&3Ÿ&& (2,3 nm{UZr` {ejm 41,42)
(J) {ejm H$ënmo ì`mH$aU§ {Z麧$ N>ÝXmo{d{M{V Á`m}{Vf{_{V Mm“m{Z (H$m¡{Q>ë`
AW©emó 1/2/1) `hm± gå^dV… Á`mo{Vf {M{V h¡ Ÿ&
(K) Ed{__o gd} doXm {Z{_©Vm… gH$ënm… gahñ`m…, g~«m÷Um… gmon{ZfËH$m…, go{Vhmgm…,
gmÝdm»`mZm…, gnwamUm…, gñdam…, gg§ñH$mam…, g{Zéº$m…, gmZwemgZm…, gmZw_mO©Zm…,
gdmH$modmŠ`m…& (JmonW ~«m÷U nyd©, 2/9)
(L>) Ed§ dm Aao@ñ` _hVmo ^yVñ` {Z…íd{gV_oVÚV² F$½doXmo, `Owd}X…, gm_doXmo
@Wdm©{“ag:, B{Vhmg…, nwamU§, {dÚm…, Cn{ZfX…, íbmoH$m…, gyÌm{U, AZwì`m»`mZm{Z,
ì`m»`mZm{Z Ÿ& Añ`¡d¡Vm{Z {Z…íd{gVm{Z & (~¥hXmaÊ`H$ Cn{ZfX², 2/4/10)
(M) Ûo {dÚo do{XVì`o B{V h ñ_ `V² ~«÷{dXmo dXpÝV nam M¡d Anam M Ÿ&&4Ÿ&&
VÌmnam F$½doXmo `Owd}X… gm_doXmo@Wd©doX… {ejm H$ënmo ì`mH$aU§ {Z麧$ N>ÝXmo
Á`mo{Vf{_{V Ÿ&&5Ÿ&& (_wÊS>H$mon{ZfX² 1/1/4,5)
(2) doXm§Jm| H$m ñnï> ê$n go D$na (1) Ho$ (K) go (M) VH$ doX ê$n _| C„oI h¡ Ÿ&
(3) F$[f`m| H$mo _ÝÌ Ðï>m H$hm J`m h¡ AWm©V² _ÝÌ Am¡a eãX {ZË` h¢ F${f {g\©$
Xe©Z H$aVo h¢ & A§J«oOr H$m ({S>ñH$da) eãX ^r d¡gm hr h¡ Ÿ& VÏ` nhbo go h¢ na do
AmdaU (H$da) _| Wo {OÝh| ~mha bm`m J`m Ÿ& nyd© _r_m§gm Ho$ 6 gyÌm| (1/1/2732) _| doX H$m Anm¡éfo`Ëd à_m{UV {H$`m J`m h¡ 1. doXm§íM¡Ho$ g§{ZH$fª nwéfm»`m… Ÿ& 2. A{ZË`Xe©Zmƒ Ÿ& 3. Cº§$ Vw eãXnyd©Îd_² Ÿ&
4. Am»`m… àdMZmV² Ÿ& 5. na§ Vw lw{V gm_mÝ` _mÌ_² Ÿ& 6. H¥$Vmo dm {d{Z`moJ…
ñ`mV², H$_©U… gå~ÝYZmV² Ÿ&
O¡{_Zr` Ý`m`_mbm{dñVa _| ^r -{dÜ`m{X ê$nmo `… eãX… gmo {ZË`mo@Wm {dZída… &
A{ZË`mo dU©ê$nËdmX² dU} OÝ_monbå^ZmV² Ÿ&&
A~m{YV àË`{^km~bmX² dU©ñ` {ZË`Vm Ÿ& CƒmaU à`ËZoZ ì`Á`Vo@gm¡ Z OÝ`Vo Ÿ&&

12

Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer

{ZË`m dmH²$ - dmJja§ àW_Om F$Vñ` _mVm A_¥Vñ` Zm{^…&
gm Zmo OwfmUmon`k_mJmXdÝVr Xodr gwhdm _o AñVw Ÿ&(V¡{Îmar` ~«m÷U 2/8/8/5)
B`§ `m na_o{ð>Zr dmJ² Xodr ~«÷e§{gVmŸ&
`oZ¡d gg¥Oo Kmoa§ VoZ¡d empÝVañVw Z…& (AWd© g§. 19/9/3)
AÝ` {dMma h¡ {H$ ~ma-~ma bwá hmoZo dmbo doX H$m F${f nwZ… {Z_m©U H$aVo h¡ `wJo `wJo {dXÏ`§ J¥UX²>ä`mo@¾o aq` `eg Yo{h Zì`gr_² (F$H²$ 6/8/5)
`wJmÝVo@ÝV{h©VmZ² doXmZ² go{VhmgmZ² _hf©`… & bo{^ao Vngm nyd©_ZwkmVm ñd`å^wdm &&
à{V _ÝdÝVa§ M¡d lw{VaÝ`m {dYr`Vo& F$Mmo `Oy§{f gm_m{Z `WmdV² à{VX¡dV_² &&
F$frUm§ Vß`Vm_wJ«§ Vn… na_XwíMa_² & _ÝÌm… àmXw~©^y~w{h© nyd© _ÝdÝVaopîdh &&
(dm`wnwamU, AÜ`m` 59)
EVo _ÝÌH¥$V… gd} H¥$ËñZeñVw {Z~moYV Ÿ& ^¥Jw… H$mí`… àMoVmíM XYrMmoømË_dmZ{n Ÿ&&
~«m÷Um… j{Ì`m d¡í`m F${fnwÌmñVWm ñ_¥Vm… &
F$frUm§#m gwVm øoVo F${fnwÌm… lwVf©`… Ÿ&& (_Ëñ` nwamU, 121 AÜ`m`)
`m_¥f`mo _ÝÌH¥$Vmo _Zr{fU AÝd¡ÀN>Z² XodmñVngm l_oU Ÿ&
Vm§ Xodr dmM§ h{dfm `Om_ho gm Zmo XYmVw gwH¥$Vñ` bmoHo$&
(V¡{Îmar` ~«m. 2/8/8/5)
Z_mo F${fä`mo _ÝÌH¥$X²ä`mo _ÝÌn{Vä`… Ÿ&
_m_m F$f`mo _ÝÌH¥$Vmo _ÝÌ{dX… àmhþX¡©dr dmM_² (V¡{Îm. Am. 4/1/1)
F$fo _ÝÌH¥$Vm§ ñVmo_¡… H$í`nmoÛY©`V² {Ja… Ÿ&
gmo_§ Z_ñ` amOmZ§ `mo Oko dréYm§ n{V…Ÿ&(F$H²$ g§. 9/114/2)
_ÝÌ Ho$ {Z_m©Vm `m Ðï>m XmoZm| ê$nm| _| F${f`mo Zo doX H$m Xe©Z {H$`m Am¡a Cgo g_PmZo
Ho$ {b`o doXm§Jm| H$m {Z_m©U {H$`m - gmjmV² H¥$V Y_m©U F$f`mo ~^ydw… Ÿ& Vo@daoä`mo
@gmjmV²H¥$V Y_©ä` CnXoeoZ _ÝÌmZ² gåàmXw…Ÿ& CnXoem` ½bm`ÝVmo@dao {~ë_J«hUm`o_§
J«ÝW§ g_måZm{gfwd}X§ M doXm“m{Z M (`mñH$ {Zéº$, 1/20)
(4) N>ÝXmo {d{M{V eãX Ho$ à`moJ 1 (H$), (J) _| h¡ Ÿ& BgHo$ A{V[aº$ nm{UZr`
JUnmR> 4/373, MmÝÐ JUnmR> 3/1/45 O¡ZoÝÐ JUnmR> 3/3/47, O¡ZoÝÐ
emH$Q>m`Z JUnmR 3/1/136, gañdVrH$ÊR>m^aU 4/3/189, VWm JUaËZ
_hmoX{Y 5/3/44 _| h¡ Ÿ& {ZXmZ gyÌ H$s ^y{_H$m _| ^r -

1. N>ÝXm| H$m ñdê$n
13
`m… fQ²> {n“b ZmJmÚ¡… N>ÝXmo{d{MV`… H¥$Vm… Ÿ&
AW ^JdmZ² N>ÝXmo{d{M{VH$ma… nVÄO{b…&&({ZXmZ gyÌ, öfrHo$e ì`m»`m H$s ^y{_H$m)
(5) AmdaU dmX - g¥{ï> {Z_m©U Ho$ Xg d¡H$pënH$ {gÕmÝVm| H$m C„oI F$½doX Ho$
ZmgXr` gyº$ (em¡ZH$ g§{hVm 10/128) _| h¡ Ÿ& CgH$m àW_ _ÝÌ Amdard… nX go
AmdaUdmX H$m C„oI H$a ahm h¡ ZmgXmgrÞmo gXmgrÎmXmZt ZmgrÐOmo Zmo ì`mo_mnamo `V² &
{H$_mdard… Hw$hH$ñ` e_©Þå^… {H$_mgrX² JhZ J^ra_² Ÿ&&
Bg_| AÝ` dmX h¢ - gXgX²dmX, aOmodmX, ì`mo_dmX, AnadmX, Aå^modmX Ÿ&
AÝ` ^r - Aní`§ Jmonm_{ZnÚ_mZ _m M nam M n{W{^íMaÝV_² Ÿ&
g gY«r{M… g {dfy{M©dgmZ Am dard[©V© ^wdZoîdÝV…Ÿ&
(F$H²$ g§. 1/164/31, 10/177/3 dmO. `Ow. 37/17 AWd© 9/10/11)
(6) d`, d`wZ, d`moZmY H$m {dñV¥V dU©Z n§. _YwgyXZ AmoPm H$s nwñVH$ AmdaUdmX
_| h¡, Omo OmoYnwa {díd{dÚmb`, amOñWmZ go àH$m{eV h¡ & CÝhr§ H$s AÝ` nwñVH$m|
XedmX ahñ`, ~«÷{dZ`, N>ÝX g_rjm Am{X _| ^r h¡ Ÿ&
d` = dr J{V-ì`m{á-àOZ-H$mpÝV-AgZ-ImXZofw (nm. YmVw 2/41)
dr + AgwZ² = d`g²
{ZKÊQw> (2/7/7) _| d`… AÞ Zm_ h¡ Ÿ& XodamO `Ádm Ho$ AZwgma H$maH$ ^oX go
g^r n«H$ma Ho$ AW© h¢ - YZ, AÞ, ~më` Am{X AdñWm, df©, OrdZ, IJ, Om{V Am¡a
`m¡dZ h¡ -d`o YZo@Þo ~më`mXm¡ dËgamo Or{dVo IJo &
OmVm¡ M `m¡dZo M¡d gmÝV§ Šbrd_wXmöV_² Ÿ&& (dmL²>_`mU©d 5061)
gm`U Zo AÞ-Aíd gå~ÝY go BgH$m AW© a‚mw-apí_-dëJm VWm ~hþdMZ ({d…, dr,
d`…) _mZH$a doÎmma…, _éV Am{X AW© {H$`o h¢ Ÿ& d`Z {H«$`m go ~Zo dó H$s Vah
Ad`dm| H$m nañna gå~ÝY ^r d` h¡ Ÿ& Cg _| ^r àmUe{º$ H$m à`moJ hmoVm h¡ AV…
d`, d`wZ, d`moZmY g^r àmU h¡ -àmUmo d¡ d`… (EoVao` ~«m. 1/28)
àmUmo d¡ Xodm… d`moZmYm… Ÿ& àmU¡huX gdª d`wZ§ ZÕ_² Ÿ& AWmo N>ÝXm§{g d¡ Xodm
d`mooZmYm…Ÿ& N>ÝXmo{^huX§ gdª d`wZ§ ZÕ_² (eVnW ~«m. 8/2/2/8) Ÿ&
d` go gå~pÝYV 19 àH$ma Ho$ N>ÝX h¢ _yYm©d`… àOmn{VN>ÝX…, jÌd`mo _`ÝX§ N>ÝX….... (`Ow. 14/9,10) &

14
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
nedmo d¡ d`m§{g (eVnW 9/3/3/7)&
nedmo d¡ d`ñ`m Bï>H$m (V¡{Îmar` g§. 5/3/1/3)
d`mo d¡ dm_Xoì` gm_ (O¡{_Zr` Cn. ~«m. 1/139)
àmUm dmd Vofm§ XodmZm§ dm_§-dZZr`§-dgw AmgrV² (O¡. 1/142)
VjZ² {nV¥ä`m_¥^dmo `wdX² d`… (F$H²$ 1/111/1) &
Am Zmo `km` VjV F$^w_X² d`… (F$H²$ 1/111/2)
~¥hXñ_¡ d` BÝX«mo XYm{V (F$H²$ 1/125/2)
A_r M {dído A_¥Vmg Am d`mo hì` Xodoîdm d`… (F$H²$ 1/127/8)
AWm XYmVo ~¥hXwŠÏ`§ d` CnñVwË`§ ~¥hX² d`… (F$H²$ 1/136/2)&
J_Þ BÝÐ… g»`m d`íM (F$H²$ 1/178/2)
Cn`m_ J¥hrVmo@{g BÝÐm` Ëdm ~¥hÛVo d`ñdV CŠWmì`§ J¥h²Um{_ (`Ow 7/22)
BÝYmZñËdm eV§ {h _m Úw_ÝV§ g{_Yr_{h Ÿ&
d`ñdÝVmo dgñH¥$V§ ghñdÝV… ghñH¥$V_² Ÿ&& (`Ow 3/18)
d`m§{g VX² ì`mH$aU§ {d{MÌ_², _Zw_©Zrfm _ZwOmo {Zdmg…&
(lr_X² ^mJdV 2/1/36)
d`wZ- XodamO `Ádm _V -AO J{V jonU`mo…(nm{U. YmVw 1/139)+ Am¡Um{XH$
CZZ² àË`` & `mñH$ _V- dr YmVw go, d` H$s Vah & BgHo$ AW© h¢ -àmU, Yy_, AÞ
dr`©, new Am{XŸ& {ZKÊQw> _| àeñ` (3/8/10) gm`U ^mî¶ F$H²$ (1/92/6) _|
àm{U`m| H$m kmZ, (1/144/5) _| àkmZ, AZwð>mZ {df`, (2/19/8) _| _mJ©
VWm (3/5/6) _| kmVì` nXmW© AW© H$aVo h¢Ÿ&
d`moZmY = _`m©Xm VWm dm__² = d` Ho$ gmW d`wZ H$m à`moJ H$m _`m©Xm d`wZm H$X²Y dm__ÀN>m J_o_ aKdmo Z dmO_² Ÿ&
H$Xm Zmo Xodra_¥Vñ` nËZr… gyamo dU}Z VVZÞwfmg… Ÿ&& (F$H²$ 4/5/13)
d`moZmY-`m Zmh- d`… + Uh ~ÝYZo (nm{U{Z 4/55) + AU² Ÿ& h H$m Y N>mÝXg
n«`moJ h¡ Ÿ& Omo d` H$mo ~mÝYVm h¡ dh d`moZmY h¡ Ÿ& `Owd}X (14/7) _| 5 ~ma
d`moZmY H$m à`moJ h¡ Ÿ& dhm± BgH$m AW© h¡ gr_m ^md CËnÞ H$aZo dmbo Xod Ÿ&
(7) N>ÝX Ho$ d¡{XH$ {Zd©MZ (H$) `íN>ÝXmo{^íN>Þ… Vñ_mV² N>ÝXm§gr ì`mMjVo (X¡dV ~«m. 3/19)

1. N>ÝXm| H$m ñdê$n

15

N>ÝXm§{g N>ÝX`ÝVr{V dm (X¡dV ~«m. 3/30)
(I) VX² `X² EZmZ² N>ÝXm§{g _¥Ë`mo… nmß_Zmo@N>mX`±ñVÀN>ÝXgm§ N>ÝXñËd_², EZmZ² =
XodmZ² &(O¡{_Zr` ~«m. Cn. 1/284)
(J) Vm{Z Añ_m (Añ_¡ = àOmnV`o) AÀN>X`± ñVm{Z `X² Añ_m AÀN>X`Z² Vñ_mV²
N>ÝXm§{g& (eVnW ~«m÷U, 8/5/2/1)
(K) Xodm… AgwamZ² hËdm _¥Ë`mo… A{~^`w…, Vo N>ÝXm§{g Aní`Z², Vm{Z àm{deZ²,
Voä`… `X² `X² AÀN>X` VoZ AmË_mZ_² AÀN>mX`ÝV VV² N>ÝXgm§ N>ÝXñËd_²& (_¡Ìm`Ur
~«m÷U, 3/4/7)
(L>) `V² N>ÝXmo{^íN>Þ… Vñ_mÀN>ÝXm§{g BË`mMjVo& (EoVao` AmaʶH$, 2/1/6)
(M) Vo N>ÝXmo{^… AmË_mZ§ N>mX{`Ëdm Cn`mZ² VV² N>ÝXgm§ N>ÝXñËd_²& (V¡{Îmar¶
g§{hVm, 5/6/6/1)
(8) _YwgyXZ AmoPm Ho$ ~«÷-g_Ýd` Ho$ Aì`` AZwdmH²$ _| `Vmo dñVw ì`dpÀN>{Îm íN>ÝX Am`VZ§ M VV² Ÿ&
Xoe Am`m_ {dñVam¡ {X¸$mbm¡ N>ÝX{g ñ\w$Q>m… Ÿ&&383&&
Ajamonm{Y deVmo@dpÀN>Þ§ ^dXì``_² Ÿ& àË`j§ ^d{VÀN>ÝXíN>ÝXmo{^íN>ÝXZ§ M VV² Ÿ&
àmUmZm__¥VmZm§ VV² N>ÝXZ§ àmUVmo@Ý`V… Ÿ&&385 &&
(9) {g\©$ ^mJdV nwamU _| hr N>ÝXm| Ho$ g^r ê$n {_b Om`|J| 1.N>ÝXm§{g AZÝVñ` [ea… J¥UpÝV (2/1/31)
2.dmMm§ ~ˆo _wI§ jo̧ N>ÝXgm§ gá YmVd… (2/7/11)
3.N>ÝX… gwnU¡©… F$f`mo {d{dºo$ (3/5/40)
4.N>ÝXm§{g `ñ` Ëd{M ~{h© amo_ (3/13/35)
5.Vmú`}U ñVmoÌ dm{OZm (4/7/19)
6. JéS>mo ^JdmZ² ñVmoÌ-ñVmo_íN>ÝXmo_`… (6/8/29)
7. N>ÝXmo_`§ `XO`m{n©V fmoS>ema§ g§gma MH«$_² (7/9/21-22)
8. `Ì h`m… N>ÝXmoZm_mZ… gá (8/3/31)
9. Ioä`_`§ N>ÝXm§{g F$f`… (8/3/39)
10. N>ÝXm§{g gmjmV² VÌ gá YmVd… Ì`r_`mË_Z² (8/7/28)
11. N>ÝXmo_`mo Xod F${f… nwamU… (8/7/30)- nwamU = nwa _| J{Verb àmU
12. `ñ` N>ÝXmo_`mo ~«÷Xoh… AmdnZ§ {d^mo (10/80/45)

16

Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer

13. `Úgm¡ N>ÝXgm§ bmoH$_² Amamoú`Z² ~«÷{dï>n_² (11/17/31)
dm`wnwamU (AÜ`m` 52), ~«÷mÊS> nwamU (nyd©, 22) {dîUw nwamU (2/8-10) VWm
_Ëñ`nwamU Am{X ^r Ðï>ì` h¢ Ÿ& d¡{XH$ à`moJ 1. N>ÝXm§{g d¡ ~«Omo JmoñWmZ…& (V¡{Îmar` ~«m. 3/2/9/3)
2. AÞ§ dmd ned… VmÝ`ñ_m (àOmnV`o) AÀN>X `±ñ Vm{Z `Xñ_m AÀN>X `±
ñVñ_mÀN>ÝXm§{g& (eVnW 8/5/2/1)
3. àOmnVodm© EVmÝ`“m{Z `ÀN>ÝXm§{g (EoVao` ~«m. 2/18)
4. {l`mo N>ÝXmo Z ñ_`Vo {d^mVr (F$H²$, 1/92/6)
5. N>ÝXm§{g dm Añ` (A¾o…) gá Ym_ {à`m{U& (_mÜ`pÝXZ g§. 17/79 H$s ì`m»`m
eVnW 8/2/3/44 _|)
6. A¾o d£ {à`m VZy N>ÝXm§{g (V¡{Îmar` g§. 5/2/1)
7. N>ÝXm§{g O{kao Vñ_mV² (nwéf gyº$ 7)
(10) dmH²$ H$m n[a_mU N>ÝX-`Xja n[a_mU§ VÀN>ÝX… (F$H²$ gdm©ZwH«$_Ur 2/6)
N>ÝXmo@ja g§»`mdÀN>oXH$_wÀ`Vo (AWd©doX H$s ~¥hËgdm©ZwH«$_Ur 1)Ÿ&
AjaoU {__Vo gádmUr… (F$H²$ 1/164/24)
`hm± dmH²$ H$m AW© {b{IV `m Cƒ[aV eãX, eãX Ûmam J_Z {H$`m J`m AmH$me
^r h¡ Ÿ& AV… AmH$me H$m JwU eãX H$hm OmVm h¡ Ÿ& Üd{Z, àH$me `m AÝ` Va§Jm| H$m
Ohm± VH$ {dñVma h¡ dh AmH$me joÌ ^r dmH²$ n[a_mU `m N>ÝX h¡ Ÿ&
(11) A{¾ H$s 7 {Oˆm (_¥ÊS>H$mon{ZfX²)
H$mbr H$ambr M _ZmoOdm M, gwbmo{hVm `m M gwYy_«dUm© Ÿ&
ñ\w${b{“Zr {dídéMr M Xodr, bobm`_mZm B{V gá{Oˆm… Ÿ& (1/2/4)&
gáàmUm… à^dpÝV Vñ_mV², gám{M©f… g{_Y… gá hmo_m… Ÿ&
gá B_o bmoH$m `ofw MapÝV àmUm, Jwhme`m {Z{hVm… gá gá (2/1/8)
(12) {dñVma Ho$ {b`o - qnJb H$m N>ÝXemó ({ÛVr` AÜ`m`) Mm¡Iå~m, {X„r&
d¡{XH$ N>ÝXmo _r_m§gm- n§. `w{Y{ð>a _r_m§gH$ - am_bmbH$nya Q´>ñQ> &
(13)N>ÝX… ñdê$n - _m N>ÝX… VV² n¥{Wdr, A{¾Xo©dVm, VoZ N>ÝXgm VoZ ~«÷Um V`m
XodË`m A§{JañdX² Y«wdmgrX² Ÿ& à_mN>ÝX…, VXÝV[aj_², dm`wXo©dVm Ÿ& à{V_m N>ÝX…,
VX²Úm¡…, gy`m} XodVm Ÿ& AòrdríN>ÝX…, VX²{haÊ`_², BÝÐmo XodVm Ÿ& OJVr N>ÝX…, VX²
Jm¡…, àOmn{VXo©dVm Ÿ& AZwïw>n² N>ÝX…, VXm`w…, {_Ìmo XodVm Ÿ& CpîUH² N>ÝX…, Vƒjw…,

1. N>ÝXm| H$m ñdê$n
17
nyfm XodVm Ÿ& {damQ²> N>ÝX…, VXíd…, déU… XodVm Ÿ& ~¥hVr N>ÝX…, VËH¥${f… nO©Ý`mo
XodVm Ÿ& n§{º$íN>ÝX…, VËnwéf… na_oð>r XodVm (_¡Ìm`Ur g§. 2/14/93-97) H$mR>H$
g§ 39/39-40)
(14) O¡Z Á`mo{Vf Ho$ _mn g‚mZ qgh {bíH$ H$s nwñVH$ O¡Z EñQ´>moZmo_r (A[ahÝV
àH$meZ, _moVrbmb ~ZmagrXmg, {X„r go CnbãY) `m bú_rMÝX O¡Z H$s VmAmo
Am¡\$ O¡Z gmBÝgoO _| h¡ Ÿ& nwamUm| _| ^wd…, _h… Vn… BZ VrZ AÝV[aj bmoH$m| H$s
_mn à_mU `moOZ _| h¡ Ÿ&
(15) ~¥hVr N>ÝX ê$n-VoOmo d¡ ~«÷dM©g§ Jm`Ìr (EoVao¶ ~«m. 1/5, VmÊS>ç _hm
~«m. 16/14/5, 16,16/6) nm§º$mo d¡ `k… (V¡{Îmar` g§. 5/2/3/6, _¡Ìm`Ur
g§. 1/4/9) Am`wdm© CpîUH²$ (EoV ~«m. 1/5) lrd¡ `eíN>ÝXgm§ ~¥hVr (VmÊS>ç,
EoVao¶ ~«m. 1/5) AÞ§ d¡ {damQ²>, `ñ`¡doh ^y{`ð>-_Þ§ ^d{V Ÿ& AmoOmo dm BpÝÐ`§ dr`ª
{Ìïw>n² (EoV. ~«m. 1/5) Jm`Ìmo {h ~«m÷U… (V¡{Îm. g§. 5/1/4/5) Ì¡ïw>^mo
amOÝ`… (V¡.g§. 5/1/4/5 O¡{_Zr` ~«m. 2/1/20) BpÝÐ`§ dr`ª {Ìïw>n² (O¡{‘Zr¶
~«m÷U Cn{ZfX², 1/132, 3/206) OmJVm… d¡ ned… (V¡{Îmar¶ g§{hVm, 2/5/
10/2, EoVao¶ ~«m÷U, 1/5) dr`ª Jm`Ìr (O¡{‘Zr¶ ~«m.1/309, 3/206) ~«÷
Jm`Ìr j̧ {Ìïw>n² (eVnW ~«m. 1/3/5/7) Jm`̧ dm A¾oíN>ÝX…(eVnW ~«m÷U,
1/3/5/4) Jm`Ìr_odm½Z`o dgwä`…, {Ìïw>^{_ÝÐm` éÐoä`…, OJVt {dídoä`mo Xodoä`
Am{XË`oä`… (EoVao¶ AmaʶH$, 3/9/1-gm`U H«$_) Jm`Ìr d¡ ~«m÷U… Ì¡ïw>^mo
amOÝ`… OmJVmo d¡ d¡í`… (O¡. ~«m. 2/102)
A¾oJm©`Í`^dV² g`w½dmopîUh`m g{dVm gå~^yd Ÿ&
AZwïw>^m gmo_ CŠW¡_©hñdmZ² ~¥hñnVo ~¥©hVr dmM_mdV² (F$H²$ 10/130/4)
{damU² {_ÌmdéU`moa{^lr[aÝÐñ` {Ìïw>{~h ^Jmo AôZ… Ÿ&
{dídmZ² XodmZ² OJË`m {ddoe VoZ MmŠb¥á F$f`mo _Zwî`m…& (F$H²$ 10/130/5)
CpîUH²$, AZwïw>n² H$mo Jm`Ìr bmoH$ gm¡a _ÊS>b _| hr {JZZo na VrZ N>ÝXm| go {díd H$s
_mn h¡ - Jm`Ìr, {Ìïw>n² OJVrH$V_o EVo Xodm B{V, N>ÝXm§gr{V ~«y`mX² Jm`Ìt {Ìïw>^§ OJVr{_{V Ÿ&(V¡{Îmar` g§. 2/
6/9/3,4)
Ìr{U d¡ N>ÝXm§{g `k§ dhpÝV Jm`Ìr {Ìïw>n² OJVr (O¡{_. ~«m. 1/120)

18
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
Jm`̧ N>ÝXmo@ZwàOm`ñd, Ì¡ïw>^§ OmJV_² BË`oVmdpÝV d¡ N>ÝXm§{g (H$mR>H$ 26/7)
dmH²$ gwnUu N>ÝXm§{g gm¡nUm©{Z Jm`Ìr {Ìïw>n² OJVr (_¡Ìm`Ur g§. 3/7/3)
(16) A{VÀN>ÝX - A{VÀN>ÝX g_wnXYm{V, A{VÀN>ÝXm d¡ gdm©{U N>ÝXm§{g, gd}{^aod¡Z§
N>ÝXmo{^[íMZwVo Ÿ& dî_© C dm Efm§ N>ÝXgm§ `X{VÀN>ÝX g_wnXYm{V dî_£d¡Z§ g_mZmZm§
H$amo{V (V¡{Îmar` g§.5/3/8/9)
A{VÀN>ÝXmo d¡ N>ÝXgm_m`VZ_² (JmonW ~«m.ny. 5/4)
A{Vdm Efm AÝ`m{Z N>ÝXm§{g `X{VÀN>ÝXm… (VmÊS>ç ‘hm ~«m. 5/2/11)
Efm d¡ gdm©{U N>ÝXm§{g `X{VÀN>ÝXm… (eVnW 3/3/2/11)
earamÊ`{VÀN>ÝXm (O¡.~«m. 2/58)
N>ÝXgm§ d¡ `mo agmo@Ë`jaV² gmo@{VÀN>ÝX g_… `Ë`jaV² Ÿ&
VX{VÀN>ÝXgmo@{V ÀN>ÝXñËd_² (EoVao` ~«m. 4/3)
(17) AZoH$ àH$ma Ho$ H¥${V N>ÝXm| H$m dU©Z _h{f© {dídXod Zo _mÜ`pÝXZ g§. (14/
9, 10, 12) _| {H$`m h¡ Ÿ& CZ_| g_wÐ (26 c 4 Aja) N>ÝX H$s ì`m»`m h¡ AZÝVm{Z dm AhmoamÌm{U AZÝVm… {gH$Vm… Ed_whmñ`¡Vm AhmoamÌ¡… gånÞm AÝ`yZm
AZ{V[aº$m Cn{hVm ^dpÝV & AW H$ñ_mV² g_w{Ð`§ N>ÝX… B{V ? AZÝVmo d¡ g_wÐ…
AZÝVm {h {gH$Vm…, Vñ_mV² g_w{Ð`§ N>ÝX…&(eVnW ~«m÷U, 7/2/3/39)
(18) VrZ nXmW© - A{¾d¡© Jm`Ìr (eVnW ~«m÷U, 3/4/1/19, 6/6/2/
7)Ÿ& BÝÐ{óïw>n² (eVnW, 6/6/2/7),
Am{XË`m OJVr g_^aZ² (O¡{‘Zr¶ ~«m÷U Cn{ZfX², 1/18/6)&
(19) VrZ dU©- Jm`Ìmo d¡ ~«m÷U…, Ì¡îQw>^mo d¡ amOÝ`…, OmJVmo d¡ d¡í`… (EoVao` ~«m.
1/28)
(20) VrZ nXmW© ê$n - Ìr{U N>ÝXm§{g H$d`mo {d`o{Vao, nwéê$n§ Xe©Z§ {dídMjU_² &
Amnmo dmVm AmofY`ñVmÝ`oH$pñ_Z² ^wdZ A{n©Vm{Z (AWd© g§. 18/1/17)
(21) d¡ídmZa - A`_p½Z… d¡ídmZa… `mo@`_² AÝV… nwwéfo .. (eVnW ~«m÷U, 14/
8/10/1) g M g… d¡ídmZa…, B_o g bmoH$m…, B`_od n¥{Wdr {díd_², A{¾… Za…
AÝV[aj_od {díd§ dm`w Za…, Úm¡aod {díd_² Am{XË`… Za… (eVnW, 9/3/1/3)
àmXoe_m̧ hr_ AmË_Zmo@{^ àmUm… (H$m¡frV{H$ ~«m. 2/2)
(22) nm{W©d Jm`Ìr-Jm`Ìr dm B`§ n¥{Wdr (eVnW, 4/3/4/9)

1. N>ÝXm| H$m ñdê$n
19
VX² `X² Ag¥Á`V AjaV² VV², `X² AjaV² Vñ_mXja_², `Xï>H¥$Ëd… AjaV² g¡d
Aï>mjam Jm`Ìr A^dV² (17)
(23) Mma Am{XË` `w½_ - Aï>m¡ nwÌmgmo A{XVo`} OmVmñVÝd§ n[a Xodm Cn à¡V² gá{^…
nam _mVm©ÊS> _mñ`V² (F$H²$ 10/2/8) VmZZwH«${_î`m_mo {_ÌíM déUíM, YmVmMm`©_m
M, A§eíM ^JíM, {ddñdmZm{XË`íM (V¡{Îmar` AmaʶH$ 1/13/3)
(24) gy`© Ho$ VrZ _ZmoVm - Á`mo{VJm£am`w[a{V Í`hmo ^d{V, B`§ dmd Á`mo{V, AÝV[aj§
Jm¡…, Agm¡ Am`w… (V¡{Îmar` g§. 7/3/6/3)
(25) Aï>_y{Îm© {ed - A{¾íM n¥{Wdr M dm`wíMmÝV{aj§ Mm{XË`míM, Úm¡íM MÝÐ_míM
ZjÌm{U M¡Vo dgd…Ÿ&(eVnW ~«m÷U 11/6/3/6)
(26) _hm^maV ^rî_nd© AÜ`m` 4 Ho$ AZwgma bmoH$ Jm`Ìr {Û{dYmZrh ^yVm{Z Mam{U ñWmdam{U M & MamUm§ {Ì{dYm `mo{Z… AÊS> ñdoX
Oam`wOm…&&10&& Oam`wOmZm§ àdam _mZdm… nedíM `o Ÿ&&11Ÿ&& ZmZmê$n Yam amO±ñVofm§
^oXmíMVwX©e Ÿ& doXmoº$m… n¥{Wdrnmb `ofw `km… à{V{ð>Vm… Ÿ&&12Ÿ&& C{Ø‚mm… ñWmdam…
àmoº$m… Vofm§ n#m¡d OmV`… Ÿ&&14Ÿ&&
Vofm§ qde{VaoH$moZm _hm^yVofw n#mH$Ÿ& MVw{dªe{Vé{Ôï>m Jm`Ìr bmoH$ gå_Vm Ÿ&&15Ÿ&&
(27) g§dËgaJm`Ìr-MVw { dª e {V Jm`Í`m Ajam{U, MVw{ dªe {V… g§dËgañ`mY©_mgm…..(H$mR>H$ g§. 10/7)
****

20

Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
Aܶm¶ 2

Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©

-- ^mñH$aam` ^maVr Zo d[adñ`m-ahñ`_² _| {bIm
h¡ {H$ _ÝÌmo§ Ho$ 15 àH$ma Ho$ AW© hmoVo h¢ŸAWmV: nyU© Jm`Í`m: à{VnmÚmo@W© Am{X_:Ÿ& ^mdmW©: gåàXm`mWm} {ZJ^m©W©ñVwar `H$:Ÿ&&57Ÿ&&
H$m¡{bH$mWm} ahñ`mWm} _hmVÎdmW© E d MŸ& Zm_mW©: eãXê$nmW©íMmWm} Zm_¡H$XoeJ:Ÿ&&58Ÿ&&
emº$mW©: gm_añ`mW©: g_ñV gJwUmW©H$m¡Ÿ& _hmdmŠ`mW© BË`Wm©: n#mXí`m: ñdgpå_Vm:Ÿ&&59Ÿ&&
1. à{VnmÚ AW©-gm_mÝ` eãX Ed§ dmŠ`m| Ho$ AÝd` AZwgma AW©Ÿ&
2. ^mdmW©-AjamWm} {h ^mdmW©: Ho$db: na_oíd[a (`mo{JZr öX`,25)
3. gåàXm`mW©-Jwé-naånam go àmá-VWm _ÝÌm: g_ñVmíM {dÚm`m _ÝÌ g§pñWVm:Ÿ&
Jwé H«$_oU gåàmá: gåàXm`mW© B©[aV:Ÿ&&47Ÿ&&(`mo{JZr öX` )
4. {ZJ^m©W©-Jwé VWm na_{ed _| A^oX-Xe©Z VWm CgHo$ gmW AnZm A^oX XoIZm &
5. H$m¡{bH$mW©-_mVm, {nVm, MH«$, ñdJwé, Ed§ ñd`§ _| A^oX-Xe©ZŸ&
6. ahñ`mW©-Hw$ÊS>{bZr hr ewÕ {dÚm VWm OJÝ_mVm h¡, Cggo AnZm A^oX XoIZmŸ&
7. _hmVÎdmW©-na_-~«÷ go AnZm A^oX Xe©ZŸ&
8,9. Zm_mW© `m eãXê$nmW©- dU© VWm CZgo ~Zo eãXm| Ho$ AW© (Zm_-Am»`mV-CngJ©{ZnmV)
10. Zm_¡H$XoemW©-_ÝÌ Ho$ Ajam| Ûmam {ZX}{eV Xodr Zm_Ÿ&
11. emº$mW©-àË`oH$ Aja _| e{º$ h¡-Cgr go _ÝÌ H$m à^md hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
12. gm_añ`mW©-VrZ Hy$Q>m| (dm½^d, H$m_, e{º$) _| ~«÷ _| {ed-e{º$ H$m gm_añ`
XoIZmŸ&
13. g_ñVmW©- nXm| Ed§ JwUm| H$m g_mg, CZgo nwéfmWm] H$m gmYZŸ&
14. gJwUmW©- g_ñV JwUm| Ho JU Hm$ H$WZŸ&
15. _hmdmŠ`mW©-Vwar` Hy$Q> _| ~«÷ Am¡a Ord H$m VmXmËå` XoIZmŸ&
2. Jm`Ìr VWm n#mXer _ÝÌ _| g_Vwë`Vmn#mXer _ÝÌ-H$ E B© b õt, h g H$ h b õt, g H$ b õtŸ&
Jm `Ìr _ÝÌ-› ^y^©wd: ñd: VËg{dVwd©aoÊ`§ ^Jm} Xodñ` Yr_{h {Y`mo `mo Z:
1. VÝÌmZwgma _ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©

àMmoX`mV²Ÿ&

2. Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©
21
dm½^d-Hy$Q (1) Jm`Ìr> H$m VV² = n#mXer H$m H = ~«÷Ÿ& H $= H$m_oída {ed (~« ÷,
na_mË_m)
(2) Jm`Ìr H$m -g{dVwd© aoÊ` §= àg{dÌr, OJÝ_mVmŸ& n#mXer H$m-E = Xodr H$m_oídar
(gañdVr )(3) Jm`Ìr H$m-^Jm} Xodñ` Yr = n#mXer H$m B© = gdm© ÝV`m©_r, gd©nmofH$Ÿ&
(4) Jm`Ìr H$m _{h = n#mXer H$m b = n¥Ïdr
(5) Jm`Ìr H$m Mm¡Wm MaU = {Y`mo `mo Z: àMmoX`mV² = n#mXer H$m õt ~rOŸ&
H$m_amO Hy$Q>- Jm`Ìr Ho $ Aja
nÄMXer Ho$ Aja
1. VV² , g{dVw: , daoÊ`§
h, g, H$
>2. ^Jm} Xodñ` Yr
h (MVwW© dU©)
Bgr àH$ma AÝ` IÊS>m| H$m gm_ÄOñ` h¡Ÿ&
3. doX _| 15 AW©-BgHo$$ A{V[aº$ doX _| ^r 15 àH$ma Ho$ AWm] H$m Cëbo I h¡-

22
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
C^m {O½`WwZ© nam O`oWo, Z nam {O½`o H$VaíM Z¡Zmo:Ÿ&
BÝÐíM {dîUmo `Xnñn¥YoWm§ ÌoYm ghò§ {dVX¡a`oWm_²& (F$H²$ 6/69/8)
qH$ VV² ghò{_{V-B_o bmoH$m:, B_o doXm:, AWmo dm{J{V ~«y`mV² Ÿ& (EoVao` Am.6/15)
BÝÐ H$m {dñVma dmH²$-gmhòr, {dîUw Ûmam do{ï>V joÌ bmoH$-gmhòr, VWm BZ XmoZm| H$m Ho$ÝÐ
öX` ~«÷m Ûmam doX-gmhòr hþ`r h¡Ÿ&
2. AmYma-ê$n AmH$me I§-~«÷ h¡& {Og nXmW© H$s Ahþ{V go g¥{ï> hmo ahr h¡ , dh AÞ
a§-~«÷ h¡Ÿ& CgH$m Cn^moJ H$a g¥{ï> H$aZo dmbm H§$ ~«÷ h¡Ÿ& VrZm| H$s g_{ï> go `k hmo ahm
h¡, Omo e§-~«÷ h¡Ÿ&
3. BZ g~H$s à{Vð>m öX` _| pñWV _Z h¡-öËà{Vð>§ `X{Oa§ O{dð>§ VÝ_o _Z: (dmO.`Ow.34/
6)Ÿ& `hr CŠW `m òmoV h¡Ÿ& Bg _Zmo_` öX` Ho$ VÎd _ZmoVm H$ho OmVo h¢Ÿ& àË`oH$ _ÊS>b
Ho$ 3-3 _ZmoVm 3-3 dñVwAm| H$s à{Vð>m h¢-

_p`… …¾…Rpp T]púpQ…ðppSYps…×Ppp Ypp\p…Qo üp\p]p Tpw{Pp…\pr Opp\p…{QOpo OpOpo $ (h¡@o¡.10/114/8)

_ÊS>b

gm_mÝ`V: doX Ho$ 3 àH$ma Ho$ AW© _m Zo OmVo h¢-AmÜ`mpË_H$, Am{Y^m¡{VH$, Am{YX¡{dH$Ÿ(JrVm
8/1-3)& `hm§ {díd Ho$ 5 ndm] _| àË`oH$ Ho$ 3-3 AW© hmoZo go Hw$b 15 AW© hmoJ|Ÿ`m{Z n#mYm Ìr{U Ìr{U Voä`mo Z Á`m`: na_Ý`XpñVŸ&
`ñVÛoX g doX gdª gdm© {Xemo ~{b_ñ_¡ hapÝVŸ&&(N>mÝXmo½` Cn.2/21/4)
AWm©V² 5 ñWmZm| _| {d^º$ Omo 3-3 VÎd h¡, CZHo$ A{V[aº$ _hmZ² Am¡a H$moB© dñVw Zht
h¡Ÿ& Omo ì`{º$ BZH$m ñdê$n g_P boVm h¡, Cg {dÛmZ² Ho$ {bE gånyU© {XemE§ (Mmamo Amoa
go) ~{b (^mo½` gån{Îm) g_n©U H$aVr ahVr h¢Ÿ&
`hm§ 5 ñWmZ h¢1. ñd`å^y-gånyU© OJV²,
2. na_oð>r-Cg ~«÷ H$o 100 Aa~ H$Um| _| EH$ AÊS> (~«÷mÊS>)-AmH$me-J“m,
3. gm¡a-_ÊS>b-~«÷mÊS> Ho$ 100 Aa~ H$Um| _| EH$ gy`© H$m à^md-joÌ,
4. MmÝÐ-_ÊS>b-MÝÐ H$jm H$m Jmobm, Omo gm¡a _ÊS>b H$m g_-erVmoîU joÌ h¡,
5. ^y-_ÊS>b-n¥{WdrŸ&
BZHo$ 3 VÎd 3 àH$ma go d{U©V h¢1. VrZ ghò bmoH$-doX-dmH²$ h¢, Omo BÝÐ ({d{ H$aU)-{dîUw (do ï>Z = ~mÝYZm) H$s ñnÕm©
go hmo ahm h¡-

_ZmoVm

Cggo à{V{ð>V VÎd

ñd`å^y-1. doX (àË`oH$ H$U Ûmam Xygao H$m AZw^d)
~«÷ (gånyU© {díd)
2. gyÌ (H$Um| H$m nañna gå~ÝY)
{dîUw ({H«$`m)
3. {Z`{V ({Z{_©V nXmWm] H$m {dñVma)
BÝÐ ({dH$sU© nXmW©)
na_oð>r -1. ^¥Jw (AmH$f©U)
gmo_ ({dab nXmW©)
2. A{“am (àgmaU)
A{¾ (gKZ nXmW©)
3. A{Ì (EH$ ñWmZ na)
AmdaU (N>ÝX `m gr{_V {nÊS>)
gm¡a-1. Á`mo{V (àH$me ê$n D$Om© H$m àgma)
Xod (Ym_ `m joÌm| H$m àmU)
2. Jm¡ ({H$aU)
^yV (Ma-AMa àmUr)
3. Am`w ({nÊS> H$s {H«$`m j_Vm)
AmË_m (EH$ {nÊS>)
MÝÐ- 1. aoV-(nXmW©-H$U)
ewH«$(~rO)
2. lÕm (H$U H$m AÝ` go ~ÝYZ)
{nV¥ (CnmXmZ, {Z_m©U-gm_J«r)
3. `e (à^md-joÌ)
lr (VoO)
n¥{Wdr-1. dmH²$({dñVma)
Ag§k (gwá MoVZm-{_Å>r Am{X)
2. Jm¡ (BpÝÐ`)
AÝV:g§k (dZñn{V)
3. Úm¡ (AmH$me-~mø gånH©$)
gg§k (_Zwî`,new-njr-ObMa)

2. Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©

23

-dmH²$ H$m n[a_mU N>ÝX h¡`Xja n[a_mU§ VÀN>ÝX: (F$H²$ gdm©ZwH«$_Ur , 2/6)
N>ÝXmo@ja g§»`m@dÀN>oXH$_wÀ`Vo (AWd©doX H$s ~¥hV² gdm©ZwH«$_Ur , 1)
AjaoU {__Vo gádmUr (F$H²$ 1/164/24)
`hm§ dmH²$ H$m AW© {b{IV `m CÀM[aV eãX, eãX Ûmam J_Z {H$`m J`m AmH$me
^r h¡Ÿ& AmH$me H$m JwU eãX H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& Üd{Z, àH$me `m AÝ` Va“m| H$m Ohm§
VH$ {dñVma h¡, dh AmH$me joÌ ^r dmH²$ n[a_mU `m N>ÝX h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ _yb YmVw h¢(1) M{X (MÝX) Am‡mXZo, Xrám¡ M(nm{U{Z YmVw1/56)-àgÞVm, àH$me AW© _|&
(2) N>X g§daUo(10/248)-AmÀN>m{XV H$aZmŸ&
(3) N>X AndmaUo (10/260 ñd[aV,10/362 AXÝV)-hQ>mZm, {N>nmZmŸ&
(4) N>{X (N>ÝX) g§daUo (10/46)
BZ YmVwAm| Ho$ AZwgma N>ÝX Ho$ 11 àH$ma Ho$ AW© h¢ (n§. _YwgyXZ AmoPm Hr N>ÝX:
g_rjm)-1. Cng§ì`mZ (^rVar AmdaU `m dó), 2. n`m©YmZ (~mhar AmdaU `m
dó), 3. M{M©VH$(~mhar bon, {dMmaU), 4. AdamoY (~mYm), 5. ì`m{á ({dñVma
`m _mn), 6. Xy{fVH$aU, 7. ñdê$nH$aU, 8. D$ÁO©Z (J{V `m e{º$ XoZm), 9.
{d{dVm (joÌ H$m Hw$N> ^mJ AbJ H$aZm), 10. JmonZ ({N>nmZm), 11. AÝVYm©Z
(bmon, AXe©Z)Ÿ&
BZ AWm] Ho$ à`moJ doX VWm nwamUm| ‘| ^ao n‹S>o h¢, {OZHo$ {dñV¥V CXmhaU Cn`w©º$
nwñVH$ _| h¢Ÿ&
N>ÝX doXm“ hmoZo Ho$ H$maU BgHo$ doXmW© _| Xmo àH$ma Ho$ à`moJ h¢(1) `h Jm`Z Am¡a H$mì` _| Cn`moJr hmoZo Ho$ A{V[aº$ dmŠ`-IÊS>m| H$m ^r {ZX}e
H$aVm h¡Ÿ& dmŠ` EH$ N>ÝX hmoVm h¡, nyU© AW© Ho$ dmŠ`m§e N>ÝX Ho$ nX h¢Ÿ& ~‹S>o N>ÝXm|
_| EH$ nX _| ^r EH$ `m Xmo `{V XoH$a {d^º$ {H$`m OmVm h¡Ÿ& N>ÝX, nX, `{V Ho$
~mX hr eãXm| H$m AÝd` H$a CZH$m AW© {ZX}e hmoVm h¡Ÿ& BZH$m _yb òmoV {n“b H$m

4. N>ÝX Ûmam

AW©

24

Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer

N>ÝX-gyÌ h¡, {OgH$s hbm`wY Q>rH$m _o§ d¡{XH$ Am¡a bm¡{H$H$ N>ÝXm| Ho$ CXmhaU {X`o J`o
h¢Ÿ&
(2) Xoe Am¡a H$mb H$s gr_m H$m {ZX}e VWm {nÊS>m| H$m AmH$ma N>ÝXm| go {Z{X©ï>
hmoVm h¡Ÿ& CZH$m n[adV©Z H$mb-gmnoj h¡, AV: dh ^r N>ÝXm| na AmYm[aV h¡Ÿ& dñVw
Ho$ Ad`dm| H$s g§»`m, _mn g§»`m Am{X H$s _mn ^r N>ÝXm| go hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
doX _| 26 àH$ma Ho$ N>ÝX h¢, {Oggo amo_Z {b{n _| 26 Aja h¢Ÿ& àW_ 5 N>ÝX _mN>ÝX h¢-BZH$m à`moJ _mn H$s _yb BH$mB`m| _o§ hmoVm h¡-AmYw{ZH$ ^m¡{VH$ {dkmZ _| 5
_yb BH$mB`m| H$s Amdí`H$Vm hmoVr h¡Ÿ& BZHo$ 4 MaUm| _| àË`oH$ _| 1-5 Aja hmoVo
h¢Ÿ& BgHo$ ~mX 7-7 N>ÝXm| Ho$ 3 gáH$ h¢, {OZH$s nmX (MVwWmªe) H$s Aja-g§»`m
6 go 26 h¡N>ÝX/nmXmja g§»`m
1
2
3
4
5
àmJ²-Jm`Ìr-n#mH$ (_m) _m
à_m
n«{V_m
Cn_m
g_m
Jm`Ìr gáH$- 6
7
8
9 10 11
12
(~¥hVr-N>ÝX) Jm`Ìr CpîUH²$ AZwïw>n² ~¥hVr n§{º$ {Ìïw>n² OJVr
{ÛVr` gáH$ 13
14
15
16 17
18 19
(A{V-N>ÝX) A{VOJVr e¹$ar A{Ve¹$ar A{ï AË`{ï> Y¥{V A{VY¥{V
V¥Vr` gáH$ 20 21
22
23 24
25
26
(H¥${V-N>ÝX) H¥${V àH¥ {V AmH¥${V {dH¥${V g§H¥${V A{^H¥${V CËH¥${V
N>ÝX H$s Aja-g§»`m _| 4-4 H$m AÝVa hmoZo Ho$ H$maU 2 Aja H$_ go boH$a 2 Aja
A{YH$ VH$ dhr N>ÝX hmoVm h¡
H$_-1Aja = {damQ²>, 2 Aja = {ZM¥X²Ÿ&
A{YH$-1 Aja = ^y[aH²$, 2 Aja = ñdamQ²>Ÿ&
5. Jm`Ìr H$m N>ÝXmW©-OJV² Ho$ {damQ²> ñVam| H$s _mn Jm`Ìr-gáH$ Ûmam hmoVr
h¡, AV: BÝh| ~¥hVr-g_yh H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& Bg Ho$ {b`o n¥Ïdr H$m AmH$ma hr _mnXÊS> h¡-

2. Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©
25
_m N>ÝX:, VV² n¥{Wdr , Ap½Z X}dVm (_¡Ìm`Ur g§. 2/14/9, H$mR>H$ g§ 39/39)
n¥Ïdr Ho ^rVa 3 ñVa h¢, Ho$ÝÐ go n¥Ïdr H$s gVh VH$ 3 AhJ©U h¢Ÿn¥{Wì`m{__o bmoH$m: (n¥{Wdr, Úm¡, AÝV[aj) n«{V{ð>Vm: (O¡{_Zr` ~«m. Cn. 1/10/
2)
Vñ`m EVV² n[a{_V§ ê$n§ `XÝVd}{X (^y{nÊS>:) AW¡f ^y_m@n[a[_Vmo `mo ~{hd}{X:
(_hmn¥{Wdr )- EoVao` ~«m.(8/5)
4 AhJ©U BgH$m 2 JwUm, $5 AhJ©U 4 JwUm, VWm Bgr àH$ma AJbo AhJ©U H«$_e:
2-2 JwUm ~‹S>o h¢Ÿ& Jm`Ìr N>ÝX (24 AhJ©U) AWm©V² n¥Ïdr H$mo 21 ~ma 2-JwUm H$aZo
go H«$Vw (`k) H$m joÌ hmoVm h¡-gy`© VwbZm _| 60 JwUm XyaŸ& `h gy`©-{gÕmÝV (12/
80) Ho$ AZwgma gy`© H$m ZjÌ-_ÊS>b h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ ~mX AWm©V² H«Vw Ho$ nwÌ 60,000
~mb{Ië` h¢, {OZH$m AmH$ma A“xð> (96 A“xb H$s n¥Ïdr H$m 96 ^mJ `m 135
{H$._r. ì`mg H$m) Ho$ ~am~a h¡H«$VmoíM gÝV{V^m©`m© ~mb{Ië`mZgy`VŸ& f{ï> nwÌ ghòm{U _wZrZm_yÜd©aoVgm_²Ÿ&
A“xð> nd© _mÌmUm§ ÁdbX²^mñH$a VoOgm_² ({dîUw nw. 1 /10/10)
VWm dmb{Ië` F$f`mo@“xð> nd© _mÌm: f{ï> ghòm{U nwaV: gy`© gyº$ dmH$m` {Z`wº$m:Ÿ&
(^mJdV nw. 5/21/17)
CpîUH²$ ([ZM¥X² _| 27 Aja) AWm©V² n¥Ïdr Ho$ AmH$ma H$m 24 ~ma 2 JwUm `m 1 H$mo{Q>
JwUm CîU-joÌ h¡, {Ogo _¡Ìo`-_ÊS>b H$hm J`m h¡- `h gy`© ì`mg H$m 1 bmI JwUm
h¡ ({dîUw nw. 2/8/2-6 Am{X)Ÿ& CgHo$ ~mX 33 AhJ©U (n¥Ïdr gVh Ho$ ~mha 30,
^rVa ‘| 3) VH$ gm¡a-_ÊS>b H$m {dñVma h¡, Ohm§ à{V Ym‘ H$s ‘mn Ah: ‘| h¡qÌeÕm_ {damO{V dmH²$ nV“m` Yr`Vo& à{VdñVmoahÚw{^:& (F$H²$ 10/19/3)
BZHo$ àmU 33 XodVm h¢ (3 n¥Ïdr Ho$ ^rVa, 30 ~mha) B{V ñVwVmgmo AgWm [aemXgmo `o ñW Ì`íM qÌeÀMŸ& _Zmo X}dm `{k`mg:& (F$$H²
8/30/2)

