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greater than 0) arranged in a square with a distinct digit from 1 to 9 in each quarter.

We make this arrangement into 4 integers by reading horizontally and vertically and then add these numbers up. So, in the above example, 56 + 32 +53 + 62 = 203 However, if we replace the numbers with the letters a, b, c, and d, the square would look like:

If we read these letters in the same way as we would read the digits in the first example, we would get: (10a + b) + (10c + d) + (10a + c) + (10b + d) = 20a +11b +11c + 2d Research Question A We are asked to find the number of different ways (with different combinations of the digits) that the square can be filled so that the resulting sum is 200. Hence, 20a +11b +11c + 2d = 200 I noticed that the coefficients of a and d are both even numbers, and any positive integer multiplied by an even number will also equal to an even number. This means that no matter what number a and d is from 1 to 9, 20a and 2d will always be even. Since the number on the RHS of the equation, 200, is also an even number, subtracting 20a and 2d by 200 will still give an even number: 11b + 11c = 200 – 20a – 2d (where the RHS of the equation is even) I also noticed that the since the coefficients of b and c are both 11, it can be factorised 11(b + c) = 200 – 20a – 2d Hence, the sum b + c can only be an even number that is divisible by 11. If we look at all of the multiples of 11 smaller than 200: 11, 22, 33, 44, 55, 66, 77, 88, 99, 110, 121, 132, 143, 154, 165, 176, 187 and 198

1

200 – 20a + 2d = 66 This only works when a = 6 and d = 7: 200 – (20 x 6) + (2 x 7) = 200 – 120 – 14 = 66 Hence. b = 2. i. 44. c = 1. i. a = 7. d = 8 2. 176 and 198. a = 6. and since the same number cannot be used more than once. d = 8 Now. let the RHS = 44. 110. the only even ones are: 22.e. a = 6. let the RHS = 66. Now. d = 7 4. 11 (b + c) = 44 ⇒b + c = 4 This works when EITHER b = 1 and c = 3 OR b = 3 and c = 1 OR b = 2 and c = 2 Since we can only use the solutions highlighted in yellow. c = 1. c = 5.e. c = 2. let the RHS = 22. 200 – 20a + 2d = 22 This only works when a = 8 and d = 9: 200 – (20 x 8) + (2 x 9) = 200 – 160 – 18 = 22 Hence. 88. Now. b = 5. 11 (b + c) = 66 ⇒b + c = 6 This works when EITHER b = 1 and c = 5 OR b = 5 and c = 1 OR b = 2 and c = 4 OR b = 4 and c = 2 OR b = 3 and c = 3 Since we can only use the solutions highlighted in yellow. b = 1. 154. 200 – 20a + 2d = 44 This only works when a = 7 and d = 8: 200 – (20 x 7) + (2 x 8) = 200 – 140 – 16 = 44 Hence. as the rest are invalid. i. there are 4 solutions: 1. a = 6. b = 3. d = 7 2 . there is no solution. 11 (b + c) = 22 ⇒b + c = 2 This works when b = 1 and c = 1 Which doesn’t work as b and c would both have to be equal to 1. there are 2 solutions: 1. b = 1. d = 7 3. c = 4. d = 7 2. a = 6. 132. a = 7. c = 3.Out of all of these. as the rest are invalid. 66.e. b = 4.

let the RHS = 88. 200 – 20a + 2d = 132 This only works when a = 3 and d = 4: 3 . a = 5. d = 5 Now. d = 6 2. d = 5 4. b = 1. a = 4.e. a = 4. d = 5 2. there are 6 solutions: 1. c = 9. i. as the rest are invalid. c = 8.Now. b = 7. b = 2. d = 5 6. c = 3. b = 1. c = 7. i. let the RHS = 132. b = 7. a = 4. 11 (b + c) = 110 ⇒ b + c = 10 This works when EITHER b = 1 and c = 9 OR b = 9 and c = 1 OR b = 2 and c = 8 OR b = 8 and c = 2 OR b = 3 and c = 7 OR b = 7 and c = 3 OR b = 4 and c = 6 OR b = 6 and c = 4 OR b = 5 and c = 5 Since we can only use the solutions highlighted in yellow. i. d = 5 3. d = 6 Now. a = 5. d = 5 5. c = 2.e. a = 4. a = 4. c = 7. c = 1. 200 – 20a + 2d = 110 This only works when a = 4 and d = 5: 200 – (20 x 4) + (2 x 5) = 200 – 80 – 10 = 110 Hence. 11 (b + c) = 88 ⇒b + c = 8 This works when EITHER b = 1 and c = 7 OR b = 7 and c = 1 OR b = 2 and c = 6 OR b = 6 and c = 2 OR b = 3 and c = 5 OR b = 5 and c = 3 OR b = 4 and c = 4 Since we can only use the solutions highlighted in yellow. b = 3. b = 8.e. a = 4. there are 2 solutions: 1. as the rest are invalid. 200 – 20a + 2d = 88 This only works when a = 5 and d = 6: 200 – (20 x 5) + (2 x 6) = 200 – 100 – 12 = 88 Hence. let the RHS = 110. c = 1. b = 9.