26
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
AV: gm¡a-_ÊS>b ^y[aH²$ (1 Aja A{YH$) AZwïw>n² N>ÝX (33) h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ ~mX
àOmn{V H$m joÌ ~¥hVr N>ÝX h¡Ÿ& n§{º$ N>ÝX Bggo ~‹S>m h¡, AV: BgH$m nwéf h¡Ÿ&
_hbm}H$ H$s _mn {Ìïw>n² N>ÝX (44 Aja) h¡- _mhoída gyÌ _| 43 Aja hmoZo Ho$ H$maU
43 Aja H$m _hbm}H$ h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ ~mX 48 Aja H$m OJVr N>ÝX h¡, 49 _éV² hmoZo Ho$
H$maU ^y[aH²$ OJVr ~«÷mÊS> H$s _mn h¡, AV: Bgo OJVr H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ, Am¡a Bgo Jm¡
`m new H$hm J`m h¡ & CXmhaUVoOmo d¡ ~«÷dM©g§ Jm`Ìr (EoVao` ~«m÷U 1/5, VmÊS>ç _hm ~«m.16/14/5, 16/
16/6)
Am`w (Am`VZ)-dm© CpîUH²$Ÿ& (EoV.~«m.1/5)&
CpîUH²$ N>ÝX:, VÀMjw: (_¡Ìm. g§. 2/14/96, H$mR>H$ g§. 39/40)
AZwïw>n² N>ÝX:, VXm`w:, {_Ìmo XodVmŸ& (_¡Ìm. g§.2/14/95, H$mR>H$ g§. 39/39)
lrd£ `eíN>ÝXgm§ ~¥hVr Ÿ& (VmÊS>ç _hm ~«m.16/14/5, EoV. ~«m. 1/5)
n§{º$íN>ÝX:, VËnwéf:Ÿ& (_¡Ìm. g§. 2/14/97, H$mR>H$ g§ 39/40)
{damQ²> (={Ìïw>n² ) N>ÝX:, VXíd:, déU XodVm & (_¡Ìm. g§. 2/14/96, H$mR>H$ g§.
39/40)
Ì¡ïw>^mo amOÝ`: Ÿ& (V¡{Îmar` g§. 5/1/4/5, O¡{_Zr` ~«m. C. 2/1/10),
AmoOmo dm BpÝÐ` dr`ª {Ìïw>n² & (EoV.~«m. 1/5)Ÿ&
OJVr N>ÝX:, VX² Jm¡:, àOmn{VX}dVm & ( _¡Ìm. g§. 2/14/95, H$mR>H$ g§. 39/
39)
OmJVm d¡ ned: & (V¡{Îm. g§. 2/5/10/2, EoV. ~«m. 1/5)
_w»`V: Jm`Ìr, {Ìïw>n², OJVr N>ÝXm| go gm¡a, _hbm}H$, ~«÷ÊS> H$s _mn h¡H$V_o d¡ Xodm B{V, N>ÝXm§gr{V ~«y`mX² Jm`Ìr {Ìïw>^§ OJVr{_{V & (V¡{Îmar¶ g§{hVm
2/6/9/3,4)
Jm`̧ N>ÝXmo@ZwàOm`ñd, Ì¡ïw>^§ OmJV_², BË`oVmdpÝV d¡ N>ÝXm§{g& (H$mR>H$ g§. 26/7)
dmH²$ gwnUu N>ÝXm§{g gm¡nUm©{Z Jm`Ìr {Ìïw>n², OJVr & (_¡Ìm.g§. 3/7/3)

2. Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©
27
F$H²$ g§ (10/130/4,5) _| BZH$m gmam§e h¡A½ZoJm©`Ì ^dV² g`w½dmopîUh`m g{dVm gå~^ydŸ&
AZwïw>^m gmo_ CŠW¡_©hñdmZ² ~¥hñnVo~¥©hVr dmM_mdV²Ÿ&
{damU² {_Ìm déU`moa{^lr[aÝÐñ` {Ìïw>{~h ^Jmo A•:Ÿ&
{dídmZ² XodmÄOmJË`m {ddoe VoZ MmŠb¥à F$f`mo _Zwî`m:Ÿ&
BZ 3 _| ^r g~go _hÎdnyU© N>ÝX Jm`Ìr h¡-Jm`Ìr N>ÝXgm_h_² (JrVm 10/35)
Bgr go g^r bmoH$m| H$s _mn hmoVr h¡Jm`Í`m d¡ Xodm B_mZ² bmoH$mÝm² ì`mßZwdZ²Ÿ& (VmÊS>ç _hm ~«m. 16/14/4)
`X²Jm`Ìr í`oZmo ^yËdm {Xd: gmo__mhaÎmo Z gm í`oZ:Ÿ& (eVnW ~«m. 3/4/1/12)
V¥Vr`ñ`m{_Vmo {X{d gmo_ AmgrV²Ÿ& V§ Jm`Í`mhaV² &(V¡{Îmar` ~«m. 1/1/3/10,
3/2/1/1)
`m Úm¡: gm@Zw_[V: gm Ed Jm`ÌrŸ & (EoVao¶ ~«m÷U 3/48)
`mV`m_mÝ`Ý`m{Z N>ÝXm§ñ`mV`m_m Jm`Ìr & (VmÊS>ç 13/10/1)
_Zwî` H$m AmH$ma 24 ~ma 2 JwUm AWm©V² H$mo{Q> JwUm H$aZo go n¥Ïdr H$m AmH$ma
hmoVm h¡, Cgo nwZ: Jm`Ìr `m H$mo{Q> JwUm H$aZo go gm{dÌr (gm¡a H$m _¡Ìo` ^mJ), VWm
nwZ: H$mo{Q> JwUm H$aZo go gañdVr (AmH$me-J“m H$m joÌ) hmoVm h¡Ÿ& AV: AmnñVå~
J¥ø gyÌ n[a{eï> _| gdZm| H$m `hr H«$_ h¡~mbm§ ~mbm{XË` _ÊS>b_Ü`ñWm_², ~«÷ X¡dË`m§ Jm`Ìt Zm_XodVm§ Ü`m`m{_Ÿ&
_Ü`pÝXZo Vm§ `wdm{XË` _ÊS>b_Ü`ñWm_², éÐ X¡dË`m§ gm{dÌt Zm_XodVm§ Ü`m`m{_Ÿ&
AW gm`§ Vm§ d¥Õm§ d¥Õm{XË` _ÊS>b _Ü`ñWm_², {dîUwX¡dË`m§ gañdVt Zm_XodVm§
Ü`m`m{_Ÿ&
6. {ÌnmX Jm`Ìr Ho$ AW© -dmH²$ H$mo Aï> nXr H$hm J`m h¡-Bg ê$n _| AZwïw>n² N>ÝX
Ho$ g_mZ BgHo$ àË`oH$ MaU _| 8 Aja hm|JoŸ& àH¥{V Ho$ 3 JwUm| (gÎd, aO, V_)
H$m _ob 2 c 2 c 2 = 8 àH$ma H$m hmoJm, àË`oH$ Ho$ 2 àH$ma h¢-CÝh| aI| `m
N>mo‹S>|Ÿ& n¥{Wì`{g OÝ_Zm dem, gmp½Z¨ J^©_YËWmŸ& (_¡Ìm`Ur g§.2/13/15)

28
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
A`§ d¡ bmoH$mo Jm`Ìr & (EoVao` Am.1/3/4)Ÿ& B`§ d¡ Jm`Ìr (_¡Ìm`Ur g§. 1/5)Ÿ&
Jm`Ìr dm B`§ n¥{Wdr & (eVnW ~«m. 4/3/4/9)Ÿ& AmR> nXmWm] Ho$ {Z_m©U H$m
Cng§hma h¡-VX² `X² Ag¥Á`V AjaV² VV² , `X² AjaV² Vñ_mXja_², `X² Aï>H¥$Ëd:
AjaV², g¡d Aï>mjam Jm`Ìr A^dV² & (eVnW ~«m. 6/1/3/1-6)
dmH²$, Jm¡, Úm¡-n¥Ïdr Ho$ `o 3 _ZmoVm ^r 8-8 Aja Ho$ h¢Ÿ&
(3) Am{XË` Jm`Ìr-Am{XË` Ho$ 4 `w½_ h¢-1. {_Ì-déU, 2. ^J-A§e, 3. YmVmA`©_m, 4. g{dVm-{ddñdmZ²Ÿ& Aï>m¡ nwÌm gmo A{XVo `} OmVmñVÝdñn[aŸ& Xodm§ Cn à¡V²
gá{^: nam _mVm©ÊS> _mñ`mV² (F$H²$. 10/72/8)
BgH$s ì`m»`m-EVm{^dm© Am{XË`m ÛÝÛ_² AmÜZ©dZ²-{_ÌíM déUíM, YmVm Mm`©_m M,
A§eíM ^JíM, BÝÐíM {ddñdm§íM, EVm gm_od XodVmZm_² F${Õ_² F$ÜZwdpÝV `o EVm
Cn`pÝVŸ& (VmÊS>ç _hm ~«m. 24/12/4)
(4) Úm¡ Jm`Ìr- ÚwbmoH$ Ho$ ^r Á`mo{V, Jm¡, Am`w-3 nmX h¢ -g^r Aï>mja h¢ŸÁ`mo{VJm}am`w[a{V kmVm: ñVmo_m ^dpÝV& (V¡{Îmar` g§.7/2/4/4)
(5) gdm©pË_H$m Jm`Ìr -A{¾ Ho$ 8 ê$n gd©Ì ì`má h¢-n¥{Wdr, An², A{¾, dm`w,
{dÚwV², gmo_, a{d, AmË_mA{¾íM n¥{Wdr M dm`wíMmÝV[aj§ Mm{XË`míM Úm¡íM MÝÐ_míM ZjÌm{U M¡Vo dgd:&
(eVnW ~«m. 11/6/3/6)
(6) bmoH$ Jm`Ìr-Jm¶Ìr Ho$ 24 Ajam| Ho$ AZwgma 24 ê$nm| H$m {d^mOZ 7+7 Amaʶ
VWm J«må¶ new, 5 C{ØÁO VWm 5 Ordm| Ho$ ê$n ‘| h¡7 AmaÊ` new-ì`mK«, qgh, _{hf, damh, F$j, _V“ (JO), H${n&
7 J«må` new-Jm¡, A{d (_of, ^o‹S>), AO, AídVa (Iƒa), Aíd, amg^ (JX©^),
_Zwî`Ÿ& 5 C{X²^ÁO-d¥j, Jwë_ (Pm‹S>, Pm‹S>r), bVm, àVmZ, V¥UŸ&
5 Ord-dmL²>‘`, nm{W©d, V¡Og (Am¾o`), Amß` (Obr`), dm`ì`Ÿ&
AWdm-5 C{X^X²+5 YmVw (_hm^yV) +14 nmX a{hV OrdŸ&
AWdm- dmH²$, ^y, eara, öX`-àË`oH$ Ho$ 6-6 AjaŸ&

2. Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©
29
{Û{dYmZrh ^yVm{Z Mam{U ñWmdam{U MŸ& MamUm§ {Ì{dYm `mo{Z: AÊS>-ñdoX-Oam`wOm:Ÿ&&
Oam`wOmZm§ àdam _mZdm: nedíM `oŸ& ZmZm ê$nYam amO§ñVofm§ ^oXmíMVwX©eŸ&Ÿ&
doXmoº$m: n¥{Wdrnmb `ofw `km: à{V{ð>Vm:Ÿ& C{X²^ÁOm: ñWmdam: n«moº$m: Vofm§ n#m¡d
OmV`:Ÿ&& Vofm§ qde{VaoH$moZm _hm^yVofw n#mgwŸ& MVw{dªe{Vé[Ôï>m Jm`Ìr bmoH$
gå_Vm:Ÿ&&(_hm^maV, ^rî_ 4/10-15)
(7) g§dËgampË_H$m Jm`Ìr-24 nj Jm`Ìr Ho$ 24 Aja h¢Ÿ& n¥Ïdr, AÝV[aj, ÚwH$s 8-8 {Xem`| ^r Jm`Ìr h¢Ÿ&
g§dËgamo d¡ Jm`Ìr & (V¡.g§. 2/4/3/2, _¡.g§. 3/1/11)
XodmíM dm AgwamíM g§`Îmm AmgZ², VmZ² Jm`Í`ÝVam{Vð>X² AmoOmo dr`©_ÞmÚ§ n[aJ¥ø,
g§dËgamo dmd¡ZmZ² gmo@ÝVam{Vð>V², MVw{dªe{V Jm`Í`m Ajam{U, MVw{dªe{V:
g§dËgañ`mY©_mgm:, Vo@{dXw`©VdmZ² g B`_wnmdËñ`©{V & (H$mR>H$ g§.10/7)&
7. Jm`Ìr
H$m _yb àUd-àUd `m › (Am| H$ma) hr Jm`Ìr H$m _yb h¡ŸF$Mmo Ajao na_o ì`mo_Z² `pñ_ÝXodm A{Y{dído {ZfoXw;Ÿ&
`ñVÞ doX {H$_¥Mm H$[aî`{V ` BÎm{ÛXwñV B_o g_mgVoŸ&&
(F$H²$, 1/164/39, ídoVmídVa Cn.4/8)
`mñH$ Zo {Zéº$ (13/1/10) _| {bIm h¡ {H$ ~«m÷U Am¡a emH$ny{U {Zéº$H$ma _V
go ^r na_ ì`mo_ (eyÝ`) ê$n àUd _| hr g^r XodVm pñWV h¢ , {Og na XodVm VWm
doX AmYm[aV h¢Ÿ& `h g^r emóm| _| d{U©V h¢JrVm-àUd: gd©doXofw (7/8), Amo{_Ë`oH$mja§ ~«÷ (8/13),
doÚ§ n{dÌ_moL²>H$>ma: (9/17)$
dmO.`Ow.-› I§ ~«÷(40/18), › H«$Vmo ñ_a (40/17)Ÿ&
gd} doXm `ËnX_m_ZpÝV Vnm§{g gdm©{U M `X² dXpÝVŸ&
`{XÀN>ÝVmo ~«÷M`ª MapÝV, VÎmo nX§ g§J«hoU ~«dr{_-Amo_²-BË`ooVV² & (H$R> Cn. 1/
2/15)-16, 17 ^rŸ&

30
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
Bg à«H$ma Ho$ hOmam| CXmhaU h¢Ÿ& › -AmH$ma YZwf-~mU H$m h¡, Š`m|{H$ `h g§gma`wÕ go nma H$aVm h¡Ÿ& BgH$m {dñV¥V dU©Z F$½doX (6/75), {deofV: CgHo$ gyº$ 3
_| h¡Ÿ& BgH$m gmam§e _wÊS>H$-Cn{ZfX² (2/2/3-4) _| h¡YZwJ©¥hrËdm¡n{ZfX§ _hmó§, ea§ øwnmgm {Z{eV§ g§Y`rVŸ&
Am`å` VX² ^mdJVoZ MoVgm bú`§ VXodmja§ gmoå` {d{ÕŸ&&3Ÿ&&
àUdmo YZw: eamo ømË_m ~«÷ VëbjU_wÀ`VoŸ& Aà«_ÎmoZ doÕì`§ eadÎmÝ_`mo ^doV²Ÿ&&4Ÿ&&
› Ho$ 4 nmX h¢-MËdm[a dmH²$ n[a{_Vm{Z nXm{Z Vm{Z {dXw~«m©÷Um `o _Zr{fU:Ÿ&
Jwhm Ìr{U {Z{hVm Zo“`pÝV, Vwar`§ dmMmo _Zwî`m dXpÝVŸ&&(F$H²$ 1/164/45)
BZ nmXm| H$s ì`m»`m _mÊSy>³¶ Cn{ZfX² _| h¡, {Ogna Jm¡‹S>nmX H$s H$m[aH$m 4
IÊS>m| _| h¡¡, dh ^r BgH$m A“ _mZm OmVm h¡gmo@`_mË_mÜ`ja _moL²>H$>mamo@ {Y_m̧ nmXm _mÌm _mÌmíM nmXm AH$ma CH$mamo _H$ma
B{VŸ&&8Ÿ&& A_mÌíMVwWm} @ì`dhm`©: ànÄMmone_: {edmo@Û¡V Ed_moL²>H$>ma AmË_¡d
g§{deË`mË_Zm @@Ë_mZ§ ` Ed§ doX ` Ed§ doXŸ&12Ÿ&
Bgo AÕ©_mÌm ^r H$hm J`m h¡AÕ©_mÌm pñWVm {ZË`m `mZwÀMm`m© {deofV:& (XwJm© gáeVr 1/74)(1) OmJ[aV ñWmZ = d¡ídmZa= › H$s n«W_ _mÌm = A
(2) ñdßZ ñWmZ = V¡Og = › H$s {ÛVr` _mÌm = C
(3) gwfw{á ñWmZ = àmk = › H$s V¥Vr` _mÌm = _
(4) Vwar`, Vwar`mVrV = AmË_m H$m Vwar` nmX = Vwar` AmË_m = _mÌm eyÝ` ›
AÕ© _mÌm {dÝXw Ho$ 9 ~ma AmYo-AmYo {d^mOZ hmoVo h¢ -1. {dÝXw (d¥Îm ê$n-1/2
_mÌm), 2. AY©MÝÐ (AÕ©d¥Îm ê$n 1/4 _mÌm), 3. {Zamo{YZr (1/8 _mÌm), 4.
ZmX (1/16 _mÌm), 5. ZmXmÝV (1/32 _mÌm), 6. ì`m{nZr (1/64 _mÌm), 7.
e{º$ (1/128 _mÌm), 8. g_Zm (1/2 56 _mÌm), 9. CÝ_Zm (1/512 _mÌm)
(d[adñ`m ahñ` _| {dñVma go d{U©V)Ÿ& BgH$m AmÜ`mpË_H$ ê$n 9 àH$ma Ho$ AZmhV
ZmX h¢-{OZH$m dU©Z {ed nwamU, C_m g§{hVm, AÜ`m` 36 _| h¡Ÿ& BZHo$ Zm_ `moJ-

2. Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©
31
VÝÌ _| H$B© àH$ma go h¢Ÿ& 9 MH«$m| H$mo -Aï>mMH«$m ZdÛmam XodmZm§ nya`moÜ`m-AWd©doX
(10/2/31) _| H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& `hm§ ghòma H$mo {_bmH$a 9 MH«$ hmoVo h¢Ÿ, CgHo$
~«÷-aÝY« H$mo Xe_-Ûma H$hVo h¢Ÿ& CZH$o ZmX 9 àH$ma Ho$ h¢, e{º$ Ho$ [dÝXw ^r 9
h¢Ÿ& Bgo hr 8 nX Ho dmH²$ Ho$ 9 òH²$ (e{º$-{dÝXw) H$hm J`m h¡-CÀN>oX 6 _| F$H²$(8/
76/12) H$m CXmhaUŸ& doXm| _o§ 10 Am`m_r {díd (Xem, {Xem, Xe, Amem-g^r
Ho$ 10 AW© h¢, 10 _hm{dÚm) H$m dU©Z h¡-AmH$me Ho 3, nXmW©, H$mb, {M{V `m
MoVZ, F${f, ZmJ, aÝY«, ag `m AmZÝXŸ& Bg_| Zd_ aÝY« (H$_r) hr AmeZm`m
(^yI) $h¡ , {OgHo$ H$maU g¥{ï> hmoVr h¡ - Zdmo-Zdmo ^d{V Om`_mZ: (F$H²$ 1/85/
19)& AmH$me _o§ g¥{ï> Ho$ 9 gJ© (H«$_) h¢-Aì`º$ H$mo {_bmH$a 10 ^mJdV _o§ h¡Ÿ&
BZHo$ 9 àH$ma Ho$ H$mb_mZ gy`© {gÕmÝV AÜ`m` 12 _| h¢Ÿ& BZ Zd go g¥{ï> hmoZo Ho$
H$maU àUd (= à + Zd) Hhm OmVm h¡Ÿ& àUd Ho$ AÝ` AW© h¡-${OgHo$ CƒmaU go
doX ~«÷doÎmmAm| H$mo àUm_ H$amVo h¢AW

H$ñ_mXwÀ`Vo

àUd:-`ñ_mXwƒm`©_mU

~«m÷Uoä`: àUm_`{V

Ed

F$½`Ow:

Zm_`{V M Vñ_mXwÀ`Vo àUd:Ÿ&

gm_mWdm©{“ag§

~«÷

(AWd©{ea Cn.4)Ÿ&

AWdm g^r àmUm| H$mo na_mË_m _| bJmVm h¡, AV: àUd h¡ (AWd©{eImon.1)Amo{_Ë`oVXja_mXm¡ à`wº$_²Ÿ& àmUmÝgdm©Ýna_mË_{Z àUmZ`Vr Ë`oVñ_mËàUd:Ÿ&

AmoL²>H$ma H$m CƒmaU Amo_ (A+C+_) hmoZo Ho$ H$maU AmoL²>H$>ma H$hVo h¢, AWdm `h
àmUm| H$mo D$na CR>mVm h¡AW H$ñ_mXwÀ`V AmoL>² H$>mamo

`ñ_mXwƒm`©_mU Ed àmUmZyÜd©_wËH«$m_{V Vñ_m

(AWd©{ea Cn.4)Ÿ&
JmonW ~«m÷U (1/16-30) _| AmoL²>H$>ma gå~ÝYr 36 àíZm| Ho CÎma h¢Ÿ& dhm§
BgHo$ 2 _yb YmVw _mZo J`o h¢(1) Amßb¥ `m Amn² (= ì`m{á AW© _|, nm{U{Z YmVwnmR> 5/15)-`h g~H$mo Koao hw`o
h¡ (g ^yq_§ {dídVmo d¥Ëdm-nwéf-gyº$, 1)Ÿ&
XwÀ`Vo AmoL>² H$>ma:&

32
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
(2) Ad (= ajU- J{V-H$mpÝV-àr{V-V¥{á-AdJ_-àdoe-ldU-ñdm_r-AW©-`mMZ{H«$`m-BÀN>m-Xr{á-Adm{á-Am{b“Z-qhgm-AmXmZ-Jmd-d¥{Õfw-nm{U{Z YmVw-nmR> 1/
396)Ÿ& Ad²+_Z² (AdVo{ï>bmoníM -CUm{X gyÌ$ ) go {Q> (=AZ²) H$m bmon hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
V~ ÁdaËda{óì`{d_dm_wnYmíM(6/4/20) gyÌ go Ad H$m D$R²> (D$) hmoVm h¡Ÿ &
D$ H$m JwU hmoH$a Amo hmoVm h¡Ÿ& Ad²+ _Z² = Ad²+_² = D$+_² = Amo_²Ÿ&
_mÊSy>Š`mon{ZfX² Ho$ AZwgma An² go A, CV² CngJ© H$m C, Am¡a _m `m {_ YmVw go
_ boH$a Amo_² hþAm h¡AH$ma: àW_m _mÌm@@áoam{X_ÎdmÛm@@ßZmo{V h d¡ gdm©Z² H$m_mZm{XíM ^d{V ` Ed§
doXŸ&9Ÿ& CH$mamo {ÛVr`m _mÌmoËH$f©mXw^`ËdmÛmŸ&10Ÿ&, _H$ma Îm¥Vr`m _mÌm {_VoanrVodm©Ÿ&11Ÿ&
Ed_od¡Vm (^y^w©d:ñd[a{V) ì`möV`óæ`¡ {dÚm`¡ g§íbo{fÊ`:Ÿ&(H$m¡frV{H$ ~«m.6/12)
8. _hm-ì`mö{V-Amö{V H$o ~mX Bg_| Ad`dm| go [deof JwU AmVo h¢ , AV: `h
ì`mö{V h¡Ÿ& Bgr àH$ma H$db (H$m¡a) boH$a Cggo {Z_m©U H$aZo dmbm H${d `m òï>m h¡Ÿ&
VrZ àH$ma H$s aMZm g^r dJm}§ Ho$ {b`o h¡, AV: Bgo _hm (General) H$hm OmVm
h¡Ÿ& BZgo Jm`Ìr Ûmam g¥{ï> H$m {dñVma hþAm h¡ì`möË`m Jm`Í`^dV²& (Jm`Ìr ahñ` C. 1)
ì`möqV OmJV§ N>ÝX:...Xe©Z{_VrpÝÐ`mÊ`Ýd^dZ² (àUdmon.3)
AmoL²>H$>ma Ho$ {ZJw©U `m gJwU ê$n go gm_J«r H$m AmhaU H$aHo$ g¥{ï> hþ`r h¡-Bgo
g§íbofU H$hm J`m h¡EVm{Z h d¡ doXmZm_ÝV:íbofUm{Z `XoVm (^y^w©d:ñd[a{V) ì`möV`:Ÿ&
(EoVao¶ ~«m÷U 5/33)
3 ì`mö{V`m| H$m Zm_ h¡ - ^y:, ^wd:, ñd:-`h g^r àH$ma H$s {Ì{dY g¥{ï> H$m
àVrH$ h¡Ÿ& ^y H$m gm_mÝ` AW© h¡-n¥ÏdrŸ & ñd: bmoH$ gy`© H$m à^md-joÌ h¡-gm¡a
_ÊS>bŸ& BZHo$ ~rM _| ^wd: hmoZo Ho$ H$maU `h AÝV[aj H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ& gm¡a _ÊS>b n¥Ïdr
Ho$ AmH$ma H$mo 30 ~ma 2 JwUm H$aZo go, AWm©V² 100 H$mo{Q> JwUm h¡qÌeV² Ym_ {d-amO{V dmH²$ nV“m` Yr`Vo Ÿ&

2. Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©
33
(F$H²$ 10/189/3, gm_ 632, 1378, AWd© 6/31/,20/48/6, dm. `Ow.
3/8, V¡. g§. 1/5/3/1)
^wd: _| MÝÐ-_ÊS>b 9 AhJ©U AWm©V² (9-3=) 6 ~ma n¥Ïdr H$m 2 JwUm hmoJm =
64 JwUmŸ& damh-joÌ 15 AhJ©U `m n¥Ïdr H$m 212 = 4096 JwUm h¡Ÿ& 12 ~ma 2
JwUm àm`: 4100 JwUm h¡Ÿ& dm`w nwamU (6/12) Ho$ AZwgma `h gy`© go 100 `moOZ
D§$Mm h¡ VWm BgH$m eara 10 `moOZ Mm¡‹S>m h¡, AWm©V² 100 go 110 `moOZ damh-{ñWV
n¥Ïdr H$s Xyar h¡Ÿ& gy`© go n¥Ïdr 109 ì`mg H$s Xyar na h¡Ÿ & AV: n¥Ïdr go damh H$s
gr_m 10 gy`© ì`mg, AWm©V² n¥Ïdr {ÌÁ`m H$m 2160 JwUm h¡ŸeV§ (100) _{hfmZ² jranmH$ _moXZ§ damh{_ÝÐ E_wf_² & (F$H²$ 8/77/10)
gy`© go XoIZo na CgHo$ dm`w Ho$ n«dmh H$s gr_m B©fm-XÊS> h¡B©fo ËdmoÁO} Ëdm dm`dñW:& (dm.`Ow 1/1)
BgH$m ì`mg 6,000 `moOZ (gy`©-ì`mg) h¡ & ({dîUw nwamU 2/8/2 _| n[a{Y
18000 `moOZ), AWm©V² àm`: `yaoZg H$jm VH$Ÿ&
Cg_| n¥Ïdr àmXoe(10 A“xb) H$s WrB`Vr h dm B`_J« n¥{Wì`mg àmXoe_mÌr, Vm_o_yf B{V damh CÁOKmZ, gmo@ ñ`m:
(n¥{Wì`m:) n{V: àOmn{V:Ÿ&(eVnW ~«m. 14/1/2/11)
nyar g¥{ï> _| 3 ^y[_ h¢-n¥Ïdr, gm¡a _¡Ìo`-_ÊS>b (1 bmI gy`© ì`mg {ÌÁ`m-{dîUw
nwamU 2/7/5), VWm ~«÷mÊS>Ÿ& `o VrZm| gy`©-MÝÐ go àH$m{eV h¢ ({dîUw nw. 2/
7/4)Ÿ& XmoZm| go àH$m{eV n¥Ïdr, gy`© H$m VoO àH$me-joÌ _¡Ìo`, VWm gy`© àH$me
H$s ApÝV_ gr_m ~«÷mÊS> (gy`©-{gÕmÝV, 12/80)Ÿ& g^r n¥Ïdr Ho$ AmH$me Cggo
H$mo{Q> JwUm ~‹S>o h¢, {OVZm _Zwî` VwbZm _| n¥Ïdr h¡ ({dîUw nw.2/7/6)Ÿa{dMÝÐ_gmo`m©dÝ_`yI¡ad^mñ`VoŸ& g g_wÐ g[aÀN>¡bm VmdVr n¥{Wdr ñ_¥VmŸ&&3Ÿ&&
`mdËà_mUm n¥{Wdr {dñVma n[a_ÊS>bmV²Ÿ& Z^ñVmdËà_mU§ d¡ ì`mg _ÊS>bVmo {ÛOŸ&&4Ÿ&&
^y_o`m}OZbjo Vw gm¡a§ _¡Ìo` _ÊS>b_² Ÿ&&5Ÿ&& ({dîUw.nw. 2/7)

34
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
AV: n¥Ïdr, _¡Ìo`, ~«÷mÊS>, VWm CgH$m AmH$me ñd`å^y (gË`-bmoH$) H«$_e:
H$mo{Q>-H$mo{Q> JwUm ~‹S>o h¢Ÿ& àË`oH$ ^y{_-Úm¡ H$m `w½_ 1-1 Ym_ h¢ -n¥Ïdr- gy`© Ad_,
gy`©-~«÷mÊS> _Ü`_, VWm ~«÷mÊS>-gË` na_-Ym_ h¢ŸŸ& (F$H²$ 10/81/5 Am{X)&
VrZm| H$mo {_bm H$a namËna Ym_ h¡Ÿ& BZ 4 Ym_m| H$o joÌ _| \¡$bm nXmW© 4 g_wÐ
h¢Ÿ-AU©d, gañdmZ², Z^ñdmZ², ag (AmZÝX)& AV: H$m{bXmg Zo aKwd§e (2/3) _|n`moYar ^yV MVw: g_wÐm§-H$hm h¡Ÿ& n¥Ïdr 7 Ûrn Am¡a 7 g_wÐ dmbr h¡Ÿ& àË`oH$
Ym_ Ho$ 3-3 bmoH$ hmoZo go 9 bmoH$ hmoZo Mm{hE, {H$ÝVw ~rM Ho$ 2 bmoH$ 2 Ym_m| _|
h¢, AV: 7 bmoH$ h¢Ym_

Ad_

IÊS>

bmoH$

AmH$ma

^y
^y
1000 `moOZ ì`mg
^wd:
^wd:
n¥Ïdr H$m 4000 JwUm
_Ü`_
^y ñd:
ñd:
n¥Ïdr H$m 100 H$mo{Q> JwUm
^wd:
_h:
gy`© ì`mg H$m 1000 H$mo{Q> JwUm
na_ ^y ñd:
OZ:
_h: H$m 100 JwUm
^wd:
Vn:
864 H$mo{Q> àH$me df© {ÌÁ`m
ñd:
gË`
100 Aa~ àH$me df©
AmoL²>H$>ma _| 3 ^mJ {_bo hþE h¢, ì`mö{V _| AbJ-AbJ h¢Ÿ&
9. eãXmW©-AÝd` AZwgma 10 nXm| H$m AW©-(1) `:-AmÜ`mpË_H$, A{Y^m¡{VH$,
Am{YX¡dV-BZ 3 VÎdm| H$m àË`j-namoj-Anamoj g{dVm-VWm CZH$m AÝV`m©_r-VWm
h_mar AÝVamË_m-BZ 3 AWm] H$m g§J«hŸ&
(2) Z:-Añ_X² (h_) eãX H$s fð>r-MVwWu-{ÛVr`m {d^{º$ Ûmam h_|, h_mao {bE,
h_mam AW© `wî_Xñ_Xmo: fð>r MVwWu {ÛVr`m ñW`modm©Ÿ & (nm.gy. 8/1/10)
~hþdMZñ` dgyZgm¡ (21)Ÿ&
`Wm-gwI§ dm Zm¡ XXmËdre: n{Vdm©_{n Zm¡ h[a:Ÿ&

2. Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©

35

gmo@ ì``mV² dmo Z: {ed§ dmo Zmo XÚmV² goì`mo@Ì d: g Z:Ÿ&
g{dVm Ho$ 3 H$m`©-h_mar n«oaUm, h_| à{V ào[aV {df`m| _| bJmZo dmbm, h_mao {bE
A^rï> Xm`H$àoa`Þmo{Y`mo@ ñ_mH§$ `mo @ñ_mZ² à{V{Y`mo ZwVm:& `mo @ ñ_ä`§ gd©Xmo@
^rï>: g{dVm @ gm¡ M gmo @ß``_²Ÿ&

(3) {Y`:-Yr BpÝÐ` H$m BÝÐ ê$n hmoZo go 3 AW©-{OZH$m AmË_m Ûmam YmaU hmo dh
{Y`;, Omo AmË_m H$mo YmaU H$ao, `m AmË_m _| {df`m| H$mo YmaU H$aoBpÝÐ`{_ÝÐ{b“{_ÝÐÑï>{_ÝÐg¥ï>{_ÝÐOwï>{_ÝÐXÎm{_{V dm (nm{U{Z gyÌ 5/2/93),
YrL²> AmYmao (nm{U{Z YmVw nmR> 4/26)
(4) àMmoX`mV²-MwX² g#mmoXZo ((10/61)-àoaUm XoZmŸ& ZwX² àoaUo(6/2) ^r àoaUm
AW© _| h¡-XmoZm| _| AÝVa h¡-~mha go à^m{dV H$aZm ZwX² (àUmoX, {dZmoX) h¡, ^rVa
à^m{dV H$aZm MwX² h¡Ÿ& Yr H$s AmÝV[aH$ àoaUm 3 àH$ma H$s h¡-n«d¥{Îm (gËH$m`© _|),
{Zd¥{Îm (AgX² H$m_ go), {Zð>m (AmË_m Am¡a na_mË_m _|)Ÿ&
(5) Xodñ`-Xod H$mŸ& Omo ñd`§ àH$m{eV h¡, `m Xygam| H$mo àH$m{eV H$ao, dh Xod h¡{Xd² ({Xdw) H«$sS>m-{d{OJrfm-ì`dhma-Úw{V-ñVw{V-_moX-_X-ñdßZ-H$mpÝV-J{Vfw
(nm{U{Z YmVw nmR> 4/1)
ÚwV Xrám¡ (1/493)-àH$m{eV H$aZmŸ& `h g{dVm eãX H$m {deofU h¡Ÿ&
(6) g{dVw:- g{dV¥ nw{„“ eãX H$m fð>r ê$n= g{dVm H$mŸfyL²> à{UJ^©{d_moMZo (àm{U àgdo)(2/24, 4/22) ) fy (gy) àoaUo(6/117)
g^r ^yVm| àm[U`m| H$m àgd `m àoaUm XoZo dmbmŸ g{dVm h¡ & àgd Xmo àH$ma H$m h¡CËnmXZ `m àoaUmŸ&
gy`© AmË_m OJVñVWwfíM Ÿ& (F$H²$ 1/115/1, dm. `Ow.7/42,13/46, V¡. g§.
1/4/43/1, 2/4/14/4, AWd© 13/2/35, 20/107/14, V¡. ~«m. 2/
8, 7/3, V¡.Am. 1/7/6, 2/11/3)
àË`L²> XodmZm§ {de: àË`L²> CXo{f _mZwfmZ²Ÿ& àË`L²> {díd§ ñdÑ©eoŸ&

36

Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer

(F$H²$ 1/50/5, AWd© 13/2/20, 20/47/17)
`mo@gmdgm¡ nwéf: gmo@h_pñ_ & (dm.`. 40/16)
(7) VV²-namoj `m Xya H$s dñVw-V{X{Vnamojo{dOmZr`mV²ŸV{XXmg ^wdZofw Á`oð>_Ÿ² & (F$H²$ 10/120/1)
VV² g{dVwd¥©Ur_ho loð>§ gd©YmV__² & (F$H²$ 5/82/1)
› VËg{X{V {ZX}emo ~«÷U{ó{dY: ñ_¥V:& (JrVm 17/23)
(8) daoÊ`_²-d¥Äm² daUo (5/8), d¥Äm² AmdaUo (10/237)o-AWm©V² daU H$aZo `mo½`,
loð>, AmdaU _| AÑí`Ÿ&
(9) ^J©:-^«ñO nmHo$(6/4)-nH$mZmŸ& Bgr go ^¥Jw hþAm h¡, Omo aoV ({~Iao nXmW©)
H$mo EH$Ì H$a nH$mVm h¡Vmä`: lmÝVmä`ñVámä`: g§Vámä`mo(AX²>ä`) `ÐoV AmgrÎmX^¥Á`V `X^¥Á`V Vñ_mX²
^¥Jw: g_^dV² VX² ^¥Jmo ^©¥JwËd_²& (JmonW nyd© 1/3)Ÿ&
éÐ ^r ^J© h¡-ha: ñ_ahamo ^J©:Ÿ(A‘aH$mof 1/1)&
AV: ^J© (^¥Jw ) H$m AW© h¡-VoOñdr, e{º$embr, Omo g~H$mo EH$ gmW nH$‹S> H$a
nH$m gHo$Ÿ&
(10) Yr_{h-Ü`¡ {MÝVm`m_² (1/648)Ÿ `m YrL>² AmYmao (4/26)& AWm©V² Ü`mZ
H$aZm, {dMma H$aZm, `m _Z H$m AmYma ~w{ÕŸ& Yr_{h = Ü`m`m{_ = Ü`m`o_{h
(d¡{XH$ à`moJ)= g_PVm hÿ§, {dMma H$aVm hÿ§Ÿ, _Z (ñ_¥{V) _| YmaU H$aVm hÿ§Ü`m`o_{h àVod`_² (F$H²$ )&
~wqÕ§ Vw gmaqW {d{Õ _Z: àJ«h_od MŸ&&3Ÿ&& _ZgñVw nam ~w{Õ:Ÿ&&10Ÿ&(H$R>mon.1/3)
A~ _yb _ÝÌ Ho$ eãXmW© H$m {dMma H$a|& ‘ÝÌ h¡›

^y^w©d: ñd:, VV² g{dVwd©aoÊ`§, ^Jm} Xodñ` Yr_{h, {Y`mo `mo Z:

àMmoX`mV²Ÿ&

©- › (~«÷) go ^y:,^wd:,ñd: hþEŸ& dh(~«÷) g~H$m OÝ_XmVm h¡, loð Am¡a
~w{Õ go nao h¡Ÿ& Cg H$m VoO ê$n g_PVo h¢Ÿ& dh h_mar ~w{Õ H$mo ào[aV H$aoŸ&
eãXmW

2. Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©

37

-OJX² Jwé ñdm_r {ZíMbmZÝX gañdVr Or Zo ewH$-gwYm _|
lr_X² ^mJdV Ho$ àW_ íbmoH$ H$s doX-naH$ ì`m»`m H$s h¡Ÿ& CZHo$ AZwgma-

10. nm¡am{UH$ AW©

AWm}@`§ ~«÷gyÌmUm§ ^maVmW© {d{ZU©`:Ÿ&

Ÿ&&(JéS> nwamU)
AWm©V² lr_X² ^mJdV nwamU ~«÷gyÌm| H$m AW©, _hm^maV-gma, Jm`Ìr-^mî` VWm
doXmW©-à{VnmXH$ h¡Ÿ& àW_ íbmoH$->

Jm`Ìr ^mî`ê$nmo@gm¡ doXmW© n[a~¥{
§ hV:

OÝ_mÚñ` `Vmo@ Ýd`m{XVaVíMmW}íd{^k: ñdamQ²>Ÿ,
VoZo ~«÷ öXm ` Am{XH$d`o _wøpÝV `Ëgya`:Ÿ&
VoOmo dm[a _¥Xm§ `Wm {d{Z_`mo `Ì {ÌgJm}@_¥fm,
YmåZm ñdoZ gXm {ZañV Hw$h H§$ gË`§ na§ Yr_{hŸ&&1Ÿ&&

AW©-Bg OJV² H$s CËn{Îm, pñW{V, àb` {Og na_mË_m go h¡, Omo H$m`©-àn#m _o§
à{dï> VWm Cggo ì`{V[aº$ ^r hmoZo go ñdV: {gÕ, gd©k, ñdàH$me h¡; {OgZo ~«÷m
Ho$ öX` _| doXm| H$mo àH$m{eV {H$`m, {Og_| {dMma Hw$eb {dÛmZ² ^r _mo{hV hmoVo h¢;
VoO, Ob, {_Å>r H$m O¡go nañna {d{Z_` (Am^mg) hmoVm h¡, d¡go hr {Og_|
{ÌJwUmË_H$ OJV² gË`-O¡gm XrIVm h¡, AnZo ñdê$n d¡^d go _m`m H$mo Xya hQ>mZo dmbo
Cg na_mË_m H$m h_ Ü`mZ H$aVo h¢Ÿ&
~«÷-gyÌ
go g_Vwë`VmAWmVmo ~«÷{Okmgm(1/1/1) = {ZañV Hw$h H§$ gË`§ na§ Yr_{h
OÝ_mÚñ` `V: (1/1/2)- dhr h¡; emó`mo{ZËdmV² (1/1/3)= VoZo ~«÷
VÎmw g_Ýd`mV² (1/1/4)= (AW}fw) AÝd`mV²;
B©jVoZm©eãX_² (1/1/5) = AW}îd{^k:
EVoZ gd} ì`m»`mVm (1/4/29) Am{X g_Ýd` Zm_H$ àW_ AÜ`m`
= _wøpÝV `Ëgya`:
VXZÝ`Ëd_m aå^UeãXm{Xä`: (2/1/14) gy{MV {ÛVr` A{damoY AÜ`m`
= VoOmodm[a_¥Xm§ `Wm {d{Z_`mo `Ì {ÌgJm}@_¥fm

38

Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer

gh H$m`m©ÝVa{d{Y: djoU VÛVmo {dÜ`m{XdV² (3/4/47) gy{MV V¥Vr` gmYZmÜ`m`
= gË`§ na§ Yr_{hŸ&
na§ O¡{_[Z_w©»`ËdmV² (4/3/12) gy{MV MVwW© \$bmÜ`m`
= YmåZm ñdoZ gXm {ZañVHw$h H§$ gË`§ na§&
Jm`Ìr _ÝÌ go g_Vwë`Vm-VËg{dVw: Xodñ` = OÝ_mÚñ` `V:&
{Y`mo `mo Z: à«MmoX`mV² = ñdamQ²>, Yr_{h (=Ü`m`o_) H$m `WmdV² à`moJ,
nmXmW©-N>ÝX Cn`moJ {df` _| H$hm J`m h¡¡ {H$ nmX AZwgma hr CgH$m AW© hmoVm h¡Vofm_¥½`ÌmW©deoZ nmXì`dñWm & (_r_m§gm-gyÌ, 2/1/35)
doX Ho$ 5 ndm}§ Ho$ A{Yð>mVm 5 Xod h¢nd©-ñdm`å^wd
na_oð>r
gm¡a
MmÝÐ
^y
XodVm-~«÷m
{dîUw
BÝÐ
gmo_
A{¾
VÎd- AmH$me
dm`w
VoO
gmo_
n¥{Wdr
Bg_| ApÝV_ 3 H$mo {ed H$m 3 ZoÌ H$hm OmVm h¡A{¾_y©Ym© Mjwfr MÝÐgy`m£ & (_wÊS>H$ Cn. 2/1/4)Ÿ&
doX _| éÐ Ho$ {ed (emÝV) Am¡a Kmoa ê$n H$m dU©Z h¡`m Vo éÐ {edm VZyaKmoam @nmnH$m{eZr&(dm. `Ow. 16/2)
{ed Ho$ 3 nX h¢-{ed, {edVa, {edV_Z_: {edm` M {edVam` M& (dm. `Ow. 16/41, F$H²$ 10/9/1)
`mo d: {edV_mo ag: & (dm. `Ow. 11/51, 36/15; F$H²$ 10/9/2)Ÿ&
gy`© Ho$ {ZH$Q> H$m joÌ ^rfU Vmn hmoZo go éÐ h¡Ÿ& 100 ì`mg H$s Xyar na emÝV-joÌ
Amaå^ hmoVm h¡ , AV: 100 H$mo eV (emÝV) H$hm OmVm h¡¡ (eVnW ~«m.9/1/1/
7; 9/1/1/2)Ÿ& Amaå^ H$mo erf© H$hVo h¡ (D$Üd©_yb_Y: emI§-JrVm (15/1),
AV: `hm§ pñWV MÝÐ {ed Ho$ {ga na h¡, VWm MÝÐ-gy`©-n¥Ïdr(A{¾) CgHo$ VrZ ZoÌ
h¢Ÿ& ghò, bj éÐr {edVa VWm CgHo$ ~mX {edV_ joÌ h¡Ÿ&

2. Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©

39

na_-nX Aì`º$, {ZamH$ma h¡Ÿ- dh _hoída, ñd`å^y-{b“ Am{X H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
AV: 5 d¡{XH$ Xodm| H$m 3 nm¡am{UH$ doX-gå_V XodVmAm| _| g_Ýd` h¡-~«÷m, {dîUw,
{edŸ& Jm`Ìr Ho$ 3 nX BgH$s ì`m»`m h¢VV² g{dVwd©aoÊ`§-gm¡a amoXgr _ÊS>b H$m Ho$ÝÐ gy`© {nVm h¡-`h VoO H$s dfm© H$aZo go
d¥fm `m nwéf ê$n h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ H$maU g¥{ï> hmoZo go dh {nVm h¡Ÿ& CgH$m OÝ_ na_oð>r go
hþAm Omo {nVm_h h¡Ÿ& CgH$m òmoV ñd`å^y à{nVm_h H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& AÝV _|
g~H$s CËn{Îm {ZamH$ma ~«÷ go h¡-OJXì`º$_y{Îm©Zm (JrVm 9/4)Ÿ& dh na_ òï>m hr
VV² g{dVm h¡Ÿ& g¥{ï> H$Îmm© ê$n H$mo ~«÷m H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ&
^Jm} Xodñ` Yr_{h-{ZamH$ma ~«÷ ~moYJå` Zht h¡, CgHm Omo àH$m{eV ê$n h¡ , dhr
XrI gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& AV: àH$me Ho$ÝÐ gy`© hr ^Jm} Xod h¡Ÿ& dh àH$me_mZ VWm n¥Ïdr H$mo
YmaU H$aZo-XmoZm| AWm] _| ^J© h¡n¥{Wdr Ëd`m Y¥Vm bmoH$m Xo{d Ëd§ {dîUwZm Y¥Vm & (^y{_ nyOZ H$m _ÝÌ)
(= Am{XË`:) g `: g {dîUw`©k: gŸ& g `: g `kmo@ gm¡ g Am{XË`:&
(eVnW ~«m÷U 14/1/1/1)
`m gm {ÛVr`m (AmoL²>H$>mañ`) _mÌm {dîUwXodË`m & (JmonW ~«m÷U nyd© 1/25)
VÛm@AhmoamÌo@ Ed {dîUwH«$_m ^dpÝV & (eVnW ~«m÷U 6/7/4/12)
{Y`mo `mo Z: àMmoX`mV²-~w{Õ H$mo ào[aV H$aZo dmbo {ed h¢, {ed go hr VÝÌ H$s Jwé
naånam Amaå^ hþ`r h¡Ÿ& `h F${f`m| Ho$ F$f^ (àoaH$) `m d¥f^ h¢g _o F$frUm_¥f^: àgrXVwŸ& (^mJdV nwamU,2/4/20)
d¥f^ {ed H$m dmhZ h¡Ÿ&
{edmo Z: gw_Zm ^d & (dm.`Ow. 16/51)
11. {ÌVma `m Jwá àUd-~«÷ H$m VrZ àH$ma go dU©Z hmoVm h¡ - › , VV², gV²› VËg{X{V {ZX}emo ~«÷U{ó{dY: ñ_¥V:Ÿ& (JrVm 17/23)
› VV² gV² = Bª › lr: Ÿ& `hm§ VV² = Bª = OJX²-B©e-OrdmË_m H$m EH$ËdŸ& `h
Jwá àUd doXm| _o H$B© ~ma Am`m h¡-

40

Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer

` Bª MH$ma Z gmo Añ` doX ` Bª XXe© {hé{JÞw Vñ_mV² & (F$H²$ 1/164/32)
`hm§ àË`j OJV² H$m {ZXe©H$ BªH$ma h¡-

{Vòmo _mV¦órZ² {nV¦Z² {~^«XoH$ D$Üd©ñVñWm¡ Zo_d½bmn`pÝV(F$H²$ 1/164/
10)
Zo_d½bmn`pÝV = Z + Bª + Ad½bmn`pÝV-AWm©V² Cg na_ nwéf H$mo Zht XoI nmVo&
`h Jwhm `m namoj AÝVamË_m H$m Xe©H$ h¡ ` Bª {MHo$V Jwhm ^dÝV_m `: ggmX Ymam_¥Vñ`Ÿ& (F$H²$ 1/67/4)
lr-gyº$ _| ^r- Vm§ n{ÙZr_t (= n{ÙZt + Bª) eaU_h§ ànÚoŸ&

Am`mVw daXm Xodr Aja§ ~«÷ g§{_V_²Ÿ&
Jm`Ìr N>ÝXgm§ _mVm BX§ ~«÷ Owfñd _o&
(V¡{Îmar` Am. 10/34, Zmam`U Cn.15/1)
B©L²>H$>mam` ñdmhmŸ& BªL²>H¥$>Vm` ñdmhmŸ& (V¡{Îmar` g§. 7/1/19/9)
lr bú_r H$m ~rOmja h¡, e{º$ ê$n _| na_-nwéf H$s nËZr h¡lríM Vo bú_ríM nËÝ`m¡ & (dm.`Ow. 30/32)
kmZ-àYmZ na_-nwéf (OJÞmW) H$r BÀN>m-{H«$`m e{º$ ê$n Xmo e{º$`m§ dm_X{jU ^mJ _| h¢ -lr-Omo `e VoO Am{X Xo ({d_bm), bú` `m Ñí` ê$n _| bú_rŸ&
lr H$m Ì`r ê$n-

Aho ~wpÜZ` _Ý̧ _o Jmonm`Ÿ& `_¥fó[` {dXm {dXw:Ÿ&
F$M: gm_m{Z `Oy§{fŸ& gm {h lra_¥Vm gVm_²Ÿ& (V¡{Îmar` ~«m.1/2/1/69)
Bg àH$ma -› =ì`º$ àUd, Bª = Jwá àUd, lr: =emº$ àUd -VrZm| H$o 3-3
IÊS> h¢Ÿ& VÝÌ Ho$ _ÝÌm| H$m AÝV ^r lt go hmoVm h¡› õt lt (fmoS>er _ÝÌ), E| õt lt ({ÌÎmma _ÝÌ)Ÿ&
Bª = B + B© +_² Ÿ& B = Bh (`hm§) bmoH$Ÿ&
B© = Ñí` OJV² (B© J{V-ì`m{á-~«OZ-H$mÝË`gZ-ImXZofw, 2/41), _² =~«÷
lt = e + a + BªŸ& e + _hmbú_r, a = YZ, B© =Vw{ï>Ÿ&

2. Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©
41
õt -h >= {ed, a = àH¥${V, B© = _hm_m`mŸ& ZmX (AZwñdma)-{dídmå~mŸ&
Bgr àH$ma Ho$ H$B© AÝ` AW© ^r {H$`o Om gH$Vo h¢Ÿ&
12. {ed-hZw_mZ - na_ {ed `m ({ed+e{º$) Ho$ A^oX ê$n go hr g¥{ï> hþ`r
h¡ -àW_ nXŸ&
{ÛVr` nX-{ed H$m VoO ê$n H$B© ñVam| _| h¡-(1) gy`© go 100 `moOZ(=ì`mg) VH$Vmn `m éÐ-joÌeV `moOZo h dm Ef (Am{XË`:) BVñVn{V & (H$m¡frV{H$ ~«m.8/3)
eV§ {dYm Ef (Am{XË`:) Ed¡H$ eVV_mo ` Ef Vn{V& (eVnW ~«m.10/2/4/
3)
(2) gy`© go 1000 ì`mg VH$ apí_-joÌ-ghò§ h¡V Am{XË`ñ` aí_`:& (O¡{_Zr
` Cn.~«m. 1/44/5)
(3) bj Am¡a H$mo{Q> `moOZ VH$ bj, H$mo{Q>-é{Ð` joÌŸ&
(4) H$mo{Q> ì`mg VH$ gy`© joÌ Ho$ ~mX gXm{ed `m _hbm}H$ H$m _hmXodŸ& 100 go
H$mo{Q> ì`mg VH$ éÐ-{ed XmoZm| h¡, 100 ì`mg Ho$ ^rVa Ho$db éÐ joÌ h¡Ÿ&
V¥Vr` nmX-e¡d Xe©Z _| MoVZm Ho$ H$B© ñVa h¢-{ed-e{º$ A^oX, ^oX (gXm{ed),
B©ída (={Z`ÝÌH$, JrVm 18/61)Ÿ& eara Ho$ ^rVa Amkm MH«$ hr kmZ Hm Ho$ÝÐ h¡,
CgHo$ {ÌHy$Q> na {ed H$m [Zdmg h¡& {ed-{b“ ^r VrZ àH$ma Ho$ h¢-

_yb ñdên {b“ËdmÝ_yb_ÝÌ B{V ñ_¥V:Ÿ&
gyú_ËdmËH$maUËdmÀM b`ZmX² J_ZmX{nŸ&
bjUmËna_oeñ` {b“{_Ë`{^Yr`VoŸ&& (`moJ{eImon{ZfX² 2/9,10)
ñd`å^y-{b“ g¥{ï> H$m _yb H$maU h¡, Cgr _| BgH$m nwZ: b` hmoVm h¡Ÿ& ~mU
{b“ J{V H$s {Xem {XImVm h¡Ÿ-`h ^J© dm VoO ê$n h¡-ha: ñ_a hamo ^J©: (A_aH$mof
1/1/33)Ÿ& na_oída H$o bjU AZÝV h¢ , {H$ÝVw CZH$m Am^mg 12 Am{XË`m| Ho$
AZwgma 12 àH$ma H$m h¡Ÿ& BZH$m kmZ _pñVîH$ Ho$ BVam»` (BVa=AbJ) {b“ go
hmoVm h¡Ÿ&

42
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
hZw_mZ²-g¥{ï> H$Îmm© ê$n H$mo doX _| d¥fmH${n H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& d¥fm H$m AW© h¡ df©U,
CËgJ© H$aZo dmbm, {Og Ho$ÝÐ go CËgJ© hmo dh nwéf h¡Ÿ& {Og joÌ _| BgH$m J«hU hmo,
dh `mofm (`wº$ hmoZo dmbm) `m ór h¡Ÿ& H${n H$m AW© h¡-Ob `m ag ê$n nXmW© H$m
nmZ H$aZm, g~H$m J«hU H$a CZgo g¥{ï> H$aZm gd©hþV `k h¡Vñ_mÚkmV² gd©hþV: F$M: gm_m{Z O{kao-(nwéf gyº$,7)Ÿ&
`h {ed ê$nr BÀN>m H$m AdVma `m n[aUm_ h¡Ÿ& gd©hþV `k Ûmam {díd H$s à{V_m
~ZVr h¡-ñd`å^y, na_oð>r, gm¡a, MmÝÐ, ^y-`o g^r H«$_e: à{V_m h¢-

g EojV àOmn{V:(ñd`å^y:)-B_§ dm AmË_Z: à{V_m_g¥{jŸ& AmË_Zmo øoV
à{V_m_g¥OVŸ& Vm dm EVm: àOmnVoa{YXodVm Ag¥Á`ÝV-(1)-A{¾: (VX²J{^©Vmo
^y{nÊS>íM), (2) BÝÐ: (VX²J{^©V: gy`©íM), (3) gmo_:(VX²J{^©VíMÝÐíM),
(4) na_oð>r àmOmnË`: (ñdm`å^wd:)- eVnW ~«m. (11/6/12,13)Ÿ&
gd©hþV `k eVnW (12/1/3/1,2) _o§ h¡Ÿ& H${n (copy) `m AZwH$aU JwU dmbm
new ^r H${n H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ& AV: d¥fmH${n Am¡a _yb òï>m EH$ hr h¢-

VÌ JËdm OJÞmW§ dmgwXod§ d¥fm H${n_²Ÿ&
nwéf§ nwéf gyºo$Z CnVñWo g_m{hV:Ÿ&&(^mJdV nwamU 10/1/20)
VVmo {d^w: àda damh ê$nY¥H²$ d¥fmH${n: àg^_W¡H$X§ï´>`mŸ& (h[ad§e nwamU
216/47)
^J© ê$n-éÐ `m {ed Ho$ VoO Ûmam J{V `m àdmh hmoVm h¡, CgHo$ ñVa _éV² h¡Ÿ&
n¥Ïdr _mn go ~«÷mÊS> H$m {dñVma 49 AhJ©U VH$ h¡, AWm©V² n¥Ïdr H$m 46 ~ma 2
JwUm, 3 ñVa n¥Ïdr Ho$ ^rVa h¢Ÿ& 49 joÌm| Hm àdmh 49 _éV² h¢,
CgHo$ ~mX CgH$s gÝVmZ 50 d| AhJ©U na h¡Ÿ& Bg gr_m Ho$ ^rVa {dîUw H$m na_nX ~«÷mÊS> h¡Ÿ& gm¡a _ÊS>b _| gm¡a dm`w H$m àdmh B©fmXÊS> (B©foËdmoÁO} Ëdm
dm`dñW:-dm. `Ow.1/1), {OgH$m ì`mg 6000 `moOZ(gy`©-ì`mg) h¡ ({dîUw nw.
1/2/8 _| n[a{Y), CgHo$ ~mX CgH$s gÝVmZ hZw_mZ h¡Ÿ& gy`© ê$nr {dîUw Ho$ 3

2. Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©
43
nX VWm CgH$m na_nX XmooZm| hZw_mZ Ho$ ^rVa h¡Ÿ& CZHo$ _Zwî` (dm Za Om{V) ê$n
Ho$ öX` _| ^r am_ h¢ (am_ H$m amÁ`m{^foH$)Ÿ&
Yr-àoaH$-~«÷mÊS> Ho$ 1 Id© H$U ñd`å^y
Ho$ Id© H$Um| H$s à{V_m h¢, CZH$s
à{V_m _Zwî` _pñVîH$ _| ^r Id© H$U h¢ Ÿ& AV: na_-Jwhm ~«÷mÊS> (H$R> Cn.1/
3/1) Ho$ _Z H$s gr_m hZw_mZ h¡, CgH$m n[a^«_U-H$mb (31 H$mo{Q> df©) _ÝdÝVa
h¡Ÿ& gy`© ê$nr ~w{Õ H$o Mmamo Va\$ ^r hZw_mZ h¡& (_Zwî` ê$n _| gy`©-{eî` ~ZH$a
n[aH«$_m)Ÿ& _Z-~w{Õ Ho$ {Z`ÝÌH$-ê$n _| hZw_mZ _ZmoOd h¢ - _ZmoOd§ _méVVwë`doJ§
{OVopÝÐ`§ ~w{Õ_Vm§ d[að>§Ÿ& _ZmoO{dËd [g{Õ H$m dU©Z `moJgyÌ (3/49) _o h¡Ÿ& F$H²$
(10/71/7, 8) _| ^r _ZmoOd Ûmam kmZ H$m dU©Z h¡Ÿ& _pñVîH$ Ho$ ^rVa {eImñWmZ H$m {dÝXw-MH«$ hZw_mZ H$m ñWmZ h¡, CZHo$ _wI H$m ê$n Am¡a nwÀN> › H$m AmH$ma
h¡Ÿ&
13. emº$-ì`m»`m-e{º$ ê$n _| doX H$r 3 Xo{d`m§ Jm`Ìr Ho$ 3 nmX h¢ ^maVr, Bbm, gañdVrŸ(1) Bim gañdVr _hr {Vòmo Xodr_©`mo^wd:Ÿ& ~{h©: grXÝËd{óY:Ÿ&&(F$H²$ 1/
13/9, 5/11/8)
(2) ^maVrio gañd{V `m d: gdm© Cn~«wdoŸ& Vm ZíMmoX`V {l`o&Ÿ &(F$H²$ 1/
188/8)
(3) ew{MX}doîd{n©Vm hmoÌm _éËgw ^maVrŸ& Bim gañdVr _hr ~{h©: grXÝVw
`{k`m:Ÿ&&(F$H²$ 1/142/9)
(4) ^maVr nd_mZñ` gañdVrim _hrŸ& B_§ Zmo `k_mJ_Z² {Vòmo Xodr:
gwnoeg:Ÿ&&(F$H²$ 9/5/8)
(5) gañdVr gmY`ÝVr {Y`§ Z Bim Xodr ^maVr {dídVy{V©:Ÿ&
{Vòmo Xodr ñdY`m ~{h© ao_pÀN>Ч nmÝVw eaU§ {ZfÚŸ&&(F$H²$ 2/3/8)
(6) Am ^maVr ^maVr{^: gOmofm Bim Xod¡_©Zwî`o{^a{¾:Ÿ&
gañdVr gmañdVo{^adm©H²$ {Vòmo Xodr~©{h©aoX§ gXÝVw&Ÿ

44
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
(F$H²$ 3/4/8, 7/2/8)
(7) {Vòmo Xodr~©{h© [aX§ dar` AmgrXV MH¥$_m d: ñ`moZ_²Ÿ&
_ZwîdX² `k§ gw{YVm hdr§frim K¥VnXr OwfÝVŸ&&(F$H²$ 10/70/8)
(8) Am Zmo `k§ ^maVr Vy`_o[Ëdim _Zwîd{Xh MoV`ÝVrŸ&
{Vòmo Xodr~©{h©aoX§ ñ`moZ§ gañdVr ñdng: gXÝVwŸ&&(F$H²$ 10/110/8)
{Zéº$(8/13) Ho$ AZwgma ^aV Am{XË` VWm CgH$s ^m ^maVr h¡Ÿ& Am{XË` dh
joÌ Am¡a nXmW© h¡, {Oggo {Z_m©U H$m Am{X hþAm h¡-ñd¶å^y, na_oð>r, gm¡a Ho$ Am{XË`
H«$_e: A`©_m, déU, {_Ì h¢ (F$H²$ 2/27/8)Ÿ& CZH$m à^md-joÌ ^maVr g¥{ï>
H$m _yb h¡-~«m÷r Vw ^maVr& (A_aH$mof 1/6/1)
Bbm ^y{_ h¡ Omo g¥{ï> H$m àH$Q> ê$n h¡Ÿ& ^y>{_ 3 h¢-~«÷mÊS>, gm¡a _¡Ìo` _ÊS>b, n¥ÏdrŸ&
A_aH$mof(3/3/42) _o§ Bbm H$m AW© Jmo ({H$aU), ^y, dmH²$, BS>m h¢Jmo^ydmMpñËdS>m BbmŸ&
gañdVr ñnï>V: ~w{Õ H$s àoaH$ h¡-D$na H$m (5), VWme§ gañdVr gh Yr{^añVw &(F$H²$ 7/35/11)Ÿ&
MmoX{`Ìr gyZ¥VmZm§ MoV¶ÝVr gw_VrZm_²Ÿ& (F$H²$ 1/3/11)
_mH©$ÊS>o` nwamU Ho$ XwJm© gáeVr Ho$ VrZ M[aÌ, Jm`Ìr Ho$ 3 nX h¢ - àW_ M[aÌ
_hmH$mbr Ûmam g¥{ï> hþ`r h¡, Cgr _| ~«÷m H$m OÝ_ hþAm h¡Ÿ& {ÛVr` M[aÌ _|
_hmbú_r H$s CËn{Îm {dîUw H$s àoaUm go h¡Ÿ& V¥Vr` M[aÌ _| gañdVr Ûmam g~Ho$
EH$Ëd H$m kmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& BZHo$ ~rO _ÝÌ -H«$s¨, õt, E| - h¢Ÿ&
14. Hw$N> AÝ` {ÌH$-(1) gV²-lr-AH$mb-gV² H$m AW© h¡ -Omo {XIm`r XoŸ& Omo
nXmW© EH$ AmdaU _| hmo dhr AmH$ma XrIVm h¡Ÿ& AmdaU H$mo ~b^Ð H$hVo h¢~b = dH«$(~b n‹S>Zm) e{º$ Ho$ H$maU nXmW© H$s J{V dH«$ hmoVr h¡, AV: e{º$ H$mo
^r ~b H$hVo h¢Ÿ& ^Ð = aMZmŸ&
gw^Ðm= ^Ð Ho$ ^rVa H$m joÌŸ&
AH$mb-nwéf = OJÞmWŸ& H$mb Ho$ 3 ê$nm| Ho$ H$maU 3 àH$ma Ho$ nwéf h¢-

2. Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©

45

{ZË`-H$mb Omo gXm jaU (Decay) H$aVm h¡-H$mbmo@pñ_ bmoH$j`H¥$Ëàd¥Õmo (JrVm
11/32)-ja-nwéf Omo ^m¡{VH$ ê$n h¡ « Am¡a gXm j` hmoVm ahVm h¡Ÿ&
OÝ`H$mb, Omo MH«$s` H«$_ Ho$ `kH$mb H$s _mn h¡, Am¡a {dkmZ H$s JUZm _| à`moJ
hmoVm h¡-H$mb: H$b`Vm_h§Ÿ& (JrVm 10/30)-Aja-nwéf Omo Hy$Q>ñW `m H$m`© ê$n_|
n[aM` h¡Ÿ&
Aj`-H$mb-_ybòmoV go {Z_m©U Ûmam Hw$b nXmW© dhr ahVm h¡, ^m¡{VH$ {dkmZ _|
5 àH$ma Ho$ g§ajU {gÕmÝV h¢Ÿ& Hw$b _mÌm H$s pñWaVm Aì`` nwéf h¡Ÿ& _Zwî` H$m
dmVmdaU go {Z_m©U d¥j (Xmé) Ûmam hmoVm h¡, AV: Bgo Xmé-~«÷ ^r H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
`h ja-Aja go CÎm_ hmoZo Ho$ H$maU nwéfmoÎm_ H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ& `h Aj`-H$mb go
gå~pÝYV hmoZo Ho$ H$maU AH$mb-nwéf h¡-Ah_odmj`: H$mbmo (JrVm 10/33)Ÿ& Jwé
J«ÝW gmh~ H$m Amaå^ nwéf Ho$ dU©Z go hr hþAm h¡Ÿ&
(2) gV²-{MV²-AmZÝX-{MV² H$m AW© h¡ -eyÝ` Am`VZ H$m AmH$me `m {dÝXw_mÌŸ&
ha {dÝXw _| Hw$N> gV² `m AZw^dJå` nXmW© h¡Ÿ& AmZÝX `m ag ê$n _| ~«÷ ha ñWmZ
na h¡-agmo d¡ g:,ag§ øodm`§ bãÜdm@@ZÝXr ^d{V (V¡{Îmar` Cn.2/7/2)
(3) e§H$a-e§ ~«÷ = I §+H§$ +a§
~«÷Ÿ&
› I§ ~«÷ I§ nwamU§ dm`w a§ I{_{V h ñ_mh ...(~¥hXmaÊ`H$ Cn.5/1/1)
I§ _Zmo ~w{Õaod M& (^. JrVm 7/4)Ÿ&
AV: I§ H$m AW© ~«÷ `m CgH$r nhbr g¥[ï> AmH$me h¡Ÿ& H§ H$m AW© àmU `m
àOmn{V ê$n _| {H«$`mË_H$ ê$n h¡ŸH$mo Zm_ àOmn{Va^dËH$mo d¡ Zm_ àOmn{V&(EoVao` ~«m.3/21)
H$mo d¡ àOmn{V:&(JmonW ~«m.C.6/3)
H$ñ_¡ Xodm` h{dfm {dYo_& (dm. `Ow.12/102),
H$ñ_¡ Xod dfS>ñVw Vwä`_² & (dm. `Ow.11/39)Ÿ&
`hm§ H àOmn{V h¡ -àOmn{Vd£ H$: &(EoV. ~«m. 2/38, 6/21; H$m¡frV{H$ ~«m.
5//4,24/4, 5/9; VmÊS>ç _hm ~«m.7/8/3; eVnW ~«m.6/4/3/4, 7/

46

Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer

3/1/20; V¡{Îmar` ~«m.2/2/5/5; O¡{_Zr` Cn.~«m. 3/2/10; JmonW ~«m.
C. 1/22)
a§ ~«÷-ha ñWmZ na {~Iam hþAm n«mU `m D$Om© a§ h¡ŸàmUmo d¡ a§ àmUo hr_m{Z gdm©{U ^yVm{Z aVm{ZŸ&
(eVnW ~«m. 14/8/13/3, AWm©V² ~¥hXmaÊ`H$ Cn. 5/12/1)
aH$mamo d{• dMZ: àH$me: n`©dñ`{VŸ& (am_ahñ` Cn.5/4)
a B{V aÄO`Vr_m{Z ^yVm[Z& (_¡Ìm`Ur Cn.6/7)Ÿ&
I§, H§$, a§-BZ VrZ H$m `moJ e§ AWm©V² empÝV (e_), `m H$ë`mU h¡-

e§ Zmo {_Ì: e§ déU: e§ Zmo ^dËd`©_m &
e§ Zmo BÝÐmo d¥hñn{V: e§ Zmo {dîUwééH«$_: &Ÿ&
(F$H²$ 1/90/9, AWd© 19/9/6, dm.`.36/9, V¡.Am.7/1/1)
I§ = AmH$me `m AmdnZ ({H«$`m H$m ñWmZ), H$ = H$Îmm©, AÞ, gwI, a§ = n«mU,
AÞmX (^moº$m), a_UerbŸ& gwIgmYH$ H§$ ~«÷ H$s a§ ~«÷ _| Amhþ{V hmoZo na H§$ V¥á
hmoH$a e§ ~«÷ ~Z OmVm h¡Ÿ&
H§$ ~«÷ (AÞ)
AmdnZ
Am{YX¡{dH$
AÜ`mË_
dmH²$
ñd`å^y
Aì`º$ AmË_m
a{`
na_oð>r
_hmZ² AmË_m
{YfUm
gm¡a
{dkmZ AmË_m
àkm
MmÝÐ
àkmZ AmË_m
^yV
n¥{Wdr
^yVmË_m
(4) _mÊS>yŠ` Cn{ZfX² Ho$ AZwgma › Ho$ {d^mJA
C
_
{dÝXw
H$mb
^yV
^dV²
^{dî`V²
H$mbmVrV
àkm
OmJ«V
ñdßZ
gwfwpßV
Vwar`

2. Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©
47
^moº$mË_m d¡ídmZa
V¡Og
àmk
Aja
^moJ
ñWyb
à{d{dº$
AmZÝX
Ðï>m_mÌ
15. Yr `moJ-Jm`Ìr H$m CÔoí` h¡-Yr_{h = YmaUm + Ü`mZ + g_m{Y & BZH$m
Aä`mg hr Yr-`moJ h¡`ñ_mÑVo Z {gÜ`{V `kmo {dnpíMVíMZŸ& g YrZm§ `moJ{gÝd{VŸ&&(F$H²$.1/
18/7)
Vm§ `moJ{_{V _Ý`Vo pñWa{_pÝÐ`m aUm_²Ÿ& (H$R>mo n. 2/3/11)
BgH$s gmYZm AmÝV[aH$ Yr B[ÝX«` go hmoVr h¡Xod§ Za§ g{dVma§ {dàm `k¡: gwd¥{º${^:Ÿ& Z_ñ`pÝV {Y`o{fVm:Ÿ& (F$H²$.3/
62/12)

CnËdm@¾o{Xdo {Xdo XmofmdñV{Y©`m d`_²Ÿ&
Z_mo ^aÝV E_{gŸ&&(F$H²$.1/1/7)
Bgo JrVm (4/28) _| kmZ-`k H$hm h¡Ÿ&
16. Jm`Ìr H$m ñdê$n-Jm`Ìr nwaíMaU nÕ{V Ho$ AZwgma Jm`Ìr H$m ñdê$n Bg
àH$ma h¡(1) JmoÌ-gm§»`m`Z,(2) dU©-32,(3) nmX-4, (4) Aja 24,(5) Hw${j-8 {Xem`|nyd©, X{jU, npíM_, CÎma, D$Üd©, AY:, AÝV[aj, AdmÝVaŸ&(6) [ga-7-ì`mH$aU,
{ejm, H$ën, {Zéº$, Á`mo{Vf, B{Vhmg-nwamU, Cn{ZfX², (7) ê$n-nyd© gÝÜ`mJm`Ìr, _Ü`_m gm{dÌr, npíM_m gañdVr, (8) dof-Jm`Ìr ~mbm-aº$dUm© aº$dómŸ&
gm{dÌr-ído V dUm© Ÿ & gañdVr-H¥ $ îUdUm© Ÿ &(9) öX`={dîUw , {eIm=éÐ,
H$dM=~«÷m{XH$Ÿ&(10) _wI-5-(H$) ›, (I) ^y^w©d:ñd:, (J) VËg{dVwd©aoÊ`_²,
(K) ^Jm} Xodñ` Yr_{h, (L>) {Y`mo `mo Z: àMmo X`mV²Ÿ&& `m 4 doX + `kŸ& Jm`Ìr
Ho$ 5 _wI Ho$ àVrH$ h¢(1) 5 H$mof, (2) 5 kmZopÝÐ`, (3) 5 H$_}pÝÐ`, (4) 5 àmU, (5) 5 CnàmU,
(6) 5 VÝ_mÌm, (7) 5 {df`, (8) 5 _hm^yV, (9) 5 `k, (10) 5 AdñWm,

48
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
(11) 5 eyb, (12) 5 Šboe, (13) ^JdmZ² {ed Ho$ 5 _wI, (14) 5 AmH$me,
(15) 4 doX+ `k, Am{XŸ&
Jm`Ìr -`ÝÌ
Ho$ ^r 5 MH«$ h¢(1) {~ÝXw-AnXm Jm`Ìr -{dÝXw Ho$ gyú_ {d^mJ {~Zm nX Ho$ h¢, AY© _mÌm H$m {dÝXw
MVwW© nX h¡A_mÌíMVwW©: & (_mÊSy>Š` Cn.), AnX[g Z{h nÚgo, Z_ñVo Vwar `m` Xe©Vm`
nXm`Ÿ& (~¥hXmaÊ`H$ Cn.5/14/7)
AnmXo{V àW_m nÛVrZm_²Ÿ& (F$H²$.1/152/3),
AnmXJ«o g_^dV² &(AWd© 10/8/21)
A_m̧ Ëdm§ {YfUmpËdfo_{h & (F$H²$.1/102/7)
namo _mÌ`m VÝdm d¥YmZ Z Vo _{hËd_ÝdíZwdpÝV& (F$H²$.7/99/1)
(2) {ÌH$moU _| 3 doX, 3 ì`mö{V, 3 ^wdZ, 3 XodVm, 3 AmË_m H$s Á`mo{V, 3 H$aU,
3 e{º$ h¢Ÿ&
(3) fQ²> H$moU- 6 Hw${jŸ-4 {Xem, D$Üd©, AY:Ÿ& AmnñVå~ J¥ø-gyÌ n[a{eï> _|
fS>“-Ý`mg _ÝÌ Ho$ 6 IÊS>m| Ho$ AZwgma h¡VËg{dVw:, daoÊ`§, ^Jm} Xodñ`, Yr_{h, {Y`mo `moZ:, àMmoX`mV²Ÿ&
(4) Aï> Xb H$_b-8 {Xem-AdmÝVa {XemŸ& Aï>_y{Îm© {edŸ, Aï>mnXr dmH²$dmM_ï>mnXr_h§ Zdò{º$_¥V ñn¥e_²Ÿ& (F$H²$. 8/76/12)
Jm¡ar{_©_m` ...Aï>mnXr ZdnXr ~^ydwfr & (F$H²$.1/164/41)
(5) ^ynwa-Bg_| 8 {Xem _| 8 {XH²$nmb, 8 _mV¥H$m h¢Ÿ& 4 Ûma VWm 4 aoImAm| Am¡a
3 a§J H$s n{Å>`m| go ~ZVm h¡Ÿ& VrZ dU©-aº$-ewŠb-H¥$îU VrZ JwUm| Ho$ àVrH$ h¢AOm_oH$m§ bmo{hVewŠbH¥$îUm§...Ÿ&(ídoVmídVa Cn.4/5)
Jm`Ìr {ÌnXm fQ²> Hw${j: n#m erfu & (Vma Cn.15)
Jm`Ìr ahñ`mon[ZfX² _o ^r BZH$m dU©Z h¡Ÿ& 24 Aja gm§»` Xe©Z Ho$ 24 VÎd h¢,
25dm§ VÎd nwéf (~«÷) h¡Ÿ& BZHo$ 24 F${f, 24 e{º$ ^r d{U©V h¡Ÿ§&

2. Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©

49

- H$Um| H$m g_yh JU h¡-Bg ê$n _| {díd H$m Xe©Z
JUoe h¡Ÿ& CgH$m na_ H$maU ê$n àd½`© h¡, Omo ^mJ g¥{ï> H$m`© _| bJm, dh ~«÷m¡XZ
h¡Ÿ& àd½`© hr AWd© (19/7) _| CpÀN>ï> H$hm J`m h¡-Bgr H$mo B©emdmñ`mon{ZfX² _|VoZ Ë`ºo$Z ^wÄOrWm:-H$hm J`m h¡ & ~«m÷U J«ÝWm| _| _hmdra-H$å_©, {N>Þerf© `mJ
Am{X hmoVo h¢Ÿ& CpÀN>ï> ^mJ 3 nmX VWm g¥ï> {díd 1 nmX h¡-nmXmo@ñ` {díd ^yVm{Z
{ÌnmXñ`m_¥V_² {X{dŸ& (nwéf-gyº$-3)Ÿ& Jm`Ìr H$m àW_ nX dh _yb òï>m CpÀN>ï>JUn{V h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ {~Zm H$moB© g¥{ï> Zht hmoVr{ZfwgrX JUnVo JUofw Ëdm_mhþ{d©àV_§ H$drZm_²Ÿ&
Z F$Vo ËdV² {H«$`Vo qH$MZmao _hm_Hª$ _Kd{ÄMÌ_M©Ÿ&(F$H²$10/112/9)
JUoe H$m ^J©-ê$n g¥ï> OJV² _| H$B© ñVa H$m h¡Ÿ& BÝh| _éV² ê$n _| éX« H$m nwÌ
H$hm J`m hŸ¡& (F$H²$ 8/20){dÙm {h é{Ð`mUm§ ...(3) `Wm éÐñ` gyZdmo ...(17)
Ñí` OJV² _| _éV² hr JUoe h¢-JUoemo {h _éV:Ÿ& (VmÊS>ç _hm ~«m.19/14/2)
_éVmo JUmZm§ nV`:& (V¡{Îmar` ~«m. 3/11/4/2)
AmH$me-J“m `m na_oð>r Ho$ ê$n _| `o new (g¥{ï>), AÞ (gm¡a _ÊS>b H$m {Z_m©Vm),
àmU, BÝX« H$m {de (àOm), XodVmAm| go ~‹S>o (^y{`ð>), 7-7 _éV² IÊS> Am{X h¢gá-gá {h _méVm JUm:Ÿ& (dm.`Ow. 17/80-85,39/7)-eVnW ~«m.(9/
3/1/25)
_éVmo d¡ XodmZm§ ^y{`ð>m: &(VmÊS>ç _hm ~«m.14/12/9,21/14/3; V¡{Îmar`
~«m.2/7/10/1)
_éVmo d¡ XodmZm§ {de:Ÿ& (EoVao¶ ~«m.1/9, VmÊS>ç.6/10/10, 18/1/14)
AÞ§ d¡ _éV:Ÿ& (V¡{Îmar` ~«m.1/7/3/5,1/7/5/2,1/7/7/3)
nedmo d¡ _éV: &(EoVao` ~«m.3/19); àmUm d¡ _méVm: &(eVnW ~«m.9/3/
1/7) BÝÐñ` d¡ _éV:& (H$m¡frV{H$ ~«m.5/4)
17. JUn{V-H$m{Îm©H$o `

50
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
`h na_oð>r _ÊS>b Ho$ XodVm h¢-AW¡Z §(BÝÐñ`) D$Üdm©`m§ {X{e _éVíMm{“agíM

Xodm: ...Aä`{f#mZ² ... nma_oîR>çm` _hm amÁ`m`m@@{YnË`m` ñdm
dí`m`m@@{Vð>m`Ÿ& (EoVao` ~«m.8/14)
na_oð>r H$m AmH$ma 49 AhJ©U (n¥Ïdr H$m 46 ~ma 2 JwUm) h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ ~mX _hmdra
h¡Ÿ& AV: na_oð>r H$m _éV² {d^mJ JUn{V VWm CgHo$ ~mha ñd`å^y _ÊS>b _hmJUn{V h¡Ÿ& BZ g^r aMZmAm| H$m AmYma VÎd JUn{V h¡Ÿ& gm¡a dm`w VWm YamY[aÌr-YaUr ê$n _| n¥Ïdr JUn{V h¡Ÿ& Cg KZ ê$n H$s à{Vð>m _yfH$ h¡, Omo n¥Ïdr
Ho$ ^rVa ahVm h¡Ÿ& Bg KZ àmU H$s àm{á Ho$ {b`o Myho Ho$ {~b H$s {_Å>r (AmIwH$arf)
H$m g§J«h hmoVm h¡-

AW AmIwH$arf§ gå^a{VŸ& AmIdmo (_yfH$m:) h dm Añ`¡ n¥{Wì`¡ ag§ (KZm{¾
ag§) {dXw:Ÿ& (eVnW ~«m.2/1/7)
AmÜ`mpË_H$ ê$n _| _ybmYma Ho$ ñWmZ _| _yb J«pÝW ê$n _| JUoe h¡Ÿ&
JUoe H$U-g_yh ê$n _| ~«÷ h¢, Vmo AÝ` éÐ-nwÌ H$m{Îm©Ho$` gw~«÷ h¢Ÿ& ~«÷ AbJAbJ ê$n h¢, CZH$m ñdoX (= gwdoX `m gw~«÷) Ûmam {_bZ H$m{Îm©Ho$` h¡dm½d¡ ~«÷ M gw~«÷ Mo{VŸ& (EoV.~«m.6/3)Ÿ&
~«÷lr d£ Zm_¡VËgm_ `Ëgw~«÷Ê`m & (fS²>qde ~«m.1/2)

› ~«÷ h dm BX_J« AmgrV²Ÿ&... _hÛ¡ `j§ VXoH$_odmpñ_, {ÛVr`§ Xod§
{Z_©_... gÝVáñ` bbmQ>o ñZohmo AOm`V .. `j§ gwdoX_²-A{dXm_h Ÿ&...EV§
gwdoX§ gÝV§ ñdoX BË`mMjVo&Ÿ (JmonW ny.1/1)
AbJ-AbJ H$U ~«÷ h¢, CZHmo {_bm H$a EH$ ê$n H$s H$ënZm gw~«÷Ê` h¡Ÿ&
gw~«÷Ê` {b{n V{_b _| ñne© dJ© Ho$ àW_ 4 dU© EH$ ê$n h¢, O¡go H$ go K VH$Ÿ&
g^r aMZm`| H$Um| H$m g_yh h¢-_Zwî` H$mo{fH$mAm| H$m g_yh h¡, na Cgo {_bmH$a h_
EH$ hr ê$n _| XoIVo h¡Ÿ& Ka, Jm‹S>r Am{X g^r AUwAm| H$o g_yh h¢, na CZH$m {dMma
{_{bV ê$n _| hr h¡Ÿ& 6 àH$ma Ho$ {dídm| H$m {_bZ H$m{Îm©Ho$` h¢-fmÊ_mVwa: (A_aH$mof

2. Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 15 AW©
51
1/1), V{_b _| fÊ_wI_², Aé_wJ_² Am{XŸ& _Zwî` eara _| 6 MH«$m| H$m ^oXZ
H$m{Îm©Ho$` h¡Ÿ&
-doX-_mVm Zm_ H$m gyº$ AWd© (19/71) h¡-

18. doX-_mVm

ñVwVm _`m daXm doX_mVm à MmoX`ÝVm§ nmd_mZr {ÛOmZm_²Ÿ&
Am`w: àmU§ àOm§ new§ H$s{Vª Ð{dU§ ~«÷dM©g_²Ÿ& _ht XÎdm ~«OV ~«÷bmoH$_²Ÿ&
_h{f© X¡damV Zo dmL²>_mVm ê$n _| F$H²$ (10/114/4) H$mo _mZm h¡-

EH$: gwnU©: g g_wÐ_m{ddoe, g BX§ {díd§ ^wdZ§ {d Mï>oŸ&
V§ nmHo$Z _Zgmní`_pÝVVñV§, _mVm aopùh g C aopùh _mVa_² Ÿ&&
_mVm eãX _m YmVw ( _mL²> _mZo, eãXo M- nm.YmVw.2/55, 3/6, 4/33) go
~Zm h¡Ÿ& eãX AmH$me H$m JwU h¡-Cgr go g^r H$r CËn{Îm h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ _m`m Ûmam IÊS>
hmoZo na BZgo _mn hmoVr h¡Ÿ& _mn-nmÌ go Ðd H$s _mn h¡, _mVm Ho$ eara go ^r nwÌ
{ZH$bVm h¡, _mn H$aZo dmbr ^r _mVm h¡Ÿ& _mn Ho$ AmdaU go ~mha H$m ê$n Zht
XrIVm-AV: _m`m H$m AW© ^«_ ^r h¡Ÿ& Jm`Ìr BZ ê$nm| _| doX_mVm h¡-bmoH$m| H$s _mn,
gm§»` Ho$ 25 VÎdm| Ho$ ê$n _| OJV², {díd H$o IÊS>m| Ho$ ê$n _o Ÿ& AWd© gyº$ _| _hr
go ~«÷ bmoH$ VH$ H$s _mn, Am`w, àmU, àOm, new, H$s{Îm©, Ð[dU AWm] _o CëboI h¡Ÿ&
F$H²$ gyº$ Ho$ gmW XoIZo go Ð{dU (Ð{d‹S>) joÌ _| gwnU© Zo g_wÐ _| àdoe {H$`m VWm
Cg joÌ H$m _mVm Ho$ g_mZ nmbZ {H$`mŸ& Zm¡ goZm-à_wI H$mo gwnU© (gwdÞm) Zm`H$
H$hm OmVm Wm, ^y{_-nmbH$ (aopùh) H$mo AmÝY«-àXoe _| ao{È> VWm _hmamï´> _| ao{b
`m aobo H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& gwnU© Zo Ohm§ g_wÐ _| àdoe {H$`m, Cgo (gw-)Vm_«nUu
(am_oída_²) VWm CgHo$ {ZH$Q H$m g_wÐ nmH$ (nmHo$Z _Zgm Aní`_²) H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
Amo{‹S>em ‘| nmH$ eãX H$m ì¶mnH$ ê$n ‘| ì¶dhma hmoVm h¡, nH$mZm H$m AW© ^moOZ
nH$mZm ha OJh h¡ & {H$ÝVw ^moOZ ‘| H$moB© gm‘J«r S>mbZm ^r nH$mZm H$hVo h¢ &
gwnU© Ho$ g_wÐ-ê$n _`ya Ûmam H$m{Îm©Ho$` Zo àemÝV _hmgmJa na A{YH$ma {H$`m Wm,
dhm§ Ho$ g^r Ûrnm| Ho$ {Zdmgr VWm ^mfm _mAmoar h¡Ÿ& gw~«ô_Ê`-{b{n V{_b g_wÐ
(gwdoX-joÌ) Ho$ {b`o WrŸ, AV: BgH$m àMma A_o[aH$m _| WmŸ& H$Um©Q>H$ Ho$ _mÊS>çm

52
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
{Obo Ho$ S>m°. doUwJmonmbmMm`© Zo Bgo H$Þ‹S> _yb H$m à_m{UV {H$`m h¡Ÿ(World-Wide
Hindu Culture and Vaishnava Bhakti)Ÿ&
gånyU© {díd hr doX H$hm J`m h¡-5 ndm] Ho$ AbJ-AbJ ê$n doX-nwéf h¢Ÿ& CZH$m
eãX ê$n Xodr h¡-

eãXmpË_H$m§ gw{d_b½`©Owfm§ {ZYmZ_wÒrW aå`nXnmR>dVm§ M gmåZm_²Ÿ&
(XwJm©gáeVr, 4/10)
XmoZm| àH$ma Ho$ doXm| H$m {Z‘m©U ñWb Jm¶Ìr h¡(1) AmH$me ‘| bmoH$mo§ H$s ‘mn Jm¶Ìr N>ÝX Ûmam h¡& ‘Zwî¶ go Amaå^ H$a g^r ~‹S>o
bmoH$ H«$‘e: 1 H$mo{Q> JwUm ~‹S>o h¢-n¥Ïdr, gm¡a-‘ÊS>b H$s n¥Ïdr (‘¡Ìo¶ ‘ÊS>b),na‘oîR>r
¶m AmH$me-J“m, ñd¶å^y ¶m nyU© OJV²& 1 H$mo{Q> JwUm H$m AW© 24 ~ma 2 JwUm H$aZm
h¡, AV: 24 Aja H$m Jm¶Ìr N>ÝX bmoH$m| H$s ‘mn h¡& BÝht ‘| g¥pîQ> hþ¶r h¡, AV:
bmoH$ ê$nr doXm| H$s ‘mVm Jm¶Ìr h¡&
(2) eãX ê$nr doX ñd¶§ Xodr ¶m Jm¶Ìr ñdê$n h¢& eãXm| H$m CÀMmaU 8 ^mJm| ‘| h¡,
Aja ‘| A{YH$V‘ 8 dU© hmo gH$Vo h¡ & AW© AZwgma àm¶: 8 Aja Ho$ N>ÝX h¢, 3nmX
Ho$ Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ ‘| 24 Aja h¢& àm¶: 4 nmX ‘| 32 Aja Ho$ AZwîQw>n² N>ÝXm| H$m A{YH$
à¶moJ h¡ &
(3) Jm¶Ìr Ho$ 24 Aja (N>ÝX ¶m ‘ÝÌ ‘|) gm§»¶ Xe©Z Ho$ 24 VÎd h¢, {OZgo {díd
H$m {Z‘m©U hþAm h¡& Bg AW© ‘| g§gma H$mo ^y H$hm J¶m h¡- ^ 24 dm§ Aja VWm 24
g§»¶m H$m ~moYH$ h¡& gr‘m Ho$ ^rVa H$m {díd ^y{‘ h¡ & CgH$m à^md-joÌ ¶m gm‘
^y‘m h¡& nwéf gyº$ ‘| ^y{‘ H$m AW© {díd h¡g ^yq‘ {dídVmo d¥Îdm@˶{ÎmîR>Ôem“xb‘² &&
Á¶mo{Vf ‘| ^ H$m AW© ZjÌ h¡, Omo 27 h¢, na Zm‘ Ho$ AZwgma 24 hr h¢& 3 ZjÌm|
Ho$ nyd© VWm CÎma 2-2 ^mJ h¢&
(4) Jm¶Ìr Ho$ nmXmja g§»¶m 8 Ho$ AZwgma H$B© àH$ma H$s aMZm¶| ^r 8-8 h¢, {OZHo$
8 àH$ma àW‘ Aܶm¶ ‘| {XIm¶o J¶o h¢&

3. g¥pîQ> VWm Jm¶Ìr

53

Aܶm¶ 3

g¥pîQ> VWm Jm¶Ìr

-g¥pîQ> H$m Amaå^ eyݶ go hþAm & ¶h 춺$ Zht Wm, AV: Bgo
AgV² H$hm J¶m h¡ & {H$ÝVw Bg‘| {Z‘m©U Ho$ {b¶o g^r gm‘J«r Wr, AV: Bgo gV² ^r
H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡& ¶hr ZmgXr¶ gyº$ ‘| ^r H$hm J¶m h¡Zm gXmgrÝZmo gXmgrV² ZmgrÐOmo Zmo ì¶mo‘m namo ¶V²&
{H$‘mdard: Hw$h H$ñ¶ e‘©ÝZå^: {H$‘mgrX² JhZ§ J^ra‘²&1&
(g¥pîQ> Ho$ Amaå^ ‘|) Z gV² Wm, Z AgV², Cg g‘¶ Z bmoH$ (aO)Wm, Z ì¶mo‘ go
nao Hw$N> Wm& Cg g‘¶ g~H$m AmdaU ³¶m Wm, H$hm§ {H$gH$m Al¶ (e‘©Z² =M‘‹S>m,
Imob) Wm ? AJmY Am¡a Jå^ra Ob ³¶m Wm?
Z ‘¥Ë¶wamgrX‘¥V§ Z V{h© Z amͶm AôZ AmgrV² àHo$V:&
AZrXdmV§ ñdY¶m VXoH§$ Vñ‘mÕmݶÝZ na: qH$ MZmg &2&
Cg g‘¶ Z ‘¥Ë¶w Wr, Z A‘¥V Wm. am{Ì VWm {XZ ñnîQ> (àHo$V) Zht Wo (gy¶© Ho$
A^md ‘|)& dm¶w Ho$ A^md ‘| EH$‘mÌ ~«÷ AnZr e{º$ go ñd¶§ ídmg bo ahm Wm&
Cggo nao ¶m {^ÝZ H$moB© dñVw Zht Wr& 2&
V‘ AmgrV² V‘gm Jyùh‘J«o@àHo$V§ g{bb§ gd© ‘m BX‘² &
VwÀN²>¶oZmäd{n{hV§ ¶XmgrV² VngñVÝ‘{hZm Om¶V¡H$‘² &3&
nhbo V‘ (AÝYH$ma) Wm, dh Am¡a Jy‹T> AÝYH$ma go T>§H$m Wm & AñnîQ> (AàHo$V) Xem
‘| Mmam| Va’$ g{bb Wm& Omo Hw$N> (Am^y) Wm, dh VwÀN>ç go {Kam Wm& dh g^r EH$
~«÷ Ho$ Vn H$s ‘{h‘m go Wm &3&
H$m‘ñVXJ«o g‘dV©Vm{Y ‘Zgmo aoV: àW‘§ ¶XmgrV² &
gVmo ~ÝYw‘g{V {Za{dÝXZ² ö{X àVrî¶m H$d¶mo ‘Zrfm &4&
g~go nhbo ~«÷ Zo g¥pîQ> H$s BÀN>m (H$m‘) H$s & Cg ‘Z go nhbo ~rO ¶m {dÝXþ
(aoV) hþAm& V~ H${d¶m| Zo ~w{Õ H$mo öX¶ ‘| Ho$pÝÐV H$a AgV² (A춺$ ¶m AñnîQ>
~«÷) go ~ÝY Ûmam gV² H$m {Z‘m©U {H$¶m&4&
{VaíMrZmo {dVVmo apí‘aofm‘Y: pñdXmgr3Xþn[apñdXmgr3V² &
aoVmoYm AmgZ² ‘{h‘mZ AmgZ² ËñdYm AdñVmV² à¶{V: nañVmV² &5&
BZ aoV H$Um| go {VaN>r {H$aU| ZrMo VWm D$na g^r {XemAm| ‘| ’¡$bt& aoV YmaU H$aZo
dmbo ({nÊS> ¶m A{Ynwéf) H$s ‘{h‘m (gm‘ ¶m à^md) Wm& Cggo CgZo ñd¶§ H$mo
YmaU {H$¶m (ñdYm) VWm Aݶm| VH$ à^md ’¡$bm¶m& 5&
H$mo AÕm doX Bh à dmoMV² Hw$V AmOmVm Hw$V B¶§ {dg¥pîQ>: &
Adm©½Xodm Añ¶ {dgO©ZoZm @Wm H$mo doX ¶V Am~^yd &6&
1. eyݶ go Amaå^

54
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
Bgo H$m¡Z OmZ gH$Vm h¡ ¶m BgH$m ì¶m»¶m H$a gH$Vm h¡ {H$ ¶h {dg¥pîQ> (g¥pîQ> Ho$
{d{dY ê$n) H$hm§ go Am¶r VWm H¡$go {d{dY ê$nr hþ¶r& XodVm ^r Bg g¥pîQ> Ho$ ~mX
hr n¡Xm hþ¶o h¢, AV: ¶h H$hm§ go CËnÝZ hþ¶r ¶h H$m¡Z OmZVm h¡?
B¶§ {dg¥pîQ>¶©V Am~^yd ¶{X dm XYo ¶{X dm Z &
¶mo Añ¶mܶj: na‘o ì¶mo‘Z² Ëgmo A“ doX ¶{X dm Z doX &7&
¶h {dg¥pîQ> {Oggo n¡Xm hþ¶r dh Bgo YmaU H$aVm h¡ ¶m Zht& Omo BgH$m Aܶj na‘
ì¶mo‘ ‘| h¡ dh ^r BZ A“m| H$mo OmZVm h¡ ¶m Zht&7&
(F$½doX 10/129/1-7, V¡{Îmar¶ ~«m÷U 2/8/9/3, eVnW ~«m÷U 10/5/
3/2)
2. g¥pîQ> Ho$ {d{dY {dMma-Bg gyº$ ‘| 10 àH$ma Ho$ d¡H$pënH$ {dMma h¢ {OZgo
g¥pîQ> hþ¶r& BgHo$ AmYma na npÊS>V ‘YwgyXZ AmoPm Zo XedmX ahñ¶ {bIm VWm
AbJ-AbJ dmXm| na ñdVÝÌ nwñVH|$ ^r {bIt& ~«÷m Ho$ nyd© gmܶ ¶wJ ‘| ¶o 10 dmX
àM{bV Wo {OgH$m CëboI nwéf gyº$ Ho$ ApÝV‘ íbmoH$ ‘| {H$¶m J¶m h¡¶koZ ¶k‘¶OÝV XodmñVm{Z Y‘m©{U àW‘mݶmgZ²&
Vo h ZmH§$ ‘{h‘mZ: gMÝV ¶Ì nyd} gmܶm: gpÝV Xodm:&
(nwéf gyº$ 16, F$J² doX 10/90/16, dmOgZo¶r g§{hVm 1/16){dkmZ H$s
n¥ð>^y{_ ê$n _| B{Vd¥ÎmdmX (g¥{ï> H$m dmñV{dH$ H«$_) VWm {ZîH$f© ê$n _| {gÕmÝV dmX
{_bmH$a AhmoamÌdmX J«ÝW Ho$ AÝV _| 12 dmXm| H$s JUZm H$s h¡B{Vd¥Îm§ gXgX² dm aOmo {d¶X² dmna§ VWmdaU_²Ÿ&
Aå^mo@_¥V_¥Ë¶y dm@hmoamÌmo X¡dg§e¶mo ~«÷Ÿ&&
EVo ÛmXe dmXm: emóo@pñ_Z² ~«÷{dkmZoŸ&
1. B{Vd¥ÎmdmX, 2. gXgÛmX, 3. aOmodmX, 4. ì¶mo‘dmX, 5. AnadmX, 6. AmdaUdmX,
7. Aå^modmX, 8. A_¥V-_¥Ë¶wdmX, 9. AhmoamÌdmX, 10. X¡ddmX, 11. g§e¶dmX,
12. {gÕmÝVdmXŸ&
n§. _moVrbmb emór, dmgwXod eaU AJ«dmb, n§. {J[aYa e_m© Am{X Ho$ gmam§em| Ho$
AZwgma 10 dmXm| H$m g§{já n[aM¶ Bg àH$ma h¡1. gXgÛmX-gV² H$m AW© h¡ XrIZodmbm ¶m AZw^d hmoZo bm‘H$Ÿ& AZw^d gr_m Ho$
nao AgV² h¡-A{V gyú_, {ZamH$ma, A{VXya, àH$me hrZ Am{XŸ& AWd©doX Ho$ ñH$å^gyº$ (10/7/21-25) _| BZH$mo gV² Am¡a AgV² emIm H$hm J¶m h¡Ÿ& eVnW
~«m.(6/1/1/1) Ho$ AZwgma g¥pîQ> H$m _yb F${f AgV² àmU h¡Ÿ&

3. g¥pîQ> VWm Jm¶Ìr
55
V¡{Îmar¶ Cn.(2/7/1) _| ^r-AgÛm BX_J« AmgrV²Ÿ& VVmo gXOm¶VŸ& _Zwñ_¥{V(3/
201) _| AgV² F${f go g¥{ï> H«$_ h¡F${fä¶: {nVamo OmVm: {nV¥ä¶mo XodXmZdm:Ÿ& Xodoä¶íM OJËgdª Ma§ ñWÊdZwnyd©e:Ÿ&&
¶hr _V F$H²$ (1/9/5) _| h¡-Ag{XÎmo {d^w à^w:Ÿ& Eogm ‘V F$H²$ (9/8/86,
10/72/3) VWm V¡{Îmar¶ ~«m÷U (2/2/9) _| ^r h¡Ÿ& EH$ Aݶ {dMma h¡ {H$
gV² H$s CËn{Îm AgV² go Zht hmo gH$Vr, _yb ^r gV² hmoZm Mm{h¶o-¶mo Z: {nVm ¶mo
O{ZVm {dYmVm, ¶mo Z: gVmo Aä¶m gÁOOmZ (V¡{Îmar¶ g§.4/6/2/3)&
F$H²$ (1/96/7, 8/101/11,9/31/6,9/86/5,10/53/1), V¡{Îmar¶
Cn.(2/6) ^rŸ g¥{ï> _| n[adV©Z Am¡a pñWaVm XmoZm| XrIVo h¢, AV: gV²-AgV² ¶w½_
_yb h¡-gVíM ¶mo{Z_gVíM {díd: (dm.¶Ow. 13/3)Ÿ&
eVnW ~«m÷U (10/4/1) _| ^rŸ&
gXgÛmX J«ÝW H$s ^y{_H$m _| n§. _YwgyXZ AmoPm Zo BZ 3 dmXm| Ho$ 7 àH$ma Ho$ {d_em]
Ûmam 21 ^oX ~Vm¶o h¢, Omo g^r Xe©Zm| H$m _yb h¡{d_e©
gV²/AgV²/gXgV²-dmX
_V
1. à˶¶
{Z˶{dkmZmۡV
~«m÷U
j[UH${dkmZmÛ¡V
l_UH$
AmZÝX{dkmZmÛ¡V
d¡km{ZH$
2. àH¥${V
H$å_m©Û¡V
d¡Zm{eH$
~«÷mÛ¡V
A{dZm{eH$
Û¡VmÛ¡V
d¡Zm{eH$dmX{dZm{e
3. VmXm茦
{^Þm{^ÞËd
Yå_m©Yå_u ag-~b H$m A^oX
~bgmaËd
~b H$s àYmZVm
aggmaËd
agàmYmݶ
4. A{^H$m¶©
AgËH$m¶©dmX
d¡eo{fH$
gËH$m¶©dmX
àmYm{ZH$
{_϶mH$m¶©dmX
emaraH$
5. JwU
AgÝ_ybmg¥{ï>
àmU_ybH$g¥{ï>
gÝ_ybmg¥{ï>
dmL²>_ybH$g¥{ï>
gXgX¡H$mËå¶_ybmg¥{ï>
_Zmo‘ybH$g¥{ï>

56
6. gm_ÄOñ¶

Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
àmJ^mdg_wpÀMVH$maUdmX
A^mdnyd©H$^mdmoËn{Îm
gå^y{V{dZmedmX
CËn{Îm{dZmeàdmh
{dÚm-A{dÚmdmX
gd©OJX^mdmË_H$^md_ybH$g¥{ï>
7.Aja
gm¡JV
g¥{ï>~rOñ¶mjañ¶m춺$ ~bê$nËd
H${nb
g¥{ï>~rOñ¶mjañ¶ O‹S> àYmZê$nËd
~mXam¶U
g¥{ï>~rOñ¶mjañ¶ MoVZnwéfê$nËd
2. aOmodmX-aO H$m AW© Yy{b H$U, J{V, YZ Am{X h¡Ÿ& g^r bmoH$(AH$meJ§Jm,
Vmam, ¶m J«h) Yy{b H$Um| Ho$ g_mZ AmH$me _| {dMaU H$a aho h¢Ÿ, AV: CÝh| ^r aO
H$hm J¶m h¡-aOm§{g d¡ bmoH$m: (dm.¶Ow. 11/6, eVnW ~«m. 6/3/1/18)Ÿ& J{V
Ûmam hr g§gma H$r aMZm hþ¶r h¡Ÿ& àH¥${V Ho$ 3 JwUm| _| gËd kmZ h¡, V_moJwU O‹S> h¡,
Ho$db {H«$¶merb aOmoJwU Ûmam hr g¥{ï> hmo gH$Vr h¡Ÿ& aOmodmX Ho$ g_W©H$ dm³¶¶: nm{W©dm{Z [d__o g EVemo aOm§{g Xod: g{dVm _{hËdZm (F$H²$.5/81/3)Ÿ&
VrZ YmVw-AH©$póYmVw aOgmo {d_mZ:(F$H²$.3/26/7)
{d dV}Vo aOgr (F$H²$.6/9/1)Ÿ& Aݶ h¢-F$H²$(1/164/6,14; 1/35/2,9;
10/32/2), eVnW ~«m.(6/3/18)Ÿ&
3. ì¶mo‘dmX-gyú_ AmH$me hr g¥{ï> H$m _yb h¡Ÿ& ì¶mo‘ H$m AW© Á¶mo{Vf _| eyݶ
hmoVm h¡Ÿ& na_ ì¶mo‘ g¥pîQ> H$m _yb ê$n ¶m Aja h¡-F$Mmo Ajao na_o ì¶mo‘Z²
(F$H²$.1/164/39)Ÿ& BgHo$ ghò ê$n ~ZVo h¢-ghòmjam na_o ì¶mo‘Z² (F$H²$.1/
164/41)Ÿ& ¶h AmYma h¡-^Jmo Z ‘oZo na_o ì¶mo‘Þ AmYma¶ÐmoXgr gwX§gm: (F$H²$.
1/62/7)Ÿ& Aݶ-F$H²$(1/143/2; 10/129/7; 6/8/2)
4. AnadmX-na H$m AW© h¡ AmË_m, Am¡a Ana àH¥${V h¡Ÿ& BZ XmoZm| go CËnÞ hmoZo
Ho$ H$maU Bgo na-Ana dmX ^r H$hVo h¢Ÿ& ^m¡{VH$ OJV² àmH¥${VH$ h¡, AV: BgH$m
CX²J_ ^r àH¥${V go hr h¡Ÿ& àH¥${V H$mo ñd^md, {Z¶{V (n[aUm_ dmX), ¶ÑÀN>m
(AmH$pñ_H$) ^r H$hVo h¢Ÿ& àH¥${V Ho$ _hmZ², Ah§H$ma Am{X ê$nm| go g¥{ï> H$m dU©Z
gm§»¶ H$m {df¶ h¡Ÿ& Añ¶-dm_r¶ gyº$ (F$H²$.1/164/17-19) _| na-Ana Ûmam
g¥{ï> H$m dU©Z h¡Ÿ& Aݶ-H¥$Umo{V nyd© na§ eMr{^:(F$H²$.6/47/15)Ÿ& H$m¶©-H$maU
H$m A^oX eVnW ~«m.(6/1/2/27) _| g_Pm¶m h¡-C^¶§ h¡VX²^d{V-{nVm M
nwÌíMŸ& àOmn{VíMm{¾íM, A{¾íM àOmn{VíM, àOmn{VíM XodmíM, XodmíM
àOmn{VíMŸ& Aݶ-F$H²$.(10/18/5),(8/27/14) Am{XŸ&

3. g¥pîQ> VWm Jm¶Ìr
57
5. AmdaUdmX-AmdaU H$m AW© h¡ nXmW© H$m ~mø ê$nŸ& AmdaU H$mo d¶wZ Hhm J¶m
h¡Ÿ& {d{^Þ VÎdm| Ho$ nañna {_bZ H$mo d¶Z (dó ~wZZm) H$hVo h¢-d¶m§{g VX²
ì¶mH$aU§ {d[M̧ _Zw‘©Zrfm _ZwOmo {Zdmg:-^mJdV nwamU (2/1/36)
d¶wZ ¶m AmdaU N>ÝX h¡-¶h Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn h¡; Bgo Aܶm¶ 2 _| g_Pm¶m J¶m
h¡Ÿ& AmdaU go T>§H$m nXmW© d¶moZmY h¡, VWm Cgo ~mÝYZo dmbm àmU d¶ h¡ (eVnW
~«m. 8/2/2/8)Ÿ& AV: d¶ H$m AW© Am¶w ^r h¡Ÿ& AmdaU ¶m N>ÝX _m¶m h¡-Bggo
^rVar nXmW© {N>n OmVm h¡, AV: _m¶m H$m AW© ^«‘ h¡Ÿ& _m¶m go g¥{ï> hmoZo go ‘h
_mVm h¡Ÿ& AmdaU H$mo M_© ¶m e_© (eVnW.3/2/1/8) ^r H$hm J¶m h¡& _m¶m
ê$nr V_ go g¥{ï>-V_ AgrÎm_gmJyùh_J«o (F$H²$ 10/129/3)
Aݶ-F$H²$-(1/143/6;1/55/8;2/87/4;9/74/2), _Zwñ_¥{V (1/21)Amgr{XX§ V_mo^yV_àkmV_bjU_²Ÿ& AàV³¶©‘{ZXo©í¶§ àgwá{_d gd©V:Ÿ&
6. Aå^modmX-g¥{ï> H$m _yb nXmW© g_ê$n hmoZo go ag (V¡{Îmar¶ Cn.2/7/2) ¶m
An² H$hm J¶m h¡Ÿ& Bg_| H$ånZ hmoZo go ¶h Aå^ h¡, Cg_| bha AmZo go g{bb, CËnÞ
nXmW© Ðßg (drops) ¶m ~wb~wbm h¡Ÿ& _yb go {ZH$bZo Ho$ H$maU ¶h ñH$ÝX ¶m À¶wV
h¡Ÿ& An² H$m {dñVma g_wÐ h¡, {OgHo$ ê$n Z^ñdmZ², gañdmZ², AU©d VWm CZH$m
Am{X˶ (Am{X H$aZodmbm) àmU A¶©‘m, déU, {_Ì VrZ Ym_m|-ñd¶å^y, na_oð>r, gm¡a
_ÊS>b-_| h¢Ÿ& g_wX« O¡gm {dñVma _mVm H$m J^© h¡, Cg_| {Z_m©U H$m Ho$ÝÐ {nVm h¡Ÿ&
Amnmo {hð>m _¶mo ^wd:(F$H²$. 10/9/1, dm. ¶Ow.11/50, 36/14),
à gw d Amnmo _{h_mZ_wÎm__² (F$H²$.10/75/1)Ÿ&
Aݶ-F$H²$.6/50/7; 1/100/1; eVnW 11/1/6/1; 1/1/1/14; 6/
1/1/8; 10/5/4/15; 10/5/4/14; 4/5/2/14Ÿ&
7. A_¥V-_¥Ë¶wdmX-ag ê$n ñWm¶r ¶m A_¥V h¡; Cggo CËnÞ g¥{ï> j{UH$ ¶m _¥Ë¶w
h¡Ÿ& A_¥V ag Ho$ g_wÐ go _wº$ hmoZo go ¶h _wÀ¶w h¡, {Ogo namoj _| _¥Ë¶w H$hm J¶m h¡
(JmonW ~«m.ny. 1/7)Ÿ& g^r g¥ï> nXmW© ja ¶m _¥Ë¶w VWm _yb òmoV A_¥V h¡-nmXmo@ñ¶
{dídm ^yVm{Z {ÌnmXñ¶m_¥V§ [X{d (nwéf gyº$ 3)Ÿ& gV² ^md ¶m _¥Ë¶w h¡; AgV² A^md
{H$ÝVw A_¥V h¡Ÿ& XmoZm| gmW-gmW ahVo h¢-AÝVa§ _¥Ë¶moa_¥V§ _¥Ë¶md_¥Vm_{hV_²(eVnW
10/5/2/4)Ÿ& {Zdoe¶Þ_¥V§ _˶©ÄM (dm.¶Ow. 34/31)& Aݶ-F$H²$ 1/83/5;
3/1/14; eV.(10/1/4/1)
8. AhmoamÌdmX-_yb A춺$ go 쑺$ H$s g¥{ï> ~«÷m H$m {XZ VWm CgH$m nwZ:

58
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
A춺$ _| brZ hmoZm am{Ì h¡-A춺$mX² 춺$¶: gd} à^dÝ˶hamJ_oŸ& amͶmJ_o
àbr¶ÝVo VÌ¡dm춺$$ g§kH$o (JrVm, 8/18Ÿ)Ÿ& {d{^Þ àH$ma Ho$ {Z_m©U MH«$ hr H$mb
H$s _mn h¢Ÿ& AWd© g§.(19/53,54) Ho$ Xmo gyº m| _| H$mb H$m {dñVma go dU©Z h¡Ÿ&
{Z_m©U {H«$¶m H$mo gå^y{V, gÄMa VWm b¶ H$mo Agå^y{V, à{VgÄMa Am{X ^r H$hVo
h¢Ÿ& BZH$m MH«$ Xe©-nyU©‘mg ¶k h¡-Xe© (A_mdmñ¶m) go ny{U©‘m VH$ MÝÐ Ho$ àH$m{eV
^mJ H$m {dñVma {Z_m©U VWm {dnarV H«$_ b¶ h¡Ÿ& ¶k _| Ap½Z (gr_m _| KZr^yV)
VWm gmo‘ ({dH$sU© nXmW©) H$m {_bZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& A{¾ _| [dñVma H$s àd¥{Îm A§{Jam VWm
gmo‘ Ho$ g§H$moM H$s àd¥{Îm ^¥Jw h¡Ÿ&
9. XoddmX-àmU e{º$ Ho$ ñVa XodVm h¢, CZH$m A춺$ A{Z¶{_V {dñVma Agwa
h¡Ÿ& àmU H$m KZr^yV Ho$ÝÐ gy¶© h¡-CgHo$ gm_ ‘m à^md-joÌ _| COm© Ho$ 33 ñVa 33
XodVm h¢ (Aܶm¶ 2)Ÿ& à{V Xod-joÌ _| 3 àH$ma Ho$ Agwa h¢-~b, Z‘w{M, d¥Ì-AWm©V²
99 AgwaŸ& Xodm| go g¥{ï> hmoVr h¡, Agwam| go ZhtŸ& AV: g¥ï> {díd 4 nmX _| 1 nmX h¡F${fä¶: {nVamo OmVm: {nV¥ä¶mo Xod-XmZdm:Ÿ&
Xodoä¶íM OJËgdª Ma§ ñWmÊdZwnyd©e:Ÿ&(_Zwñ_¥{V 3/201)
nmXmo@ñ¶ {dídm ^yVm{Z {ÌnmXñ¶m_¥V§ {X{d (nwéf gyº$, 3)
10. g§e¶dmX-H$B© àH$ma Ho$ dU©Zm| Ho$ H$maU g§gma Ho$ dmñV{dH$ ê$n Ho$ ~mao _|
gÝXoh ahVm h¡Ÿ& BgH$m {ZíM¶ Zht {H$¶m Om gH$Vm, ³¶m|{H$ Cg g_¶ Xod ^r CËnÞ
Zht hþ¶o WŸo & (ZmgXr‘ gyº$ $ 6,7) VH$© H$s gr_m H$o nma OmZo H$o H$maU ^r g§e¶
ahVm h¡-A{MÝ˶m: Ibw ¶o ^mdm Z Vm±ñVH}$U gmY¶oV²Ÿ&
àH¥${Vä¶: na§ ¶ñVw VX{MÝ˶ñ¶ bjU_²Ÿ&(_hm^maV ^rî_.5/12, dm¶w nwamU)
BZHo$ A{V[aº$ AmYma ê$n ({dkmZ-) B{Vd¥ÎmdmX Ho$ AZwgma {dkmZ Ûmam hr {díd
Ho$ {Z_m©U H$m H«$_ {ZYm©[aV hmoVm h¡Ÿ& _Zwî¶ ^r ¶k-{dkmZ Ûmam Hw$N> ^r ~Zm gH$Vm
h¡Ÿ& {dídm{_Ì Ûmam ~«÷m go ñdVÝÌ g¥{ï> H$m dU©Z nwamUm| _| AmVm h¡Ÿ& Ah§ Vm {díd§
MH$ma_² (F$H²$ 4/42/6) Aݶ-F$H²$ 10/49/1,9; 10/48/1,4; 10/19/
2; 10/184/3; 4/26/1 Am{X h¢Ÿ&
BZ g^r {gÕmÝVm| H$m g_Ýd¶ ~«÷-{gÕmÝV _| h¡Ÿ& Bg H$m {dñVma go n§. _YwgyXZ
AmoPm Zo ~«÷-{gÕmÝV _| dU©Z {H$¶m h¡, {OgH$s n§. {J[aYa e_m© MVwd}Xr Ûmam
g§ñH¥$V ì¶m»¶m hþ¶r VWm CgH$m {hÝXr AZwdmX CZHo$ nwÌ XodrXÎm MVwd}Xr Zo [H$¶m h¡
(amOñWmZ n{ÌH$m àH$meZ)Ÿ& BgHo$ AZwgma ~«÷ hr {díd H$m _yb òmoV, AmYma,

3. g¥pîQ> VWm Jm¶Ìr
59
CnH$aU, {Z_m©Vm g~ Hw$N> h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ 6 ñVa Ho$ {ddÎm© _m¶m Ûmam hmoVo h¢Ÿ& CgHo$ 4
nmX h¡-namËna, A춶, Aja, jaŸ&
3. eyݶ ¶m {dÝXþ Ho$ ñVa-{dÝXþ eãX Ho$ Xmo ê$n h¢-(1) {~ÝXþ-{~{X Ad¶do-g~go
N>moQ>o Ad¶d ¶m IÊS> Ho$ ê$n ‘| {~ÝXþ AmH$ma h¡Ob{~ÝXþ ànmVoZ H«$‘e: ny¶©Vo KQ>: &
g hoVw: gd©emñÌñ¶ Y‘©ñ¶ M YZñ¶ M& (nÄMVÝÌ)
{dñVr¶©Vo ¶emobmoH§$ V¡b{~ÝXþ{‘dmå^{g (‘Zwñ‘¥{V 7/33)
eyݶ AW©-Z amo‘H$m‘m¡K{‘fmÁO½H¥$Vm,
H¥$VmíM qH$ XÿfU eyݶ {~ÝXd: (Z¡fY M[aV 9/21)
(2) {dÝXþ-kmZ Ho$ÝÐ Ho$ ê$n ‘| AW©-{dX² kmZo + {dÝXþ[aÀNw>: B{V C à˶¶:, Zw‘² H$m
AmJ‘Z {ZnmV go&
(3) {dÝXþ H$m gmH$ma ê$n BÝXþ ¶m MÝÐ h¡ & BÝXþ-CZ{Îm ³boX¶{V MpÝÐH$¶m ^wdZ‘²
(CÝX² + C = AmXo[aÀM)-Omo AnZr MpÝÐH$m go g§gma H$mo Am߶m{¶V H$aVm h¡, dh
BÝXþ h¡& Bgr ì¶wËn{Îm go {ZKÊQw> (1/12) ‘| BÝXþ H$m AW© Ob VWm (3/17) ‘| ¶k
h¡&
{ed g§{hVm Ho$ AZwgma {dÝXþ, ZmX VWm ~rO H$s CËn{Îm H$m H«$‘ h¡{~ÝXþ: {edmË‘H$mo ~rO§ e{º$Zm©XñV¶mo{‘©V:&
g‘dm¶: g‘m»¶mV: gdm©J‘ {demaX¡:&&
gpÀMXmZÝX{d^dmV² gL²>H$ënmËna‘oídamV²&
AmgrÀN>{º$ñdVmo ZmXmo ZmXm{ÛÝXþ g‘wX²^d:&&
na e{º$‘¶: gmjmV² {ÌYmgm¡ {^ÚVo nwZ:&
{~ÝXþ ZmXmo ~rO{‘{V Vñ¶ ^oXm: g‘r[aVm:&&
am¡Ðr {~ÝXmoñVVmo ZmXmÁÁ¶oîR>m ~rOmXOm¶V&
dm‘m Vmä¶: g‘wËnÝZm: éÐ-~«÷m-a‘m{Ynm:&&
BÀN>m {H«$¶m VWm kmZ§ Jm¡ar ~«m÷r Vw d¡îUdr&&
{ÌYm e{º$: pñWVm ¶Ì VËna§ Á¶mo{Vamo{‘{V&&
¶moJ{eImon{ZfX² (6/70) ‘|{~ÝXþ ZmX H$bm ~«÷Z² {dîUw ‘hoe XodVm:&&

60
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
AÕ©‘mÌm pñWVm {Z˶m ¶mZwÀMm¶m© {deofV:&&(XþJm© gßVeVr 1/74)
~m~mOr lr eofmZZ Xmg, A{^am_ na_h§g Aml_, ^wdZoída Ûmam àMrZ VobwJy
naånam Ho$ AZwgma-AZmja eãX{dÝXw H¥$îU ñd`§ ê$n§ AÕ©{dÝXw ñdY{_©UrŸ& EH$ MVwWmªe ê$n§ {b»`Vo V§ gpÝZYmZ_²Ÿ&
{haÊ`J^© dXZm‘§>§ {ZåZ^mJoZ d{U©V_²Ÿ& EH$maÛ`_ngì`§ Xj^mJoZ CÔrn_²Ÿ&
{eamoXoeo {dÝXw g§`wº$_²-BX§ AZmja ñdê$n_²Ÿ&
ham{X EH$mja eãXàW_§ AY©{dÝXwíM¡d V¥Vr`mYª VpÝZåZ ñWmß`_²Ÿ&
^ygwa Á`oîR> dXZm‘>§ {ZåZ^mJoZ ñWm{nV_²Ÿ&
EH$maÛ`_ngì`§ X{jU {XeoZ d{V©V_²Ÿ& {eamo Xoeo {dÝXw g§`wº§$ BX§ ham{X EH$mja_²Ÿ&
› H$ma-àW_§ VmaH§$ M¡d {ÛVr`§ XÊS>_wÀ`VoŸ& V¥Vr`§ Hw$ÊS>bmH$ma§ MVwWª AY©MpÝÐH$_²Ÿ&
nÄM_§ {dÝXw g§`wº$§ nÄMm“ àUd bjU_²Ÿ&
‘yb eãX › Wm {OgHo$ 4 Ad¶d ‘mÊSy>³¶ Cn{ZfX² ‘| H$ho J¶o h¡&

A
C

AÕ©-‘mÌm
AÕ© ‘mÌm H$mo àm¶: {dÝXþ H$hm OmVm h¡, {H$ÝVw ¶h ZmX h¡ VWm Cgo 9 {dÝXþ H$m ¶moJ
H$hm J¶m h¡& BZH$m ‘yb ‘hm-{dÝXþ h¡ Omo H$ënZm go nao h¡-(1) {dÝXw, (2) AÕ©MÝÐ, (3) amo{YZr, (4) ZmX, (5) ZmXmÝV, (6) e{º$, (7) ì¶m{nH$m, (8)
g‘Zm, (9) CÝ‘Zr, (10) ‘hm{dÝXþ&
{dÝXþ AÕ©‘mÌm h¡& CgHo$ 8 ñVam| ‘| AZwZm{gH$ Üd{Z H$s ‘mÌm H«$‘e: AmYr hmo OmVr
h¡, {dÝXþ H$m 1/2 go CÝ‘Zr H$s 1/512 ‘mÌm& EH$ ‘V go 8 ñVam| Ho$ ~mX ^r 1/
512 ‘mÌm ~Mr ah OmVr h¡, {Ogo {ednwamU, C‘m g§{hVm, Aܶm¶ 23 ‘| VwL²>H$ma
H$hm J¶m h¡& ¶h 8 àH$ma Ho$ AZmhV ZmX Ho$ ~mX H$s pñW{V h¡& ApÝV‘ ‘yb
‘hm{dÝXþ A춺$ h¡& BgHo$ AZwê$n Akm MH«$ Ho$ D$na 8 ñVa h¢& Bgr Ho$ AZwgma
{ed, e{º$ VWm lr-MH«$ Ho$ 8-8 ì¶yh h¢&
{ed-H$mb, Hw$b, Zm‘, kmZ, {MÌ, ZmX, {~ÝXþ, H$bm, Ord&
e{º$-dm‘m, Á¶oîR>m, am¡Ðr, Apå~H$m, BÀN>m, kmZ, {H«$¶m, empÝV, nam&
lr MH«$-5 lrH$ÊR> ({ed) VWm 5 {ed¶wd{V¶m± (e{º$)==8 ‘yb {ÌH$moU&
Amkm VWm ghòma Ho$ ~rM Ho$ ñVa-

3. g¥pîQ> VWm Jm¶Ìr
61
{~ÝXþ, AÕ©MÝÐ, amo{YZr, ZmX, ZmXmÝV, ì¶m{nZr, g‘Zm, CÝ‘Zr& Amkm Ho$ D$a
{ÌHy$Q> {‘bmH$a 9 MH«$ hmoVo h¢&
{dÝXw go g¥pîQ> H$m H«$‘{dÝXþ ({ed) + ~rO (e{º$)
ZmX
{dÝXþ (ñnÝX H$m Ho$ÝÐ)
ZmXñnÝX
{dÝXw
~rO
ZmX
{ed (na {dÝXþ)
e{º$
gXmȦ {ed (ZmX)
B©ída ({dÝXþ)
ewÕ {dÚm ({dÝXþ)
ZmX Á¶oîR>m
~rO -dm‘m
{~ÝXþ -am¡Ðr
~«÷m-BÀN>m
{dîUw -{H«$¶m
éÐ-kmZ
~«m÷r-{H«$¶m
d¡îUdr-kmZ
Jm¡ar-BÀN>m
gy¶©- àmU
Ap½Z -{M{V
MÝÐ-‘Z
öëboIm Ho$ CÀMmaU hmoZo na AmZwZm{gH$ Üd{Z BZ 9 ñVam| go hmoVr hþ¶r CÝ‘Zr ‘|
g‘mßV hmo OmVr h¡&
{~ÝÛY©MÝÐ amo{Yݶmo ZmX ZmXmÝV eº$¶:& ì¶m{nH$m g‘Zmoݑݶ B{V ÛmXeg§h{V:&&
{~ÝÛmXrZm§ ZdmZm§ Vw g‘pîQ>Zm©X CÀ¶Vo& (d[adñ¶m ahñ¶‘²)
Amkm MH«$ Ho$ D$na Ho$ 9 ñVagwfwåZm¶¡ Hw$ÊS>{bݶ¡ gwYm¶¡ MÝБÊS>bmV²&
‘Zmoݑݶ¡ Z‘ñVw䶧 ‘hmeº$ç¡ {MXmË‘Zo&&3&&
gwfwåZm emå^dr e{º$: eofmËdo@ݶo {ZaW©H$m:&
öëboIo na‘mZÝXo Vmbw‘ybo ì¶dpñWVo&&8&&
AV D$Üd© {ZamoYo Vw ‘ܶ‘§ ‘ܶ ‘ܶ‘‘²&
CÀMma¶oV² nam eqº$ ~«÷aÝY« {Zdm{gZr‘² &&9&&
J‘mJ‘ñW§ J‘Zm{X eyݶ§ {MX² ê$n Xrn§ {V{‘amÝYZme‘² &

62
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
ní¶m{‘ V§ gd© OZmÝVañW§ Z‘m{‘ h§g§ na‘mË‘ê$n‘²&&20&&
AZmhVñ¶eãXñ¶ Vñ¶ eãXñ¶ ¶mo Üd{Z:&
ÜdZoaÝVJ©V§ Á¶mo{VÁ¶m}{Vfmo@ÝVJ©V§ ‘Z:&&21&&
¶Ý‘Zmo {db¶§ ¶mpÝV V{ÛîUmo: na‘§ nX‘²&
Vñ‘mV² gd© à¶ËZoZ JwénmX§ g‘ml¶oV²&&22&&
AmYma e{º$ {ZÐm¶m§ {díd§ ^d{V {Zжm&
Vñ¶m§ e{º$ à~moYo Vw Ì¡bmo³¶§ à{V~wܶVo&&23&&
~«÷aÝY«o ‘hmñWmZ§ dV©Vo gVV§ {edm&
{MÀN>{º$: na‘m Xodr ‘ܶ‘o gwà{VpîR>Vm&&47&&
‘m¶m e{º$b©bmQ>mJ« ^mJo ì¶mo‘må~wOo VWm&
ZmXê$nm name{º$b©bmQ>ñ¶ Vw ‘ܶ‘o&&48&&
^mJo {~ÝXþ‘¶r e{º$b©bmQ>ñ¶mnam§eHo$&
{~ÝXþ‘ܶo M OrdmË‘m gyú‘ê$noU dÎm©Vo&&49&&
öX¶o ñWybê$noU ‘ܶ‘oZ Vw ‘ܶ‘o& (¶moJ{eImon{ZfX², Aܶm¶ 6)
{ed e{º$ Ho$ 9-9 IÊS>eara§ Ëd§ eå^mo: e{e{‘{ha djmoéh¶wJ§, VdmË‘mZ§ ‘ݶo ^Jd{V ZdmË‘mZ‘ZK‘²&
AV: eof: eofr˶¶‘w^¶gmYmaUV¶m, pñWV: gå~ÝYmo dm§ g‘ag na‘mZÝX na¶mo:&&34&&
MVw{^© lrH$ÊR>¡: {ed¶wd{V{^: nÄM{^a{n, à{^ÝZm{^: eå^moZ©d{^a{n ‘ybàH¥${V{^:&
̶íMËdm[a¨eX² dgwXb H$bml {Ìdb¶, {ÌaoIm{^: gmYª Vd eaU H$moUm: n[aUVm:&&11&&
(gm¡ÝX¶© bhar)
BZH$m {dñV¥V dU©Z d[adñ¶m-ahñ¶ (^mñH$aam¶) ¶m CZH$s Q>rH$mAm| ¶Wm Mm¡Iå~m go
àH$m{eV S>m°. í¶m‘mH$mÝV {ÛdoXr H$s Q>rH$m XoI|& F${fHo$e Ho$ ¶moJlr nrR> go àH$m{eV
ñdm‘r {dîUwVrW© H$m {ed-gyÌ, ¶m ¶moJoÝÐ {dkmZr H$m ‘hm¶moJ-{dkmZ Am{X nwñVH|$
^r CnmXo¶ h¢& ¶hm± Hw$N> gma{U¶m§ Xr OmVr h¢&

3. g¥pîQ> VWm Jm¶Ìr
63
ZmgXr¶ gyº$ (F$½doX 910/129)-e¡d Xe©Z Ho$ VÎd-g¥pîQ>-H«$‘ (ñdm‘r {dîUwVrW©)
Aja na~«÷-Zm gXmgrÝZmo gXmgrÎmXmZt, ZmgrÐOmo Zmo ì¶mo‘m namo ¶V²&
{H$‘mdard: Hw$h H$ñ¶ e‘©ÝZå^: {H$‘mgrX² JhZ§ J^ra‘²&
Z ‘¥Ë¶wamgrX‘¥V§ Z V{h©, Z amͶm AôZ AmgrËàHo$V:&

VÎd
H$bm
ewÕ VÎd

CÝ‘of

gyº$

1. {ed emÝ˶VrVm àW‘ CÝ‘of AZrXdmV§ ñdY¶m VXoH§$ Vñ‘mÕmݶÝZ na: {H$ÄMZm@@g&2&
2. e{º$
AܶmË‘ ^md V‘ AmgrÎm‘gm Jyùh‘J«o@àHo$V‘² g{bb§ gd© ‘m BX‘²&
A{Y^yV ^md
3. gXm{ed
{ÛVr¶ CÝ‘of
4. B©ída
empÝV Ah‘²+BX‘² {d‘e© VwÀN²>¶oZmäd{n{hV§ ¶XmgrV², VngñVÝ‘{hZm@Om¶XoH$‘²&3&
5. ewÕ {dÚm
V¥Vr¶ CÝ‘of-Ah‘² {d‘e©
H$m‘ñVXJ«o g‘dV©Vm{Y,
BX‘² {d‘e©
‘Zgmo aoV: àW‘§ ¶XmgrV²&
ewÕmewÕ VÎd
6-‘m¶m
AgV²
gVmo ~ÝYw‘g{V {Za{dÝXZ², ö{X àVrî¶m H$d¶mo ‘Zrfm:&4&
7-H$mb
lr‘X² ^mJdX²JrVm {VaíMrZmo {dVVmo apí‘aofm‘Y: pñdXmgrXþn[apñdXmgrV²&
8 H$bm ‘m¶m Ho$ H$s nam àH¥${V
aoVmoYm AmgZ² ‘{h‘mZ AmgZ² ËñdYm AdñVmV² à¶{V:
9. {Z¶{V 7
{dÚm
nañVmV² &5&
10. {dÚm H$ÄMwH$ Ord ^md ({edgyÌmoº$ emå^d11. amJ
emº$mUd)VrZ OrdmoÝ‘of
12-nwéf
AewÕ VÎd (Anam àH¥${V)
13. A춺$ VrZm| JwUm| H$s gmå¶mdñWm H$mo AÕm doX H$ Bh àdmoMV² Hw$V AOmVm Hw$V B¶§ {dg¥pîQ>:&
14. ‘hV² VrZm| JwUm| H$r {df‘mdñWm Adm©ZoZm Añ¶ {dgO©ZoZmW H$mo doX ¶V Am~^yd&6&
15.-g‘pîQ> AhL²>H$ma ;; {ÌJwUmË‘H$
B¶§ {dg¥pîQ>¶©V Am~^yd ¶{X dm XYo ¶{X dm Z&
16 g‘pîQ> ‘Z gmpÎdH$ AhL²>H$ma go ¶mo Añ¶mܶj: na‘o ì¶mo‘Z² Ëgmo A“ doX ¶{X dm Z doX&7&
17 go 21-5 kmZopÝжm§- amOg
22 go 26-5 H$‘}pÝжm§ AhL²>H$ma go
n«{VîR>m H$bm
27 go 31-5 VÝ‘mÌm-eãX, Vm‘g
ñne©, ê$n, ag, JÝY AhL²>H$ma
32 go 36-5 ‘hm^yV-AmH$me, go
[d‘em} Zm‘ {dídmH$maoU {díd àH$meoZ&
dm¶w, Ap½Z, Amn:
{dídg§hmaoU dm AH¥$‘mo@h{‘{V ñ’w$aU‘²&&
36. n¥{Wdr
{Zd¥{Îm H$bm

64

Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
MH«$ ‘hm{dkmZ-Amkm go ghòma VH$

2.{ZamH$ma Á¶mo{Vñdê$n
| {ZaÄOZ ~«÷
3. g~H$s Amˑm
~mbH$ ê$n ‘|

1-Xmo ^wOm Ho$ na-~«÷

3
2

4
1
5
4, 5-H¡$dë¶ nX àmßV
H¡$dë¶ na‘ nX H$m ñWmZ
‘hmnwéfm| Ho$ {b¶o
‘hm‘m¶m H$m

18 nXm©
‘hméÐ H$m bmoH$

‘hm{dîUw
› EH$mja ~«÷ H$m bmoH$
ghò Xb H$‘b
jra g‘wÐ ‘mJ©
gZV bmoH$
gmHo$V Ym‘

Jwé H¥$nm go ghòma OmZo
Ho$ {b¶o àH$me H$s gr‹T>r
JwéXod H$m ñWmZ

g˶ bmoH$
d¡Hw$ÊR> bmoH$
gmo@h§ ~«÷ H$m ‘ÊS>b
^§da Jw’$m
~«÷ bmoH$
aa§ ~«÷ H$m ñWmZ
eyݶ ‘ÊS>b

{Xì¶ JÝY H$m Ho$ÝÐ
{ÌHw$Q>r ‘ÊS>b

3. g¥pîQ> VWm Jm¶Ìr
65
‘ybmYma go Amkm MH«$ VH$
^«y ‘ܶ Ho$ nrN>o
Amkm MH«$, 2 Xb-h§, j§
H$ÊR> Hy$n

{dew{Õ MH«$ 16 Xb H$‘b-A, Am
B, B©, C. D$. F$, G$, E, Eo, Amo,
Am¡, A§, A:

öX¶ Ho$ nrN>o

AZmhV MH«$-12 Xb-H$, I, J,
K, L>, M, N>, O, P, Äm, Q>, R>

Zm{^ Ho$ nrN>o

‘oé-XÊS> H$m ‘yb

JwXm-‘yÌ Zbr Ho$ ~rM

‘{Unya MH«$-10 Xb-S>, T>, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z, n, ’$

ñdm{YîR>mZ MH«$ -6 Xb~, ^, ‘, ¶, a, b

‘ybmYma MH«$-4 Xbd, e, f, g

¶h eãXmdbr VWm {d{Y H$~ra Am{X gmYH$m| Ûmam ‘ܶ¶wJ ‘| à¶wº$ hmoVr Wr& ¶h
gmaUr ñdm‘r YZoídamZÝX VrW© H$s nwñVH$ MH«$ ‘hm{dkmZ J«ÝW, JrVm KmQ> Aml‘,
ghgam‘ ({~hma), 1987 Ho$ AZwgma h¡&

66

Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
4. Jm¶Ìr VWm {Ì{dY g¥pîQ>-g¥pîQ> Ho$ Amaå^ ‘| nXmW© Zht Wm, Ho$db A춺$
VÎd Wm, {Ogo V¡{Îmar¶ Cn{ZfX² ‘| ag H$hm J¶m h¡AgÛm BX‘J« AmgrV²& VVmo gXOm¶V&.. ¶Û¡ VËgwH¥$V§ agmo d¡ g:& ag§ ô¶odm¶ bãÜdm
@@ AmZÝXr ^d{V&(2/7/1) Vñ‘mÛm EVñ‘mXmË‘Z AmH$me: gå^yV:& AmH$memX²
dm¶w:& dm¶moap½Z:& A½Zoamn:& AX²ä¶: n¥{Wdr& n¥{Wì¶m AmofY¶:&& (2/1/3)
{díd H$m {Z‘m©U gwH¥$V H$hm J¶m h¡& Bgo ~mB{~b ‘| H$hm J¶m h¡ {H$ ^JdmZ Zo ha
g¥pîQ> Ho$ ~mX H$hm {H$ ¶h ~hþV AÀN>m hþAm& ¶h ñd¶§ H$mo à‘mU-nÌ Zht XoZm Wm,
nyU© (‘yb nXmW©) go nyU© {díd H$m {Z‘m©U gd©hþV ¶k h¡, {Ogo gwH¥$V H$hm J¶m h¡&
nwéf (MoVZ VÎd) VWm àH¥${V (nXmW©) Ûmam g¥pîQ> hþ¶r& BgH$m H$maU àH¥${V Ho$
3 JwU h¢& 3 JwUm| Ho$ {‘bZ go 23 = 8 àH¥${V-{dH¥${V hþ¶r & n«H¥${V= {Z‘m©U H$aZo
dmbm& {dH¥${V= {Z‘m©U& àH¥${V-{dH¥${V {Z{‘©V VWm {Z‘m©U H$aZo dmbm-XmoZm| h¡& 8
àH$¥{V Ho$ gÎd VWm aO JwUm| Ho$ H$maU 8+8 =16 {dH¥${V hþ¶o& V‘ Ho$ H$maU H$moB©
Z¶m {Z‘m©U Zht hþAm ³¶m|{H$ ¶h {ZpîH«$¶ (V‘ = AÝYH$ma) h¡& AV: àH¥${V Ho$ 24
^oX VWm 1 nwéf {‘bmH$a 25 VÎd gm§»¶ Xe©Z Ho$ hþ¶o& Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ ‘| › nwéf H$m
VWm Jm¶Ìr Ho$ 24 Aja àH¥${V Ho$ 24 VÎd h¢& XmoZm| nwéf Ho$ hr ê$n h¢, g‘PZo Ho$
{b¶o AbJ-AbJ {d^mOZ h¡àUd: gd©doXofw eãX: Io nm¡éf§ Z¥fw& (JrVm 7/8)
‘¶mܶjoU àH¥${V: gy¶Vo gMamMa‘²& (JrVm 9/10)
^y{‘amnmo@Zbmo dm¶w: I§ ‘Zmo ~w{Õaod M&
AhL²>H$ma BVr¶§ ‘o {^ÝZm àH¥${VaîQ>Ym&&(JrVm 7/4)
{Ì{^J©wU‘¶¡^m©d¡ao{^: gd©{‘X§ OJV²& (JrVm 7/13)
àH¥$Vo: {H«$¶‘mUm{Z JwU¡: H$‘m©{U gd©e:&
AhL²>H$ma{d‘yT>mË‘m H$Vm©h{‘{V ‘ݶVo&& (JrVm 3/27)
› ‘| ‘yb {dÝXþ go 3 ê$n -A, C, ‘-hþ¶o& CZgo 3 bmoH$ ¶m Ym‘ (ñd¶å^y =nyU©
OJV², na‘oîR>r = ~«÷mÊS> ¶m AmH$meJ“m, gm¡a ‘ÊS>b) hþ¶o& nwZ: VrZm| Ho$ 3-3
{d^mOZ hþ¶o& ~rM Ho$ 2 bmoH$ 2 Ym‘m| ‘| g‘mZ h¢, Omo {ÛVr¶ Aܶm¶ ‘| {XIm¶m
J¶m h¡-AV: 7 bmoH$ h¢&
^y,
^wd:
ñd:
‘h:
OZ:
Vn:
g˶
gm¡a ‘ÊS>b
na‘oîR>r
ñd¶å^y

3. g¥pîQ> VWm Jm¶Ìr
67
{Z{‘©V bmoH$ ^y h¢, {H«$¶m ê$n ‘| BgH$m AW© gÎmm ¶m pñW{V h¡& Jm¶Ìr Ho$ 24
Aja ¶m àH¥${V Ho$ 24 VÎd Ho$ H$maU Bgo ^y H$hm J¶m h¡, ³¶m|{H$ ^ 24dm§ Aja h¡
(ì¶ÄOZ dU© ‘| H$ go)& {Z‘m©U H$s AdñWm ^wd: (~ZVm hþAm) bmoH$ h¡& {Z‘m©U H$m
joÌ VWm CgH$m H$maU ñd: bmoH$ h¡-BgHo$ H$maU gwH¥$V hmoVm h¡, ñd¶§ {Z‘m©Vm h¡
Am{X& {dÝXþ Ho$ 9 {d^mOZm| Ho$ AZwgma g¥pîQ> Ho$ 9 ñVa h¢, {OÝh| 9 gJ© H$hm J¶m
h¡& ^mJdV nwamU (3/10) ‘| A춺$ H$mo {‘bmH$a 10 gJ© H$ho J¶o h¢-BgHo$
AZwgma 9 ZmXm| H$m ‘yb ê$n ‘hm{dÝXþ H$hm J¶m h¡& {dîUw nwamU (1/5/19-24)
Ho$ 9 gJ© h¡àmH¥$V-1. ‘hÎmËd, 2. VÝ‘mÌm, 3. d¡H$m[aH$ (BpÝж gå~ÝYr)&
2. d¡H¥$V-4. ‘w»¶ (nd©V, d¥j Am{X ñWmda), 5. {V¶©H²$ òmoV (H$sQ> nV§J Am{X),
6. D$Üd© òmoV (Xod gJ©), 7. Adm©H²$ òmoV (‘Zwî¶ gJ©), 8. AZwJ«h gJ© (gmpËdH$
VWm Vm‘{gH$)&
àmH¥$V VWm d¡H¥$V-9. H$m¡‘ma gJ©&
Am{X˶ VWm damh-g^r Ym‘m| Ho$ {Z‘m©U Ho$ ‘ybòmoV Am{X˶ h¢, {Oggo Am{X
(Amaå^) hþAm& A¶©‘m, déU VWm {‘Ì-¶o ñd¶å^y, na‘oîR>r VWm gm¡a ‘ÊS>b Ho$
Am{X˶ h¢& {Z‘m©U à{H«$¶m H$s AdñWm damh h¡& ‘yb AdñWm Ob O¡gm g‘ê$n h¡,
{Z{‘©V AdñWm ^y (n¥Ïdr ¶m {‘Q²>Q>r O¡gm h¡), CgHo$ ~rM H$s AdñWm damh H$m AW©
gwAa (eyH$a) h¡, Omo Ob-ñWb XmoZm| ‘| ahVm h¡& Bgo ‘oK ^r H$hm J¶m h¡, Omo Ob
VWm dm¶w H$m {‘lU h¡& AmH$me ‘| 5 damh h¢1. ñd¶å^y- Am{X damh
2. na‘oîR>r-¶k damh
3. gm¡a ‘ÊS>b-ídoV damh
4. n¥Ïdr VWm Aݶ J«h-^y damh
5. n¥Ïdr H$m dmVmaU-E‘yf damh (dm¶w ‘ÊS>b)
n¥Ïdr na 4 àH$ma Ho$ ‘oK H$ho J¶o h¢-ZmJ, nd©V, d¥f^, A~w©X& ¶m, Ob H$s ‘mÌm
Ho$ AZwgma -nwîH$a, AmdÎm©, g§dÎm©, ÐmoU&
9 àH$ma Ho$ {Z‘m©U gJm] Ho$ 9 MH«$ h¢, {OZH$s ‘mn go 9 àH$ma Ho$ H$mb-‘mZ gy¶©
{gÕmÝV (14/1) ‘| H$ho J¶o h¢~«m÷§ {nͶ§ VWm {X춧 àmOmn˶§ M Jm¡ad‘²& gm¡a§ gmdZ§ MmÝБmjª ‘mZm{Z d¡ Zd&&

68
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
1. ~«m÷-A춺$ go 춺$ H$s g¥pîQ> ~«÷m H$m {XZ VWm CgHo$ b¶ H$mo am{Ì H$hm
OmVm h¡ghò¶wJn¶©ÝV‘h¶©X² ~«÷Umo {dXw:&
am[̧ ¶wJghòmÝVm§ Vo@hmoamÌ{dXmo OZm:&&17&&
A춺$mX² 춺$¶: gd} à^dÝ˶hamJ‘o&
amͶmJ‘o àbr¶ÝVo VÌ¡dm춺$ g§kHo$&(JrVm 8/18)
nwamUm| VWm gy¶© {gÕmÝV Am{X Á¶mo{Vf J«ÝWm| Ho$ AZwgma 12,000 {Xì¶ dfm] H$m 1
¶wJ hmoVm h¡& Á¶mo{Vf ‘| 1 {Xì¶ df© 360 gm¡a dfm] H$m h¡, AV:
~«÷m H$m {XZ = 1000 ¶wJ = 1000 x 360 x 12000 = 432 H$mo{Q> df©&
AmYw{ZH$ ^m¡{VH$ Á¶mo{Vf Ho$ AZwgma Ñí¶ OJV² H$s gr‘m CVZr hr h¡, {OVZr Xÿa
~«÷m Ho$ {XZ-am{Ì ‘| àH$me OmVm h¡, AWm©V² 864 H$mo{Q> àH$me-df© H$s {ÌÁ¶m H$m
joÌ&
2. àmOmn˶-àOmn{V Zo ¶k AWm©V² Cn¶moJr nXmWm] H$m {Z‘m©U {H$¶m (JrVm 3/
10)& g¥pîQ> ‘| {Z‘m©U H$m¶© AmH$me-J“mAm| Ho$ {Z‘m©U go Amaå^ hþAm& AV:
AmH$me-J“m H$m Aj-^«‘U H$mb àmOmn˶ H$mb h¡& AmH$me-J“m Ho$ Vmam| H$s
g§»¶m ‘Zwî¶ ‘pñVîH$ Ho$ H$mofm| H$s g§»¶m Ho$ g‘mZ h¡, AV: AmH$me-J“m {damQ²> ‘Z
h¡, VWm CgH$m Aj-^«‘U H$mb ‘ÝdÝVa H$hm OmVm h¡& ¶h àm¶: 30 H$mo{Q> 68 bj
df© H$m h¡& AmYw{ZH$ AZw‘mZ go AH$me-J“m Ho$ÝÐ go 2/3 {ÌÁ¶m Xÿar na gy¶© 2025 H$mo{Q> dfm] ‘| n[aH«$‘m H$aVm h¡, AV: ‘ÝdÝVa H$m ‘mZ VWm n[a^mfm Bggo Á¶mXm
ewÕ h¡&
3. {Xì¶ ‘mZ-gm¡a df© H$mo {Xì¶ {XZ H$hm OmVm h¡, CÎmam¶U J{V {XZ VWm
X{jUm¶Z J{V am{Ì h¡& AV: 360 gm¡a dfm] H$m {Xì¶ df© hmoJm& ¶h 3 àH$ma go
n[a^m{fV h¡-(1) Eo{Vhm{gH$ n[adÎm©Z H$m MH«$-BgHo$ AZwgma dm¶w, Hy$‘© Am{X
nwamUm| ‘| 28 ì¶mgm| H$s gyMr ‘| Bgo n[adV© ¶wJ H$hm J¶m h¡& (2) 100 H$mo{Q> ¶moOZ
ì¶mg H$m bmoH$mbmoH$ ^mJ AWm©V² ZonMyZ VH$ H$s J«h H$jm go Hw$N> Xÿa VH$ H$m ^mJ&
dhm§ pñWV H$moB© H$mën{ZH$ J«h 360 dfm] ‘| gy¶© H$s n[aH«$‘m H$aoJm& (3) CÎmam¶UX{jUm¶Z H$mo {XZ-am{Ì (JrVm 8/24,25) ‘mZZo go gm¡a df© {XZ Ho$ ~am~a h¡&
4. Jwé ‘mZ-Jwé J«h 12 df© ‘| gy¶© H$s n[aH«$‘m H$aVm h¡, AV: Jwé Ûmam 1 am{e H$mo
‘ܶ‘ J{V go nma H$aZo H$m g‘¶ (àm¶: 361 {XZ 4 KÊQ>m) 1 Jwé df© hmoJm& CÎma

3. g¥pîQ> VWm Jm¶Ìr
69
^maV ‘| gy¶©-{gÕmÝV ‘V go Bgo hr Jwé df© ‘mZVo h¢, X{jU ^maV ‘| n¡Vm‘h
{gÕmÝV go gm¡a df© H$mo hr Jwé-df© ‘mZVo h¡&
0
0
5. gm¡a ‘mZ-gy¶© H$s 1 J{V 1 {XZ, 30 J{V 1 ‘mg VWm n[a^«‘U H$mb 1 df©
h¡&
6. MmÝÐ ‘mZ- gy¶© VwbZm ‘| MÝÐ J{V AWm©V² MÝБm H$s H$bm (àH$m{eV ^mJ H$s
‘mÌm) H$m MH«$ 29.5 {XZ MmÝÐ ‘mg h¡& Xe© (MÝБm H$m àW‘ Xe© go 1 {XZ nyd©)
go ny{U©‘m (nyU© àH$m{eV MÝÐ) VH$ ew³b nj ‘| 15 {V{W (àm¶: 15 {XZ h¢& ny{U©‘m
go Xe© VH$ H¥$îU nj ‘| ^r 15 {V{W h¡& 12 MmÝÐ ‘mg AWm©V² àm¶: 354 {XZ H$m
MmÝÐ df© hmoVm h¡& àm¶: 31 MmÝÐ ‘mgm| Ho$ ~mX 1 A{YH$ ‘mg Omo‹S> H$a Bgo gm¡a df©
Ho$ Vwë¶ {H$¶m OmVm h¡&
7. {nVa ‘mZ-MÝБm Ho$ D$nar ({dnarV) ^mJ ‘| {nVa ahVo h¢& CZHo$ {b¶o h‘mam
H¥$îU nj {XZ VWm ew³b nj am{Ì hmoVr h¡& CZH$m 30 {X-am{Ì 1 {nVa-‘mg VWm
360 {XZ-am{Ì (àm¶: 15 df©) {nVa df© hmoVm h¡&
8. gmdZ ‘mZ-gy¶m}X¶ go AmJm‘r gy¶m}X¶ VH$ gmdZ {XZ, 30 {XZ H$m ‘mg VWm
12 ‘mg H$m df© hmoVm h¡&
9. ZmjÌ ‘mZ-pñWa ZjÌm| H$s VwbZm ‘| n¥Ïdr H$m Aj-^«‘U H$mb (àm¶: 23 KÊQ>m
56 {‘ZQ>) ZmjÌ {XZ, 30 {XZ H$m ‘mg VWm 360 {XZ H$m df© hmoJm&
5. ~«÷-Jm¶Ìr-¶h ~¥hXmaʶH$ Cn{ZfX² (5/14/1-4) ‘| Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$
3 nmXm| Ho$ nwZ: 3-3 ^mJ H$a CËn{Îm H$m H«$‘ g‘Pm¶m J¶m h¡& Xodahdm ~m~m Bgo
~«÷-Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ ê$n ‘| Xrjm XoVo Wo& Xrjm H$m ‘ÝÌ VWm CgH$s gmYZm {d{Y
Cgr naånam go àmßV H$aZr Mm{h¶o& ¶hm± Ho$db CgH$m eãXmW© VWm g¥pîQ> H«$‘ Ho$
{dñVma Ho$ ~mao ‘| ~Vm¶m Om¶Jm&
Cn{ZfX² H$m ‘ÝÌ h¡^y{‘aÝV[aj§ Úm¡[a˶îQ>mdjamʶîQ>mja§ h dm EH§$ Jm¶Í¶¡ nX‘oVXþ h¡dmñ¶m EVV² g
¶mdXofw {Ìfw bmoH$o fw VmdÕ O¶{V ¶mo@ñWm EVXod§ nX§ doX &&1&&

^y{‘, AÝV[aj Am¡a Úm¡-¶o AmR> Aja h¢& AmR> Ajadmbm hr Jm¶Ìr H$m EH$ (àW‘)
nmX h¡& ¶h (^y{‘ Am{X) hr Bg Jm¶Ìr H$m àW‘ nmX h¡& Bg àH$ma BgHo$ Bg nX
H$mo Omo OmZVm h¡, dh Bg {ÌbmoH$s ‘| {OVZm Hw$N> h¡, Cg g~H$mo OrV boVm h¡&

70

Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer

F$Mmo ¶Oy§{f gm‘mZr˶îQ>mdjamʶjamʶîQ>mja§ h dm EH§$ Jm¶Í¶¡ nX‘oVXþ h¡dmñ¶m
EVV² ¶mdVr¶§ ̶r {dÚm VmdÕ ¶mo@ñ¶m EVXod§ nX§ doX&&2&&

F$Mm, ¶Oy§{f, gm‘m{Z-¶o AmR> Aja h¢& AmR> Ajadmbm hr Jm¶Ìr H$m EH$ ({ÛVr¶)
nmX h¡& ¶h (F$H²$ Am{X)hr Bg Jm¶Ìr H$m {ÛVr¶ nmX h¡& Omo Bg àH$ma BgHo$ Bg
nmX H$mo OmZVm h¡, dh {OVZr ^r ̶r {dÚm h¡, CZ g~H$mo OrV boVm h¡&
àmUmo@nmZmo ì¶mZ B˶îQ>mdjamʶîQ>mja§ h dm EH§$ Jm¶Í¶¡ nX‘oVXþ h¡dmñ¶m EVV² g
¶md{XX§ àm{U VmdÕ O¶{V ¶mo@ñ¶m EVXod§ nX§ doXmWmñ¶ EVXod Vwar¶§ Xe©V§ nX§
namoaOm ¶ Ef Vn{V ¶X² d¡ MVwWª VV² Vwar¶ Xe©V§ nX{‘{V XÑe Bd ô¶of namoaOm
B{V gd©‘w ô¶od¡f aO Cn¶©n
w [a Vnñ¶od§ h¡d {l¶m ¶egm Vn{V ¶mo@ñ¶m EVXod§ nX§
doX&&3&&

àmU, AnmZ, ì¶mZ-¶o AmR> Aja h¢& AmR> Ajadmbm hr Jm¶Ìr H$m EH$ (V¥Vr¶) nX
h¡& ¶h àmUm{X hr Bg Jm¶Ìr H$m V¥Vr¶ nmX h¡& Omo Jm¶Ìr Ho$ Bg nX H$mo Bg àH$ma
OmZVm h¡, dh {OVZm ¶h àm{U g‘wXm¶ h¡, g~H$mo OrV boVm h¡& Am¡a ¶h Omo VnVm
(àH$m{eV) h¡, dhr BgH$m Vwar¶, Xe©V Ed§ namoaOm nX h¡& Omo MVwW© hmoVm h¡, dhr
Vwar¶ H$hbmVm h¡& Xe©V§ nX‘² H$m AW© h¡-‘moZmo (¶h Am{X˶‘ÊS>bñW nwéf) XrIVm
h¡& namoaOm H$m AW© h¡-¶h g^r aO (bmoH$m|) Ho$ D$na D$na ahH$a àH$m{eV hmoVm h¡&
Omo Jm¶Ìr Ho$ MVwW© nX H$mo gg àH$ma OmZVm h¡, dh Bgr àH$ma H$s emo^m Am¡a H$s{Îm©
go àH$m{eV hmoVm h¡&
g¡fm Jm¶Í¶oH$pñ‘Z² ñVwar¶o Xe©Vo nXo namoaO{g à{VpîR>Vm VX² d¡ VV² g˶o à{VpîR>V§
Mjwd£ g˶§ Mjw{h© d¡ g˶§ Vñ‘mX² ¶{XXmZt Ûm¡ {ddX² ‘mZmdo¶mVm‘h‘Xe©‘h‘lm¡f{‘{V
¶ Ed§ ~«y¶mXh‘Xe©{‘{V Vñ‘m Ed lÔܶm‘ VX² d¡ VV² g˶§ ~bo à{VpîR>V§ àmUmo d¡
~b§ VV² àmUo à{VpîR>V§ Vñ‘mXmhþ~©b§ g˶mXmoJr¶ B˶odd
§ ofm Jm¶Í¶Ü¶mË‘§ à{VpîR>Vm
gm h¡fm J¶m§ñVÌo àmUm d¡ J¶mñVËàmUm§ñVÌo VX² ¶X² J¶m§ñVÌo Vñ‘mX² Jm¶Ìr Zm‘
g ¶m‘odm‘y§ gm{dÌr‘Ýdmh¡ d¡f gm g ¶ñ‘m AÝdmh Vñ¶ ÌmUm§ñÌm¶Vo&&4&&

dh ¶h Jm¶Ìr Bg MVwW© Xe©V nX namoaOm nX ‘| à{VpîR>V h¡& dh nX g˶ ‘|
à{VpîR>V h¡& Mjw hr g˶ h¡, Mjw hr g˶ h¡-¶h à{gÕ h¡& Bgrgo ¶{X Xmo nwéf ‘¢Zo
XoIm h¡, ‘¢Zo gwZm h¡ Bg àH$ma {ddmX H$aVo h¢, Vmo h‘ Cgr H$m {dídmg H$aVo h¢,
{OgZo XoIm h¡& dh Vwar¶ nX H$m Aml¶^yV g˶ ~b ‘| à{VpîR>V h¡& àmU hr ~b
h¡, dh g˶ àmU ‘| à{VpîR>V h¡& Bgrgo H$hVo h¢ {H$ g˶ H$s Anojm ~b AmoOñdr

3. g¥pîQ> VWm Jm¶Ìr
71
h¡& Bg àH$ma ¶h Jm¶Ìr AܶmË‘ àmU ‘| à{VpîR>V h¡& Bg Jm¶Ìr Zo J¶m| H$m ÌmU
{H$¶m Wm& àmU hr J¶ h¢, CZ àmUm| H$m BgZo ÌmU {H$¶m& BgZo J¶m| H$m ÌmU {H$¶m
Wm, Bgrgo BgH$m Jm¶Ìr Zm‘ hþAm& AmMm¶© Zo AmR> df© Ho$ dQw> Ho$ à{V CnZ¶Z Ho$
g‘¶ {Og Jm¶Ìr H$m CnXoe {H$¶m Wm dh ¶hr h¡& dh {Og {Og dQw> H$mo BgH$m
CnXoe H$aVm h¡, dh CgHo$ CgHo$ àmUm| H$s ajm H$aVr h¡&
On Ho$ {b¶o ~«÷ Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ› ^y{‘aÝV[aj§ Úw:, F$Mmo ¶Oy§{f gm‘m{Z, àmUmo@nmZmo ì¶mZ:, Xe©V§ Xe©V§ nX§

&

namoaOm:

-(1)-› H$ma-Bg‘| nhbo ‘hm{dÝXþ go {dÝXþ Ho$ 9 ñVa hþ¶o& CgHo$
3 ê$n hþE-A, C, ‘& ¶o ›H$ma Ho$ 12 ê$n hþ¶o& {dÝXþ H$mo 1 ‘mZZo na, ›H$ma Ho$
4 ê$n h¢& BZH$s ì¶m»¶m ‘mÊSy ³¶ Cn{ZfX² Ho$ 12 íbmoH$m| ‘| H$s J¶r h¡& ¶h ~«÷
H$s {ÌJwUmË‘H$ àH¥${V h¡, {Ogo nwamUm| ‘| ~«÷m, {dîUw, {ed H$hm J¶m h¡& BZH$m
{dñVma 3 ì¶mö{V VWm Jm¶Ìr Ho$ 3 nX h¢&
{dÝXþ H$mo AnmX VÎd H$hm J¶m h¡-AnX[g Z{h nÚgo, Z‘ñVo Vwar¶m¶ Xe©Vm¶ nXm¶
(~¥hXmaʶH$ Cn{ZfX² 5/14/7)
A‘mÌíMVwW©: (‘mÊSy>³¶ Cn{ZfX²)
AnmXo{V àW‘m nÛVrZm‘² (F$H²$ 1/152/3)
A‘m̧ Ëdm§ {YfUm{VpËdfo‘{h (F$H²$ 1/102/6)
namo ‘m̶m VÝdm d¥YmZ Vo ‘{hËd‘ÝdíZwdpÝV& (F$H²$ 7/99/1)
AnmXJ«o g‘^dV² (AWd© 10/2/21)
(2) 3 ì¶mö{V-¶h 3 ¶m 7 bmoH$m| Ho$ ê$n ‘| h¡& à˶oH$ Ym‘ Ho$ 3-3 bmoH$ {‘bH$a
7 bmoH$ h¢, Omo nyd© Aܶm¶ ‘| ~Vm¶o J¶o h¢, VWm [nN>bo AZwÀN>oX ‘| ^r CëboI h¡&
¶hm§ Bgo Jm¶Ìr Ho$ àW‘ nX H$m {dñVma ‘mZm J¶m h¡& àW‘ nX g¥pîQ> {H«$¶m Ho$ {df¶
‘| h¡& BgH$s {d{^ÝZ {H«$¶mAm| H$mo AbJ AbJ XodVmAm| Ho$ ê$n ‘| g‘Pm OmVm h¡&
~«÷m ‘yb nXmW© h¡& g^r H$s CËn{Îm AmH$me go hþ¶r& AmH$me Ho$ 3 ^mJ {H«$¶m Ho$
{b¶o h¢-g‘nyU© à{H«$¶m H$m joÌ ñd: h¡, {Ogo ¶hm§ Úw H$hm J¶m h¡& {Z‘m©UmYrZ joÌ
^wd: h¡-¶h ~rM H$s pñW{V h¡, {Ogo AÝV[aj H$hm J¶m h¡& {Z‘m©U H$m AmYma ^y h¡&
gr‘m~Õ ^mJ ^y{‘ h¡, CgH$m à^md joÌ ^y‘m h¡& BgH$m {ZH$Q>dÎmu ^mJ AÝV[aj

g¥pîQ> H$m H«$‘

72
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
VWm XÿaV‘ gr‘m Úw h¡&
gm‘ dm Agm¡ bmoH$:, F$J¶§ (bmoH$:)& (VmÊS>ç ‘hm ~«m÷U 4/3/5)
F$Mm‘p½ZX£dV§ n¥{WdrñWmZ‘²& ¶Owfm§ dm¶wX£dV§ AÝV[ajñWmZ‘²& gmåZm‘m{X˶ X¡dV§
Úm¡: ñWmZ‘²& AWìd©Um§ MÝБm X¡dV‘mn: ñWmZ‘²& (JmonW ~«m÷U, nyd© 1/19)ww
(3) {Z‘m©U-{Z‘m©U H$s {H«$¶m hr 3 doX h¢& ‘w»¶ {Z‘m©U H$Îmm© gy¶© H$mo ̶r doX‘¶
H$hm J¶m h¡& gy¶© H$m {nÊS> F$H²$ h¡, CgH$s ^rVar {H«$¶m H¥$îU ¶Owd}X, ~mhar {d{H$aU
ew³b ¶Owd}X VWm à^md joÌ gm‘ h¡&
¶VoXÝ‘ÊS>b§ Vn{V-VÝ‘hXþ³W§, Vm F$M:, g F$Mm§ bmoH$:& AW ¶VoX{M©Xu߶Vo-VÝ‘hmd«V§,
Vm{Z gm‘m{Z, g gmåZm§ bmoH$:& AW ¶ Ed EVpñ‘Z² ‘ÊS>bo nwéf:-gmo@p½Z:, Vm{Z
¶Oy§{f, g ¶Owfm§ bmoH$:& g¡fm Ìæ¶od {dÚm Vn{V& VÕ¡VX߶{dÛm§g Amhþ:-̶r dm@
Efm {dÚm VnVr{V& dm½Y¡d VV² ní¶ÝVr dX{V& (eVnW ~«m÷U 10/5/2/1-2)
gm‘ 3 àH$ma Ho$ H$ho J¶o h¢, {dîUw-ghòZm‘ ‘| CZH$mo {Ìgm‘m H$hm J¶m h¡&
C^o ~¥hÐWÝVao ^dV:& B¶§ dmd aWÝVa§, Agm¡ ~¥hV²& Amä¶m‘od¡Z‘ÝVao{V-dmMíM,
‘ZgíM& àmUmÀM, AnmZmÀM& {XdíM, n¥{Wì¶míM& gd©ñ‘m{ÛÎmmX², doÚmV²& (V¡{Îmar¶
~«m÷U 1/4/6)
Vm{Z Ìr{U ^yÎdm aWÝVaÄM, d¡ê$n§ M, em³da§ M-~¥hÀM, d¡amO§ M, A˶‘ݶÝV& VX²
~¥hX² J^©‘YÎm, VСdV‘g¥OV& (EoVao¶ ~«m÷U 19/6/28)
n¥Ïdr Ho$ gm‘ h¢-aWÝVa, d¡ê$n, em³da& gy¶© Ho$ gm‘ h¢-~¥hV², d¡amO, a¡dV&
gm¡a ‘ÊS>b Ho$ ^rVa Ho$ 3 joÌ {dîUw Ho$ 3 nX h¢& ¶hm§ VH$ gy¶© H$m AnZm joÌ h¡&
Bg‘| 100 ì¶mg VH$ Vmn-joÌ, 1000 ì¶mg VH$ VoO joÌ (gy¶© ghòm§emo VoOmoam{e),
VWm CgHo$ ~mX àH$me ¶m Cfm joÌ h¡, Ohm§ VH$ gy¶© H$m àH$me AmH$me-J§Jm go
A{YH$ h¡& gy¶© Ohm§ VH$ XrI gH$Vm h¡, AWm©V² CgH$s {H$aUm| H$m àgma Ohm§ VH$ h¡,
dh {dîUw H$m na‘ nX h¡& Bg joÌ H$mo ~«÷mÊS> H$hm OmVm h¡-{damQ>² ~«÷ H$m EH$
AÊS>& CËnmXH$ nXmW© Ho$ ê$n ‘| Bgo AmÊS> (AÊS> {Z‘m©Vm) ^r H$hm J¶m h¡& AmH$meJ§Jm Ho$ ~mha gy¶© {dÝXþ ê$n ‘| ^r Zht XrIVm&
ñd¶å^y-gmo@¶§ nwéf: àOmn{VaH$m‘¶V-^y¶mÝËñ¶m§ àOm¶o¶ B{V& gmo@lmå¶V, g
Vnmo@V߶V& g lmÝVñVnñVonmZmo ~«÷¡d àW‘‘g¥OV-̶r‘od {dÚm‘²& g¡dmñ‘¡
à{VîR>m^dV²& Vñ‘mXmhþ:-~«÷, Añ¶ gd©ñ¶ à{VîR>m-B{V& (eVnW ~«m÷U 6/1/
1/8)

3. g¥pîQ> VWm Jm¶Ìr
73
na‘oîR>r-Vñ¶m§ à{VîR>m¶m§ à{VpîR>Vmo@V߶V& gmo@nmo@g¥OV dmM Ed bmoH$mV²& dmJodmñ¶
gmo@g¥Á¶V& goX § gd©‘ mßZmoV²- ¶{XX§ {H$ÄM& ¶XmßZmoV²-Vñ‘mXmn:& ¶Xd¥U moV²,
Vñ¶mÛm:(dm[a:)& gmo@H$m‘¶V-Amä¶mo@X²>ä¶mo@{YàOm¶o¶ B{V& gmo@Z¶m Ìæ¶m {dÚ¶m
gh An: àm{deV²& VV AmÊS>§ g‘dV©V& V‘䶑¥eV²-AñVw B{V& (eVnW ~«m÷U
6/1/1/9,10)
gm¡a ‘ÊS>b-VVmo ~«÷¡d àW‘‘g¥Á¶V Ìæ¶od {dÚm& Vñ‘mXmhþ:-~«÷ Añ¶ gìd©ñ¶
n«W‘O‘², B{V& VXñ¶ VÝ‘wI‘odmg¥Á¶V& ‘wI§ ô¶oVX½Zo¶©X² ~«÷& (eVnW ~«m÷U
6/1/1/10) Amnmo dm BX‘J«o g{bb‘odmg& Vm AH$m‘¶ÝV-H$W§ Zw àOm¶o‘{hB{V& Vm Almå¶Z², VmñVnmo@V߶ÝV& Vmgw VnñV߶‘mZmgw {haÊ‘¶mÊS>o gå~^yd&
(eVnW ~«m÷U 11/6/1/1) ¶XoVÝ‘ÊS>b§ Vn{V-VÝ‘hXþ³W§, Vm F$M:, g F$Mm§
bmoH$:& AW ¶X{M©Xu߶Vo-VÝ‘hmd«V§, Vm{Z gm‘m{Z, g gmåZm§ bmoH$:& AW Ef
EVpñ‘Ý‘ÊS>bo nwéf:-gmo@p½Z:, Vm{Z ¶Oy§{f, g ¶Owfm§ bmoH$:& g¡fm§ Ìæ¶od {dÚm
Vn{V& (eVnW ~«m÷U 10/5/2/1,2)
(4) àmU {H«$¶m-{H$gr ^r gr{‘V joÌ H$mo AmH$me H$hVo h¢& Cg‘| 3 àH$ma H$s J{V
go n[adV©Z hmo aho h¢-~mha go Omo AmVm h¡ dh àmU h¡& ^rVa go ~mha {ZH$bZo dmbm
AnmZ h¡& ^rVa ‘| hr Omo J{V hmo ahr h¡, dh ì¶mZ h¡&
¶Û¡ àmUoZmÝZ‘mË‘ÝàU¶Vo VËàmUñ¶ àmUËd‘² (eVnW ~«m÷U 12/9/1/4)
ào{V (à+B{V) d¡ àmU, E{V (Am+B{V) CXmZ:& (eVnW ~«m÷U 1/4/1/5)
àmUm d¡ Xodm d¶moZmYm:(¶Ow 14/7) àmU¡huX§ gdª d¶wZ§ ZÕ‘² (eVnW ~«m÷U 8/
2/2/8)
àmUm dm F$f¶: (¶Ow 15/10) (EoVao¶ ~«m÷U 2/27, eVnW ~«m÷U 6/1/1/
1, 8/4/1/5, 8/6/1/5, 14/5/2/5)
AnmZoZ {h ‘Zwî¶m AÝZ‘XpÝV (eVnW ~«m÷U 10/1/4/12)
AnmZmXÝV[ajbmoH$: (H$m¡frV{H$ ~«m÷U 6/10)
ì¶mZ: à{VhÎmm© (H$m¡frV{H$ ~«m÷U 17/7, JmonW CÎma5/4)
ì¶mZmX‘w§ (Úw) bmoH$‘² (H$m¡frV{H$ ~«m÷U 6/10)
{ZH«$s{S>V Bd ô¶¶o ì¶mZ: (fpS²>d¨e ~«m÷U 2/2)
g^r àH$ma H$s e{º$ ¶m Cggo CËnÝZ J{V Am{X à^mdm| H$mo àmU H$hVo h¢& CgHo$ 3
^oX Jm¶Ìr Ho$ AZwgma h¢& eara Ho$ ^rVa 5 àmU H$ho OmVo h¢-àmU, AnmZ, ì¶mZ,

74
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
g‘mZ, CXmZ& 5 Cn-àmU {‘bmH$a 10 àmU ^r h¢& ¶moJ-‘mJ© ‘| àmUm¶m‘ H$m AW©
2 {dnarV àmUm| H$m g‘Ýd¶ h¡-àmU VWm AnmZ & àmU ‘| AnmZ H$m VWm AnmZ ‘|
àmU H$m hdZ àmUm¶m‘ ¶k h¡ (JrVm 3/18) ‘wÊS>H$mon{ZfX² (2/1/8) ‘| 7 àmU
H$ho J¶o h¢& Cg‘| EH$ F${f àmU h¡, Omo AgV² (AÑí¶) {Z‘m©Vm h¡& BZ g~H$m ‘yb
H$ënZm go nao h¡, {Ogo namoaOm àmU H$hVo h¢& ¶o 2 AgV² ¶m AZw‘d go nao h¢-BÝh|
N>mo‹S>H$a 5 àmU h¢& gr{‘V AmH$me VWm ~mha H$s nañna {H«$¶m Ho$ {b¶o 3 àmU ~«÷Jm¶Ìr ‘| H$ho J¶o h¢&
(5) namoaOm-aO: H$m AW© bmoH$ h¡, AWm©V² Omo XrIVm h¡& Ñí¶ OJV² go nao Omo H$Îmm©
h¡, Cgo namoaOm H$hVo h¢& ¶h H$ënZmVrV h¡&
B‘o d¡ bmoH$m aOm§{g (¶Ow 11/6) eVnW ~«m÷U (6/3/1/18)
Úm¡d£ V¥Vr¶§ aO: (eVnW ~«m÷U 6/7/4/5)
Ef dmd g namo aOm B{V hmodmM& ¶ Ef (gy¶©:) Vn{V& (V¡{Îmar¶ ~«m÷U 3/10/
9/4)
6. Jm¶Ìr VWm {díd Ho$ nX-(1) AnmX VÎd-Jm¶Ìr ‘| {dÝXþ eyݶ ê$n h¡& Bgo
AnmX H$hm J¶m h¡& {díd H$m ‘yb VÎd EH$ hr h¡& gmao {díd ‘| {dkmZ Ho$ {Z¶‘ EH$
hr h¢& ‘Zwî¶ ¶m Aݶ Ord Hw$N> {^ÝZVm hmoZo na ^r EH$ hr àH$ma Ho$ h¢& ¶h {díd
H$m gyú‘V‘ ¶m ~¥hÎm‘ ê$n h¡AUmoaUr¶mZ² ‘hVmo ‘hr¶mZ² (H$R>mmon{ZfX² 3/1/2)
qH$ pñdXmgrX{YîR>mZ‘maå^U§ H$V‘: pñdV² H$Wm@@grV²& (F$H²$ 10/81/2)
¶h AnmX ¶m A‘mÌm h¡-AnX{g Z{h nÚgo, Z‘ñVo Vwar¶m¶ Xe©Vm¶ nXm¶ (~¥hXmaʶH$
Cn{ZfX² (5/14/7)
A‘mÌíMVwW©: (‘mÊSy>³¶ Cn{ZfX²)
AnmXo{V àW‘m nÛVrZm‘² (F$H²$ 1/152/3)
A‘m̧ Ëdm§ {YfUm{VpËdfo‘{h (F$H²$ 1/102/7)
namo ‘m̶m VÝdm d¥YmZ Vo ‘{hËd‘ÝdíZwdpÝV& (F$H²$ 7/99/1)
AnmXJ«o g‘^dV² (AWd© 10/2/21)
(3) {ÌnmX-BgH$m Amaå^ › H$s VrZ ‘mÌmAm| go hmo OmVm h¡-A, C, ‘& ¶h 3 JwUm|
H$m àVrH$ h¡& BgHo$ ~mX 3 ì¶mö{V 3 bmoH$ h¢& Jm¶Ìr Ho$ 3 nmX 3 àH$ma H$s {H«$¶m

3. g¥pîQ> VWm Jm¶Ìr
75
h¢-g¥pîQ>, J{V VWm kmZ& ¶m Am{Y¡{dH$, Am{Y^m¡{VH$ VWm AmܶmpË‘H$ OJV² H$m
nañna gå~ÝY& ¶h dmH²$, ‘Z, àmU ^r H$hm J¶m h¡&{ÌZm{^MH«$‘Oa‘Zd©‘² (F$H²$ 1/164/2)
Ìr{U nXm {dMH«$‘o {dîUwJm}nm AXmä¶: (F$H²$ 1/22/18)
EVÝ‘¶mo dm A¶‘mË‘m dmL²>‘¶mo ‘Zmo‘¶: àmU‘¶: (~¥hXmaʶH$ Cn{ZfX² 1/3/
10)
AÝZ‘¶§ {h gmoå¶ ‘Z: Amnmo‘¶: àmU VoOmo‘¶r dmH²$& (N>mÝXmo½¶ Cn{ZfX² 6/5/4)
F$M§ dmM§ à nÚo, ‘Zmo ¶Ow: à nÚo, gm‘ àmU§ à nÚo (¶Ow 36/1)
dmJodm¶§ bmoH$:, ‘Zmo@ÝV[ajbmoH$:, àmUmo@gm¡ bmoH$:
̶mo doXm EV Ed, Xodm: {nVamo ‘Zwî¶m EV Ed& ‘mVm {nVm àOm Ed {dkmZ§
{d{Okm»¶§ A{dkmV‘oV Ed& (~¥hXmaʶH$ Cn{ZfX² 1/4/5-13)
(4) MVwînmX-‘yb VÎd H$o 3 ^mJ hmoVo h¢& ‘yb H$mo {‘bmZo na ̶r H$m AW© 4 doX
h¡& ›H$ma ‘| {dÝXþ H$mo {‘bmH$a 4 nX h¢ (3 1/2 ‘mÌm)& dmH²$ Ho$ ^r 4 nX h¡& 4
àH$ma Ho$ nwéf ({díd Ho$ ê$n) h¢-ja= ~mha go Ñí¶ ê$n, Aja = {H«$¶mË‘H$ ê$n
¶m n[aM¶, A춶 = n[adoe H$m ^mJ, namËna = ‘yb VÎd H$m A^oX &nmXmo@ñ¶ {dídm ^yVm{Z {ÌnmXñ¶m‘¥V§ {X{d (nwéf gyº$ 3)
MËdm[a dmH²$ n[a{‘Vm nXm{Z (F$H²$ 1/164/45)
BX§ {dîUw{d©MH«$‘o ÌoYm {ZXYo nX‘² (F$H²$ 1/22/17)
VX² {dîUmo: na‘§ nX§ gXm ní¶pÝV gya¶: (F$H²$ 1/22/20)
(5) 5 nX-{díd H$s aMZm AmH$me ‘| 5 ñVam| ‘| hþ¶r-ñd¶å^y, na‘oîR>r, gm¡a, MmÝÐ
VWm n¥{Wdr& AV: doX Ho$ 5 AW© (3 ^r h¢), 5 àH$ma Ho$ X¡{ZH$ H$‘© ( 5 ‘hm¶k,
5 Z‘mO, {gIm| Ho$ 5 H$H$ma) A{X h¢&
nÄMñdÝV: nwéf Am {ddoe VmݶÝV: nwéfo A{n©Vm{Z & (¶Ow 23/52)
nÄMnmX§ {nVa§ ÛmXemH¥$qV§ {Xd Amhþ: nao AY} nwar{fU‘²&
AWo‘o Aݶ C nao {dMjU§ gßVMH«o$ fS>a Amhþa{n©V‘² &&
(àíZ Cn{ZfX² 1/11, F$H²$ 1/164/12, AWd© 9/14/12)
nÄMòmoVmo@å~w§ nÄM¶moݶwJ«dH«$m§ nÄMàmUmo{‘ª nÄM~wÕçm{X‘ybm‘²&
nÄMmdVmª nÄMXþ:Im¡KdoJm§ nÄMmeX² ^oXm§ nÄMndm©‘Yr‘:&
(ídoVmídVa Cn{ZfX² 1/5)

76

Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
(6) 8 nX-Jm¶Ìr Ho$ à˶oH$ nX ‘| 8 Aja h¢& Jm¶Ìr N>ÝX ‘| 6-6 Ajam| Ho$ 4 nmX
h¢ na Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ ‘| AW© Ho$ AZwgma 8-8 Ajam| Ho$ 3 nX h¢& àW‘ nX ‘| 1 H$‘
h¡-dh 7 bmoH$m| Ho$ {b¶o h¡& 8 àH$ma Ho$ {díd ñdê$nm| Ho$ ~mao ‘| {dñVma go Aܶm¶
2 ‘| H$hm J¶m h¡& {díd ‘| dñVwAm| Ho$ 8 ê$n 8 dgw h¢& Ap½Z ({nÊS>) Ho$ ê$n ‘| 8
dgw, J{V Ho$ ê$n ‘| 11 éÐ VWm VoO ¶m à^md Ho$ ê$n ‘| 12 Am{X˶ h¢& ¶o g^r {ed
({díd H$m kmZ) Ho$ ê$n h¢, AV: {ed H$mo AîQ>‘y{Îm© ¶m 11 éÐ Am{X H$hm J¶m h¡&
dmH²$ H$mo ^r AîQ>mnXr H$hm J¶m h¡&
7 bmoH$ ¶m {Z‘m©U òmoV-gßVMH«o$ fS>a Amhþa{n©V‘² (F$H²$ 1/164/13)
gßV{Xemo ZmZm gy¶m©: (F$H$² 9/114/3)
¶o {ÌfßVm n[a¶pÝV {dídm: (AWd© 1/1/1)
gßVmñ¶mgZ² n[aY¶: {ÌgßV g{‘Y: H¥$Vm:(nwéf gyº$)
8 nX-AîQ>mnXr ZdnXr ~^ydwfr (F$H²$ 1/164/41)
dmMm‘îQ>mnXr‘h§ Zdò{º$‘¥Vñn¥e‘² (F$H²$ 8/76/12)
1 Aja ‘| 8 dU© VH$ g§¶wº$ hmo gH$Vo h¢& CZ‘| ‘ܶ ñda dU© Ho$ 2 e{º$ {dÝXþ h¢,
~mH$s Ho$ 1-1& AV: AîQ>mnXr Aja ê$nr dmH²$ ‘| 9 e{º$ {dÝXþ h¢&
(7) g^r àH$ma Ho$ nX ¶m ^oX-EH$ hr {díd Ho$ H$B© ^oXm| Ho$ ê$n ‘| dU©Z h¢&
Jm¡ar{‘©‘m¶ g{bbm{Z Vj˶oH$nXr {ÛnXr gm MVwînXr&
AîQ>mnXr ZdnXr ~^ydwfr ghòmjam na‘o ì¶mo‘Z² (F$H²$ 1/164/41)
EH$nmX ^y¶mo {ÛnXmo {d MH«$‘o {ÛnmV² {ÌnmX‘ä¶moV níMmV²&
MVwînmXo{V {ÛnXm‘{^ñdao g§nñ¶Z² nL²>º$sén{VîR>‘mZ:& (F$H²$ 10/117/8)

4. Yr ¶moJ

77

Aܶm¶ 4

Yr ¶moJ

-Yr ¶moJ H$m dU©Z ‘h{f© X¡damV Zo doXmW© H$ënbVm J«ÝW ‘| {H$¶m h¡&
Jm¶Ìr H$m Vrgam nX ~«÷ Ûmam ñd¶§ H$mo ào[aV H$aZo Ho$ {df¶ ‘| h¡& Bgr H$m gmYZ
Yr ¶moJ h¡& ¶h {H«$¶m VWm CgHo$ ’$b-XmoZm| ê$nm| ‘| h¡& {H«$¶m h¡ {díd Ho$ Am{YX¡{dH$
VWm Am{Y^m¡{VH$ ê$nm| Ho$ g‘Ýd¶ go AnZo ‘Z H$mo geº$ H$aZm VWm Cggo emar[aH$
e{º$ H$m {dH$mg H$a H$m¶© ‘| Xj hmoZm& kmZ H$m AO©Z 2 àH$ma H$m ¶k h¡-kmZ ¶k
VWm ñdmܶm¶ ¶k (JrVm 3/28)& ‘Z H$s j‘Vm ~‹T>mZo H$mo ¶moJ gyÌ VWm F$½doX
‘| ‘ZmoO{dËd H$hm J¶m h¡& BZ g^r ê$nm| H$s AbJ AbJ ì¶m»¶m ¶hm§ H$s Om¶Jr&
2. ‘h{f© X¡damV dU©Z-Yr ¶moJ H$m AYma F$H²$-‘ÝÌ go {b¶m h¡¶ñ‘mÑVo Z {gܶ{V ¶kmo {dnpíMVíMZ& g YrZm§ ¶moJ{gÝd{V& (F$H²$ 1/18/7)
Vñ¶m¶‘W©:-¶ñ‘mX² ~«÷UñnVo: na‘nwéfmV² F$Vo{dnpíMV:-km{ZZmo@{n ¶k: Z {gܶ{V,
VmÑe: g: na‘mË‘m YrZm§ ¶moJ§ gdm©gm§ {Y¶m§ EH$pñ‘Z² bú¶o g§¶moJ‘Zwg¥Ë¶ ñd¶‘od
BÝd{V-Xr߶Vo àH$meVo ñdê$noU Am{d^©dVr{V ¶mdV²&
AWm©V² {~Zm na‘nwéf ‘| ܶmZ {H$¶o km{Z¶m| H$m ^r ¶k {gÕ Zht hmoVm& CgHo$
EH$‘mÌ bú¶ ‘| ܶmZ H$a ‘Z H$m g§¶moJ H$a CgH$s àoaUm go àH$m{eV H$aZo na hr
CgH$m ñdê$n àH$Q> hmoVm h¡& ¶h Yr ¶moJ h¡&
AmMm¶© ~m¡Ym¶Z H$m g§Ý¶mg {dYmZ ^r Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ H$m à¶moJ H$hVm h¡› ^y: VV² g{dVwd©aoʶ§ Jm¶Ìt à{dem{‘& › ^wd: ^Jm}Xdo ñ¶ Yr‘{h gm{dÌt
à{dem{‘, › ñd: {Y¶mo¶moZ: àMmoX¶mV² gañdVt à{dem{‘&
¶WmonXoe‘ZwàdoemV² VXW©{gqÕ H¥$VH¥$˶Vm{X g‘¥qÕ M A{^‘ݶÝVo, gd}@{n doX{dXmo
{dnpíMV: B{V {Z{d©dmX‘ä¶wnJÝV춑od ^d{V, VWm@ñVw& VÌ¡d AݶX{n
{df¶d¡{eîQ>ç‘pñV VÀM Jm¶Ìr‘ÝÌo ‘hmdm³¶mW© gËd‘²-gÝݶmgo CnXoîQ>˶mZm§ VWm
~«÷mË‘VÎdmd~moYmWª Cn{Zf{X Cn{XîQ>mZm§-VÎd‘{g, Ah§ ~«÷mpñ‘, àkmZ§ ~«÷,
A¶‘mË‘m ~«÷-B˶mXrZm§ ‘hmdm³¶mZm§ ahñ¶mWª VÎd§ Apñ‘Z² Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌo JwßVê$noU
dmÀ¶mW©-bú¶mW©-ÜdݶmWm©{X ê$noU gyú‘gÎdoZ à{VpîR>V‘ñVr{V à{Vkm¶Vo, VWm{hApñ‘Z² ‘ÝÌo VV² B{V àW‘ nX§ dmÀ¶mW©V Ed namoj{gÕñ¶ na~«÷dñVw VÎdñ¶od
~moYH${‘{Vgwà{gÕ‘od-V{X[V namojo {dOmZr¶mV², › VV² g{X{V {ZX}emo ~«÷UpñÌ{dY:
1. Yr ¶moJ

78
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
ñ‘¥V:-B˶mqX$ VÛMZ‘²&
AWm©V² Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ gyú‘ ê$n ‘| g^r 4 ‘hmdm³¶m| H$m {ZX}e H$aVm h¡ {OZH$m kmZ
gÝݶmg Ho$ g‘¶ Jwé Ûmam H$am¶m OmVm h¡, AV: Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ H$o 3 MaUm| Ûmam
Jm¶Ìr, gm{dÌr, gañdVr ‘| àdoe {H$¶m OmVm h¡&
BZH$m íbmoH$m| ‘| ^r dU©Z {H$¶m J¶m h¡{Y¶:-Yr¶ÝVo @Ì {MXmË‘Zm@ÝVa{Ib¡¶m©íMoVZm d¥Îm¶:,
gËg§{dX²J«hUm¶ ~mô¶{df¶¡ñ˶mJm¶ ¶moJm¶ d¡&
kmZoÀN>mH¥${Ve{º${MËàH¥$V¶: ñdmÝV{Y©¶: MoVZ§,
ñdmË‘mZ§ XYVo g‘ñVagX§ g˶§ {ZO§ gm{jU‘²&&
{Y¶: BÝÐmË‘{b“mpË‘H$m:-BÝÐñ¶mË‘Z Ed Vm ö{X {Y¶mo {b“mpË‘H$m ~moYH$m:,
BÝÐo@ÝV:H$aUmpË‘H$m: à{V{hVm: gdm©W©g§gmYH$m:&
~mô¶mÝV¶©g‘ñVdñVw{df¶o gmjmV² à‘mUmpË‘H$m:,
àmkmˑݶwng§{lVm: g‘{Y¶mo kmZm{X g§J«mhH$m:&&
Yr‘{h (ܶm¶m‘:-ܶm¶o‘{h)-Á¶mo{V Yu‘{h VX² daoʶ‘‘¥V§ ܶm¶o‘{h ñdmÝd¶§,
Yr{^ñVoZ g‘r[aVm{^aMb§ gpÄMÝV¶m‘mo d¶‘²&
VÌ¡H$mJ«V¶m {Y¶m à{V{hVm: gå^md¶ÝVmo@ÝVao,
VoOmoYmaU¶m g‘m{hVÑem ܶm¶m‘ AmË‘mÝVa‘²&&
{ZYr‘{h-Á¶mo{V: gd©gwImñnX§ ñdagX§ ܶo¶§ {Y¶m g§{dXm,
ܶmZoZmË‘{Z gpÝZYr‘{h öXm gÝYma¶m‘: gXm&
Vpñ‘ÄÁ¶mo{V{f JmonZm¶ {Z{YdV² g§ñWmn¶m‘mo {Y¶:,
ñdmË‘mZ§ gh Yr{^aodna‘o emÝ˶m@n©¶m‘mo ‘wXm&&
AܶmË‘‘²-¶mo@ñ‘mH§$ öX¶o eara{Zb¶o gZ² à˶JmË‘m ñd¶§,
¶mo Yr{^íM gMoVZmo {da‘Vo gdm©Ë‘gÎdmÝd¶‘²&
gdm©W©ì¶dhmagmYZH¥$Vo ñdr¶m: nwZ^m©d¶Z²,
kmZoÀN>mH¥${V MoVZmo {ZO{Y¶mo {Z˶§ XYm˶mË‘{Z&&
gdm©Ê¶od {h YrpÝжmʶZwZ¶Z² d¥Î¶m@dbãܶ¡d ¶:,
gdm©Wm©Z² à{V g§J¥hrî¶{V {Y¶m kmZm{X ê$nmo{XVmZ²&
VmXW}Z M MmoX¶m˶Zwbd§ gdm©{Y¶mo ^md¶Z²,
gm‘϶m©V² na‘mW©Vmo@Zw^d{V ñdr¶§ gwgÎd§ ñd¶‘²&&

4. Yr ¶moJ
ñdñ¶¡dmZw^dmW©‘mË‘{Z {Y¶m nyUm©Ë‘^mdmÝd¶mO²,
kmZmonmgZH$‘©¶moJna¶m gpÝZîR>¶m@ÝVÑ©em&
ܶo¶§ gmY{¶Vw§ namË‘agX§ VV² nma‘mWm©ñnX§,
VX² ܶmZm¶ {Y¶: àMmoX¶{V ¶: gmo@¶§ {MXmË‘m ñd¶‘²&&
¶ñ‘mXmË‘{Z g§{hVm {ZO{Y¶mo ¶mo@ÝV: àgyVo@{Ze§,
Vñ‘mV² gmo@¶‘hå‘Vo: àg{dVm gÄMoVZmË‘m ñd¶‘²&
Xodmo@¶§ {ZOYrpÝж¡píM{V‘¶¡: gånm{XV§ gd©e:,
gdª kmZ‘¶§ àH$me¶{V ¶: gdm©W©gå~moYH$:&&
à˶ÄMrh {MXmË‘Zmo@ñ¶ g{dVwX}dñ¶ {Xì¶mË‘Z:
{X춧 Á¶mo{VaX: na§ g‘w{XV§ gmjmV² àní¶Z² Ñem&
ܶm¶Z² {ZíMb^mdV: ñdagVmo Yr¶moJgÎdmÝd¶mX²
ܶo¶§ VV² na‘§ nX§ {ZO{‘¶mÀM¡Vݶ‘odmÝVa‘²&&
Yr¶moJmä¶mgà{H«$¶m

Yr¶moJmä¶gZ§ ^doV² H¥${V‘wImV² VËà{H«$¶m@@ܶmpË‘H$s,
ܶo¶¡H$mJ«nXmZbú¶‘wIVñVmXmËå¶ {ZîR>mpË‘H$s &
ܶmZmX² YmaU¶m g‘m{Y‘wIVmo {dV²H$‘© ^mdmpË‘H$s,
YrZm‘mË‘{Z g§¶‘oZ {daVoaܶmË‘{dÚmpË‘H$s&&
AܶmË‘§ gH$bmZw^mdna‘m dmJ²-dñVw g§{dÎm‘m,
ñdmܶm¶mÚZwerbZm{X{Z¶‘m gX²^mdZm gÎm‘m&
Aä¶mgmXZwgm[aUr ñd{ZJ‘m {dÚm@ZdÚmÎm‘,
ñdܶo¶mä¶wX¶¡H$gmYH$V‘m öÚm@ZwdoÚm@pÝV‘m&&
ñdmÝVOm©J¥{VgÎd‘od na‘§ gkmZ-^md-{H«$¶§,
ñdmÝVo gÝVV‘à‘mXH$aU§ gmä¶mggËà{H«$¶‘²&
doXm XodJUmpíMXmË‘{ZaV§ V§ OmJ¥dm±g§ OZ§,
doÚ-ܶo¶g‘¥{ÕgmYZH¥$Vo gd}@Zw¶pÝV ñd¶‘²&&
OmJÎmuh {ZOmÝVao@{IbZ¥Um§ d¡ídmZamo@p½Z: gXm,
àmU: ñdmË‘{MXÝd¶mZwH$aU: àmkmo@ÝVa: g§{dXm&
~«÷mÊS>o ~{ha߶gm¡ M g{dVm YrZm§ à{V àoaH$:,
gdm©Ë‘m ö{X MoVZmo {ZO{MVm gÄOmJ¥dmZ² ‘yY©J:&&

79

80
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
bmoHo$ OmJ¥{V H$m‘Zm nade: gËgmYZ¡H$mVwa:,
ñdoîQ>§ gmY{¶Vw§ àH¥$îQ>‘hg§ gÄOmJ¥dm±g§ na‘²&
à˶j§ à{Vdo{XVw§ {h VV‘§ à˶o{V {dÛÎm‘§,
àmßZmo{V àH¥$Vo: na§ àJ{VVmo ܶo¶§ na§ gÎm‘‘²&&
à˶ÄÀ¶ÝVahpÄMVm ñ’w$a{V ¶m dmH²$ g§{dXm gñdZm,
àËjm@߶namojgÎdH$b¶m gm g§{dXmZm@@Ë‘Zm&
gßVä¶mo {ZOYrä¶ AmÝVaV‘m ñ¶mX² AîQ>‘rÝÐmZZm,
gdm©: àoa¶Vrh Vm {ZO{Y¶: à˶o{V gÀMoVZm&&
à˶pÄMàH¥$VopíMXmË‘{Z aVmñVm: g§{d{XÀN>m{H«$¶m:,
gd}fm‘namojJm: ñdagXmñVX²dmL²>‘ZàmUJm:&
lmo̧ ZoÌ{‘{VÛ¶§ gh{hV§ VÝZm‘ê$nmpÝdV§,
VËnÄMopÝжg§¶‘mV² g‘{‘¶mV² Yr¶moJgÎdmÝd¶‘²&&
àmUmo@¶§ ~{haÝVa߶ZwnX§ {Z˶§ Ma˶mË‘Z:,
àmUmnmZJVo: ñd^mdJwUV: gÄOmJ¥dm±píMËñdZ:&
emÝ˶mÝV: gw{Zarú¶Vm§ g‘Ñem Yr{^: g‘m{^: g‘§,
{MÚmoJoZ {Z¶å¶Vm§ àJ{VX§ gÎd§ {dXm@Ýdr¶Vm‘²&
‘ybmXmË‘{MVm ö{X ñ’w$a{V dmJ² ¶m@Oò¶m Yma¶m,
¶m@hpÄMËñdagmpÝdVm@{n M namJ² d¥Î¶m {Y¶m@nma¶m&
dmM¡d à{V¶moO¶Z² Bh V¶m Jm¶{Ì‘ÝÌmja§,
N>ÝX:g§{hV‘wÀMaoV² gw‘Zgm àmUmÝd¶mV² gwñda‘²&&
‘ÝÌmW© à{V^md¶oÁOn{dYm¡ ñdmÝV: gwYr g§¶‘o,
eãXmZm‘{n MmÝd¶mX² ag{ZYm¡ gX²^mdZmg“‘o&
VX²^mdoZ g‘J«‘ÝÌ{d{XV§ {X춧 gXWm©Ë‘H§$,
ܶm¶oV² VV² g{dVw: ñdê$nH$na§ Á¶mo{V: namË‘mW©H$‘²&&
ñdmÝV: ñdmoÀM[aV§ ñ‘¥V§ M ‘Zgm ^y¶mo {Y¶m ^m{dV§,
ñdmÝV: lmoÌ‘wIoZ gwñda‘¶§ ûm¥ÊdZ² Ëñd‘ÝÌmja‘²&
~mô¶§ ñdmÝVa‘od dm@ä¶{Z{‘fZ² ní¶Z² ~{híMjwfm,
{Xì¶Á¶m¡{Vfbä¶Vmo@ÝVaÑem ê$n§ na§ {MÝV¶oV²&&

4. Yr ¶moJ
{dÛÚk:

{dÛÚk‘¶mo@¶‘mÝVaV‘¡F©$pËdH²$na¡YupÝж¡:,
öÚ: ñdmË‘g‘Ýd¶od na‘: ñ¶mÝ‘Ý̶moJmoX¶:&
gÚmoJmXþ{XV: à‘mXa{hV: ñdmÝV: à~moYmoÀM¶mV²,
gÚ: ñdmË‘{Z gåàgmXH$b¶m g§{dËàH$memoX¶:&&
dm½YmoVm@Ì F$Mm@@ôd¶Z² {X{dfXmo OwôdX² dfQ²>H$madmZ²,
gmo@Üd¶w©¶©Owfm ¶OZ² g‘Ñem gm¡¶}U {MÀMjwfm&
CX²JmVm ñdagm‘Jm¶Zna: àmU: g EoÝÐmo@ÝVa:,
~«÷m¶k{ZarjH$: gw‘Zgm lmoÌmË‘H$mo@½ZrÀN®>V:&&
EVofm{‘h F$pËdOm§ g‘‘Vo: ñdmÝV¶©Yr¶moJV:,
{Xì¶mo ¶kaWíMa˶ZwJVodm©L²>‘mZg¡H$ml¶mV²&
g§{dX²-^mdZ-H$‘©¶moJ‘wIV: gdm©W©{g{ÕàXm,
Jm¶Ìr na‘Ý̶moJagXm ñ¶mV² à{H«$¶¡fm gXm&&
dmMmoÀMma‘wImV² ñdaldUV: ñnîQ>mja§ dm{MH§$,
{Oôdm¡îR>moÀMbZmV² ñdamldU^mH²$ gyú‘mXþnm§ew ñda‘²&
VÝ‘ÝÌmjag§ñdañ‘aUVmo ‘m¡ZoZ gÝ‘mZg§,
‘ÝÌmUm§ OnZ§ {h emñÌ{d{hV§ ÌoYm à¶moJmË‘H$‘²&&
VÝ‘ÝÌmjadñVw~moYnaH§$ kmZ§ VXmܶmË‘H§$,
VoOmoܶmZ‘wnmgZmW©naH§$ gX²^mdZmH$maH$‘²&
‘ÝÌmUm§ OnZ§ Vw dm{MH$H¥$Vo: H$‘©àYmZmW©H§$,
kmZmonmgZH$‘©Um{‘{VH¥$Vo¶m}Jmo ^doÝ‘ÝÌV:&&
à˶jmo{O©VdoXemgZ‘wImX² Jm¶{Ì‘ÝÌml¶mZ²,
{ZîH$m‘mM[aVoZ gpÝZ¶‘V: ñ¶mV² H$‘©¶moJmoX¶:&
{Z˶monmgZ¶m@@Ë‘empÝVé[X¶mV² àkm à{VîR>m{XZm,
^y¶mX² ~«÷{U {Z˶H$‘©gH$b§ VX² {dídemÝVo: H¥$Vo&&
{ZîH$m‘mV² H¥$V‘߶b§ àH¥${VVmo ì¶Wª Z VV² ñ¶mÝ‘¥fm,
{Zîà˶yhV¶m ’$b§ à{V^doV² g˶§ ¶WmWm©{efm&
{dídñ¶¡d gwempÝVgÎdH$aUo ¶wº§$ g‘Wª g‘§,
¶mdÁOrd{‘X§ {dXm§ gw¶OZ§ {Z˶m{Zdm¶ª gVm‘²&&

81

82
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
BZ ‘ÝÌm| H$m empãXH$ AW© H${R>Z Zht h¡, {H$ÝVw BZH$m dmñV{dH$ AW© Jwé Ûmam
hr grIm Om gH$Vm h¡& AV: BZHo$ AW© Ho$ ~Xbo Aݶ àH$ma go Yr-¶moJ H$s ì¶m»¶m
H$s Om ahr h¡&
3. EH$Ëd ÑpîQ>-¶h g^r kmZ H$m AmYma h¡ VWm B©emdmñ¶mon{ZfX² ‘| Bg ê$n ‘|
CëboI h¡¶ñVw gdm©{U ^yVmݶmˑݶodmZwní¶{V& gd©^yVofw MmË‘mZ§ VVmo Z {dOwJwßgVo&6&&
¶pñ‘Z² gdm©{U ^yVmݶmË‘¡dm^yX² {dOmZV:& VÌ H$mo ‘moh: H$: emoH$: EH$Ëd‘Zwní¶V:&7&
Omo g^r à{U¶m| H$mo (na‘-) AmË‘m ‘| hr gXm XoIVm h¡, VWm g^r àm{U¶m| ‘|
AmË‘m H$mo XoIVm h¡, CgHo$ ~mX dh {H$gr go K¥Um Zht H$aVm& Omo g^r àm{U¶m|
H$mo AmË‘m (AnZo) g‘mZ nyar Vah g‘PVm h¡, Cgo H$moB© ‘moh, emoH$ Zht hmoVm VWm
dh g^r ‘| EH$Ëd H$m AZw^d H$aVm h¡&
ní¶V: H$m AW© XoIZm h¡, AZwní¶V: CgHo$ ~mX H$m AZw^d h¡& Cna go g^r
AbJ-AbJ XrIVo h¢, ~mX ‘| {dMma H$aZo na EH$ hr bJVo h§¡&
¶hr ÑpîQ> g^r Y‘m] VWm {dkmZ H$m AmYma h¡& Bgo H$B© àH$ma go H$hm J¶m h¡gdª IpëdX§ ~«÷ (N>mÝXmo½¶ Cn{ZfX² 3/14/1 Am{X)
EH$mo der gd©^yVmÝVamË‘m (H$R>mon{ZfX² 5/12 Am{X)
EH$mo Xod: gd©^yVofw JyT>: (ídoVmídVa Cn{ZfX² 6/11)
¶m Bbmh Bb² Bëbmh (Hw$aAmZ H$m àmaå^)= Omo Hw$N> h¡, dh Aëbmh h¡, CgHo$ {gdm
Hw$N> Zht h¡&
BgHo$ H$B© AW© h¢(1) g§gma ‘| {dkmZ Ho$ {Z¶‘ g^r ñWmZ VWm g^r g‘¶ EH$ hr h¢& {~Zm
Bg YmaUm Ho$ H$moB© {dkmZ Zht hmo gH$Vm& AV: ¶h H$hZm JbV h¡ {H$ {dkmZ VWm
Y‘© H$m H$moB© gå~ÝY Zht h¡& Y‘© ‘| ~«÷ Ho$ EH$Îd na hr {dkmZ AmYm[aV h¡& O¡go
h‘ ¶h ‘mZH$a MbVo h¢ {H$ ^maV Ho$ {H$gr ñWmZ ‘| Ob Ho$ EH$ AUw ‘| hmBS´>moOZ
Ho$ 2 VWm Am°³grOZ H$m 1 na‘mUw hmoVo h¢, Vmo ¶hr A‘o[aH$m VWm ~«÷mÊS> Ho$ Xÿgao
N>moa na ^r hmoJm VWm ha g‘¶ hmoJm& Zht Vmo {dkmZ Ho$ {Z¶‘ ha g‘¶ ha ñWmZ
Ho$ {b¶o ~XbZo n‹S>|Jo VWm h‘ Hw$N> g‘P Zht nm¶|Jo&
(2) g^r ^mfmAm| ‘| eãXm| H$m g‘mZ AW© hmoVm h¡& ¶{X bmoJm| Ho$ {b¶o BgH$m
‘Z‘mZm AW© hmoZo bJo Vmo H$moB© {H$gr go ~mV Zht H$a nm¶oJm&

4. Yr ¶moJ
83
(3) g^r ì¶{º$ ‘ybV: EH$ hr àH$ma Ho$ h¢& CZH$s emar[aH$ VWm ‘mZ{gH$ d¥{Îm¶m§
EH$ g‘mZ h¢& Bgr AmYma na h‘mam ì¶dhma hmoVm h¡& h‘ ¶h ‘mZ H$a MbVo h¢ {H$
h‘| ¶{X {‘M© VrIr bJVr h¡ Vmo Xÿgao H$mo ^r bJoJr & g^r bmoJm| ¶m nyao g‘mO Ho$
{b¶o EH$ Y‘© ì¶dñWm H$m ^r ¶hr AmYma h¡& Cg‘| ^r ¶h ‘mZ H$a MbVo h¢ {H$ h‘|
Omo R>rH$ bJVm h¡, dhr Xÿgao H$mo bJoJm VWm Y‘© ‘| dhr ì¶dñWm hmoJr&
(4) g^r ì¶{º$ EH$ hr {b{n H$m à¶moJ H$aVo h¢& Zht Vmo H$moB© ^mfm Zht Mb
nm¶oJr& eãXm| VWm {b{n H$m EH$ ñdê$n H$moB© gd©‘mݶ ì¶{º$ hr {ZYm©[aV H$a gH$Vm
h¡, {Ogo ~«÷m, AmX‘ ¶m MrZ ‘| ’$mZ H$hm J¶m h¡&
(5) g§gma ‘| g^r EH$ Xÿgao go gå~pÝYV h¢& H$B© ~mVm| ‘| EH$ Xÿgao na {Z^©aVm
XrIVr h¡& g¥pîQ> H$s EH$ hr {H«$¶m VWm EH$ òîQ>m Ûmam hr Eogm hmo gH$Vm h¡& doX
‘| {díd Ho$ 3 ñVam| H$mo nañna gå~pÝYV ‘mZm J¶m h¡-Am{Y^m¡{VH$ (n¥Ïdr na
XrIVm h¡), Am{YX¡{dH$ (AmH$me ‘| Á¶mo{Vfr¶ {nÊS>), AmܶmpË‘H$ (eara Ho$
^rVa)& BgHo$ AZwgma ‘ÝÌm| Ho$ 3 àH$ma Ho$ AW© h¢& ¶h à˶jV: ñnîQ> Zht h¡, na
{díd H$s aMZm H$m AmYma h¡& EH$ ‘V go 5 àH$ma Ho$ ^r AW© h¢ (V¡{Îmar¶ Cn{ZfX²,
erjm dëbr)
(6) ^JdmZ EH$ hr h¢, EH$ ì¶{º$ H$m ^JdmZ Xÿgao go AbJ Zht h¡& AV: Y‘©
n[adV©Z Y‘©-{déÕ h¡, dh ^JdmZ H$mo 2 H$a XoVm h¡& AÛ¡V H$m AW© {ZamH$ma Zht
h¡& BgH$m AW© h¡ {H$ {ZamH$ma VWm g^r àH$ma Ho$ gmH$ma ê$nm| ‘| EH$ hr ‘yb VÎd
h¡&
(7) h‘mao kmZ H$m AmYma h¡ g^r emñÌm| ‘| g‘Ýd¶& ~«÷gyÌ Ho$ àW‘ 4 gyÌ h¢AWmVmo ~«÷ {Okmgm& OÝ‘mÚñ¶ ¶V:& emñ̶mo{ZËdmV²& VÎmw g‘Ýd¶mV²&
~«÷ ¶m g§gma H$mo OmZZo H$s BÀN>m go hr kmZ hmoVm h¡& ~«÷ H$m AW© h¡ {Oggo g§gma
H$m OÝ‘ Am{X ({dH$mg, j¶, ‘aU Am{X) hmoVm h¡& CgH$m kmZ emñÌ go hr gå^d
h¡& ¶hm± ¶h gÝXoh hmo gH$Vm h¡ {H$ ܶmZ ¶m g‘m{Y Am{X {d{Y¶m§ ³¶m n¶m©ßV Zht
h¢& BgH$m g‘mYmZ h¡ {H$ H$moB© ^r ì¶{º$ nyU© Zht h¡& emñÌ {díd Ho$ ‘hmZ² ì¶{º$¶m|
Ho$ kmZ H$m gL²>H$bZ h¡& ¶h ~«÷ H$m eãX ‘| 춺$ ê$n h¡& Bg‘| ^r H$B© àH$ma ¶m
{damoY XrIVo h¢& CZHo$ g‘Ýd¶ go hr kmZ hmoVm h¡& BgH$m AW© h¡ {H$ ^m¡{VH$ {dkmZ
VWm J{UV ‘| H$moB© {damoY Zht h¡& BZ XmoZm| go agm¶Z {dkmZ VWm Aݶ emñÌ g‘Po
Om gH$Vo h¢& g^r H$m ‘mܶ‘ ^mfm h¡& AV: {H$gr emñÌ H$s Cnojm Zht hmo gH$Vr&

84
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
CZH$m g‘Ýd¶ hr dmñV{dH$ {d{Y VWm gmYZ h¡&
(8) h‘mao {gÕmÝVm| H$m AmYma h¡, EH$Ëd H$m Xe©Z& h‘ AbJ AbJ dñVwAm| ‘|
g‘mZVm XoIH$a CZH$m dJ© ~ZmVo h¢& {’$a AbJ AbJ dJm] ‘| gå~ÝY ImoOH$a
CZH$m ^oX VWm gå~ÝY XoIVo h¢& Bgr go {dkmZ Ho$ {gÕmÝV hmoVo h¢& BgH$m {deof
dU©Z {ÛËd ‘| hmoJm&
(9) à¶moJ ¶m àmH¥${VH$ {H«$¶mAm| Ho$ n¶©dojU go Omo kmZ hmoVm h¡, dh H$B© ~ma
nañna {damoYr bJVm h¡& BZ g~H$m {Zînj {gÕmÝV Ho$ AZwgma g‘Ýd¶ hr ghr
{ZîH$f© XoVm h¡& àm¶: h‘ AnZr loîR>Vm {XImZo Ho$ {b¶o ¶m nydm©J«h H$mo à‘m{UV
H$aZo Ho$ {b¶o AbJ AbJ pñW{V¶m| ‘| AbJ AbJ {Z¶‘ bJmVo h¢& ¶h kmZ àmpßV
‘| ~mYH$ h¡&
4. {ÛËd-{ÛËd ¶m Û¡VdmX H$m ¶h AW© Zht h¡ {H$ ~«÷ 2 h¢& ~«÷ EH$ hr h¡,
na Cgo g‘PZo Ho$ 2 àH$ma h¢& g¥pîQ> H$m {Z‘m©U ^r 2 àH$ma H$s {H«$¶mAm| Ûmam hþAm&
BgHo$ H$B© ê$n h¢(1) ^oX-g§gma H$m ‘yb EH$ hr àH$ma H$m g‘ê$n nXmW© h¡, {Ogo ag H$hm J¶m h¡¶Û¡ VV² gwH¥$V§, agmo d¡ g:& (V¡{Îmar¶ Cn{ZfX², 2/7/2)& g§gma ‘| {Z‘m©Vm,
{Z‘m©U gm‘J«r, ñWmZ Am{X g^r EH$ hr h¢, Eogo {Z‘m©U H$mo gwH¥$V H$hm J¶m h¡&
~mB{~b ‘| BgH$m AZwdmX h¡, {H$ ha ñVa Ho$ ~mX ^JdmZ² Zo H$hm {H$ ~hþV AÀN>m
{Z‘m©U hþAm h¡& dh AnZo H$mo à‘mU nÌ Zht Xo aho Wo&
(2) Û¡V ê$n-¶{X ha dñVw EH$ hr g‘mZ hmo, Vmo H$moB© g¥pîQ> Zht hmo gH$Vr& H$moB©
ÐîQ>m ¶m Ñí¶ Zht hmoJm& ^oX H$m Amaå^ Û¡V go hþAm& BgHo$ H$B© ê$n h¢(H$) nwéf-ñÌr-òîQ>m Zo {Z‘m©U Ho$ {b¶o AnZo H$mo 2 ê$nm| ‘| {d^º$ {H$¶m, {Ogo
nwéf-àH¥${V H$hm J¶m h¡& {Z‘m©U gm‘J«r H$mo àH¥${V H$hm J¶m h¡& àH¥${V OÝ‘ XoZo
dmbo Ho$ ê$n ‘| ‘mVm h¡& ‘mVa² go A§J«oOr ‘| ‘¡Q>a (matter) hþAm h¡& {Z‘m©U H$Îmm©
MoVZ VÎd H$mo nwéf H$hm J¶m h¡& Bgr AW© ‘| {Z‘m©U H$Îmm© H$mo {nVm VWm {Z‘m©U
ñWmZ H$mo ‘mVm H$hm J¶m h¡& gy¶© {H$aUm| go n¥Ïdr na g¥pîQ> hþ¶r, AV: gy¶© {nVm h¡&
n¥Ïdr na {Z‘m©U hmo ahm h¡ VWm ¶ht H$s gm‘J«r ^r h¡, AV: n¥Ïdr ‘mVm h¡& gy¶© H$m
{Z‘m©U ~«÷mÊS> ‘| hþAm, dh {nVm‘h h¡& CgH$m {Z‘m©Vm ñd¶å^y à{nVm‘h h¡-{dîUw
ghòZm‘ ‘| EH$ Zm‘&
(I) d¥fm-¶mofm-Omo dfm© H$aVm h¡ dh d¥fm ¶m nwéf h¡& J«hU H$aZo dmbm ¶m ¶wº$

4. Yr ¶moJ
85
hmoZo dmbm ¶mofm ¶m ñÌr h¡& gy¶© go {H$aU| {ZH$bVr h¢, AV: dh nwéf h¡& n¥Ïdr J«hU
H$aZo dmbr ñÌr h¡& MÝБm ^r Ho$db J«hU H$aVm h¡, AV: Cgo ñÌr J«h H$hm J¶m h¡&
d¥hñn{V {OVZm J«hU H$aVm h¡, Cggo A{YH$ {d{H$aU Cggo {ZH$bVm h¡, AV: dh
nwéf J«h h¡& n¥Ïdr Ho$ {ZH$Q> Ho$ J«hm| ‘| ewH«$ A{YH$ VoO boVm h¡, AV: ñÌr J«h VWm
‘§Jb H$‘ àH$me boZo dmbm nwéf J«h h¡& gy¶© Ho$ ~hþV {ZH$Q> H$m ~wY VWm Xÿa H$m
e{Z Znw§gH$ J«h h¢-BZH$m ~hþV H$‘ àH$me ¶hm§ {‘bVm h¡&
(J) XodVm-Omo VÎd EH$ gr‘m Ho$ ^rVa h¡, ¶m {dÝXþ ê$n àVrH$ ‘mÌ h¡-Cgo nwéf
H$hVo h¢& Omo EH$ joÌ ‘| ’¡$bm h¡, Cgo ñÌr XodVm H$hVo h¢& O¡go {Z‘m©U ‘| VrZ nwéf
ê$n Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 3 nmX h¢-òîQ>m H$mo ~«÷m, Ñí¶ VoO H$mo {dîUw VWm gL²>H$ën ¶m
‘Z H$mo {ed H$hVo h¡& BZHo$ joÌ ê$nm| H$mo ñÌr H$hm OmVm h¡& {Z‘m©U H$m ‘yb ñWmZ
AÝYH$ma‘¶ ‘hmH$mbr h¡& Ñí¶ OJV² ‘hmbú‘r (bú¶ = Ñí¶), VWm kmZ H$m
{dñVma ‘hm-gañdVr h¡&
(K) Ap½Z-gmo‘-EH$ gr‘m Ho$ ^rVa gKZ nXmW© ¶m D$ÁOm© H$mo Ap½Z H$hVo h¡&
gr‘m go ~mha ’¡$bZo go CgH$m KZËd H$‘ hmo OmVm h¡-¶h ê$n gmo‘ h¡& gm¡a ‘ÊS>b
Ho$ gKZ {nÊS> Ho$ ê$n ‘| n¥Ïdr Ap½Z h¡& Vmn H$m ^r gKZ ê$n Ap½Z h¡& AmH$me ‘|
VoOnwÄO gy¶© Ap½Z h¡, AnojmH¥$V H$‘ Vmn MÝÐ Ho$ nmg h¡, Ohm§ g¥pîQ> gå^d h¡,
AV: Cgo gmo‘ H$hVo h¢&
(L>) àmU (J{Verb e{º$) VWm a{¶ (g§{MV e{º$) ^r BgHo$ 2 ê$n h¢&
(3) gÄMa-à{V gÄMa- ¶h gm§»¶ Xe©Z H$s eãXmdbr h¡& gÄMa H$m AW© h¡ J{V&
à{V gÄMa {dnarV J{V h¡& Xmo àH$ma H$s {dnarV {H«$¶mAm| go {díd H$m H$m¶© MbVm
h¡& Bgo 2 àH$ma H$s {Z¶{V (n[aUm‘, Zr¶V = CÔoí¶) ^r H$hm J¶m h¡& AV: {díd
H$mo {Û{Z¶{V (Xþ{Z¶m) ^r H$hVo h¢& B©emdmñ¶mon{ZfX² ‘| Bgo gå^y{V-Agå^y{V H$hm
J¶m h¡AÝY§ V‘: à{depÝV ¶o@gå^y{V‘wnmgVo& VVmo ^y¶ Bd Vo V‘mo ¶ C gå^y˶m± aVm:&12&
AݶXodmhþ: gå^dmXݶXmhþagå^dmV²& B{V ewlw‘ YramUm§ ¶o ZñVX² {dMM{jao&13&
gå^yqV M {dZme§ M ¶ñVX² doXmo^¶± gh& {dZmeoZ ‘¥Ë¶w§ VrËdm© gå^y˶m‘¥V‘íZwVo&14&
gå^y{V {Z‘m©U H$s {H«$¶m h¡, CgH$m {dnarV {dZme h¡& {dZme H$m¶© go bJVm h¡ {H$
‘Zwî¶ AÝYH$ma ‘| OmVm h¡& na AmíM¶© h¡ {H$ gå^y{V H$m CnmgH$ Am¡a KZo AÝYH$ma
‘| OmVm h¡& H$maU h¡ {H$ H$moB© Z¶m {Z‘m©U Zht hmoVm, nwamZm hr Z¶o ê$n ‘| AmVm

86
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
h¡& nwamZo ê$n H$m {dZme ^r gÝVw{bV ê$n ‘| H$aZm n‹S>Vm h¡& CgH$m ‘moh ahZo go
ì¶{º$ AH$‘©Ê¶ hmoH$a A{YH$ AÝYH$ma ‘| OmVm h¡& {dZme H$m ‘‘© g‘P H$a ‘¥Ë¶w
VH$ H$s ¶mÌm nma hmoVr h¡& Cn¶moJr {Z‘m©U H$aZo go ‘Zwî¶ A‘a hmo OmVm h¡, na
CgHo$ {b¶o XmoZm| H$m gÝVwbZ Oê$ar h¡&
(4) {dÚm-A{dÚm-¶h XmoZm| {dnarV bJVo h¢& g‘mݶV: {dÚm H$m AW© kmZ ‘mZVo
h¢& naÝVw A{dÚm H$m AW© kmZ H$m A^md ¶m AkmZ Zht h¡& {dX²>¶m H$m AW© g‘Ýd¶
¶m EH$sH$aU h¡& A{dÚm H$m AW© h¡ Anam {dÚm ¶m dJuH$aU& AmO Bgo hr {dkmZ
H$hVo h¢& A‘aH$mof ‘| ^r H$hm h¡-‘mojo Yrkm©Z‘Ý¶Ì {dkmZ§ {eënemñ̶mo:&
Bgo ‘wÊS>H$mon{ZfX²> ‘| Am¡a ñnîQ> {H$¶m J¶m h¡Ûo {dÚo do{XVì¶o B{V h ñ‘ ¶X² ~«÷{dXmo dXpÝV nam M¡dmnam M&4&
VÌmnam F$½doXmo ¶Owd}X: gm‘doXmo@Wd©doX: {ejm H$ënmo ì¶mH$aU§ {Z麧$ N>ÝXmo
Á¶mo{Vf{‘{V& AW nam ¶¶m VXja‘{YJå¶Vo&&5&&
AWm©V² ~«÷{dX² 2 àH$ma H$s {dÚm H$hVo h¢, nam VWm Anam& Cg‘| nam H$m {d^mOZ
2 doXm| VWm 6 A“m| ‘| hþAm& nam dh h¡ {Oggo Aja (A{dZmer ~«÷) H$r àmpßV
hmo, AWm©V² g~‘| EH$Ëd H$m Xe©Z hmo&
B©emdmñ¶mon{ZfX² BZ 2 àH$ma H$s YmamAm| H$m g‘Ýd¶ H$hVm h¡¶ñVw gdm©{U ^yVmݶmˑݶodmZwní¶{V& gd©^yVofw MmË‘mZ§ VVmo Z {dOwJwßgVo&6&
¶pñ‘Z² gdm©{U ^yVmݶmË‘¡dm^yX² {dOmZV:& VÌ H$mo ‘moh: H$: emoH$: EH$Ëd‘Zwní¶V:&7&
Omo g^r ^yVm| H$mo AnZo ‘| VWm g^r ‘| AnZo H$mo XoIVm h¡, Cgo gÝXoh Zht hmoVm&
g^r ^yVm| H$mo AnZo g‘mZ g‘OZo na H$moB© ‘moh ¶m emoH$ Zht hmoVm, dh ^oX XoIZona
^r EH$Ëd H$m ~mX ‘| AZw^d H$aVm h¡& ní¶{V H$m AW© h¡ XoIZm-~mha go AbJ
AbJ XrIVm h¡& CgHo$ ~mX VÎd ê$n ‘| EH$Ëd H$m AZw^d hmoVm h¡& ~mX H$s {H«$¶m
Ho$ {b¶o AZw CngJ© h¡-AZwní¶V:&
g n¶©JmÀNw>H«$‘H$m¶‘d«U‘ñZm{da§ ewÕ‘nmn{dÕ‘²&
H${d‘©Zrfr n[a^y: ñd¶å^y¶m©WmV϶Vmo@Wm©Z² ì¶XYmÀN>mídVrä¶: g‘mä¶:&&8&&
‘yb VÎd A춺$ h¡& Cggo {Z‘m©U Ho$ {b¶o H$B© AmdaUm| ‘| KoaZm (n¶©JmV²) n‹S>Vm h¡&
{Z‘m©Vm H$mo H${d H$hm J¶m h¡& dh AZÝV ’¡$bo nXmW© H$mo H$db (EH$ ~ma ‘| ^moOZ
J«hU H$aZo H$s ‘mÌm-H$m¡a) ‘| ~m§Q> H$a nXmW© ~ZmVm h¡& ^mfm H$m H${d ^r eãXm| H$mo

4. Yr ¶moJ
87
N>ÝX (dm³¶ ¶m H$mì¶ Ho$ N>ÝX-nmX) ‘| ~m§Q> H$a aMZm H$aVm h¡& {Z‘m©U Ho$ H$maU
¶o AÝVa hmoVo h¢A춺$ ‘yb
춺$ {Z‘m©U
ewH«$ (VoO)
V‘ (춺$ dmUr ‘| Hw$N> {N>n OmVm h¡)
AH$m¶
H$m¶m-¶wº$ (eara H$m AmH$ma àH$ma)
Ad«U
d«U (H$‘ A{YH$ H$m ^oX, Kmd ¶m jV)
AñZm{da
ñZm{da (^mJm| ‘| nañna gå~ÝY-ñZm¶w gyÌ go)
ewÕ
AewÕ (H$B© àH$ma Ho$ VÎdm| H$m {‘lU)
Anmn{dÕ nmn{dÕ (H$B© IÊS>m| ‘| ~§Q>m, {d^mOH$ joÌ nmn h¡)
H${d ‘Zrfr hmoZo Ho$ H$maU n[a^y {H«$¶m Ûmam ñd¶å^y hmoVm h¡&
AÝY§ V‘: à{depÝV ¶o@{dÚm‘wnmgVo& VVmo ^y¶ Bd Vo V‘mo ¶ C {dÚm¶m± aVm:&9&
Omo Ho$db EH$ àH$ma H$s emIm (A{dÚm) H$m Aܶ¶Z H$aVm h¡ (VWm Cggo Aݶ H$m
gå~ÝY Zht OmZVm), dh nyU© kmZ go dpÄMV AÝYH$ma ‘| ahVm h¡& Cggo ^r KZo
AÝYH$ma ‘| dh h¡, Omo Ho$db {dÚm ‘| aV h¡, AWm©V² Ho$db EH$Ëd ‘mZVm h¡ na {H$Z
AbJ-AbJ MrOm| (A{dÚm) H$m EH$Ëd h¡, ¶h Zht OmZVm&
AݶXodmhþ{d©Ú¶mXݶXmhþa{dÚ¶m& B{V ewlw‘ YramUm§ ¶o ZñVX² {dMM{jao&10&
{dÚm§ Mm{dÚm§ M ¶ñVX² doXmo^¶± gh& A{dÚ¶m ‘¥Ë¶w§ VrËdm© {dÚ¶m‘¥V‘íZwVo&11&
Hw$N> H$hVo h¢ {H$ {dÚm Ûmam kmZ hmoVm h¡& Hw$N> A{dÚm Ûmam H$hVo h¢-Eogm ‘¢Zo Yra
{dMmaH$m| go gwZm h¡& {ZîH$f© ¶h h¡ {H$ {dÚm-A{dÚm XmoZm| H$m hr kmZ Oê$ar h¡&
A{dÚm Ûmam OrdZ-¶mnZ hmoVm h¡, AWm©V² ‘¥Ë¶w H$mo nma H$aVm h¡& {dÚm go A‘a
hmoVm h¡&
(5) {gÕmÝV-à¶moJ- BZH$m g‘Ýd¶ hr g^r {dkmZm| H$m AmYma h¡& h‘ ì¶dhma ‘|
Omo XoIVo h¢, CgH$s ì¶m»¶m H$aZo Ho$ {b¶o {gÕmÝV ~ZmVo h¢& Z¶o à¶moJm| go {gÕmÝV
‘| O~ ^yb XrIVr h¡, V~ CZH$m g§emoYZ H$aVo h¢&
(6) {dH$ën-{dH$ën H$m Xe©Z H$a nmZm hr ~w{Õ‘Îmm H$m {MôZ h¡& Bgo hr
AZoH$mÝVdmX H$hm J¶m h¡& J{UV Ho$ H$B© àH$ma Ho$ {ZîH$f© hmo gH$Vo h¢& ha ‘mn ¶m
JUZm ‘| Hw$N> ^yb H$s gå^mdZm ahVr h¡& AV: h‘mao {ZîH$f© Ho$ {ZH$Q> dmñV{dH$
g˶ AZÝV àH$ma Ho$ hmo gH$Vo h¢& nydm©J«h ¶m AhL²>H$ma Ho$ H$maU h‘ {dH$ën Zht
XoI nmVo h¢& {dH$ën XoIZo H$s j‘Vm H$mo ~w{Õ‘mZr VWm CgHo$ [dnarV A{dnpíMV

88
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
H$mo ‘yI© H$hm J¶m h¡¶m{‘‘m§ nwpînVm§ dmM§ àdXÝ˶{dnpíMV:&
doXdmXaVm nmW© ZmݶXñVr{Vdm{XZ:& (JrVm 2/46)
¶hm§ bJVm h¡ {H$ JrVm ‘| doX nmR>H$m| H$s {ZÝXm H$s J¶r h¡, O~{H$ JrVm H$mo doX H$m
àñWmZ ‘mZm OmVm h¡& na BgH$m ^md h¡ {H$ Omo doX Ho$ Ho$db EH$ hr dmX H$mo ‘mZVo
h¢ VWm Xÿgao H$m {damoY H$aVo h¢, do {dH$ën XoIZo ‘| Ag‘W© ¶m ‘yI© h¢&
5. {ÌËd-Jm¶Ìr N>ÝX ‘| AW© Ho$ {b¶o 3 nmX h¢& g¥pîQ> H$m {Z‘m©U ^r àH¥${V Ho$
3 JwUm| Ûmam hþAm& 3 àH$ma go kmZ àmpßV H$hr J¶r h¡, CZH$m à¶moJ ^r 3 àH$ma
go hmoVm h¡& kmZ àmpßV ‘| 3 VÎd h¢-kmZ, ko¶, n[akmVm& H$‘© ^r 3 H$maU go h¡kmZ, H$‘©, H$Îmm©& JrVm ‘| BZH$m dU©Z h¡àH¥$Vo: {H«$¶‘mUm{Z JwU¡: H$‘m©{U gd©e:&
AhL²>H$ma{d‘yT>mË‘m H$Vm©h{‘{V ‘ݶVo& (3/27)
{Ì{^Jw©U‘¶¡^m©d¡ao{^: gd©{‘X§ OJV²&
‘mo{hV§ Zm{^OmZm{V ‘m‘oä¶: na‘춶‘²& (7/13)
kmZ§ ko¶§ n[akmVm {Ì{dYm H$‘©MmoXZm&
H$aU§ H$‘© H$Îm}{V {Ì{dY: H$‘© g§J«h:& (18/18)
kmZ§ H$‘© M H$Vm© M {ÌY¡d JwU^oXV:&
àmoÀ¶Vo JwUg§»¶mZo ¶WmdÀN¥>Uw Vmݶ{n&(18/19)
H$‘m] H$m ’$b ^r 3 àH$ma H$m h¡A{ZîQ>{‘îQ>§ {‘l§ M {Ì{dY: H$‘©U: ’$b‘²& (18/12)
B©emdmñ¶mon{ZfX² ‘| {dÚm-A{dÚm ì¶m»¶m Ho$ AZwê$n 3 n«H$ma Ho$ kmZ JrVm ‘| H$ho
J¶o h¢-gmpÎdH$, amOg VWm Vm‘{gH$gd©^yVofw ¶oZ¡H§$ ^md‘춶‘rjVo&
A{d^º§$ {d^ºo$fw VÁkmZ§ {d{Õ gmpÎdH$‘²& (18/20)
n¥W³ËdoZ§ Vw ¶ÁkmZ§ ZmZm^mdmÝn¥Wp½dYmZ²&
do{Îm gd}fw ^yVofw VÁkmZ§ {d{Õ amOg‘²&&(18/21)
¶Îmw H¥$ËñZdXoH$pñ‘ÝH$m¶} gº$‘h¡VwH$‘²&
AVÎdmW©dXën§ M VÎmm‘g‘wXmöV‘²&(18/22)
¶moJ Xe©Z ‘| ^r 3 à‘mU H$ho J¶o h¢-à˶jmZw‘mZmJ‘m: à‘mUm{Z (1/1/7)

4. Yr ¶moJ
89
ݶm¶ Xe©Z ‘| AZw‘mZ VWm Cn‘mZ H$mo {‘bm H$a 4 à‘mU H$ho J¶o h¢à˶jmZw‘mZmon‘mZeãXm: à‘mUm{Z (1/1/3)
doX H$mo eãX VWm AmJ‘ H$hm J¶m h¡& AmJ‘ H$m AW© h¡ ¶h àH¥${V ¶m n[adoe go
àmßV hmoVm h¡& eãX H$m AW© h¡ {H$ eãX-ñne©-ê$n-ag-JÝY, BZ 5 ‘mܶ‘m| go kmZ
hmoVm h¡& ¶o 5 kmZopÝжm| Ho$ {df¶ h¢& Bgr AW© ‘| doX H$mo lw[V ^r H$hm J¶m h¡&
J{UV ‘| ^r VwbZm 3 àH$ma go H$s OmVr h¡-H$‘, ~am~a, A{YH$& à˶j H$m AW©
dmñV{dH$ AZw^d h¡& eãX ¶m lw{V Ho$ AW© Ho$ AZwgma doX Ho$db ¶hr hmoZm Mm{h¶o
Wm& na ¶h doX Ho$ kmZ àmßV H$aZo H$m Amaå^ ‘mÌ h¡& doX ‘| AmܶmpË‘H$,
Am{YX¡{dH$, VWm A{Y^m¡{VH$ {dídm| ‘| {H«$¶mAm| H$m g‘Ýd¶ g‘PZo na hr nyU© kmZ
hmoVm h¡ {Ogo h‘ doX H$hVo h¢& AV: H$moB© {gÕmÝV V^r g~ àH$ma go g˶ hmoJm O~
dh 3 {dídm| ‘| g˶ hmo, ¶hr doX àm‘mʶ h¡& doXm{X ^mî¶ ^y{‘H$m ‘| gm¶U Ho$
CÕaU H$m ¶hr AW© h¡à˶joUmZw{‘˶m dm ¶ñVynm¶mo Z ~wܶVo& EZ§ {dXpÝV doXoZ Vñ‘mX² doXñ¶ doXVm&
epãXH$ VH©$ ‘| 3 àH$ma Ho$ {ZU©¶ h¢-g˶, Ag˶, ñ¶mV² (em¶X)& BZ 3 H$mo
{‘bmH$a O¡Z-Xe©Z ‘| 7 àH$ma Ho$ {ZU©¶ {H$¶o OmVo h¢& AV: Bgo gßV^“r ݶm¶
H$hVo h¢& 3 VWm 7 n«H$ma Ho$ g˶ H$m CëboI doX Ho$ àW‘ gyº$ ‘| h¡¶o {ÌfßVm: n[a¶pÝV {dídm:& (AWd© 1/1/1)
¶hr nwéf gyº$ VWm ^mJdV nwamU ‘| ^JdmZ H¥$îU H$s ñVw{V ‘| 춺$ {H$¶m J¶m h¡gßVmñ¶mgÝn[aY¶pñÌ: gßV g{‘Y: H¥$Vm: (nwéf gyº$ 15, ¶Owd}X 31/15)
g˶d«V§ g˶na§ {Ìg˶§ g˶ñ¶ ¶moqZ {Z{hV§ M g˶o&
g˶ñ¶ g˶§ F$Vg˶Zo̧ g˶mË‘H§$ Ëdm§ eaU§ ànÝZm:&(^mJdV nwamU 10/2/26)
6. MVwînmX kmZ-h‘mam g§gma H$s à˶oH$ dñVw H$m kmZ 4 ê$nm| ‘| h¡, {Ogo
MVwînmX nwéf H$hVo h¢(1) ja nwéf-g^r {nÊS>>m| H$m ~mhar ñdê$n Yrao Yrao ZîQ> hmoVm ahVm h¡, Cgo ja
nwéf H$hVo h¢& jaU =ZîQ> hmoZm&
(2) Aja nwéf-ha jU {nÊS> H$m Hw$N> ^mJ ZîQ> hmoZo na ^r CgH$m H$m¶© ê$n ‘|
n[aM¶ ~Zm ahVm h¡ O~ VH$ dh dñVw ~Zr ahVr h¡& ¶h {N>nm ahVm h¡ AV: Bgo
Hy$Q>ñW H$hVo h¢& Hy$Q> H$m AW© nd©V H$s MmoQ>r ^r h¡, {Oggo nd©V H$m Zm‘ ¶m n[aM¶
hmoVm h¡& AV: {nÊS> ¶m ì¶{º$ H$m Zm‘ ê$n ‘| n[aM¶ AnojmH¥$V ñWm¶r h¡& ¶hr

90
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
Aja nwéf h¡&
(3) A춶 nwéf-{H$gr ì¶{º$ ¶m {nÊS> H$m {Z‘m©U, {dH$mg, j¶ ¶m {dZme ¶{X
n[adoe Ho$ ^rVa XoI| Vmo Hw$N> ^r AÝVa Zht hmoVm& {nÊS> ‘| Omo ~‹T>Vm h¡ dh ~mha
H$‘ hmo OmVm h¡& {nÊS> ‘| Omo H$‘ hmoVm h¡ CVZm ~mha ~‹T> OmVm h¡& Hw$b {‘bmH$a
Hw$N> ^r 춶 Zht hmoVm h¡& AV: n[adoe Ho$ A§e ê$n ‘| ha {nÊS> A춶 nwéf h¡&
{H$gr {nÊS> Ho$ n[adV©Z H$m H«$‘ ^r A춶 h¡ {Ogo {dnarV d¥j Ho$ ê$n ‘| A춶 H$hm
J¶m h¡& Bg‘| N>ÝX ¶m gr‘m ~Õ nXmW© nÎmo Ho$ g‘mZ jU^“xa h¡D$Üd©‘yb‘Y: emI‘ídËW§ àmhþa춶‘²& N>ÝXm§{g ¶ñ¶ nUm©{Z ¶ñV§ doX g doX{dV²&
(JrVm 15/1, ¶moJ{eImon{ZfX² 6/14)
(4) namËna nwéf-‘yb ñVa na {H$gr {nÊS> ¶m ~«÷mÊS> ‘| H$moB© ^oX Zht h¡& ¶h
AdñWm namËna nwéf h¡& Bg‘| ^oX Zht hmoZo go BgH$m H$moB© dU©Z Zht h¡&
Aݶ 3 H$s n[a^mfm JrVm (15/15-17) ‘| h¡Ûm{d‘m¡ nwéfm¡ bmoHo$ jaíMmja Ed M& ja: gdm©{U ^yVm{Z Hy$Q>ñWmo@ja CÀ¶Vo&
CÎm‘: nwéfñËdݶ: na‘mË‘o˶wXmöV:& ¶mo bmoH$̶‘m{dí¶ {~^˶©ì¶¶ B©ída:&
¶ñ‘mËja‘VrVmo@h‘jamX{n MmoÎm‘:& AVmo@pñ‘ bmoHo$ doXo M à{WV: nwéfmoÎm‘:&&
= g§gma ‘| 2 àH$ma Ho$ nwéf h¢-ja VWm Aja& g^r ^yV ja h¢ VWm CZH$m {N>nm
hþAm n[aM¶ Aja h¡& gdm}ÀM nwéf AbJ h¡ VWm Cgo na‘mË‘m H$hVo h¢, Omo 3 bmoH$m|
‘| àdoe H$a CZH$m ^aU H$aVm h¡& dh A춶 (ZîQ> Zht hmoZo dmbm) VWm B©ída
(g~H$m {Z¶ÝVm) h¡& ja go nao VWm Aja go ^r CÎm‘ hmoZo Ho$ H$maU ‘¢ (lrH¥$îU
^JdmZ²) bmoH$ (gm{h˶) VWm doX ({dkmZ) XmoZm| ‘| nwéfmoÎm‘ Ho$ ê$n ‘| à{WV hÿª&
ñWyb ê$n H$m kmZ hmoZo Ho$ ~mX H«$‘e: CgHo$ gyú‘ 3 ñVam| H$m kmZ hmoVm h¡nwéf EdoX§ gdª ¶X² ^yV§ ¶ÀM ^m춑²&
CVm‘¥VËdñ¶oemZmo ¶XÝZoZm{Vamoh{V& (nwéf gyº$ 2)
Hw$N> CXmhaU(1) ‘Zwî¶- (H$) ja-‘Zwî¶ H$m ~mhar ê$n à{V jU ~XbVm h¡, ¶h ja nwéf h¡&
¶hm§ nwéf H$m AW© ñÌr ^r h¡&
(2) Aja-à{V jU ~XbZo na ^r h‘ AnZo H$mo OÝ‘ go ‘aU VH$ dhr ì¶{º$ ‘mZVo
h¢& Xÿgam| Ho$ {b¶o ^r h‘mam Zm‘ ê$n ‘| dhr n[aM¶ ~Zm ahVm h¡&
(J) A춶-¶h H$B© ê$nm| ‘| XoIm Om gH$Vm h¡& OÝ‘ go boH$a ‘aU VH$ h‘mao

4. Yr ¶moJ
91
n[adV©Z H$m H«$‘ A춶 h¡ ³¶m|{H$ n[adoe Ho$ A“ Ho$ ê$n ‘| Cg‘| H$moB© AÝVa Zht
hmoVm& h‘mao Bg OÝ‘ H$m n[aM¶ ja h¡, g^r OÝ‘m| H$m n[aM¶ A춶 h¡& AmH$me
‘| nXmW© H$m {dñVma g‘wÐ h¡, Cg‘| ñWmZr¶ CnbãY nXmW© Xmé (H$mR>) H$m Qw>H$‹S>m
h¡, {Oggo {nÊS> H$m {Z‘m©U hmoVm h¡& g^r ^yVm| Ho$ ñdê$n OJÝZmW ^r Bgr H$maU
Xmé ~«÷ h¢AXmo ¶Ômé ßbdVo {gÝYmo: nmao Anyéf‘²&
VXma^ñd Xþh©Umo ¶oZ JÀN> nañVa‘²& (F$H²$ 10/155/3)
(K) namËna-{Og ñVa na ‘Zwî¶, new, {ZOud ¶m AmH$me ‘| H$moB© AÝVa Zht h¡,
dh namËna h¡, ³¶m|{H$ dh g^r dU©Zm| go nao h¡& ¶m A춶 nwéf ja-Aja Ho$ nao
hmoZo Ho$ H$maU na h¡& Cggo ^r nao hmoZo Ho$ H$maU ¶h namËna h¡&
(2) d¥j-(H$) ja-d¥j H$s aMZm ja nwéf h¡&
(I) Aja-OÝ‘ go ‘aU VH$ d¥j H$s pñW{V Aja nwéf h¡&
(J) A춶-n[adoe go Ob, dm¶w VWm {‘Q²>Q>r Ho$ VÎd J«hU H$aZm VWm nÎmm, ’$b’y$b, H$mR> Am{X H$m CËnmXZ A춶 nwéf h¡&
(K) namËna-¶h g^r Ho$ {b¶o g‘mZ ¶m ^oXa{hV h¡&
(3) ZXr-(H$) ja-ZXr H$s Ymam VWm Ob& Ymam H$r {Xem VWm Ob H$s ‘mÌm
h‘oem KQ>Vr ~‹T>Vr ahVr h¡&
(I) Aja-ZXr H$s Ymam ~Xbo ¶m Ob {~bHw$b gyI Om¶, Cg ZXr H$m Zm‘ dhr
ahVm h¡&
(J) A춶-g‘wÐ go dfm©, dfm© H$m Ob O‘rZ Ho$ {d{^Þ òmoVm| go hmoH$a ZXr ‘|
{‘bZm, VWm ZXr H$m g‘wX ‘| {‘bZm-¶h MH«$ A춶 nwéf h¡&
(K) namËna-g^r Ho$ {b¶o EH$ hr h¡&
Mma doX-̶r H$m AW© 4 doX hmoVm h¡& BgH$m àVrH$ nbme h¡, {OgH$s emIm go 3
nÎmo {ZH$bVo h¢& AV: doXmaå^ g§ñH$ma (¶kmondrV) ‘| àVrH$ ê$n ‘| BgH$m à¶moJ
hmoVm h¡& ‘yb AWd©doX Ho$ ‘y{Îm©-J{V-‘{h‘m ê$nr F$H²$-¶Ow-gm‘ doXm| ‘| {d^mOZ Ho$
~mX ‘yb ZîQ> Zht hmoVm& BZ g^r H$mo {damQ²> Ho$ gÝX^© ‘| hr XoIm Om gH$Vm h¡& ‘y{Îm©
H$m ~moY Bg{b¶o hmoVm h¡ {H$ dh n[adoe go {^Þ h¡& J{V ^r AnZo gÝX^© Ho$ gmnoj
hmoVr h¡& Bgr àH$ma {H$gr nXmW© H$m à^md joÌ nyd©dÎmu joÌ ‘| AÝVa n¡Xm H$aVm h¡&
{damQ²> ¶m nyU©Vm Ho$ gÝX^© ‘| hr H$moB© kmZ hmo gH$Vm h¡& 4 doXm| H$s CËn{Îm H$m dU©Z

92
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
‘wÊS>H$mon{ZfX² ‘| VWm doX {d^mOZ Ho$ 40 àH$ma V¡{Îmar¶ ~«m÷U ‘| h¢&
~«÷m XodmZm§ n«W‘§ gå~^yd {dídñ¶ H$Vm© ^wdZñ¶ JmoßVm&
g ~«÷{dÚm§ gd©{dÚmà{VîR>m‘Wdm©¶ Á¶oîR>nwÌm¶ àmh&
AWd©Uo ¶m§ àdXoV ~«÷m@Wdm© Vm§ nwamodmMm{“ao ~«÷{dÚm‘²&
g ^aÛmOm¶ g˶dhm¶ àmh ^maÛmOmo@{“ago namdam‘²&&
Ûo [dÚo do{XVì¶o-... nam M¡d, Anam M& VÌ Anam F$½doXmo, ¶Owd}X:, gm‘doXmo@Wd©doX:,
{ejm, H$ënmo, ì¶mH$aU§, {Z麧$, N>ÝXmo, Á¶mo{Vf{‘{V& AW nam-¶¶m VXja‘{YJå¶Vo&
(‘wÊS>H$ Cn{ZfX² 1/1/1,2,4,5)
F$½ä¶mo OmVm§ gd©emo ‘y{Îm©‘mhþ:, gdm© J{V¶m©Owfr h¡d eídV²&
gdª VoO§ gm‘ê$߶§ h eídV², gdª hoX§ ~«÷Um h¡d g¥îQ>‘²&&
(V¡{Îmar¶ ~«m÷U 3/12/8/1)
pñW{V

nwéf

nbme XÊS>

kmZ

‘{h‘m

F$H²$
¶Ow

AWd©
Bgr Ho$
F$H²$
¶Ow
gm‘
AWd©

gm‘$

AZwê$n
‘y{Îm©
J{V
kmZ
gd©

8. nÄM

{dX² YmVw Ho$ 4 AW© h¢{dX² gÎmm¶m‘² (nm{UZr¶ YmVw nmR> 4/60)
{dX²b¥ bm^m¡ (6/141)
{dX² kmZo (2/57)
{dX² MoVZm»¶mZ {Zdmgofw (10/177), {dX² {dMmaUo (7/13)
nd©-{díd H$s aMZm 5 ndm] ‘| h¡& AV: 5 ¶m 5 c 5 àH$ma Ho$ ¶k

4. Yr ¶moJ
93
hmoVo h¢& BZH$m {dÚm go gå~ÝY ~VmZo dmbo gm§»¶ VÎd g‘mg Ho$ gyÌ h¢8-nÄMm{^~wÕ¶:& 9-nÄM ѽ¶moZ¶:& 10-nÄMdm¶d:& 11-nÄMH$‘m©Ë‘mZ:& 12nÄMndm© A{dÚm&
A{^~w{Õ H$m AW© ~w{Õ H$s d¥{Îm ¶m {H«$¶m h¡& BZH$s ¶moJ gyÌm| ‘| ì¶m»¶m h¡¶moJ H$m AW© hr {MÎmd¥{Îm H$m {ZamoY h¡-¶moJpíMÎmd¥{Îm {ZamoY: (1/2)
d¥Îm¶: nÄMVæ¶: p³bîQ>mp³bîQ>m:(1/5)-g^r 5 d¥{Îm¶m§ p³bîQ> ¶m Ap³bîQ> hmo
gH$Vr h¢& ¶o 5 d¥{Îm h¢à‘mU {dn¶©¶ {dH$ën {ZÐm ñ‘¥V¶:(1/6)
à‘mU 3 h¢-à˶jmZw‘mZmJ‘m: à‘mUm{Z (1/7)
{dn¶©¶ H$m AW© {‘϶m kmZ h¡ Omo nXmW© H$mo CgHo$ à{VpîR>V ê$n ‘| Zht XoIVm h¡{dn¶©¶mo{‘϶mkmZ‘VÐÿnà{VpîR>V‘²& (1/8)
{dH$ën H$m AW© eãXOmb h¡ {OgH$m H$moB© ñnîQ> AW© Zht h¡eãXkmZmZwnmVr dñVweyݶmo {dH$ën:(1/9)
{dMmam| VWm kmZ H$m ghO A^md {ZÐm h¡A^mdà˶¶mbå~Zm d¥{Îm{Z©Ðm& (1/10)
nwamZo AZw^d {H$¶o J¶o {df¶m| H$m nwZ: {dMma ñ‘¥{V h¡AZw^yV {df¶mgåà‘mof: ñ‘¥{V:&(1/11)
ѽ¶mo{Z H$m AW© Xe©Z Ho$ {b¶o A“ {‘bmH$a 5 kmZopÝж h¡&
dm¶w H$m AW© J{V ¶m {H«$¶m h¡, 5 àH$ma go kmZ ¶m gyMZm H$s J{V hmo gH$Vr h¡&
H$‘m©Ë‘m H$m AW© 5 H$‘}pÝж h¢, H$‘© Ho$ g‘Ýd¶ go hr kmZ hmoVm h¡&
A{dÚm Ho$ 5 nd© h¢& BÝh| ¶moJgyÌ (2/3) ‘| ³bof H$hm J¶m h¡A{dÚmpñ‘VmamJÛofm{^{Zdoem: ³bofm:&
dmñV[dH$ kmZ H$m A^md hmoZo go H«$‘e: 5 àH$ma Ho$ H$îQ> hmoVo h¢-AkmZ, AhL²>H$ma,
‘moh, Ûof VWm {H$gr {gÕmÝV Ho$ à{V O‹S>Vm&
‘Z Ho$ ^rVa ¶o AdñWm¶| hmoZo go H$îQ> hmoVm h¡& na ^m¡{VH$ OJV² ‘| {H«$¶mAm| H$m
Aܶ¶Z A{dÚm H$m AW© Anam {dÚm AWm©V² {dkmZ ‘mZZo na ¶h {dkmZ Ho$ {gÕmÝV
{ZYm©[aV H$aZo Ho$ 5 H«$‘ h¢1. A{dÚm-{df¶m| ¶m V϶m| H$m {d^mOZ&
2. Apñ‘Vm-à{V VÎd H$s AbJ AbJ n[a^mfm VWm ì¶m»¶m&

94
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
3. amJ-AbJ-AbJ V϶m| ‘| g‘mZVm ImoO H$a CÝh| EH$ dJ© ‘| H$aZm (Generalization)
4. Ûof-Aݶ dJ© Ho$ V϶m| go ^oX {XImZm&
5. A{^{Zdoe-{gÕmÝV pñWa H$aZm {OgHo$ AZwgma Z¶o V϶m| H$mo à‘m{UV ¶m
Aà‘m{UV {H$¶m Om gH$Vm h¡&
9. fS²> Xe©Z-gånyU© H$mo EH$ gmW XoIZm Xe©Z h¡& BgHo$ 6 àH$ma h¢, AV: 6
Xe©Z VWm 6 Xe©-dmH²$ ({b{n) h¢& doX ‘| {díd Ho$ 10 Am¶m‘ ‘mZo J¶o h¢& CZ‘|
5 Am¶m‘ ¶mpÝÌH$ {díd H$m dU©Z H$aVo h¢, BZHo$ H$maU 5 àH$ma H$s ‘yb BH$mB¶m|
go ‘mn H$s Om gH$Vr h¡& CgHo$ ~mX MoVZm Ho$ 5 ñVa h¢, Omo D$na ~Vm¶o J¶o
A{^~þ{Õ Ho$ ê$n H$ho Om gH$Vo h¢& AV: 6 àH$ma Ho$ Xe©Z h¢& Am¶m‘ g§»¶m Ho$
AZwgma Xe©Z Ho$ VÎd ¶m {b{n Ho$ Aja hm|Jo& h‘mam kmZ {b{n Ûmam ^mfm ‘| hr
춺$ hmoVm h¡& BZH$s g§»¶m H$m CëboI Añ¶dm‘r¶ gyº$ ‘| h¡Jm¡ar{‘©‘m¶ g{bbm{Z Vj˶oH$nXr {ÛnXr gm MVwînXr&
AîQ>mnXr ZdnXr ~^ydwfr ghòmjam na‘o ì¶mo‘Z²&&
(F$½doX 1/164/41, AWd© 9/10/21, 13/1/42, V¡{Îmar¶ ~«m÷U 2/4/
6/11, V¡{Îmar¶ AmaʶH$ 1/9/4, {Zéº$ 11/40)
A{d^º$ Jm¡ar dmH²$ AmH$me H$o ‘yb ñdê$n ¶m ‘Z H$s ‘yb AdñWm ‘| Wr& g‘ê$n
ag ‘| Va“m| Ûmam {d^mOZ hmoZo go H$B© àH$ma Ho$ IÊS> hþ¶o-1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 1000&
BZHo$ AZwgma 6 Xe©Zm| Ho$ VÎd ¶m {b{n¶m| H$s Aja g§»¶m hþ¶rgm§»¶-(1+4)2= 25, amo‘Z [b{n Ho$ Aja&
e¡d-(2+4)2=36- b¡{Q>Z, Aa~r, ê$gr, Jwé‘wIr Ho$ Aja (35)&
‘éV² = (1+2+4)2=49& XodZmJar Ho$ Aja&
H$bm = 82 = 64= ~«m÷r {b{n Ho$ Aja&
doX H$s {dkmZ dmH²$ = (8+9)2 = 289, 36 c 3 ñda, 36 c 5 ì¶ÄOZ, 1
A{d^mÁ¶ ›&
gmhòr dmH²$ = ì¶mo‘ ({Vã~V = {Ì{dîQ>n) Ho$ nao MrZ VWm OmnmZ ‘|&
10. ‘hm{dÚm-10 Am¶m‘m| Ho$ H$maU 10 ‘hm{dÚm h¢& BZHo$ H$B© ‘yb H$ho J¶o h¢,
{OZH$m CëboI gm§»¶ {gÕmÝV Am{X nwñVH$m| ‘| h¡& ¶o h¢(1) 3 {H«$¶mË‘H$ bmoH$ +7 g§aMZmË‘H$ bmoH$, (2) AmH$me Ho$ 3 Am¶m‘ VWm 7

4. Yr ¶moJ
95
F${f ¶m 7 àmUm| Ho$ 7 Am¶m‘& ¶m 5-5 Am¶m‘ 2 àH$ma Ho$ h¢-(1) gVV VWm H$U
g‘yh, (2) AZÝV a¡{IH$ ¶m gr{‘V Jmobr¶ ¶m ~obZmH$ma& BZH$m ê$n h¡5 gVV 1. aoIm (J{V {Xem)
¶m AZÝV 2. n¥îR> (gVh)
AmH$me Ho$ 3 Am¶m‘
3. Am¶VZ (ñVmo‘, Am¶w)
4. nXmW©-MVw‘w©I ~«÷m-gmnojdmX ‘| AmH$me-H$mb H$m n[aUm‘
5. H$mb-nÄM‘wI {ed-‘hmH$mb ñdê$n
5 gr{‘V 6. MoVZm-Omo M¶Z ¶m {M{V H$ao-MoVZ nwéf-fîR> Am¶m‘
¶m H$U- 7. F${f(=añgr, AgV² àmU H$s ~b aoIm)-gßV‘ Am¶m‘
g‘yh
8. ZmJ (d¥Ì)-ñWmZr¶ KyU©Z ~b, AZÝV D$Om© H$mo gr{‘V H$ao&
9. aÝY« (ZÝX)-{N>Ð-Ag‘ KZËd Ho$ H$maU {Z‘m©U
10. AmZÝX (ag)-g¥pîQ> H$m ‘yb ê$n, nXmW©/COm© ñVa Ho$ AZwgma
KZËd ‘| AÝVa
10 Am¶m‘m| Ho$ AZwgma ZmgXr¶ gyº$ ‘| 10 dmXm| H$m CëboI {H$¶m J¶m h¡ {OgH$s
ì¶m»¶m ‘YwgyXZ AmoPm Zo H$s h¡ VWm gmam§e gm§»¶-{gÕmÝV ‘| h¡&
10 Am¶m‘m| Ho$ H$maU g§ñH¥$V ‘| Xe, Xem, {Xem Ho$ àm¶: g‘mZ AW© h¡& 10
‘hm{dÚm ^r Bgr H$maU h¢&
g¥pîQ> aMZm Ho$ 9 gJ© H$ho J¶o h¢& ^mJdV nwamU ‘| A춺$ H$mo {‘bmH$a 10 gJ©
h¢& 9 gJm] H$m {Z‘m©U MH«$ 9 àH$ma Ho$ H$mb‘mZ h¢& {Z‘m©U Ho$ nyd© H$m ’¡$bm hþAm
nXmW© Ob h¡ VWm CgH$m joÌ g‘wÐ h¡& {Z‘m©U Ho$ ~mX gr‘m~Õ {nÊS> ^y{‘ h¡& XmoZm|
H$m ‘ܶdÎmu {Z‘m©UmYrZ ê$n damh h¡, Omo Ob-ñWb XmoZm| H$m Ord h¡& AmH$me ‘|
damh H$m AW© ‘oK h¡, Omo dm¶w (J¡g) VWm Ob (X«d) H$m {‘lU h¡& AV: ~mB{~b
‘| 9 àH$ma Ho$ ‘oK H$ho J¶o h¢& BZHo$ Hw$N> ‘w»¶ CÕaU h¢A춺$mX² 춺$¶: gd} à^dÝ˶hamJ‘o&
amͶmJ‘o àbr¶ÝVo VÌ¡dm춺$g§kHo$&(JrVm 8/18)
~«m÷§ {nͶ§ VWm {X춧 àmOmn˶§ M Jm¡ad‘²&
gm¡a§ gmdZ§ MmÝБmjª ‘mZm{Z d¡ Zd&& (gy¶© {gÕmÝV 14/1)
{dîUw nwamU (1/5/19-25) Ho$ 9 gJ© h¢-

96
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
àmH¥$V-1. ‘hÎmËd, 2 VÝ‘mÌm, 3. d¡H$m[aH$ (BpÝж gå~ÝYr)&
d¡H¥$V-4. ‘w»¶ (nd©V d¥j Am{X ñWmda), 5. {V¶©H²$ òmoV (H$sQ> nV“ Am{X), 6.
D$Üd© òmoV (XodgJ©), 7. Adm©H²$ òmoV (‘Zwî¶ gJ©), 8. AZwJ«h gJ© (gmpËdH$ Am¡a
Vm‘{gH$)&
àmH¥$V VWm d¡H¥$V-9. H$m¡‘ma gJ©&
damhmo _oKmo ^d{V, damhma:-`mñH$ H$m {Zéº$, (1/10)Ÿ&
g àOmn{V-d¡ damhmo ê$n§ H¥$Ëdm CnÝ`_ÁOV²(V¡{Îmar` ~«m.1/1/3/6)
‘hm{dÚm ‘ha² H$s {dÚm h¡, AWm©V² ¶h nwéf go J«hU H$aVm h¡& nwéf Omo J«hU
H$aVm h¡ dh {dÚm, CgH$m à¶moJ ‘hm{dÚm& àm¶mo{JH kmZ Ho$ {b¶o 10 àH$ma H$s
^hm{dÚm gmYZm H$aZr n‹S>Vr h¡& BZ‘o 5 {dnarV VÎdm| H$s Omo‹S>r H$hr OmVr h¡1. H$mbr-~Jbm‘wIr, 2. Vmam-H$‘bm, 3, {ÌnwagwÝXar-{Ìnwa^¡adr, 4. ^wdZoídarYy‘mdVr, 5. {N>Þ‘ñVm-‘mV“r&
‘hm{dÚmAm| Ho$ àVrH$mË‘H$ JwU H$ho J¶o h¢1. H$mbr-àMÊS> e{º$& 2. Vmam-eãX e{º$& 3. {Ìnwa gwÝXar-gm¡ÝX¶©, AmZÝX& 4.
^wdZoídar-ÐîQ>m e{º$& 5. {N>Þ‘ñVm-g§hma, ‘maU& 6. Yy‘mdVr-‘yT> AdñWm& 7.
~Jbm‘wIr-ñVå^Z e{º$& 8. H$‘bm-g§¶‘ e{º$& 9. ‘mV“r-H«$s‹S>m e{º$& 10.
^¡adr-nwʶ e{º$&
11. {d{dY ^oX-^mJdV nwamU ‘| kmZ Ho$ H$B© ^oXm| H$s MMm© h¡Zd¡H$mXe nÄM ÌrZ² ^mdmZ² ^yVofw ¶oZ d¡& B©joVmW¡H$‘߶ofw VÁkmZ§ ‘‘ {ZpíMV‘²&
EVXod {h {dkmZ§ Z VW¡Ho$Z ¶oZ ¶V²& pñW˶wËn{Îmb¶mZ² ní¶oX² ^mdmZm§ {ÌJwUmË‘Zm‘²&15&
(lr‘X² ^mJdV nwamU 11/19/14-15)
àM{bV ì¶m»¶m-OJV² Ho$ AZÝV nXmWm] H$m 9, 11, 5, 3 Ho$ ê$n ‘| dJuH$aU H$aZm
(ݶm¶ d¡eo{fH$ ‘| 9 Ðì¶, ~m¡Õ Xe©Z ‘| 5 ñH$ÝY, gm§»¶ ‘| 3 JwU, O¡Z Xe©Z ‘|
nÄMmpñVH$m¶, à˶{^km Xe©Z ‘| àH¥${V nwéf Ho$ D$na Ho$ 11 ‘yb VÎd) Am¡a AÝV
‘| EH$ hr ‘yb VÎd H$mo AZwJV XoIZm-¶h à{H«$¶m kmZ H$hbmVr h¡& Bgo hr {dkmZ
^r H$hVo h¢& dhm§ {dnarV àH$ma go EH$ hr ‘yb VÎd go g~ H$s CËn{Îm, Cgr ‘|
pñW{V, VWm AÝV ‘| Cg‘| b¶ XoIZm {dkmZ h¡&

5. Jm¶Ìr VÝÌ

97

Aܶm¶ 5

Jm¶Ìr VÝÌ

-Jm¶Ìr VÝÌ H$s naånam ‘h{f© {dídm{‘Ì go AmYw{ZH$ ¶wJ ‘| AmMm¶©
lram‘ e‘m© VH$ A{dpÀN>Þ Mbr Am ahr h¡& ¶hm§ VÝÌ H$s ì¶mdhm[aH$ {d{Y¶m| H$s
ì¶m»¶m Zht h¡& CgHo$ {b¶o Jwé Ho$ nmg OmH$a {dñVma go à{H«$¶m grIZr n‹S>oJr&
CÔoí¶ Ho$ AZwgma {d{Y¶m§ ~Xb|Jr& ¶hm§ Ho$db g§jon ‘| n[aM¶ {X¶m Om ahm h¡&
2. _ZmoO{dËd {g{Õ-F$½doX (10/71/7,8) _| Am{“ag ~¥hñn{V Ho$ kmZ gyº$
Ho$ àg“ _| _ZmoOd H$m dU©Z h¡Ÿ& B©emdmñ`mon{ZfX² (H$mÊd VWm dmOgZo`r `Owd}X
H$m 40dm§ AÜ`m`) íbmoH$ 4 _o§ ^r _ZmoOd Ûmam An² _| _mV[aídm H$m CëboI h¡Ÿ&
nVÄO{b Zo `moJgyÌ 3/48 _| Bg {g{Õ H$m dU©Z {H$`m h¡ Omo nyd©dÎmu gyÌ Ho$ AmYma
na h¡Ÿ& d¡{XH$ d¥fmH${n Ho$ ê$n hZw_mZ _o§ ^r _ZmoOd VWm _méV g_mZ doJ H$m dU©Z
h¡Ÿ& AV… _ZmoOd go hr _méVdoJ VWm _mV[aídm hmoVm h¡Ÿ& d¡eo{fH$ Xe©Z _| _Z H$mo
EH$ nXmW© _mZ H$a CgHo$ na_mUw H$s MMm© h¡Ÿ& nhbo _Z H$mo OmZZo Ho$ {b`o _Z,
~w{Õ, AhL²>H$>ma, {MÎm H$r n[a^mfm VWm _Z Ho$ àm`… n`m©`dmMr eãXm| H$m AÝVa
OmZZm hmoJmŸ& CgHo$ ~mX BpÝÐ`-O` Ûmam _ZmoO{dËd VWm doX Ho$ Yr `moJ Ho$ gmW
CgH$m gå~ÝY ñnï> hmoJmŸ&
3. _Z H$s n[a^mfm-empãXH$ dU©Zm| Ho$ AmYma na _Z Ho$ VrZ ê$n XrIVo h¢(1) JUoe ê$n-H$Um| H$s g§h{V H$s JUZm H$s Om gH$Vr h¡Ÿ& CZH$m à^md joÌ JUoe
h¡Ÿ&
(2) gañdVr ê$n-H$Um| H$m Hw$b ñWmZ VWm CZH$o ~rM H$m ^r ñWmZ _Z H$m à^md
joÌ h¡Ÿ& `h ag ê$n gd©Ì g_mZ h¡, AV… Bgo agdVr `m gañdVr H$hVo h¢Ÿ&
(3) na_mUw ê$n-nXmW© ê$n _| na_mUw CZHo$ H$U h¢Ÿ& ag ê$n _| CZH$r bha `m H$Um|
H$m H$ånZ CgH$s d¥{Îm h¡Ÿ& g~go N>moQ>r d¥{Îm hr _Z H$m na_mUw h¡Ÿ&
4. _Z-~w{Õ-AhL²>H$>ma-BpÝÐ`m| H$mo {df` _| a_Zo dmbm Kmo‹S>m H$hm h¡, CÝh|
{Z`pÝÌV H$aZo dmb _Z h¡Ÿ& kmZopÝÐ` go _Z H$mo gyMZm {_bVr h¡, _Z Ho$ AmXoe go
H$_}pÝÐ` H$m_ H$aVr h¢Ÿ& _Z ñd`§ {ZU©` H$aZo _| gj_ Zht h¡, dh gmYZ _mÌ h¡,
O¡go Kmo‹S>o Ho$ {b`o bJm_Ÿ& Bgo MbmZo dmbm gma{W ê$n _| ~w{Õ h¡Ÿ& ~w{Õ H$mo {H$g
H$m_ _| bJmZm h¡ `h AmXoe AmË_m XoVm h¡, Omo na_ VÎd namËna nwéf H$m hr _m`m
1. ^y{‘H$m

98
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
Ûmam Ad{N>Þ A§e h¡Ÿ& CgH$m ì`{º$JV ê$n AhL²>H$>ma Ho$ ê$n _| XrIVm h¡, eara H$m
àË`oH$ H$mof OmZVm h¡ {H$ dh {H$g eara H$m A§e h¡, Xygao eara Ho$ H$mof,aº$ H$Um|
H$mo dh AñdrH$ma H$a XoVm h¡Ÿ&
AmË_mZ§ a{WZ§ {d{Õ eara§ aW_od VwŸ& ~wqÕ Vw gmaqW {d{Õ _Z… àJ«h_od MŸ&3Ÿ&
BpÝÐ`m{U h`mZmhþ{d©f`m§ñVofw JmoMamZ²Ÿ&
AmË_opÝÐ`_Zmo`wº§$ ^moºo$Ë`mhþ_©Zr{fU…Ÿ&4Ÿ&(H$R>mon{ZfX² 1/3)
BpÝÐ`m{U _Zmo~w{Õañ`m{Yð>mZ_wÀ`VoŸ& EV¡{d©_moh`Ë`of kmZ_md¥Ë` Xo{hZ_²Ÿ&40Ÿ&
BpÝÐ`m{U namÊ`mhþ[apÝX«`oä`… na§ _Z…Ÿ&
_ZgñVw nam ~w{Õ`m}~wÕo… naVñVw g…Ÿ&42Ÿ&(JrVm, AÜ`m` 3)
{MÎm H$s n[a^mfm XoZm H${R>Z h¡Ÿ& `h AÝV…H$aU H$hm J`m h¡, BgH$s d¥{Îm`m| H$m
{Z`ÝÌU {H$`m OmVm h¡, VWm `h eara go ~mha Ky_Vm h¡Ÿ-`moJpíMÎmd¥{Îm{ZamoY…(`moJgyÌ
1/2)Ÿ& Xoe~ÝYpíMÎmñ` YmaUm (`moJgyÌ 3/1)öX`o {MÎmg§{dV²(`moJgyÌ3/34)&
~ÝYH$maU e¡{Wë`mV² àMmag§doXZmÀM {MÎmñ` naearamdoe…(`moJgyÌ3/38)&
`Xm {d{Z`V§ {MÎm_mË_Ý`odmd{Vð>VoŸ& (JrVm. 6/18) `mo{JZmo `V{MÎmñ` `wÄOVmo
`moJ_mË_Z(JrVm. 6/19)
`Ìmona_Vo {MÎm§ {ZéÕ§ `moJgod`m(JrVm. 6/20)Ÿ& AW {MÎm§ g_mYmVw§ Z eŠZmo{f
_{` pñWa_²(JrVm. 12/9)Ÿ&
BZgo {MÎm H$s n[a^mfm h¡-VrZ AÝV…H$aUm| _Z-~w{Õ-AhL²>H$>ma Ho$ {_{bV ê$n H$m
dh IÊS> {Og na Ü`mZ-YmaUm-g_m{Y H$r OmVr h¡ VWm dh eara Ho$ ~mha ^r Om
gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
5. gmYZm H«$_- ~mø AWm] H$s ì`m»`m Ho$ ~mX AmÝV[aH$ gmYZm H$m H«$_ g_Pm
Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& eara _| gmYZm _ybmYma MH«$ go Amaå^ hmoVr h¡, {OgHr ~mYm JUoe
H$aVo h¢Ÿ& CgHo$ ~mX _oéXÊS> _| Ho$ÝÐr` Zm‹S>r gwfåw Zm (gañdVr) go hmoH$a MoVZm H$m
CËWmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& nwZ… Amkm MH«$ Ho$ ~mX Jwé ê$n JUoe H$r Jwhm nma H$aZr n‹S>Vr h¡Ÿ&
_pñVîH$ H$m Ho$ÝÐ ^mJ H$m AmH$ma JUoe Ho$ {ga O¡gm h¡Ÿ& Cggo hmWr H$s gy§‹T> Ho$
g_mZ gwfwåZm ZrMo bQ>H$s h¡Ÿ& ^y{_ VÎd `m AÝZ_` H$mof go H«$_e… gyj_VÎdm| VH$
nhþ§MVo$hþ`o Amkm MH«$ VH$ nhþ§MVo h¢Ÿ& Bg àg“ _| nwéf gyº$ Ho$ Xmo gyº$m| na {dMma
H$a|-

5. Jm¶Ìr VÝÌ
99
CVm_¥VËdñ`oemZmo `XÞoZm{Vamoh{V(2)
=A_¥V VÎd H$m ñdm_r (na_-) nwéf VH$ AÞ_` H$mof go Amaå^ H$a nhþ§Mm Om
gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
`koZ `k_O`ÝV XodmñVm{Z Y_m©{U àW_mÝ`mgZ²Ÿ&
Voh ZmH§$ _{h_mZ… gMÝV `Ì nyd} gmÜ`m…gpÝV Xodm…(16)
Xod `k Ûmam `k H$s hr CnmgZm H$aVo WoŸ& do _{h_m Ho$ gÄM` ZmH$ H$mo àmá H$aVo
h¢, Ohm§ Xodm| Ho$ nyd© gmÜ` WoŸ& BgHo$ 3 AW© h¢1.Am{YÁ`m¡{Vf-gy`© Ho$ VoO Ho$ H«$_e… H$_ hmoVo joÌ _| 33 AhJ©U Ho$ Ym_m| _| 33
Xod h¢Ÿ& gm¡a _ÊS>b Ho$ {Z_m©U Ho$ nyd© ~«÷mÊS> H$s àmU e{º$`m§ gmÜ` ê$n _| WtŸ&
CZHo$ `k (g¥{ï> -{H«$`m) go gm¡a _ÊS>b ~Zm {Og Jmobo H$m erf© {dÝXw ZmH$ H$hbmVm
h¡Ÿ& gy`© go Amaå^ H$a `h CgHo$ _{h_m joÌm| H$m g_yh h¡Ÿ&
2.Am{Y^m¡{VH$-Xod `wJ go nyd© gmÜ` `k Ûmam `k H$s CnmgZm H$aVo WoŸ& (EH$
CËnmXZ MH«$ Xygao H$m AmYma h¡)Ÿ& Bggo CZH$s _{h_m (kmZ-{dkmZ-gä`Vm) CÀM
{eIa na nhþ§Mr WrŸ&
3.AmÜ`mpË_H$-eara Ho$ erf©ñW ghòma MH«$ VH$ nhþ§MZo Ho$ {b`o XodVm ê$n MH«$m| H$s
gmYZm H$s OmVr h¡Ÿ& AÞ_` eara H$m `k àmU_` eara H$mo, àmU_` H$mof H$m
`k _Zmo_` H$mof _| A{n©V `m brZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& AÝVV… ZmH$ (Amkm MH«$ VH$ `k H«$_
go nhþ§MZo na na_ VÎd _| eaUmJ{V hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
Xydm©XmZ H$m _ÝÌ-H$mÊS>mH$mÊS>mËàamohpÝV néf… néfñn[aŸ& Edm Zmo Xyd} à VZw ghòoU
eVoZ MŸ&(dm.`Ow.13/20)
àOmn{V H$m àmU-IÊS> Yydm© h¡ (eVnW. 7/4/2/1,11;7/4/2/12), CgH$mo
namoj _| Xydm© H$hVo h¢Ÿ& Xydm© à{V Jm§R> go A§Hw$[aV hmoH$a ~‹T>Vr h¡, Cgr àH$ma _Zwî`
^r _oéXÊS> Ho$ Jm§R> à{V MH«$ H$o Ûmam D$na CR>Vm h¡Ÿ&(^m¡{VH$ AW©) à{V nd©(OÝ_,
{dÚm, {ddmh, Or{dH$m Am{X) go OrdZ H$m Z`m H«$_ Amaå^ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& àË`oH$ nd©
go D$na CR>Zm h¡Ÿ&(Á`mo{Vfr` AW©) g¥{ï> H«$_ _| ñdm`å^wd, na_oð>r, gm¡a, MmÝÐ,
n¥{Wdr-`o 5 nd© hþ`o {OZH$m à{Vê$n _Zwî` eara VWm {díd h¡ Ÿ& g§hma (b`) H«$_
_| eara Ho$ _yb ê$n {dnarV H«$_ _| n¥{Wdr go 1-1 nd© hmoH$a D$na CR>Vo h¢Ÿ& àoVmË_m
nhbo n¥Ïdr na Ky_Vm h¡ (Xe JmÌ VH$), {\$a 13 MmÝÐ n[aH«$_m _| MÝÐ n¥ð> VH$
OmVm h¡Ÿ(àkmZmË_m-H$m¡frV{H$ ~«m.)-_m{gH$ lmÕ& dhm§ gm¡a _ÊS>b H$m à{Vê$n

100
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
{dkmZmË_m n¥Ïdr Ho$ gmW dm{f©H$ J{V _| Ky_Vm h¡ (dm{f©H$ lmÕ) {\$a ~«÷mÊS> H$m
A§e _hmZmË_m gm¡a _ÊS>b H$mo nma H$aVm h¡ (Am{“ag à^md-EoVao` ~«m.18/3/
17, V¡{Îmar` ~«m.2/2/3/5-6) 1 H$ën Ho$ ~mX do _hbm}H$ nhþ§MVo h¡§ ({dîUw
nwamU.2/7/12-Hw$amZ Ho$ AZwgma gm¡an¥{Wdr _| H$`m_V VH$ ahVo h¢)Ÿ&
6. nmVÄOb gyÌm| H$m VmËn`©J«hU ñdê$nmpñ_VmÝd`mW©dËdg§`_m{XpÝX«` O`…(3/47)
=J«hU, ñdê$n, Apñ_Vm, AÝd`, AW©dÎd _| g§`_ go BpÝÐ` O` hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
J«hU-BpÝÐ`m| H$s {df` J«hU H$aZo H$s àd¥{Îm J«hU h¡Ÿ& ñdê$n-BpÝÐ`m| Ho$ AnZo
AnZo Y_©, O¡go ZoÌ H$m Y_© XoIZm, Am{X BpÝÐ`m| H$m ñdê$n h¡Ÿ& Apñ_Vm-_¢-nZm,
AhL²>H$maŸ& AÝd`-VrZm| JwU gËd-V_-aO Omo AnZo Y_m] àH$me, {H«$`m, pñW{V go
BpÝШ`m| H$mo à^m{dV H$aVo h¢Ÿ& AW©dÎd-nwéf H$mo ^moJ VWm AndJ© XoZm BgH$m
à`moOZ h¡Ÿ&
VVmo _ZmoO{dËd§ {dH$aU^md… àYmZO`íM (3/48)Ÿ&
= BpÝÐ`O` go _ZmoO{dËd (eara H$m _Z Ho$ g_mZ J{Verb hmoZm), {dH$aU ^md
({~Zm eara Ho$ d¥{Îm bm^), àYmZ O` (_yb àH¥${V H$m ^r O`) hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
`h AW© ñdm_r {edmo_² VrW© Ho$ AZwgma h¡Ÿ& àm`… Eogm hr AW© ì`mg ^mî` Ho$ AZwgma
ñdm_r Amo_mZÝX VrW© Zo {H$`m h¡Ÿ& BZ eãXm§o H$m dmñV{dH$ AW© gmYH$ H$mo hr ñnï>
hmoJmŸ& BZH$m A{^àm` `h bJVm h¡ {H$ {df`m| Ho$ gå~ÝY Ho$ H$maU eara VWm CgH$s
BpÝÐ`m§ EH$ ñWmZ na ~Õ h¢, BÝh| {df`m| Ho$ J«hU go _wº$ H$aZo na eara _wº$ hmoH$a
_Z Ho$ g_mZ {dMaU H$a gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& _Z H$s J{V Š`m h¡, BgHo$ ~mao _| H$B©
H$ënZm`o§- Hw$N> ì`{º$ BgH$s J{V àH$me go 2 JwUr _mZVo h¢Ÿ& BgHr _mn `m
g¡ÕmpÝVH$ AmYma Zht h¡Ÿ& F$½doX Ho$ gå~pÝYV gyº$m| H$m ^md ^r àm`… `hr h¡AjÊdÝV… H$U©dÝV… gIm`mo _ZmoOdoîdg_m ~^ydw…Ÿ&
AmX¿Zmg CnH$jmg CËdo õXm Bd ñZmËdm C Ëdo XÑfoŸ&
öXm Vï>ofw _Zgmo Odofw `X² ~«m÷Um… g§`OÝVo gIm`…Ÿ&
AÌmh Ëd§ {d Ohþd}Úm{^amoh~«÷mUmo {d MaÝVw ËdoŸ&(F$H²$10/71/7,8)
`hm§ ^r `hr AW© hmoZm Mm{h`o {H$ Am§I, H$mZ Ho$ {df`m| go `wº$ ahZo na dh _ZmoOd
Ho$ g_mZ Zht hmo gH$VmŸ& BZ {_Ìm| (BpÝÐ`, {df`, CZH$m ~ÝYZ) Am{X H$m öX`
_| g§`_ H$aZo na _ZmoO{dËd hmoVm h¡Ÿ&

5. Jm¶Ìr VÝÌ
101
Yr `moJ-Jm`Ìr H$m CÔoí` h¡-Yr_{h=YmaUm+Ü`mZ+g_m{Y-BZH$m Aä`mg hr Yr
`moJ h¡-^Jm} Xodñ` Yr_{hŸ&(F$H²$ 3/62/10,gm_ 1462,dm.`Ow.3/35,22/
9,30/2,36/3, V¡{Îmar` g§ 1/5/6/4,4/1/11/1, V¡.Am. 1/11/2)
`ñ_mÑVo Z {gÜ`{V `kmo {dnpíMVíMZŸ& g YrZm§ `moJ{gÝd{VŸ&&(F$H²$.1/18/7)
Vm§ `moJ{_{V _Ý`Vo pñWa{_pÝÐ`YmaUm_² (H$R>mon.2/3/11)
BgH$s gmYZm AmÝV[aH$ Yr B[ÝX«` go hmoVr h¡Xod§ Za§ g{dVma§ {dàm `k¡: gwd¥{º${^:Ÿ& Z_ñ`pÝV {Y`o{fVm:(F$H²$.3/62/12)
CnËdm@¾o{Xdo {Xdo XmofmdñV{Y©`m d`_²Ÿ& Z_mo ^aÝV E_{gŸ&&(F$H²$.1/1/7)
Bgo JrVm (4/28) _| kmZ-`k H$hm h¡Ÿ& F$½doX (10/71) H$m ^r {d{Z`moJ kmZ
hr h¡Ÿ&
7. gmam§e-BZ g~ H$m {ZîH$f© Am{X eL²>H$>amMm`© Zo gm¡ÝX`©-bhar , íbmoH$ 9
_| {X`m h¡_ht _ybmYmao H$_{n _{Unyao hþVdh§, pñWV§ ñdm{Yð>mZo ö{X _éV_mH$me_wn[aŸ&
_Zmo@{n ^«y_Ü`o gH$b_{n {^Ëdm Hw$bnW§, ghòmao nÙo gh ah{g nË`m {dha{g(go)Ÿ&&
=(Am{X e{º$ Hw$ÊS>{bZr ê$n _|) _ybmYma _o§ n¥Ïdr ê$n _| pñWV h¡Ÿ& _{Unya _| Ob
ê$n, V~ ñdm{Yð>mZ _| A{¾ê$n, öX` _| _éV² VWm CgHo$ D$na ({dew{Õ MH«$_|)
AmH$me ê$n _| h¡Ÿ& Hw$bnW (_oéXÊS> H$s Ho$ÝÐ Zm‹S>r gañdVr ê$nr gwfwåZm) H$mo ^oXVo
hþ`o `h ^«y_Ü` Ho$ nrN>o (Amkm MH«$) nhþ§MVr h¡Ÿ& CgH$o ~mX dh ghòma _| n{V
(na_ nwéf) Ho$ gmW {dhma H$aVr h¡Ÿ&
(_mhoída gyÌ Ho$ AZwgma)
g¥{ï> H«$_ ~«÷mÊS> Ho$ ñVa XodVm VÎd ñda-dU© gdU© AÝV…ñW eara Ho$ MH«$
1. Aì`º$ namËna nwéf (eyÝ` ag)


ghòma
2. ídmodgr`g _Z na_oída(nwéf+àH¥${V) ag+~b ›
h§+j§ Amkm
3. ñd`å^y (1 Id© ~«÷mÊS>) ~«÷m AmH$me
A
h
[dew{Õ
4. na_oð>r (1 Id© gy`©) {dîUw dm`w
B
`
AZmhV
5. gm¡a _ÊS>b
BÝÐ
VoO
C
d
ñdm{Yð>mZ
6. MmÝÐ (MÝÐH$jm H$m Jmobm) gmo_ Ob
F$
a
_{Unya
7. n¥{Wdr
A{¾
^y{_

b
_ybmYma

102
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
`h g¥{ï> H«$_ h¡Ÿ& gmYZm (g§hma) H«$_ _| ZrMo go D$na CR>Vo h¢, V~ _{Unya Ho$ nhbo
ñdm{Yð>mZ AmVm h¡Ÿ& MH«$m| Ho$ ~rO _ÝÌ dhr ahVo h¢Ÿ& VrZ J«pÝW`m| H$m ^oX
_wÊS>H$mon{ZfX² Ho$ VrZ IÊS>m| _| h¡Ÿ& _ybmYma H$s ~«÷ J«pÝW H$m AW© h¡ AbJ AbJ
VÎdm| H$s nhMmZ H$a AÞ go H«$_e… CR>Zm (1/1/8)Ÿ& öX` J«pÝW Ho$ ^oX H$m AW©
h¡ -H$_© H$m j` VWm g§e` Xya hmoZm (2/2/8)Ÿ& AÝV _| éÐ J«pÝW Ho$ ^oX H$m AW©
h¡ -Jwhm (JUoe ê$n _|) J«pÝW (3/2/9) _| nhþ§M H$a na_ ~«÷ _| à{UYmZ {OgH$m
dmMH$ àUd (›) h¡ (`moJ gyÌ 1/23,27)Ÿ& nhbo _ybmYma _| JUoe H$m AW© h¡,
ñWyb nXmWm] H$m g_yhŸ& V¥Vr` J«pÝW JUoe Ho$ {ga Ho$ AmH$ma H$s Jwhm h¡, Ohm§ AZoH$Vm
H$mo N>mo‹S>Zm h¡Ÿ& _Ü` _| öX` J«pÝW _| g^r AmË_mAm| go gånH©$ h¡Ÿ&
8. › H$ma dU©Z- JmonW ~«m÷U, nyd© ^mJ, ànmR>H$$ 1, H$pÊS>H$m 16-30 ‘o§
› Ho$ {df¶ ‘| àíZ VWm CÎma h¡&
~«÷ h d¡ ~«÷mU§ nwîH$ao gg¥Oo, g Ibw ~«÷m g¥îQ>píMÝVm‘mnoXo Ho$Zmh‘oHo$ZmjaoU
gdmªíM H$m‘mZ² gdm©§íM bmoH$mZ² gdmªíM XodmZ² gdmªíM doXmZ² gdmªíM ¶kmZ² gdmªíM
eãXmZ² gdmªíM ì¶wpîQ>: gdm©{U M ^yVm{Z ñWmda-O“‘mݶZw^do¶{‘{V g ~«÷M涩‘MaV²&
g Amo{‘˶oVXja‘ní¶X² {ÛdU©ÄMVw‘m©Ì gd©ì¶m{n gd©{däd¶mV¶m‘~«÷ ~«m÷t ì¶möqV
~«÷X¡dV§ VWm gdmªíM H$m‘mZ² gdmªíM bmoH$mZ² gdmªíM XodmZ² gdmªíM doXmZ² gdmªíM
¶kmZ² gdmªíM eãXmZ² gdmªíM ì¶wpîQ>: gdm©{U M ^yVm{Z ñWmda-O“‘mݶÝd^dÎmñ¶
àW‘oZ dU}ZmnñZohíMmÝd^dÎmñ¶ {ÛVr¶oZ dU}Z VoOmo Á¶moVtî¶^dV²&16&
~«÷ Zo hr ~«÷m H$m g¥OZ nwîH$a (~wImam, CÁO¡Z go 120 npíM‘) ‘| {H$¶m& dh
~«÷m {MÝVm H$aZo bJo-‘¢ {H$g EH$ Aja go g^r H$m‘ZmAm|, g~ bmoH$m|, g^r Xodm|,
g^r doXm|, g^r ¶km|, g^r eãXm|, g^r ~pñV¶m| (g§aMZmAm|), g^r ñWmda-O“‘m|
H$mo ~ZmD±$& CgZo ~«÷M¶© {H$¶m& 2 dU© Ho$ VWm 4 ‘mÌm dmbo › Aja ‘| gd©ì¶mnr
{Z{d©H$ma ~÷ H$mo XoIm VWm Cgr ì¶ö{V go BZ g^r H$m {Z‘m©a {H$¶m& àW‘ dU© go
Amn (Ob, ag) VWm ñZoh ~Zm¶m& Xÿgao dU© go VoO VWm AmH$mer¶ Á¶mo{V¶m| H$mo
~Zm¶m&
Vñ¶ àW‘m ñda‘m̶m n¥{Wdr‘p½Z‘mof{YdZñnVrZ² F$½doX§ ^y[a{V ì¶mö{VJm©¶Ì§
N>ÝXpñÌd¥V§ ñVmo‘§ àmMr {Xe§ dgÝV‘¥Vw§ dmM‘ܶmË‘§ {Oôdm§ ag{‘VrpÝжmʶÝd^dV²&17&
Cg › H$s àW‘ ñda ‘mÌm (AH$ma) go n¥{Wdr, Ap½Z, Amof{Y, dZñn{V, F$½doX,
^y ì¶mö{V, Jm¶Ìr N>ÝX, {Ìd¥V ñVmo‘ (32 = 9 AhJ©U H$m joÌ), nyd© {Xem, dgÝV

5. Jm¶Ìr VÝÌ
103
F$Vw, AܶmË‘ dmUr, {Oôdm BpÝж, ag JwU H$mo CËnÝZ {H$¶m&
Vñ¶ {ÛVr¶¶m ñda ‘m̶m@ÝV[aj§ dm¶w§ ¶Owd}X§ ^wd B{V ì¶mö{V Ì¡îQw>^§ N>ÝX: nÄMXe§
ñVmo‘§ àVrMr {Xe§ J«rî‘‘¥Vw§ àmU‘ܶmË‘Ýmm{gHo$ JÝYK«mU{‘VrpÝжmʶÝd^dV²&18&
Cg (›) H$s {ÛVr¶ ñda ‘mÌm (C H$ma) go AÝV[aj, dm¶w, ¶Owd}X, ^wd: ì¶mö{V,
{ÌîQw>n² N>ÝX (11c4 = 44 Aja), 15 ñVmo‘ ( 15 AhJ©U VH$ H$m joÌ), npíM‘
{Xem, J«rî‘ F$Vw, AܶmË‘ àmU, Zm{gH$m BpÝж, JÝY H$mo gy§KZo (K«mU) H$s e{º$
H$mo CËnÝZ {H$¶m&
Vñ¶ V¥Vr¶¶m ñda‘m̶m {Xd‘m{X˶§ gm‘doX§ ñd[a{V ì¶möqV OmJV§ N>ÝX: gßVXe§
ñVmo‘‘wXrMt {Xe§ dfm© F$Vw§ Á¶mo{VaܶmË‘§ Mjwfr Xe©Z{‘VrpÝжmʶÝd^dV²&19&
Cg (›) H$s V¥Vr¶ ñda ‘mÌm (Amo H$ma) go {Xd: ( AmH$me, ñd: bmoH$), Am{X˶
(‘yb nXmW© {Oggo {Z‘m©U H$m Am{X hþAm), gm‘doX, ñd: ì¶mö{V, OJVr N>ÝX (12
c 4 = 48 Aja), 17 ñVmo‘ ( 17 AhJ©U VH$ H$m joÌ), CÎma {Xem, dfm© F$Vw,
AܶmË‘ Á¶mo{V, Mjw BpÝж VWm XoIZo H$s e{º$ CËnÝZ H$s&
Vñ¶ dH$ma ‘m̶m@níMÝБg‘Wd©doXÝZjÌmʶmo{‘{V ñd‘mË‘mZ§ OZ{X˶{“agm‘ZwîQw>^§
N>ÝX: EH$qde§ ñVmo‘§ X{jUm§ {Xe§ eaX‘¥Vw§ ‘Zmo@ܶmË‘§ kmZ§ ko¶{‘VrpÝжmʶÝd^dV²&20&
Cg (›) H$s MVwW© dH$ma (C H$m gåàgmaU) ‘mÌm go An (Ob), MÝБm (¶m CgHo$
g‘mZ VoO H$m AmH$me-J§Jm joÌ), ZjÌ (VmamJU), AWd©doX, › ê$nr AnZr
AmË‘m H$mo ~Zm¶m& Bg Am{“ag (Cg H$s ‘{h‘m ê$n ag) go AZwîQw>n² N>ÝX (8 c
4 = 32 Aja), 21 ñVmo‘ ( 21 AhJ©U VH$ H$m joÌ), X{jU {Xem, eaX F$Vw,
AmܶmpË‘H$ ‘Z BpÝж, kmZ VWm ko¶ ~Zm¶m&
Vñ¶ ‘H$malw˶o{VhmgnwamU§ dmH$modm³¶§ JmWmZmame§grén{ZfXmo@ZwemgZmZr{V d¥YV²
H$aX² Jw h Z² ‘hÎmÀN> ‘ mo { ‘{V ì¶möVr: ñdaeå¶ZmZmVÝÌr: ñdaZ¥ Ë ¶JrVdm{XÌmʶÝd^dÀM¡ÌaW§ X¡dV§ d¡ÚwV§ Á¶mo{V~m©h©V§ N>ÝXñV¥UdV² ̶pñ̨em¡ ñVmo‘m¡ Y«wdm‘yÜdmª
{Xe§ ho‘ÝV{e{eamd¥Vy lmȏܶmË‘§ eãXldU{‘VrpÝжmʶÝd^dV²&21&
Cg (›) H$s ‘H$ma lw{V go B{Vhmg (àmMrZ KQ>Zm), nwamU (nwamZo go Z¶r g¥pîQ> H$m
ê$n VWm {dkmZ), dmH$modm³¶ (dmÎmm© Ûmam {ejU), JmWm (àMrZ H$Wm¶|), Zmame§gr
({d»¶mV ‘hmnwéfm| Ho$ M[aÌ), Cn{ZfX² (‘yb {gÕmÝV), AZwemgZ (ì¶mdhm[aH$
{H«$¶m) Am{X H$m {dñVma {H$¶m& ¶h {Z‘m©U ‘hV² ‘| {N>nm h¡& BgH$s e‘, Amo‘²
ì¶mö{V¶m§ h¢, ñda go empÝV XoZo dmbo ZmZm dmÚm|, JrVm|, Z¥Ë¶m| VWm CZH$s {dÚmAm|

104
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
H$mo CËnÝZ {H$¶m& M¡ÌaW ({d{^ÝZ àH$ma Ho$ eara ¶m {nÊS>), X¡dr, {dÚwV² Á¶mo{V,
~¥hVr N>ÝX (9 c 4 = 36 Aja), 33 ñVmo‘ ( 33 AhJ©U VH$ H$m joÌ-gånyU© gm¡a
‘ÊS>b), Y«wd go D$na (VWm ZrMo) H$s {Xem, ho‘ÝV, {e{ea F$Vw, AܶmË‘ lmoÌ
BpÝж, eãX VWm ldU e{º$ H$mo CËnÝZ {H$¶m&
g¡f¡H$mjam F$J² ~«÷UñVngmo@J«o àmXþ~©^yd ~«÷ doXñ¶mWd©U§ ewH«$‘V Ed ‘ÝÌm: àmXþ~©^ydw:
g Vw Ibw ‘ÝÌmUm‘Vngm-ewlyfm@Zܶm¶mܶ¶ZoZ ¶XÿZÄM {d[aîQ>ÄM ¶mV¶m‘ÄM H$amo{V
VXWd©Um§ VoOgm à˶m߶m¶¶oZ² ‘ÝÌmíM ‘m‘{^‘wIr ^do¶wJ©^m© Bd ‘mVa‘{^{OKm§gw:
nwañVmX² AmoL²>H$ma§ à˶wL²>º$ EV¶¡d VÑMm à˶m߶m¶¶oXof¡d ¶kñ¶ nwañVmÚwÁ¶V Efm
níMmV² gd©V EV¶m ¶kñVm¶Vo& VX˶oVÑMmoº$‘²& ¶m nwañVmÚwÁ¶V Efm F$Mmo@jao
na‘o ì¶mo‘pÝZ{V& VXoVXja§ ~«m÷Umo ¶§ H$m‘{‘ÀN>oV² {ÌamÌmonmo{fV: àmL²>‘wImo dm½¶Vmo
~{h©î¶wn{dí¶ ghòH¥$Ëd AmdÎm©¶oV² {gܶÝ˶ñ¶mWm©: gd©H$‘m©{U Mo{V ~«m÷U‘²&22&
~«÷m H$s Vnñ¶m Ûmam g~go nhbo EH$ Aja H$s F$Mm (›) àH$Q> hþ¶r& ~«÷ doX
AWdm© go àmßV hþAm (‘wÊS>H$ Cn{ZfX² 1/1/1)& ewH«$ ‘V (¶m CgHo$ VoO) go ‘ÝÌm|
H$m àmXþ^m©d hþAm& Cgr ‘ÝÌ H$mo nwéf {~Zm Vn, ewlyfm, Aܶm¶ (nmR>H«$‘) ¶m
Aܶ¶Z Ho$ àmßV H$aVm h¡ CgH$s H$‘r, Xmof, g‘¶ H$s hm{Z Xÿa H$aZo Ho$ {b¶o Cgo
AWdm© Ho$ VoO go nyU© H$ao& Bggo ‘ÝÌ ‘oao gå‘wI d¡go hr hmoVo h¢ O¡go ‘mVm Ho$ J^© ‘|
hm|& {Okmgw nwéf nhbo ›H$ma H$m à¶moJ H$ao& Bgr F$Mm go dh Xmof (H$‘r) nyU© hmoVm
h¡& AV: ¶hr F$Mm ¶k Ho$ nhbo VWm ~mX ‘| Omo‹S>r OmVr h¡& Bgr go ¶k H$m {dñVma
hmoVm h¡& Bgr Ho$ ~mao ‘| ¶h F$Mm H$hr J¶r h¡& Omo F$Mm nhbo H$hr J¶r h¡F$Mmo Ajao na‘o ì¶mo‘Z² ¶pñ‘Z² Xodm A{Y{dído {ZfoXþ:&
¶ñV§ Z doX {H$‘¥Mm H$[aî¶{V ¶ BV² VX² {dXþñV B‘o g‘mgVo&
(F$½doX 1/164/39, AÌd© 9/15/18, ídoVmídVa Cn{ZfX² 4/8)
= na‘ ì¶mo‘ ‘| pñWV Bg F$Mm Aja (›) ‘| g^r Xod VWm {díd A{YpîR>V h¢& Omo
Bgo Zht OmZVm, dh doX OmZH$a ³¶m H$aoJm? Omo Bg F$Mm H$mo g‘PVm h¡, Cg‘| ¶o
(doX) pñWV hmoVo h¢&
Bg Aja H$mo ~«m÷U {H$gr ^r BîQ> H$m‘Zm Ho$ {b¶o 3 am{Ì Cndmg H$a nyd© ‘wI Hw$e
AmgZ na ~¡R> dmUr Ûmam 1000 ~ma Amd¥{Îm H$ao& Bggo CgHo$ g^r ‘ZmoaW {gÕ hmoVo
h¢& BVZm ~«m÷U h¡ (C{º$ g‘mßV)

5. Jm¶Ìr VÝÌ
105
dgmoYm©amUm‘¡ÝÐZJaÝVXgwam: n涩dma¶ÝV, Vo Xodm ^rVm AmgZ² H$ B‘mZgwamZnh{Zî¶pÝV,
V AmoL²>H$ma§ ~«m÷U: nwÌ: Á¶oîR>§ XÑewñVo V‘~«wdZ² ^dVm ‘wIoZo‘mZgwamZ² O¶o‘o{V& g
hmodmM qH$ ‘o àVrdmhmo ^{dî¶Vr{V da§ d¥Urîdo{V d¥Um B{V g da‘d¥UrV Z ‘m‘Zra{¶Ëdm
~«m÷Um: ~«÷ dXo¶w¶©{X dXo¶wa~«÷ VV² ñ¶m{X{V VWo{V Vo Xodm Xod¶OZñ¶moÎmamÕ}@gwa¡:
g§¶Vm AmgZ² VmZ² AmoL²>H$maoUmJ«rY«r¶mÔodm AgwamZ² nam^md¶ÝV, VÚËnam^md¶ÝV
Vñ‘mXmoL²>H$ma: nyd© CÀ¶Vo& ¶mo h dm EV‘moL²>H$ma Z doXmde: ñ¶m{X˶W ¶ Ed§ doX ~«÷
de: ñ¶m{X{V gyÌ Vñ‘mXmoL²>H$ma F$À¶¥J² ^d{V ¶Ow{f ¶Ow: gmpåZ gm‘ gyÌo gy̧
~«m÷Uo ~«m÷U§ íbmoHo$ íbmoH$: àUdo àUd B{V ~«m÷U‘²&23&
dgmoYm©am (ñWmZ Zm‘) ‘| BÝÐ H$m ZJa h¡& CgH$mo Agwam| Zo Koa {b¶m& XodVm S>a J¶oH$m¡Z BZ Agwam| H$mo ‘maoJm? CÝhm|Zo ~«÷m Ho$ Á¶oîR> nwÌ (AWdm©) ¶m ›H$ma XoIm&
Cggo H$hm-AnHo$ ‘w{I¶m hmoZo na hr h‘ Agwam| H$mo OrV|Jo& CgZo CÎma {X¶m-‘oam ³¶m
^mJ hmoJm? do ~mobo-da ‘m§Jmo& dh ~mobm-‘¢ ‘m§Jy±? CgZo da ‘m§Jm-{~Zm ‘oao (› Ho$)
CÀMmaU Ho$ ~«m÷U doX Z ~mob|& ¶{X ~mob|, dh ~«÷ (doX) Ho$ {déÕ hmo& do ~moboEogm hr hmo& ¶k Ho$ CÎmamÕ© ‘| XodVm Agwam| go {Ka J¶o& CZ Agwam| H$mo ›H$ma Ap½Z
H$m YmaU H$a Xodm| Zo ham {X¶m& CZH$mo Bg àH$ma nam{OV H$aZo Ho$ H$maU g~go nhbo
›H$ma H$hm OmVm h¡& Omo Bg ›H$ma H$mo Zht OmZVm, dh Ade (Aeº$) hmo& Omo
Bgo ~«÷ ê$n ‘| OmZVm h¡, dh de (BpÝжm| H$mo de ‘| H$aZodmbm) hmo& AV: ›H$ma
hr F$H²$ H$m F$H²$, ¶Ow H$m ¶Ow, gm‘ H$m gm‘, gyÌ H$m gyÌ, ~«m÷U (doXmW©) H$m
~«m÷U, íbmoH$ (dU©Z ¶m ñVw{V) H$m íbmoH$, VWm àUd (›H$ma Ho$ g^r IÊS> ¶m
à^md) H$m àUd h¡&-¶h ~«m÷U (ì¶m»¶m) h¡&
AmoL²>H$ma§ n¥ÀN>m‘:-H$mo YmVw:, qH$ àm{Vn{XH§$, qH$ Zm‘m»¶mV§, qH$ {b“§, qH$ dMZ§,
H$m {d^{º$:, H$: à˶¶:, H$: ñda:-CngJm}-{ZnmV:, qH$ d¡ ì¶mH$aU§, H$mo {dH$ma:,
H$mo {dH$mar, H${V‘mÌ:, H${VdJ©:, H$˶ja:, H${VnX:, H$: g§¶ moJ:, qH$
ñWmZmZwàXmZH$aU§, {ejH$m: {H$‘wÀMma¶pÝV, qH$ N>ÝX:, H$mo dU©, B{V nyd} àíZm&
AWmoÎmao ‘ÝÌ: H$ënmo ~«m÷U‘¥½¶Ow: gm‘ H$ñ‘mX² ~«÷dm{XZ AmoL²>H$ma‘m{XV: Hw$d©pÝV,
qH$ X¡dV§, qH$ Á¶mo{Vf§, qH$ {Z麧$, qH$ ñWmZ§, H$m àH¥${V:, {H$‘ܶmË‘{‘{V-fQ²>qÌeV²
àíZm: nydm}ÎmamUm§ ̶mo dJm© ÛmXeH$m EV¡amoL²>H$ma§ ì¶m»¶mñ¶m‘:&24&
h‘ (Xod) ›H$ma Ho$ {df¶ ‘| nyN>Vo h¢-(1) ³¶m YmVw h¡? (2) ³¶m àm{Vn{XH$ h¡?

106
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
(3-4) ³¶m Zm‘ VWm Am»¶mV (dU©Z) h¡? (5) ³¶m {b“ h¡? (6) ³¶m dMZ h¡?
(7) ³¶m {d^{º$ h¡? (8) ³¶m à˶¶ h¡? (9-11) ³¶m ñda, CngJ©, {ZnmV h¡?
(12) ³¶m ì¶mH$aU (Ad¶d) h¡ ?
(1) ³¶m {dH$ma h¡? (2) ³¶m {dH$mar h¡? (3) {H$VZr ‘mÌm h¡? (4) {H$VZo dU©
h¢? (5) {H$VZo Aja h¢? (6) {H$VZo nX h¢? (7) ³¶m g§¶moJ h¡? (8-9) ñWmZ H$m
AZwàXmZ VWm H$aU ³¶m h¡? (10) {ejH$ ³¶m H$hVo h¢? (11) ³¶m N>ÝX h¡? (12)
³¶m dU© (a“) h¡? ¶h nhbo Ho$ àíZ h¢& A~ ~mX Ho$ àíZ h¢(1) ‘ÝÌ, (2) H$ën, (3) ~«m÷U, (4) F$H²$, (5) ¶Ow, (6) gm‘-BZ‘| ~«÷dmXr
›H$ma H$m àW‘ CÀMmaU ³¶m| H$aVo h¢? (7) BgH$m ³¶m XodVm h¡? (8) ³¶m
Á¶mo{Vf h¡? (9) ³¶m {Zéº$ h¡? (10) ³¶m ñWmZ h¡? (11) ³¶m àH¥${V h¡? (12)
³¶m AܶmË‘ h¡?
¶o 36 àíZ h¢& nhbo VWm ~mX Ho$ 12-12 àíZm| Ho$ 3 dJ© h¢& BZgo h‘ ›H$ma H$s
ì¶m»¶m H$a|Jo&
BÝÐ: àOmn{V‘n¥ÀN>X² ^JdÝZ{^gy¶ n¥ÀN>m‘r{V, n¥ÀN> dËgo˶~«drV² {H$‘¶‘moL²>H$ma:,
H$ñ¶ nwÌ:, {H$ÄM¡VÀN>ÝX:, {H$ÄmM¡VX² dU©:, {H$ÄM¡VX² ~«÷m ~«÷ gånÚVo& Vñ‘mX² d¡
VX² ^БmoL²>H$ma§ nyd©‘mbo^o, ñd[aVmoXmÎm EH$mja ›H$ma F$½doXo, Ì¡ñdæ¶m}XmÎm EH$mja
¶Owd}Xo, XrK©ßbwVmoXmÎm EH$mja ›H$ma gm‘doXo, õñdmoXmÎm EH$mja ›H$mamo@Wd©doX,
CXmÎmmoXmÎm{ÛnX A C B˶թ MVòmo ‘mÌm ‘H$mao ì¶ÄOZ{‘˶mhþ¶m© gm àW‘m ‘mÌm
~«÷Xod˶m aº$m dU}Z ¶ñVm§ ܶm¶Vo {Z˶§ g JÀN>oX² ~«m÷ç nX§, ¶m gm {ÛVr¶m ‘mÌm
{dîUwXod˶m H¥$îUm dU}Z ¶ñVm§ ܶm¶Vo {Z˶§ g JÀN>oX² d¡îUd nX§, ¶m gm V¥Vr¶m
‘mÌ¡emZXod˶m H${nbm dU}Z ¶ñVm§ ܶm¶Vo {Z˶§ g JÀN>oX¡emZnX§, ¶m gmÕ©MVwWu
‘mÌm gd©Xod˶m 춺$s^yVm I§ {dMa{V ewÕñ’$[Q>H$gpÝZ^m dU}Z ¶ñVm§ ܶm¶Vo {Z˶§ g
JÀN>oV² nX‘Zm‘H$‘moL²>H$mañ¶ MmoËn{Îm{d©àmo ¶mo Z OmZm{V VV² nwZénZ¶Z§ Vñ‘mX²
~«m÷UdMZ‘mXÎm©ì¶§ ¶Wm bmVì¶mo JmoÌmo ~«÷U: nwÌmo Jm¶Ì§ N>ÝX: ew³bmo dU© nw§gmo
dËgmo éÐmo XodVm AmoL²>H$mamo doXmZm‘²&25&
BÝÐ Zo àOmn{V go nyN>m-^JdZ²! CËgwH$Vm empÝV Ho$ {b¶o nyN>Vm hÿ±& àOmn{V-dËg!
nyN>mo-¶h H$hm&
(1) ¶h ›H$ma ³¶m h¡? (2) {H$gH$m nwÌ h¡? (3) BgH$m N>ÝX ³¶m h¡? (4)
BgH$m a“ ³¶m h¡? (5) {H$g ~«÷ H$mo ~«÷m àmßV H$aVm h¡ VWm Cg ^Ð ›H$ma H$mo

5. Jm¶Ìr VÝÌ

107

nhbo nmVm h¡?
(eL²>H$m)-ñd[aV CXmÎm ñda H$m 1 Aja H$m ›H$ma F$½doX ‘| h¡& VrZm| ñda (õñd,
XrK©, ßbwV) g{hV CXmÎm 1 Aja dmbm ›H$ma ¶Owd}X ‘| h¡& XrK© ßbwV g{hV CXmÎm
1 Aja dmbm ›H$ma gm‘doX ‘| h¡& õñd CXmÎm 1 Aja H$m ›H$ma AWd©doX ‘| h¡&
CXmÎm g{hV CXmÎm 2 nX H$m A, C-¶h gm‹T>o 4 ‘mÌm¶| h¢ Am¡a ‘H$ma ‘| ì¶ÄOZ h¡Eogm H$hVo h¢&
(g‘mYmZ)-Omo àW‘ ‘mÌm h¡, dh ~«÷ XodVm H$s bmb a“ H$s h¡& Omo BgH$m {Z˶
ܶmZ H$aVm h¡ dh ~«÷ H$m nX àmßV H$aVm h¡& Xÿgar ñda ‘mÌm H$m {dîUw XodVm VWm
H$mbm a“ h¡& Omo BgH$m ܶmZ H$aVm h¡ dh d¡îUd nX àmßV H$aVm h¡& Vrgar ñda
‘mÌm B©emZ XodVm H$s nrbo a“ H$s h¡& Omo BgH$m ܶmZ H$aVm h¡, dh EoemZ nX àmßV
H$aVm h¡& AmYr Ho$ gmW Omo MVwWu ‘mÌm h¡, dh gd©Xod ({dídoXod) H$m h¡ VWm ewÕ
ñ’${Q>H$ a“ h¡& CgH$m {Z˶ ܶmZ H$aZo go AZm‘ nX H$mo àmßV H$aVm h¡& ›H$ma H$s
CËn{Îm Omo {dà Zht OmZVm, CgH$m Xþ~mam CnZ¶Z g§ñH$ma H$aZm hmoJm&
H$mo YmVw[a˶mn¥Ym©Vwad{V‘߶oHo$ ê$ngm‘mݶmXW© gm‘mݶZ² ZoXr¶ñVñ‘mXmno: ›H$ma:
gd©‘mßZmoVr˶W©: H¥$XÝV‘W©dV² àm{Vn{XH$‘Xe©Z§ à˶¶ñ¶ Zm‘ gånÚVo {ZnmVofw M¡Z§
d¡¶mH$aUm CXmÎm§ g‘m‘ZpÝV VX춶r^yV‘ÝdW©dmMr eãXmo Z ì¶o{V H$XmMZo{V&
gÑe§ {Ìfw {b“ofw gdm©gw M {d^{º$fw& dMZofw M gd}fw ¶ÝZ ì¶o{V VX춶‘²&
H$mo {dH$mamo À¶dVo àgmaU‘² (AmßZmo{V amdmdnH$mam¡) AmßZmoVoamH$manH$mam¡ {dH$mæ¶m©dm{XV
›H$mamo {d{H«$¶Vo {ÛVr¶mo ‘H$ma Ed§ {ÛdUª EH$mja Amo{‘˶moL²>H$mamo {Zd¥©Îm:&26&
(1) H$m¡Z YmVw h¡, BgH$m CÎma-Amn¥ YmVw h¡, Ad{V (ajm H$aZm) H$mo ^r H$moB© H$hVo
h¢& ê$n H$s g‘mZVm (YmVw Am{X H$s AmH¥${V) H$s Anojm AW© H$s g‘mZVm A{YH$
{ZH$Q> hmoVr h¡& AV: Amn (ì¶mnZm) YmVw go ›H$ma eãX A{YH$ C{MV h¡-¶h (›)
g~‘| ì¶mnVm h¡& H¥$XÝV AW©dmZ² eãX àm{Vn{XH$ hmoVm h¡ (AW©dXYmVwaà˶¶:
àm{Vn{XH$‘²-nm{U{Z, AîQ>mܶm¶r, 1/2/45)&
(2) à˶¶ Ho$ bmon go AXe©Z g§km hmoVr h¡&
(3) à˶¶ Ho$ bmon hmoZo na ^r à˶¶ H$m H$m¶© hmoVm h¡ (à˶¶ bmono à˶¶bjU‘²nm{U{Z 1/1/62)& ì¶mH$aU Ho$ kmVm {ZnmVm| ‘| Bgo (› H$mo) CXmÎm ‘mZVo h¢& ¶h
A춶 hþAm nX, AZwHy$b AW© ~VmZo dmbo nX ‘| H$^r {dH$ma Zht hmoVm& ³¶m|{H$ H$hm
h¡-VrZm| {b“m| ‘| Am¡a g^r {d^{º$¶m| ‘| Omo gÑe h¡, VWm {H$gr ^r dMZ ‘| {dH¥$V

108
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
Zht hmoVm, dh A춶 h¡& (ñdam{X{ZnmV‘춶‘²-nm{U{Z 1/1/37= ñda Am{X
VWm {ZnmV A춶 h¢)
{dH$ma dmbm H$m¡Z h¡? (BgH$m CÎma)-Amn² YmVw (ì¶mnZm) H$m gåàgmaU hmoVm h¡&
(B½¶U: gåàgmaU‘²-nm{U{Z 1/1/5= ¶U² Ho$ ñWmZ ‘| BH²$ H$aZo H$mo gåàgmaU
H$hVo h¢)& (A+n) ¶m (A+d)-BZ XmoZm| ‘| {dH$ma gå^d h¡& Am{X Ho$ ›H$ma ‘|
{dH$ma hmo gH$Vm h¡, ‘H$ma {ÛVr¶ dU© h¡& Bg àH$ma 2 dU© (Am¡+‘²) dmbm, EH$
Aja dmbm › AWm©V² AmoL²>H$ma {gÕ hmoVm h¡&
H${V‘mÌ B˶mXopñVòmo ‘mÌm Aä¶mXmZo {h ßbdVo ‘H$maíMVwWu qH$ ñWmZ{‘˶w^mdm¡îR>m¡
ñWmZ§ ZmXmZwàXmZH$aUm¡ M Û¶ñWmZ§ gÝܶja‘dU©boe: H$ÊR>çmo ¶Wmoº$eof: nydm}
{dd¥VH$aUpñWVíM {ÛVr¶ ñn¥îQ> H$aUpñWVíM Z g§¶moJmo {dÚV Am»¶mVmongJm©ZwXmÎmñd[aV-{b“-{d^{º$-dMZm{Z M g§ñWmZmܶm{¶Z AmMmæ¶m©: nyd} ~^ydw: ldUmXod
à{VnÚÝVo Z H$maU§ n¥ÀN>Ý˶Wmnanjr¶mUm§ H${d: nmÄMmbMÊS>: n[an¥ÀN>H$mo ~^yd
n¥WJwX²JrW XmofmZ² ^dÝVmo ~«wdpÝËd{V VÛm߶wnbj¶oÛUm©janXm§H$emo {d^º$çm‘¥{f
{Zfo{dVm{‘{V dmM§ ñVwdpÝV Vñ‘mV² H$maU§ ~«y‘mo dUm©Zm‘¶{‘X§ ^{dî¶Vr{V fS>“{dXñVÎmWm@Yr‘ho& {H$ÄN>ÝX B{V Jm¶Ì§ {h N>ÝXmo Jm¶Ìr d¡ XodmZm‘oH$mjam ídoVdUm©
M ì¶m»¶mVm Ûm¡ ÛmXeH$m¡ dJm©doVX² d¡ ì¶mH$aU§ YmËdW© dMZ§ e¡ú¶§ N>ÝXmo dMZ§
MmWmoÎmam¡ Ûm¡ ÛmXeH$m¡ dJm£ doXah{gH$s ì¶m»¶mVm ‘ÝÌ: H$ënmo ~«m÷U‘¥½¶Ow: gm‘mWd©Ê¶ofm
ì¶mö{VíMVwUmª doXmZm‘mZwnyd}Um| ^y^w©d: ñd[a{V ì¶möV¶:&27&
› {H$VZr ‘mÌm H$m h¡? (CÎma)-‘ÝÌ Ho$ Amaå^ ‘| hr dh (›) 3 ‘mÌmAm| go ßbwV
hmo OmVm h¡& ‘H$ma Mm¡Wr ‘mÌm h¡& (Amo‘ä¶mXmZo-nm{U{Z 8/2/78)
› H$m ³¶m ñWmZ h¡? (CÎma)-CH$ma VWm ‘H$ma Ho$ XmoZm| AmoR> ñWmZ h¢& XmoZm| ZmX
~‹T>mZodmbo à¶ËZ h¢& 2 ñWmZ dmbm gpÝY Aja hmoVm h¡& AH$ma H$ÊR> ñWmZ H$m h¡&
D$na H$ho (C+‘) H$m eof nhbm dU© (AH$ma) {dd¥{V à¶ËZ ‘| R>ham hþAm h¡& Xÿgmam
(‘H$ma) ñn¥îQ> à¶ËZ ‘| R>ham h¡&
› ‘| ³¶m g§¶moJ h¡? (CÎma)-g§¶moJ Zht h¡& (hbmo@ZÝVam: g§¶moJ:-nm{U{Z 1/1/
7 = ‘ܶ ‘| AM² Zht ahZo go g§¶moJ hmoVm h¡)
› H$m Am»¶mV, CngJ©, ñda, {b“, {d^{º$, dMZ ³¶m h¡? (CÎma)-g§ñWmZm| Ho$
Aܶ¶Z H$aZo dmbo nyd© AMm¶© hw¶o h¢, do Am»¶mV, CngJ©, ñda, {b“, {d^{º$,
dMZ H$mo ldU Ûmam OmZVo h¢, H$maU Zht nyN>Vo&

5. Jm¶Ìr VÝÌ
109
Aݶ nj H$m H${d nmÄMmb-Xoe H$m MÊS> àíZH$Îmm© hþAm& CgZo nyN>m-Amn CX²JrW Ho$
Xmofm| H$mo AbJ AbJ H$a ~Vm¶|& dh ^r dU©, Aja, nX, AL²>H$, {d^{º$ Ho$ AZwgma&
(CÎma)-F${f Ûmam go{dV dmUr ñVw˶ h¡, AV: H$maU H$hVo h¢& dUm] ‘| Bg dU© H$m
¶h ê$n hmo O¶oJm-¶h fS>“ n‹T>Zo dmbo OmZVo h¢& AV: d¡gm hr n‹T>Vo h¢&
› H$m ³¶m N>ÝX h¡? (CÎma)-Jm¶Ìr hr N>ÝX h¡& XodVmAm| H$s Jm¶Ìr ({n“b emñÌ
H$s X¡dr Jm¶Ìr) 1 Aja dmbr VWm ídoV dU© H$s H$hr OmVr h¡&
2 dJ© 12-12 Ho$ h¢, ¶h AbJ-AbJ {d^mJ (ì¶mH$aU) Ûmam YmVw, AW©, N>ÝX,
dMZ, {ejm (CÀMmaU) ~VmVm h¡& AWm©V² ì¶mH$aU Ho$ {df¶ 24 ^mJm| ‘| h¢& ~mX
Ho$ 2 dJ© ^r 12-12- Ho$ h¢& do doX H$m ahñ¶ ~VmVo h¢-‘ÝÌ, H$ën, ~«m÷U Ûmam&
AWd©, F$H²$, ¶Ow:, gm‘ H$s ì¶mö{V H«$‘e: ›, ^y:, ^wd:, ñd: h¢&
Ag‘rj àdpôbVm{Z ly¶ÝVo ÛmnamXmd¥frUm‘oH$Xoemo Xmofn{V[ah {MÝVm‘mnoXo {Ì{^:
gmo‘: nmVì¶: g‘mßV{‘d ^d{V Vñ‘mѽ¶Ow: gm‘mݶnH«$mÝV VoOm§ñ¶mgZ² VÌ ‘hf©¶:
n[aXod¶mÄM{H«$ao ‘hÀN>moH$^¶§ àmßVm: ñ‘mo Z Vo VWo˶w³Ëdm VyîUr‘{VîR>ÝZmZwngÝZoä¶
B˶wnmongrXm‘r{V ZrM¡~©^ydw:& g Eä¶ CnZr¶ àmodmM ‘m{‘H$m‘od ì¶mö{V‘m{XV:
Am{XV: H¥$UwÜd{‘˶od§ ‘m‘H$m AYr¶ÝVo&
ZÎm} ^¥>½d{“amo{dX²ä¶: gmo‘: nmVì¶ F$pËdO: nam^dpÝV ¶O‘mZm aOgmnÜdñ¶{V
lw{VíMmnÜdñVm {VîR>Vr˶od‘odmoÎmamoÎmamÚmoJmÎmmoH§$ VmoH$åàemÜd{‘˶od§ àVmnmo Z
nam^{dî¶Vr{V VWm h VWm h ^JdpÝZ{V à{Vno{Xa Am߶m¶¶§ñVo VWm drVemmoH$^¶m
~^ydw:& Vñ‘mX² ~«÷dm{XZ Am|H$ma‘m{XV: Hw$d©pÝV&28&
Aà‘m{UV C‹S>Vr ~mV| ^r gwZr OmVr h¢& Ûmna Ho$ Amaå^ ‘| F${f¶m| Ho$ EH$ dJ© ‘|
XmofÐîQ>m {dMma H$aZo bJm-3 doXm| Ho$ gmW gmo‘ nrH$a Aܶ¶Z nyU© H$aZm Mm{h¶o&
Cggo ¶o 3 doX (F$H²$, ¶w:, gm‘) {ZñVoO hmo J¶o& V~ ‘h{f© {MÝVm H$aZo bJo-h‘|
~‹S>m emoH$ VWm ^¶ hþAm h¡& BVZm hr Zht, g~Zo {‘bH$a H$hm- A~ h‘ ^JdmZ² Ho$
nmg hr Xm¡‹S>H$a Mb|& Cg ^JdmZ (›) Zo H$hm-‘¢ g~H$m e‘© (AmdaU, ajH$) hmo
OmD±$& Eogm hr hmo-¶h H$h H$a do MwnMmn ~¡R> J¶o& ¶h A{dídmgr (XÿañW) bmoJm| Ho$
{b¶o Zht h¡, Am¡a AnZo {ZH$Q> ~¡R>m¶m& F${f ZrMo ~¡R> J¶o& dh (›) nmg AmH$a
H$hZo bJm-‘oar ì¶mö{V H$mo à˶oH$ ‘ÝÌ Ho$ Am{X ‘| H$amo& Bggo ‘oao bmoJm| H$s ajm
hmoVr h¡&

110
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
^¥Jw (AmH$f©U) A{“am ({dH$f©U) H$mo OmZZo dmbo Ho$ {~Zm gmo‘ ag Zht nrZm
Mm{h¶o& (Aݶ Ûmam gmo‘ nmZ go) F$pËdO hma OmVo h¢, ¶O‘mZ Eoíd¶© go ÜdñV hmo
OmVm h¡, VWm lw{V ^r ÜdñV pñW{V ‘| Am OmVr h¡& Bg àH$ma gÝVmZm| H$mo CÎmamoÎma
{ejm Xmo& Bggo àVmn H$m nam^d Zht hmoJm& Eogm H$hm, Eogm CgZo H$hm& F${f
~mobo-^JdZ²! h‘ Eogm H$s H$a|Jo& do nañna {‘bo VWm geº$ hþ¶o& VWm emoH$-^¶ Xÿa
hþAm& Bgr H$maU ~«÷dmXr Amaå^ ‘| › H$hVo h¢&
qH$ Xod{‘˶¥Mm‘p½ZX}dVÝVXod Á¶mo{VJm©¶Ì§ N>ÝX: n¥{Wdr ñWmZ‘²& Ap½Z‘rio nwamo{hV§
¶kñ¶ Xod‘¥pËdO‘²& hmoVma§ aËZYmV‘{‘˶od‘mqX H¥$Ëdm F$½doX‘Yr¶Vo&
¶Owfm§ dm¶wX}dV§ VXod Á¶mo{V: Ì¡îQw>^§ N>ÝXmo@ÝV[aj§ ñWmZ‘²& Bfo ËdmoO} Ëdm dm¶d ñW
Xodmo d: g{dVm àmn©¶Vw loîR>V‘m¶ H$‘©U B˶od‘mqX H¥$Ëdm ¶Owd}X‘Yr¶Vo&
gmåZm‘m{X˶mo XodV§ VXod Á¶mo{VOm©JV§ N>ÝXmo Úm¡: ñWmZ‘²& A½Z Am¶m{h drV¶o J¥UmZmo
hì¶XmV¶o& {Z hmoVm gpËg ~{h©fr˶od‘mqX H¥$Ëdm gm‘doX‘Yr¶Vo&
AWd©Um§ MÝБm XodV§ VXod Á¶mo{V: gdm©{U N>ÝXm§ñ¶mn: ñWmZ‘²& eÝZmo Xodra^rîQ>¶
B˶od‘mqX H¥$Ëdm AWd©doX‘Yr¶Vo& AX²ä¶: ñWmda O“‘mo ^yVJ«m‘: gå^d{V, Vñ‘mV²
gd©‘mnmo‘¶§ ^yV§ gdª ^¥½d{“amo‘¶‘²& AÝVa¡Vo ̶mo doXm ^¥JyZ{“ag: {lVm-B˶{~{V
àH¥${Vanm‘moL²>H$maoU M¡Vñ‘mX² ì¶mg: nwamodmM-^¥½d{“amo{dXm g§ñH¥$Vmo@ݶmZ² doXmZYr¶rV
ZmÝ¶Ì g§ñH¥$Vmo ^¥½d{“agmo@Yr¶rV AW gm‘doXo {Iblw{V: ~«÷Mæ¶}U M¡Vñ‘mXWdm©{“agmo
h ¶mo doX g doX gd©{‘{V ~«m÷U‘²&29&
› H$m ³¶m XodVm, Á¶mo{V, N>ÝX, VWm ñWmZ h¡? (CÎma)- F$½doX Ho$ àW‘ ‘ÝÌ H$m
Ap½Z XodVm, dhr Á¶mo{V, Jm¶Ìr N>ÝX, n¥{Wdr ñWmZ h¡& Bg ‘ÝÌ go F$½doX H$m
Amaå^ h¡-Ap½Z‘rio nwamo{hV§ ¶kñ¶ Xod‘¥pËdO‘²& hmoVma§ aËZYmV‘‘²&
¶Owd}X H$m àW‘ ‘ÝÌ H$m dm¶w XodVm, dhr Á¶mo{V, {ÌîQw>n² N>ÝX, AÝV[aj ñWmZh¡& Bg
‘ÝÌ go ¶Owdo©X H$m Amaå^ h¡-Bfo ËdmoO} Ëdm dm¶d ñW Xodmo d: g{dVm àmn©¶Vw
loîR>V‘m¶ H$‘©U Am߶m¶Üd‘¿Ý¶m BÝÐm¶ ^mJ§ àOmdVraZ‘rdm A¶ú‘m ‘m d ñVoZ
B©eV ‘mKe±gmo Y«wdm Apñ‘Z² JmonVm¡ ñ¶mV ~ôdr¶©O‘mZñ¶ neyZ² nm{h&
gm‘doX Ho Amapå^H$ ‘ÝÌ H$m Am{X˶ XodVm, dhr Á¶mo{V, OJVr N>ÝX VWm Úm¡
(ñdbm}H$) ñWmZ h¡& gm‘ H$m Amaå^ Bg ‘ÝÌ go hmoVm h¡-A½Z Am¶m{h drV¶o J¥UmZmo
hì¶XmV¶o& {Z hmoVm gpËg ~{h©[f&

5. Jm¶Ìr VÝÌ
111
AWd© doX (n¡ßnbmX emIm) Ho àW‘ ‘ÝÌ H$m MÝБm XodVm, dhr Á¶mo{V (AmH$meJ§Jm
H$m VoO), g^r N>ÝX, Amn² (ì¶mnH$ Ob) ñWmZ h¡& BgH$m Amapå^H$ ‘ÝÌ h¡-eÝZmo
Xodra^rîQ>¶ Amnmo ^dÝVw nrV¶o& e§¶moa{^ ldÝVw Z:& (àM{bV em¡ZH$ emIm ‘| ¶h
gyº$ 6 H$m àW‘ ‘ÝÌ h¡& BgH$m àW‘ ‘ÝÌ h¡-¶o {ÌfßVm: n[a¶pÝV {dídm ê$nm{U
{~^«V:& dmMñn{V~©bm Vofm§ VÝdmo AÚ XYmVw ‘o&)
Amn² go ñWmda Am¡a O“‘ àUr hþ¶o h¢& AV: g^r Amnmo‘¶ h¡& g^r ^yV ^¥Jw
(AmH$f©U) VWm A{“am ({dH$f©U)ê$n h¢& VrZm| doX ^¥Jw VWm A{“am Ho$ ^rVa pñWV
h¢& An² hr àH¥${V h¡& BZ Anm| ‘| ›H$ma Ûmam g¥pîQ> hþ¶r& AV: ì¶mg Zo nhbo H$hm
Wm-^¥Jw-A{“am OmZH$a g§ñH¥$V (g§ñH$m[aV) ì¶{º$ hr doX n‹T>o& Aݶ àH$ma Ho$ g§ñH$ma
dmbm BÝh| Zht g‘PoJm& gm‘doX ‘| ^r {Iblw{V h¡-~«÷M¶© go hr Bg AWdm©{“ag
H$mo Omo n‹T>Vm h¡ dhr nyU© doX OmZ gH$Vm h¡-¶h ~«m÷U hþAm&
AܶmË‘‘mË‘^¡fÁ¶‘mË‘H¡$d붑m|H$ma:, AmË‘mZ§ {ZéX²>ܶ g“‘‘mÌt ^yVmW©{MÝVm§
{MÝV¶oX{VH«$å¶ doXoä¶ gd©na‘ܶmË‘ ’$b àmßZmoVr˶W©:, g{dVHª$ kmZ‘¶{‘˶oV¡:
àíZ¡: à{VdMZ¡íM ¶WmWª nX‘Zw{d{MÝ˶ àH$aUkmo {h à~bmo {df¶r ñ¶mV²,
gd©pñ‘ÝdmH$modm³¶ B{V ~«m÷U‘²&30&
AܶmË‘, AmË‘m H$m amoJ-{ZdmaU, AmË‘m H$m H¡$dë¶-g^r Am|H$ma h¡& g“‘ go
CËnÝZ {MÝVm H$mo {Z¶pÝÌV H$a, AmË‘m H$s {MÝVm H$ao& doXm| Ûmam g^r kmZm| {MÝVmAm|
H$m A{VH«$‘U H$a hr AܶmË‘ ’$b {‘bVm h¡& ¶h g{dVH©$ kmZ h¡ (¶moJ gyÌ H$s
g{dVH©$ g‘m{Y)& Bg‘| àíZ, à{VdMZ (CÎma)¶WmW© nXm| H$m (AZw-){dMma H$a
àH$aU OmZZo dmbm hr gQ>rH$ kmZ nmVm h¡, VWm g^r {df¶m| ‘| dmÎmm©bmn H$a gH$Vm
h¡& ¶h ~«m÷U hþAm&
9. Jm¶Ìr Cn{ZfX²-JmonW ~«m÷U, nyd© ^mJ, ànmR>H$$ 1, H$pÊS>H$m (31-38)
H$mo Jm¶Ìr Cn{ZfX² H$hm OmVm h¡&
EVÕ ñ‘ EVX² {dÛm§g‘oH$mXemj§ ‘m¡X²J붧 ½bmdmo ‘¡Ìo¶mo@ä¶mOJm‘& g Vpñ‘Z² ~«÷M¶ª
dgVr{V {dkm¶modmM qH$ pñdZ² ‘æ¶m©Xm A¶§ V§ ‘m¡X²Jë¶mo Aܶo{V ¶Xpñ‘Z² ~«÷Mæ¶}
dgVr{V V{Õ ‘m¡X²Jë¶ñ¶mÝVodmgr ewlmd g AmMmæ¶m©¶m~«Á¶mMMîQ>o, XþaYr¶mZ§ dm A¶§
^dÝV‘dmoMÚmo@¶‘Úm{V{W^©d{V& qH$ gm¡å¶ {dÛm{Z{V& ÌrZ² doXmZ² ~«yVo ^mo3 B{V Vñ¶
gm¡å¶ {dñnîQ>mo {d{OJrfmo@ÝVodmgr VÝ‘o ˆ¶o{V, V‘mOwhmd, V‘ä¶wdmMmgm{d{V ^mo3
B{V qH$ gm¡å¶ V AmMmæ¶m}@ܶoVr{V, ÌrZ² doXmZ² ~«yVo ^mo3 B{V, ¶ÝZw Ibw gm¡å¶mñ‘m{^:

112
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
gd} doXm ‘wIVmo J¥hrVm: H$WÝV Ed‘mMmæ¶m} ^mfVo H$W§ Zw {eîQ>m: {eîQ>oä¶ Ed§ ^mfoaZ²
¶§ øoZ‘h§ àíZ§ n¥ÀN>m{‘ Z V§ {ddú¶{V Z øoZ‘ܶoVr{V& g h ‘m¡X²Jë¶:
ñd‘ÝVodm{gZ‘wdmM, nao{h gm¡å¶ ½bmd§ ‘¡Ìo¶‘wngrXmYr{h ^mo: gm{dÌt Jm¶ÌrÄMVw{dªe{V
¶moqZ ÛmXe {‘WwZm§ ¶ñ¶m ^¥½d{“agíMjw¶©ñ¶m§ gd©{‘X§ {lV§, Vm§ ^dmZ² à~«drpËd{V g
MoËgm¡å¶ XþaYr¶mZmo ^{dî¶Ë¶mMm¶m}dmM ~«÷Mmar ~«÷Mm[aUmo gm{dÌt àmho{V dú¶{V,
VÎd§ ~«y¶mV² XþaYr¶mZÝV§ d¡ ^dmZ² ‘m¡X²J붑dmoMV² g Ëdm ¶§ àíZ‘àmjrÝZ V§ ì¶dmoM:
nwam g§dËgamXm{Îm©‘mH¥$î¶gr{V&31&
¶h à{gÕ H$Wm h¡& {dÛmZ² 11 Aj (BpÝжm| dmbo) ‘m¡XJ² ë¶ (‘wX²Jb d§e Ho$) nmg
½bmd (MÝÐ d§er) ‘¡Ìo¶ ({‘̶w H$m {eî¶) Am¶m& dh ‘m¡X²Jë¶ H$mo dhm§ ~«÷M¶© go
ahVo hþ¶o OmZ H$a nyN>m-H$m¡Z gr ‘¶m©Xm¶| h¢ {Ogo ‘m¡X²Jë¶ Vw‘ Aܶ¶Z H$a aho hmo
VWm Bg ~«÷M¶© H$m nmbZ H$a aho hmo? ¶h ‘m¡X²Jë¶ Ho$ {eî¶ Zo gwZr& dh AmMm¶©
Ho$ nmg OmH$a ~mobm-¶h AmnH$mo AZn‹T> H$h ahm h¡ {H$ÝVw A{V{W h¡& ‘m¡X²Jë¶ Zo
H$hm-gm¡å¶! ³¶m dh {dÛmZ² h¡? ({eî¶ ~mobm)-‘hmamO! dh VrZm| doX H$hVm h¡&
‘m¡X²Jë¶ Zo H$hm-gm¡å¶! Cg OrVZo H$s BÀN>m H$aZo dmbo Ho$ ¶mo½¶ {eî¶ H$mo ~wbm&
{eî¶ Cgo ~wbm bm¶m VWm ‘m¡X²Jë¶ go H$hm-‘hmamO! ¶hr dh h¡& ‘m¡X²Jë¶ Zo H$hmgm¡å¶! Voam AmMm¶© ³¶m n‹T>mVm h¡? dh ~mobm-‘hmamO! dh VrZm| doX H$hVm h¡&
‘m¡X²Jë¶ Zo H$hm-gm¡å¶! h‘Zo g^r doX ‘wI go J«hU {H$¶o h¢, Voam AmMm¶© Eogm H¡$go
H$h ahm h¡? ³¶m {eîQ> bmoJ {eîQ>m| go Eogm ~mobVo h¢? Omo àíZ ‘¢ nyN>Vm hÿ±, CgH$m
CÎma dh Zht Xo gH$Vm Omo Bg doX H$mo Zht n‹T>m h¡& {’$a dh ‘m¡X²Jë¶ AnZo {eî¶
go ~mobm-gm¡å¶! Om Am¡a ½bmd ‘¡Ìo¶ go {‘b H$a nyN>mo-24 ¶mo{Z, 12 ¶w½‘ dmbr
g{dVm XodVm dmbr Jm¶Ìr H$mo n‹T>& {OgHo$ ^¥Jw-Am{“ag ZoÌ h¢, {Og‘| ¶h g^r
pñWV h¡, Amn Cg Jm¶Ìr H$mo g‘Pm¶|& {’$a AmMm¶© ‘m¡X²Jë¶ Zo H$hm-gm¡å¶! ¶{X dh
Hw$n‹T> h¡, Vmo Amn H$h| {H$ ~«÷Mmar H$mo ~«÷Mmar gm{dÌr (g{dVm XodVm dmbr)
Jm¶Ìr ~VmVm h¡& V~ H$h|-AmnZo hr ‘m¡X²Jë¶ H$mo Hw$n‹T> H$hm h¡& CgZo Vw‘go Omo àíZ
nyN>m Wm CgH$m CÎma h‘| Zht ~VmZo na 1 df© nr‹S>m ^moJZr hmoJr&
g VÌmOJm‘ ¶ÌoVamo ~^yd, V§ h nàÀN> g h Z à{VnoXo, V§ hmodmM XþaYr¶mZ§ V§ d¡
^dmZ² ‘m¡X²J붑dmoMV², g Ëdm ¶§ àíZ‘àmjrÝZ V§ ì¶dmoM: nwam g§dËgamXm{Îm©‘mH¥$î¶gr{V&
g h ‘¡Ìo¶: ñdmZÝVodm{gZ CdmM ¶WmWª ^dÝVmo ¶WmJ¥h§ ¶Wm‘Zmo {dàg¥Á¶ÝVm§ XþaYr¶mZ§
¶m Ah§ ‘m¡X²J붑dmoM§ g ‘m ¶§ àíZ‘àmjrÝZ V§ ì¶dmoM§, V‘wn¡î¶m{‘ empÝV¨ H$[aî¶m‘r{V&

5. Jm¶Ìr VÝÌ
113
g h ‘¡Ìo¶: àmV: g{‘Ënm{U‘m£X²J붑wnggmXmgmdmJ«h§ ^mo ‘¡Ìo¶: {H$‘W©{‘{V XþaYr¶mZ§
dm Ah§ ^dÝV‘dmoM§ Ëd§ ‘m ¶åàíZ‘àmjrÝZ© V§ ì¶dmoM§ Ëdm‘wn¡î¶m{‘ empÝV¨ H$[aî¶m‘r{V,
g hmodmMmÌ dm CnoVÄM gd©ÄM H¥$V§ nmnHo$Z Ëdm ¶mZoZ MaÝV‘mhÿaWmo@¶§ ‘‘ H$ë¶mUñV
Vo XXm{‘ VoZ ¶mhr{V& g hmodmM¡VXodmÌmpËdfÄMmZ¥e§ñ¶ÄM ¶Wm ^dmZmhmonm¶m{‘˶od§
^dÝV{‘{V V§ hmono¶m¶ V§ hmono˶ nàÀN> qH$pñdXmhþ^m}: g{dVwd©aoʶ§ ^Jm} Xodñ¶ H$d¶:
{H$‘mhþ{Y©¶mo {dMúd ¶{X Vm à{dí¶ àMmoX¶mËg{dVm ¶m{^aoVr{V&
Vñ‘m EVV² àmodmM doXmíN>ÝXm§{g g{dVwd©aoʶ§ ^Jm} Xodñ¶ H$d¶mo@ÝZ‘mhþ: H$‘m©{U
{Y¶ñVXþ Vo ~«dr{‘ àMmoX¶mËg{dVm ¶m{^aoVr{V&
V‘wngL²>J¥ô¶ nàÀN>mYr{h ^mo: H$: g{dVm H$m gm{dÌr&32&
dh dhm§ J¶m Ohm§ Xÿgam (‘¡Ìo¶) Wm& CgZo nyN>m Am¡a dh (‘¡Ìo¶) Z ~Vm gH$m& ‘¡Ìo¶
go dh ~mobm-AmnZo Cg ‘m¡X²Jë¶ H$mo Hw$n‹T> ~Vm¶m h¡, CgZo Vw‘go Omo àíZ {H$¶m h¡
CgH$m CÎma Zht ~VmZo na 1 df© Vw‘H$mo nr‹S>m hmoJr& Cg ‘¡Ìo¶ Zo AnZo {eî¶m| go
R>rH$ R>rH$ H$hm-Amn AnZo Ka BÀN>mZwgma Mbo Om¶|& ‘¢Zo ‘m¡X²Jë¶ H$mo Hw$n‹T> ~Vm¶m
h¡& CgZo ‘wPgo Omo nyN>m dh ‘¢ Zht ~Vm nm¶m& ‘¢ CgHo$ nmg OmH$a CgH$mo emÝV
H$ê§$Jm& dh ({eî¶ ~ZZo Ho$ {b¶o) hmW ‘| g{‘Ym boH$a àmV:H$mb AZwJ«herb
‘m¡X²Jë¶ Ho$ nmg nhþ§Mm VWm H$hm-^JdZ²! ‘¡ ‘¡Ìo¶ hÿ±& ‘m¡X²Jë¶ Zo H$hm- ³¶m| Am¶o?
(‘¡Ìo¶ Zo H$hm) ‘¢Zo AmnH$mo Hw$n‹T> ~Vm¶m Wm& AmnZo ‘wPgo Omo nyN>m dh ‘¢ Zht ~Vm
nm¶m& Voao nmg OmH$a Vwåh| gÝVwîQ> H$ê§$Jm& dh ‘m¡X²Jë¶ ~mobm-g~ n‹T> H$a ¶hm§ AmZo
na bmoJ AmnH$mo nmn ‘mJ© na MbZodmbm H$hVo h¢& ‘¢ AmnH$mo H$ë¶mUH$mar aW XoVm hÿ±,
Cggo Mb|& dh ‘¡Ìo¶ ~mobm-AmnH$m ¶h H$‘© {~Zm B©î¶m© Ho$ VWm X¶m¶wº$ h¡& Amn Ho$
dMZ Ho$ AZwgma ‘¢ AmnHo$ nmg Am¶m hÿ±& dh ‘m¡X²Jë¶ Ho$ nmg Am¶m VWm nyN>m^JdZ²! g{dVwd©aoʶ§ ^Jm} Xodñ¶-BgH$m AW© H${d bmoJ ³¶m H$aVo h¢? {Y¶: nX H$mo do
³¶m H$hVo h¢? ¶h ~Vm¶| {H$ g{dVm àdoe H$a CÝh| H¡$go ào[aV H$aVm h¡&
Cg ‘¡Ìo¶ go H$hm-doX N>ÝX h¢, H${d daoʶ g{dVm Xod H$mo ^J© VWm AÝZ H$hVo h¢&
{Y¶: H$‘© h¡, ¶h ^r ~VmVm hÿ±& g{dVm Bgrgo ào[aV H$aVm h¡&
CgHo$ nmg OmH$a ‘¡Ìo¶ Zo {ZdoXZ {H$¶m-^JdZ²! g{dVm VWm gm{dÌr Ho$ ~mao ‘|
~Vm¶|&
(1) ‘Z Ed g{dVm, dmH²$ gm{dÌr, ¶Ì øod ‘ZñVX² dmH²$, ¶Ì d¡ dmH²$ VÝ‘Z:,
B˶oVo Ûo ¶moZr EH§$ {‘WwZ‘², (2) Ap½Zaod g{dVm n¥{Wdr gm{dÌr, ¶Ì øodmp½ZñVV²

114
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
n¥{Wdr ¶Ì d¡ n¥{Wdr VXp½Z[a˶oVo Ûo ¶moZr EH§$ {‘WwZ§, (3) dm¶waod g{dVm@ÝV[aj§
gm{dÌr ¶Ì øod dm¶wñVXÝV[aj§, ¶Ì dm AÝV[aj§ VÛm¶w[a˶oVo Ûo ¶moZr EH§$ {‘WwZ‘²,
(4) Am{X˶ Ed g{dVm Úm¡: gm{dÌr ¶Ì øodm{X˶ñVX²Úm¡¶©Ì d¡ Úm¡ñVXm{X˶ B˶oVo
Ûo ¶moZr EH§$ {‘WwZ§, (5) MÝБm Ed g{dVm, ZjÌm{U gm{dÌr, ¶Ì øod
MÝБmñVÝZjÌm{U ¶Ì d¡ ZjÌm{U VÀMÝБm, B˶oVo Ûo ¶moZr EH§$ {‘WwZ‘², (6)
Ahaod g{dVm, am{Ì: gm{dÌr, ¶Ì øodmhñVÐm{̶©Ì d¡ am{ÌñVXh[a˶oVo Ûo ¶moZr EH§$
{‘WwZ‘², (7) CîU‘od g{dVm, erV§ gm{dÌr ¶Ì øodmoîU§ VÀN>rV§, ¶Ì d¡ erV§
VXþîU{‘˶oVo Ûo ¶moZr EH§$ {‘WwZ‘², (8) A^«‘od g{dVm, dfª gm{dÌr, ¶Ì øodmã^«ÝVÛfª
¶Ì d¡ dfª VXã^«{‘˶oVo Ûo ¶moZr EH§$ {‘WwZ‘², (9) {dÚwXod g{dVm, ñVZ{¶ËZw:
gm{dÌr, ¶Ì øod {dÚwV² VV² ñVZ{¶ËZw: ¶Ì d¡ ñVZ{¶ËZwñV{ÛÚw{X˶oVo Ûo ¶moZr EH§$
{‘WwZ‘², (10) àmU Ed g{dVm, AÝZ§ gm{dÌr, ¶Ì øod àmUñVXÝZ§ ¶Ì dm AÝZ§ VV²
àmU B˶oVo Ûo ¶moZr EH§$ {‘WwZ‘², (11) doXm Ed g{dVm N>ÝXm§{g gm{dÌr, ¶Ì øod
doXmñVÀN>ÝXm§{g, ¶Ì d¡ N>ÝXm§{g VX² doXm B˶oVo Ûo ¶moZr EH§$ {‘WwZ‘², (12) ¶k Ed
g{dVm, X{jUm gm{dÌr, ¶Ì øod ¶kñVV² X{jUm, ¶Ì d¡ X{jUmñVÚk B˶oVo Ûo
¶moZr EH§$ {‘WwZ‘²& EVÕ ñ‘¡V{ÛÛm§g‘monmH$m[a‘mgñVw~÷
«© Mmar Vo g§pñWV B˶W¡V
AmgñVwam{MV Bd {MVmo ~^ydmWmoËWm¶ àm~«mOr{X˶oVÛm@h§ doX Z¡Vmgw ¶mo{ZpîdV EVoä¶mo
dm {‘WwZoä¶: gå^yVmo ~«÷Mmar ‘‘ nwam¶wf: ào¶m{X{V&33&
g{dVm gm{dÌr
1. ‘Z
dmH²$
2. Ap½Z n¥{Wdr
3. dm¶w AÝV[aj
4. Am{X˶ Úm¡
5. MÝБm ZjÌ
6. Ah:
am{Ì
7. CîU
erV
8. A^«
df© (dfm©)
9. {dÚwV²
ñVZ{¶ËZw (JO©Z)
10. àmU AÝZ

5. Jm¶Ìr VÝÌ

115

11. doX
N>ÝX
12. ¶k
X{jUm
¶o g^r 12 {‘WwZ (Omo‹S>m) h¢ & AbJ AbJ 24 VÎd 24 ¶mo{Z h¢&
~«÷ hoX§ {l¶§ à{VîR>m‘m¶VZ‘¡jV, VÎmnñd ¶{X VX² d«Vo {K«¶oV VËg˶o à˶{VîR>V²,
g: g{dVm gm{dͶm ~«m÷U§ g¥îQ²>dm VV² gm{dÌt n涩XYmV² VV² g{dVwd©aoʶ{‘{V
gm{dͶm: àW‘; nmX: n¥{Wì¶ÄM g‘XYmÑMm@p½Z‘p½ZZm {l¶§, {l¶m pñ̶§, pñ̶m
{‘WwZ§, {‘WwZoZ àOm§, àO¶m H$‘ª, H$å‘©Um Vn:, Vngm g˶§, g˶oZ ~«÷, ~«÷Um
~«m÷U§, ~«m÷UoZ d«V§, d«VoZ d¡ ~«m÷U: g§{eVmo ^d˶eyݶmo ^d˶{dpÀN>ÝZmo
^d˶{dpÀN>ÝZmo@ñ¶ VÝVwa{dpÀN>ÝZ§ OrdZ§ ^dZ§ ^d{V ¶ Ed§ doX ¶íM¡d§ {dÛmZod‘oV§
àW‘§ nmX§ ì¶mMîQ>o&34&
‘m¡X²Jë¶ H$hVo h¢-Bg ~«÷ go hr lr H$s à{VîR>m VWm Aml¶ XoIm& Eogm Vn H$a| {Og
d«V go Amn g˶ ‘| à{VpîR>V hm|& Cg g{dVm Zo gm{dÌr Ûmam ~«m÷U H$mo ~Zm¶m,
CgZo gm{dÌr H$m YmaU {H$¶m& Cg g{dVm H$m àW‘ nmX h¡-VV² g{dVwd©aoʶ‘²&
n¥{Wdr go F$Mm, F$H²$ go Ap½Z, Ap½Z go lr, lr go ñÌr, ñÌr go {‘WwZ, {‘WwZ go
àOm, àOm go H$‘©, H$‘© go Vn, Vn go g˶, g˶ go ~«÷, ~«÷ go ~«m÷U, ~«m÷U
Zo d«V H$mo YmaU {H$¶m& d«V go hr ~«m÷U àe§{gV hmoVm h¡, Aeyݶ (nyU©) hmoVm h¡,
A{dpÀN>ÝZ (AIÊS>, g‘Ýd¶) hmoVm h¡, VWm CgH$s naånam A{dpÀN>ÝZ ahVr h¡&
{dÛmZ² Bg àH$ma gm{dÌr H$m àW‘ nmX ~VmVo h¢&
^Jm} Xodñ¶ Yr‘hr{V gm{dͶm {ÛVr¶: nmXmo@ÝV[ajoU ¶Ow: g‘XYmV² ¶Owfm dm¶w§,
dm¶wZm@ã^«‘², Aã^«oU dfª, df}Um¡f{YdZñnVrZmof{YdZñn{V{^: neyZ², new{^: H$‘©,
H$‘©Um VnñVngm g˶§, g˶oZ ~«÷, ~«÷Um ~«m÷U§, ~«m÷UoZ d«V§, d«VoZ d¡ ~«m÷Umo
g§{eVmo ^d˶eyݶmo ^dpËdpÀN>ÝZmo ^d˶{dpÀN>ÝZmo@ñ¶ VÝVwa{dpÀN>ÝZ§ OrdZ§ ^d{V ¶
Ed§ doX ¶íM¡d§ {dÛmZod‘oV§ {ÛVr¶§ nmX§ ì¶mMîQ>o&35&
gm{dÌr H$m {ÛVr¶ nmX h¡-^Jm} Xodñ¶ Yr‘{h& BgZo AÝV[aj ‘| ¶Ow H$mo YmaU {H$¶m,
¶Ow go dm¶w, dm¶w go Aã^« (‘oK), Aã^« go dfm©, dfm© go Amof{Y (Omo ’$b nH$Zo na
ZîQ> hmoVr h¢) VWm dZñn{V (à{V df© ’$b XoVr h¢), Amof{Y-dZñn{V go new, new
go H$‘©, H$‘© go Vn, Vn go g˶, g˶ go ~«÷, ~«÷ go ~«m÷U, ~«m÷U Zo d«V H$mo
YmaU {H$¶m& d«V go hr ~«m÷U àe§{gV hmoVm h¡, Aeyݶ (nyU©) hmoVm h¡, A{dpÀN>ÝZ

116
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
(AIÊS>, g‘Ýd¶) hmoVm h¡, VWm CgH$s naånam A{dpÀN>ÝZ ahVr h¡& {dÛmZ² Bg
àH$ma gm{dÌr H$m {ÛVr¶ nmX ~VmVo h¢&
{Y¶mo ¶mo Z: àMmo X ¶m{X{V gm{dͶmñV¥ V r¶: nmXmo {Xdm gm‘ g‘XYV²
gmåZm@@{X˶‘m{X˶oZ aí‘rZ², apí‘{^d©fª, df}Um¡f{YdZñnVrZmof{YdZñn{V{^: neyZ²,
new{^: H$‘©, H$‘©Um VnñVngm g˶§, g˶oZ ~«÷, ~«÷Um ~«m÷U§, ~«m÷UoZ d«V§,
d«VoZ d¡ ~«m÷Umo g§{eVmo ^d˶eyݶmo ^dpËdpÀN>ÝZmo ^d˶{dpÀN>ÝZmo@ñ¶ VÝVwa{dpÀN>ÝZ§
OrdZ§ ^d{V ¶ Ed§ doX ¶íM¡d§ {dÛmZod‘oV§ V¥Vr¶§ nmX§ ì¶mMîQ>o&36&
gm{dÌr H$m V¥Vr¶ nmX h¡-{Y¶mo ¶mo Z: àMmoX¶mV²& gm{dÌr Ho$ V¥Vr¶ nmX Zo AmH$me
‘| gm‘ H$m YmaU {H$¶m& gm‘ go Am{X˶, Am{X˶ go apí‘, apí‘ go dfm©, dfm© go
Amof{Y VWm dZñn{V, Amof{Y-dZñn{V go new, new go H$‘©, H$‘© go Vn, Vn go g˶,
g˶ go ~«÷, ~«÷ go ~«m÷U, ~«m÷U Zo d«V H$mo YmaU {H$¶m& d«V go hr ~«m÷U
àe§{gV hmoVm h¡, Aeyݶ (nyU©) hmoVm h¡, A{dpÀN>ÝZ (AIÊS>, g‘Ýd¶) hmoVm h¡,
VWm CgH$s naånam A{dpÀN>ÝZ ahVr h¡& {dÛmZ² Bg àH$ma gm{dÌr H$m V¥Vr¶ nmX
~VmVo h¢&
(1) VoZ h dm Ed§ {dXþfm ~«m÷UoZ ~«÷m{^nÝZ§ J«{gV§ nam‘¥îQ>‘²& (2) ~«÷Um
@@H$me‘{^nÝZ§ J«{gV§ nam‘¥îQ>¶m& (3) AmH$meoZ dm¶wa{^nÝZmo J«{gV: nam‘¥îQ>mo,
(4) dm¶wZm Á¶mo[Va{^nÝZ§ J«{gV§ nam‘¥îQ>‘²& (5) Á¶mo{Vfm@nmo@{^nÝZmJ«{gVm: nam‘¥îQ>m&
(6) A{X²^^y©{‘a{^nÝZmJ«{gVm: nam‘¥îQ>m& (7) ^yå¶m@ÝZ‘{^nÝZ§ J«{gV§ nam‘¥îQ>,
(8) ‘ÝZoZ àmUmo@{^nÝZmo J«{gV: nam‘¥îQ:& (9) àmUoZ ‘Zmo@{^nÝZ§ J«{gV§ nam‘¥îQ>‘²&
(10) ‘Zgm dmJ{^nÝZm J«{gVm nam‘¥îQ>m& (11) dmMm doXm A{^nÝZm J«{gVm:
nam‘¥î Q> m & (12) doX ¡¶ ©k mo@{^nÝZmo J«{ gV: nam‘¥î Q>: & Vm{Z h dm EVm{Z
ÛmXe‘hm^yVmݶod§{dYà{VpîR>Vm{Z Vofm§ ¶k Ed namÕç©:&37&
(1) Cg (gm{dÌr H$m AW© OmZZo dmbo) {dÛmZ² ~«m÷U Ûmam ~«÷ A{^nÝZ (àmßV)
hþAm, J«{gV hwAm (nyar Vah g‘Pm J¶m) VWm Xÿgam| H$mo g‘Pm¶m J¶m (nam‘¥îQ>=
nam‘e© XoZm)& (2) ~«÷ go AmH$me àmßV hþAm, J«gm J¶m VWm àgm[aV hþAm& (3)
AmH$me go dm¶w àmßV hþAm, J«gm J¶m VWm àgm[aV hþAm& (4) dm¶w go Á¶mo{V àmßV
hþAm, J«gm J¶m VWm àgm[aV hþAm& (5) Á¶mo{V go Amn àmßV hþAm, J«gm J¶m VWm
àgm[aV hþAm& (6) Amn go ^y{‘ àmßV hþ¶r, J«gr J¶r VWm àgm[aV hþ¶r& (7) ^y{‘
go AÝZ àmßV hþAm, J«gm J¶m VWm àgm[aV hþAm& (8) AÝZ go àmU àmßV hþAm, J«gm

5. Jm¶Ìr VÝÌ
117
J¶m VWm àgm[aV hþAm& (9) àmU go ‘Z àmßV hþAm, J«gm J¶m VWm àgm[aV hþAm&
(10) ‘Z go dmH²$ àmßV hþAm, J«gm J¶m VWm àgm[aV hþAm& (11) dmH²$ go doX àmßV
hþAm, J«gm J¶m VWm àgm[aV hþAm& (12) doX go ¶k àmßV hþAm, J«gm J¶m VWm
àgm[aV hþAm& ¶hr 12 ‘hmVÎd Bg àH$ma {dYmZ Ho$ gmW à{VpîR>V h¢& CZ g~‘| ¶k
hr namÕ©ç h¡& (¶k H$m Amaå^ AmH$me-J§Jm Ho$ {Z‘m©U go hmoVm h¡, CgH$r n[a{Y
namY© ¶moOZ h¡, 1 ¶moOZ = n¥Ïdr n[a{Y H$m AmYm A§e=55.5 VH$.‘r.)& ¶hm§
loîR>V‘ H$‘© Ho$ ê$n ‘| namÕ©ç H$hm J¶m h¡& g^r H$‘© CËnmXH$ Zht hmoVo, H$B© {dZme
^r H$aVo h¢& BpÀN>V dñVwAm| H$m CËnmXZ hr ¶k h¡&
V§ h ñ‘¡V‘od§ {dÛm§gmo ‘ݶÝVo {dX²‘ EZ{‘{V ¶mWmV϶‘{dÛm§gmo (1)@¶§ ¶kmo doXofw
à{VpîR>Vmo, (2) doXm dm{M à{VpîR>Vm, (3) dmL²> ‘Z{g à{VpîR>Vm, (4) ‘Z: àmUo
à{VpîR>V§, (5) àmUmo@ÝZo à{VpîR>Vmo, (6) @ÝZ§ ^y‘m¡ à{VpîR>V§, (7) ^y{‘aßgw
à{VpîR>Vm, (8) Amnmo Á¶mo{V{f à{VpîR>Vm, (9) Á¶mo{Vdm©¶m¡ à{VpîR>V§, (10) dm¶wamH$meo
à{VpîR>V:, (11) AmH$me§ ~«÷{U à{VpîR>V§, (12) ~«÷ ~«m÷Uo ~«÷{d{X à{VpîR>V‘²&
¶mo h dm Ed§ {dV² g ~«÷{dV², nwʶm§ M H$s{Vª b^Vo gwa^tíM JÝYmZ² gmo@nhVnmß‘mZÝVm§
{l¶‘íZwVo ¶ Ed§ doX ¶íM¡d§ {dÛmZod‘oVm§ doXmZm§ ‘mVa§ gm{dÌrgånX‘wn{ZfX‘wnmñV
B{V ~«m÷U‘²&38&
Omo AnZo H$mo {dÛmZ² ‘mZH$a ¶h g‘PVo h¢ {H$ do ¶k H$mo nyam OmZVo h¢, do AkmZr
h¢& (1) ¶h ¶k doX ‘| à{VpîR>V h¡& (2) doX dmH²$ ‘| à{VpîR>V h¡& (3) dmH²$ ‘Z
‘| à{VpîR>V h¡& (4) ‘Z àmU ‘| à{VpîR>V h¡& (5) àmU AÝZ ‘| à{VpîR>V h¡& (6)
AÝZ ^y{‘ ‘| à{VpîR>V h¡& (7) ^y{‘ An² ‘| à{VpîR>V h¡& (8) An² Á¶mo{V ‘| à{VpîR>V
h¡& (9) Á¶mo{V dm¶w ‘| à{VpîR>V h¡& (10) dm¶w AmH$me ‘| à{VpîR>V h¡& (11)
AmH$me ~«÷ ‘| à{VpîR>V h¡& (12) ~«÷ ~«m÷U ‘| à{VpîR>V h¡& Omo Bg àH$ma
OmZVm h¡, dh n{dÌ H$s{V© VWm gwJÝY nmVm h¡& dh nmn ‘wº$ hmoH$a AZÝV lr
^moJVm h¡& Omo {dÛmZ² ¶h OmZH$a doX‘mVm gm{dÌr Hr CnmgZm H$aVm h¡, dh doX
gånX nmVm h¡& ¶h ~«m÷U nyU© hþAm&
10. Jm¶Ìr ahñ¶mon{ZfX²› ñdpñV {gÕ‘² & › Z‘mo ~«÷Uo& › Z‘ñH¥$˶ ¶mkd볶: F${f: ñd¶å^wd§
n[an¥ÀN>{V& ho ~«÷Z² Jm¶Í¶m CËnqÎm lmoVw{‘ÀN>m{‘& AWmVmo d{gîR>: ñd¶å^wd§ n[an¥ÀN>{V&
¶mo ~«÷m g ~«÷modmM& ~«÷kmZmoËnÎmo: àH¥$qV ì¶m»¶mñ¶m‘:& H$mo Zm‘ ñd¶å^y: nwéf

118
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
B{V& VoZm“xbr‘϶‘mZmV² g{bb‘^dV² & g{bbmV² ’o$Z‘^dV²& ’o$ZmX² ~wX²~wX‘² A^dV²&
~wX²~wXmX² AÊS>‘² A^dV²& AÊS>mX² ~«÷m A^dV²& ~«÷Umo dm¶w: A^dV²& dm¶moap½Za^dV²&
A½ZoamoL²>H$mamo@^dV²& AmoL²>H$mamX² ì¶mö{Va^dV²& ì¶mö˶m: Jm¶Í¶^dV²& Jm¶Í¶m:
gm{dͶ^dV²& gm{dͶm: gañd˶^dV²& gañd˶m: gd} doXm A^dZ²& gd}ä¶mo doXoä¶:
gd} bmoH$m A^dZ²& gd}ä¶mo bmoHo$ä¶: gd} àm{UZmo@^dZ²&
AWmVmo Jm¶Ìr ì¶möV¶íM àdV©ÝVo& H$m M Jm¶Ìr, H$míM ì¶möV¶:& qH$ ^y: qH$ ^wd:
qH$ gwd:, qH$ ‘h: qH$ OZ: qH$ Vn: qH$ g˶§ qH$ VV² qH$ g{dVw: qH$ daoʶ§ qH$ ^J©:
qH$ Xodñ¶ qH$ Yr‘{h qH$ {Y¶: qH$ ¶: qH$ Z: qH$ àMmoX¶mV²& › ^y[a{V ^wdmo bmoH$:&
^wd B˶ÝV[ajbmoH$:& ñd[a{V ñdJ© bmoH$:& ‘h B{V ‘hbm}H$:& OZ B{V OZmobmoH$:&
g˶{‘{V g˶bmoH$:& V{X{V VXgm¡ VoOmo‘¶§ VoOmo@p½ZX}dVm& g{dVw[a{V g{dVm
gm{dÌ‘m{X˶mo d¡& daoʶ{‘Ë¶Ì àOmn{V:& ^J© B˶mnmo d¡ ^J©:& Xodñ¶ BVrÝÐmo Xodmo
ÚmoVV B{V g BÝÐñVñ‘mV² gd©nwéfmo Zm‘ éÐ:& Yr‘hr˶ÝVamË‘m& {Y¶ B˶ÝVamË‘m
na:& ¶ B{V gXm{ed nwéf:& Zmo B˶ñ‘mH§$ ñdY‘}& àMmoX¶m{X{V àMmo{XVH$m‘ B‘mZ²
bmoH$mZ² à˶ml¶ÝVo ¶: namo Y‘© B˶ofm Jm¶Ìr& gm M qH$ JmoÌm H$˶jam H${V nmXm&
H${V Hw$j¶:& H$m{Z erfm©{U& gm§»¶m¶Z JmoÌm gm MVw{dªe˶jam Jm¶Ìr {ÌnmXm
MVwînmXm& nwZñVñ¶míMËdma: nmXm: fQ²> Hw${jH$m: nÄM erfm©{U ^dpÝV& Ho$ M nmXm:
H$míM Hw$j¶: H$m{Z erfm©{U& F$½doXmo@ñ¶m: àW‘: nmXmo ^d{V& ¶Owd}Xmo {ÛVr¶:
nmX:& gm‘doXñV¥Vr¶: nmX:& AWd©doXíMVwW©: nmX:& nydm© {XH²$ àW‘m Hw${j^©d{V&
X{jUm {ÛVr¶m Hw${j^©d{V& npíM‘m V¥Vr¶m Hw${j^©d{V& CÎmam MVwWu Hw${j^©d{V&
D$Üdª nÄM‘r Hw${j^©d{V& AY: fîR>r Hw${j^©d{V& ì¶mH$aUmo@ñ¶m: àW‘: erfm} ^d{V&
{ejm {ÛVr¶:& H$ënñV¥Vr¶:& {Zéº$íMVwW©:& Á¶mo{Vfm‘¶Z{‘{V nÄM‘:& H$m {XH²$ H$mo
dU©: {H$‘m¶VZ§ H$: ñda: qH$ bjU§ H$mݶjaX¡dVm{Z H$ F$f¶: H$m{Z N>ÝXm§{g H$m:
eº$¶: H$m{Z VÎdm{Z Ho$ Mmd¶dm:& nydm©¶m§ ^dVw Jm¶Ìr& ‘ܶ‘m¶m§ ^dVw gm{dÌr&
npíM‘m¶m§ ^dVw gañdVr& aº$m Jm¶Ìr& ídoVm gm{dÌr& H¥$îUm gañdVr& n¥{Wì¶ÝV[aj§
Úm¡am¶VZm{Z& AH$mamoH$ma‘H$maê$nmoXmÎmm{XñdampË‘H$m& nydm© gÝܶm h§gdm{hZr ~«m÷r&
‘ܶ‘m d¥f^dm{hZr ‘mhoídar& npíM‘m JéS>dm{hZr d¡îUdr& nydm©•H$m{bH$m gÝܶm
Jm¶Ìr Hw$‘mar aº$m aº$m“r aº$dm{gZr aº$JÝY‘më¶mZwbonZr nmemL²>Hw$emj‘mbm H$‘ÊS>bw
dahñVm h§gmê$T>m ~«÷X¡d˶m F$½doXg{hVm Am{X˶ nWJm{‘Zr ^y‘ÊS>bdm{gZr&
‘ܶm•H$m{bH$m gÝܶm gm{dÌr ¶wdVr ídoVm“r ídoVdm{gZr ídoVJÝY‘më¶mZwbonZr

5. Jm¶Ìr VÝÌ
119
{ÌeybS>‘éhñVm d¥f^mê$T>m éÐX¡d˶m ¶Owd}X g{hVm Am{X˶nWJm{‘Zr ^wdmo bmoHo$
ì¶dpñWVm& gm¶§ gÝܶm gañdVr d¥Õm H¥$îUm“r H¥$îUdm{gZr H¥$îUJÝY‘më¶mZwbonZm
eL²>IMH«$JXm^¶hñVm JéS>mê$T>m {dîUwX¡d˶m gm‘doXg{hVm Am{X˶nWJm{‘Zr
ñdJ©bmoH$ì¶dpñWVm& Ap½Zdm¶wgy¶©ê$nm@@hdZr¶Jmh©n˶ X{jUmp½Z ê$nm F$½¶Ow:
gm‘ê$nm ^y^w©d: ñd[a{V ì¶mö{Vê$nm àmV‘©Ü¶m•V¥Vr¶gdZmpË‘H$m gÎdaOñV‘moJwUmpË‘H$m
OmJ«ËñdßZgwf wßVê$nm dgwéÐm{X˶ê$nm Jm¶Ìr-{ÌîQw>~²-OJVrê$nm ~«÷eL²>H $a{dîUwê$noÀN>m-kmZ{H«$¶me{º$ê$nm ñdampS²>damS‰>fS²> ~«÷ê$no{V& àW‘m½Zo¶§ {ÛVr¶§ àmOmn˶§
V¥Vr¶§ gm¡å¶§ MVwW©‘remZ§ nÄM‘m{X˶§ fîR>§ Jmh©n˶§ gßV‘§ ‘¡Ì‘îQ>‘§ ^JX¡dV§ Zd‘m¶©‘U§
Xe‘§ gm{dÌ‘oH$mXe§ ËdmîQ´>§ ÛmXe§ nm¡îU§ ̶moXe‘¡ÝÐm½Z§ MVwX©e§ dm¶ì¶§ nÄMXe§
dm‘Xod§ fmoS>e§ ‘¡ÌmdéU§ gßVXe§ ^«mV¥ì¶‘îQ>mXe§ d¡îUd‘oH$moZqde§ dm‘Z§ qde§
d¡ídXod‘oH$qde§ am¡Ð§ Ûmqde§ H$m¡~oa§ ̶moqde‘mpídZ§ MVw{dªe§ ~«m÷{‘{V à˶ja X¡dVm{Z&
àW‘§ d{gîR>§ {ÛVr¶§ ^maÛmO§ V¥Vr¶§ Jm½¶ª MVwW©‘m¡n‘ݶd§ nÄM‘§ ^mJ©d§ fîR>§ empÊS>붧
gßV‘§ bm¡{hV‘îQ>‘§ d¡îUd§ Zd‘§ emVmVn§ Xe‘§ gZËHw$‘ma‘oH$mXe§ doXì¶mg§ ÛmXe§ ewH«§$
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MVw{dªe‘m{“ag§ d¡ídm{‘Ì{‘{V à˶jamUm‘¥f¶mo ^dpÝV& Jm¶Ìr-{ÌîQw>ãOJ˶ZwîQw>n²
npL²>º$~¥©h˶wpîUJ{X{V[a{V {Ìamd¥ÎmoZ N>ÝXm§{g à{VnmÚÝVo& à‡m{XZr àkm {díd^Ðm
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gd©Vmo‘wIr{V MVw{dªe{V eº$¶mo {ZJÚÝVo& n¥{Wì¶ßVoOmo dmædmH$me JÝYagê$n ñne©
eãX dm³¶m{Z nmXnm¶ynñWËdH²$ MjwlmoÌ{Oˆm K«mU ‘Zmo~wÕçhL²>H$ma {MÎmkmZmZr{V
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VmaH $gamoO Jm¡a ‘aH$V ew³b Hw$ÝXoÝXþ eL²>I nmÊSw> ZoÌZrbmoËnb MÝXZmJwé H$ñVyar
JmoamoMZ KZgma gpÝZ^§ à˶ja‘² AZwñ‘¥Ë¶ g‘ñV nmVH$monnmVH$ ‘hmnmVH$mJå¶mJ‘Z
Jmoh˶m ~«÷h˶m ^«yUh˶m nwéfh˶m@@OÝ‘H¥$Vh˶m Jwéh˶m {nV¥h˶m àmUh˶m
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120
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Zm{^ap½Z: H${Q>[aÝÐm½Zr OKZ§ àmOmn˶‘yê$ H¡$bmg‘yb§ OmZwZr {dídoXodm¡ OL²>Ko {e{ea:
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¶ BX§ Jm¶Ìr ahñ¶‘YrVo VoZ F$Vw ghò{‘îQ>§ ^d{V& ¶ BX§ Jm¶Ìr ahñ¶‘YrVo
{XdgH¥$V§ nmn§ Zme¶{V& àmV‘©Ü¶m•¶mo: fÊ‘mgH¥$Vm{Z nmnm{Z Zme¶{V& ¶ BX§
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^d{V& gd}fw VrW}fw ñZmVmo ^d{V& Ano¶nmZmV² nyVmo ^d{V& A^ú¶^jUmV² nyVmo
^d{V& d¥fbrJ‘ZmV² nyVmo ^d{V& A~«÷Mmar ~«÷Mmar ^d{V& npL²>º$fw ghònmZmV²
nyVmo ^d{V& AîQ>mo ~«m÷UmZ² J«mh{¶Ëdm ~«÷bmoH§$ g JÀN>{V& B˶mh ^JdmZ² ~«÷m&
11. gmam§e-Jm¶Ìr Ho$ MaU VWm XodVm-àW‘ MaU-~«÷m, {ÛVr¶ MaU-{dîUw,
V¥Vr¶ MaU-‘hoe&
Jm¶Ìr Ho$ 5 ‘wI-(1) ›, (2) ^y^w©d: ñd:, (3) VËg{dVwd©aoʶ‘², (4) ^Jm} Xodñ¶
Yr‘{h, (5) {Y¶mo ¶mo Z: àMmoX¶mV²& ¶m 4 doX +¶k&
‘h{f© CÔmbH$ Zo Bgr Jm¶Ìr {dÚm H$s àmU-à{VîR>m H$s Wr& Jm¶Ìr ‘ÝÌ Ho$ 5 ‘wIm|
Ho$ àVrH$-(1) 4 doX +¶k, (2) nÄMVÎdmË‘H$ OJV² Ed§ Xoh go n¥WH²$ g‘PZo H$s
gmYZm, (3) AmË‘m Ho$ nÄMH$mof AmdaU go ^r AnZo H$mo n¥WH²$ g‘PZm&
(1) 5 H$mof, (2) 5 kmZopÝжm±, (3) 5 H$‘}pÝжm±, (4) 5 àmU, (5) 5 CnàmU,
(6) 5 VÝ‘mÌm¶|, (7) 5 {df¶, (8) 5 ‘hm^yV, (9) 5 ¶k, (10) 5 AdñWm,
(11) 5 eyb, (12) 5 ³boe, (13) {ed Ho$ 5 ‘wI, (14) 5 AmH$me Am{XnÄMñ¶mñ¶mñVw Jm¶Í¶m: {dÚm§ ¶ñËddJÀN>{V&
Jm¶Ìr H$m ‘hÎd-Jm¶Í¶od Vnmo ¶moJ: gmYZ§ ܶmZ‘wÀ¶Vo& {g{Õ OZmZm§ gm ‘mVm
ZmV: {H$pÄMX² ~¥hÎma‘²&&(Jm¶Ìr bhar, Jm¶Ìr ‘ÄOar)
Jm¶Ìr Ho$ 9 nX-(1) VV², (2) g{dVw: (3) daoʶ§ (4) ^Jm}, (5) Xodñ¶, (6)
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¶kmondrV ‘| 3 J«pÝW¶m± ~«÷J«pÝW, {dîUwJ«pÝW Ed§ éÐJ«pÝW-BZ Xodm| Ho$ àVrH$ h¢&
¶kmondrV Jm¶Ìr H$m Ed§ {ÛOËd H$m àVrH$ h¡& ~‹S>r J«pÝW › H$s Ed§ eof 3 J«pÝW¶m±
^y: ^wd: ñd: H$s àVrH$ h¢& ^y:= AÝZ‘¶ H$moe& ^wd:= àmU‘¶ Ed§ ‘Zmo‘¶ H$moe&
ñd: ={dkmZ‘¶-AmZÝX‘¶ H$moe& g¥pîQ> Ho$ 3 ñVa-n¥Ïdr, nmVmb, ñdJ©& gmYZm Ho$
{nÊS>JV 3 ñVa-^y;, ^wd:, ñd:& AV: Jm¶Ìr {ÌnXm h¡&

5. Jm¶Ìr VÝÌ
121
Jm¶Ìr H$m {ZJwU
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ܶmZ-Jm¶Ìr öX¶ ‘| H$hm J¶m h¡-AmË‘mZ AmH$memo ^d{V,
AmH$memÛm¶w^©d{V, dm¶moap½Z^©d{V, A½Zoam|H$mamo ^d{V, ›H$mamX² ì¶mö{V^©d{V,
ì¶mö{VVmo Jm¶Ìr ^d{V, Jm¶Í¶m: gm{dÌr ^d{V, gm{dͶm: gañdVr ^d{V, gañd˶m
doXm ^dpÝV, doXoä¶mo bmoH$m:&
N>mÝXmo½¶ Cn{ZfX² (2/14/4) ‘| BgH$s {dnarV à{H«$¶m H$m ܶmZ H$hm J¶m h¡gånyU© bmoH$m| H$m doXm| ‘|, doXm| H$m gañdVr ‘|, gañdVr H$m gm{dÌr ‘|, gm{dÌr H$m
Jm¶Ìr ‘|, Jm¶Ìr H$m ì¶mö{V¶m| ‘|, ì¶mö{V¶m| H$m ›H$ma ‘|, ›H$ma H$m Ap½Z ‘|,
Ap½Z H$m dm¶w ‘|, dm¶w H$m AmH$me ‘|, Ed§ AmH$me H$m ~«÷ñdê$n AnZr AmË‘m ‘|
b¶ H$aZo H$m ܶmZ H$a|&
Jm¶Ìr H$m ñdê$n-Jm¶Ìr nwaíMaU nÕ{V VWm D$na {bIo Jm¶Ìr ahñ¶ Cn{ZfX² ‘|(1) Jm¶Ìr H$m JmoÌ-gm§»¶m¶Z, (2) dU©-32& (3) nmX-4, ApÝV‘ nmX Xe©Z aO
go nao namoaOm h¡, AV: 3 nmXm| H$s JUZm H$s OmVr h¡& (4) Aja-24, (5) Hw${j8 {ga ¶m 8 {Xem¶|-nyd©, X{jU, npíM‘, CÎma, D$Üd©, AY:, AÝV[aj, AdmÝVa& 7
{ga ¶m 7 {dÚm¶|-ì¶mH$aU, {ejm, H$ën, {Zéº$, Á¶mo{Vf, B{Vhmg-nwamU, Cn{ZfX²&
(6) nmX VWm doX-àW‘ nmX = F$½doX, {ÛVr¶ nmX = ¶Owd}X, V¥Vr¶ nmX = gm‘doX,
MVwW© nmX =AWd©doX& (7) ê$n-nyd© gÝܶm-Jm¶Ìr, ‘ܶ‘m-gm{dÌr, npíM‘mgañdVr& (8) doe^yfm-Jm¶Ìr ~mbm Hw$‘mar-aº$dUm© aº$dñÌm& gm{dÌr-ídoVdUm©&
gañdVr =H¥$îUdUm©& (9) A“-öX¶={dîUw, {eIm = éÐ, H$dM =~«÷m{XH$& (10)
gd©ê$nm-EH$ hr Jm¶Ìr {M{V e{º$ go AZoH$ ê$n YmaU H$aVr h¡&
‘Zwñ‘¥{V (2/83)-EH$mja§ na~«÷ àmUm¶m‘: na§ Vn:&
gm{dͶmñVw na§ ZmpñV ‘m¡ZmËg˶§ {d{eî¶Vo&
‘hm^maV, ^rî‘nd© (14/16) Jm¶Ìr H$m kmVm ZîQ> Zht hmoVm¶ EVm§ doX Jm¶Ìt nwʶm§ gd©JwUmpÝdVm‘²&
VÎdoZ ^aVloîR> g bmoHo$ Z {dZî¶{V&&
nÙnwamU (g¥pîQ> IÊS> 17/274)- ~«÷h˶m{X nmnm{Z Jwê${U M bKy{Z M&
Zme¶Ë¶{MaoU¡d Jm¶Ìr OmnH$mo {ÛO:&&
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(2) 4 doXm| H$m gma-AÝdW©H§$ ‘ÝÌ{‘‘ÝVw doXgma§ nwZd}X{dXmo dXpÝV&

122
Jm¶Ìr nÄMXer
(3) Vma VWm ì¶mö{V Am{X Ho$ gmW hr Bg name{º$ Jm¶Ìr H$s wnmgZm H$s OmZr
Mm{h¶oVma ì¶mö{V g§¶wVm gh{eamo Jm¶Í¶wnmñ¶m nam&
(4) 7 ì¶mö{V¶m| = 7 bmoH$-(H$) ^y bmoH$, (I) ^wd bmoH$, (J) ñdbm}H$,(K)
‘hbm}H$, (L>) OZ:bmoH$, (M) VnbmoH$, (N>) g˶bmoH$&g^y^w©d: ñdíM ‘hmoOZñVn: g‘pÝdV§ g˶{‘{V H«$‘oU&
(5) àUd › Ho$ 2 ê$n h¢-{ZJw©U VWm gJwU&
AmMm¶© ^mñH$a Zo nÄMXemjar {dÚm H$r Jm¶Ìr go g‘Vm {XIm¶r h¡& CgHo$ VrZ Hy$Q>
Jm¶Ìr Ho$ 3 nmX h¢ & à˶oH$ nmX ^r nyU© ‘ÝÌ H$m àVrH$ h¡, O¡gm nhbo {XIm¶m J¶m
h¡& BgH$m AmYma Xodr AWd©erf© H$m íbmoH$ h¡H$m‘mo ¶mo{Z: H$‘bm dO«nm{UJw©hm hgm ‘mV[aídm^«{‘ÝÐ:&
nwZJw©hm gH$bm ‘m¶¶m M nwéÀ¶ofm {díd‘mVm{X{dÚm&

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