let the RHS = 154. a = 2. 11 (b + c) = 154 ⇒ b + c = 14 This works when EITHER b = 1 and c = 13 OR b = 13 and c = 1 OR b = 2 and c = 12 OR b = 12 and c = 2 OR b = 3 and c = 11 OR b = 11 and c = 3 OR b = 4 and c = 10 OR b = 10 and c = 4 OR b = 5 and c = 9 OR b = 9 and c = 5 OR b = 6 and c = 8 OR b = 8 and c = 6 OR b = 7 and c = 7 Since we can only use the solutions highlighted in yellow. d = 3 2. as the rest are invalid. a = 2. c = 6. b = 7. d = 3 4. d = 4 2. there are 2 solutions: 1. d = 3 4 . as the rest are invalid. c = 5. there are 4 solutions: 1. a = 3. c = 7. i. a = 2. c = 9. 200 – 20a + 2d = 154 This only works when a = 2 and d = 3: 200 – (20 x 2) + (2 x 3) = 200 – 40 – 6 = 154 Hence. c = 5.200 – (20 x 3) + (2 x 4) = 200 – 60 – 8 = 132 Hence. b = 8. b = 5. b = 6. a = 3.e. b = 9. 11 (b + c) = 132 ⇒ b + c = 12 This works when EITHER b = 1 and c = 11 OR b = 11 and c = 1 OR b = 2 and c = 10 OR b = 10 and c = 2 OR b = 3 and c = 9 OR b = 9 and c = 3 OR b = 4 and c = 8 OR b = 8 and c = 4 OR b = 5 and c = 7 OR b = 7 and c = 5 OR b = 6 and c = 6 Since we can only use the solutions highlighted in yellow. a = 2. d = 4 Now. c = 8. b = 5. d = 3 3.

let the RHS = 198.e. a = 1. if we can use the same number more than once. 200 – 20a + 2d = 198 However. given that each digit can only be used no more than once. as the rest are invalid. c = 7. a = 1. Since 198 is the last number that is even.Now.e. divisible by 11 and smaller than 200. d = 2 2. 11 (b + c) = 176 ⇒ b + c = 16 This works when EITHER b = 1 and c = 15 OR b = 15 and c = 1 OR b = 2 and c = 14 OR b = 14 and c = 2 OR b = 3 and c = 13 OR b = 13 and c = 3 OR b = 4 and c = 12 OR b = 12 and c = 4 OR b = 5 and c = 11 OR b = 11 and c = 5 OR b = 6 and c = 10 OR b = 10 and c = 6 OR b = 7 and c = 9 OR b = 9 and c = 7 OR b = 8 and c = 8 Since we can only use the solutions highlighted in yellow. i. i. let the RHS = 176. There are 22 possible combinations in total. there are no solutions because a would have to be 0. b = 9. 5 . there are 2 solutions: 1. c = 9. b = 7. d = 2 Now. which isn’t possible since the digits can only be from 1 to 9. However. this would give a totally different number of combinations. we have reached the end. 200 – 20a + 2d = 176 This only works when a = 1 and d = 2: 200 – (20 x 1) + (2 x 2) = 200 – 20 – 4 = 176 Hence.

6 . The solutions that were excluded above were either excluded because they used the same number more than once. 40 different squares can be made if repetition of numbers is allowed.Research Question B In this part of the research. or because the values were not in the 1 to 9 range. That is. all the solutions that were valid will still be valid. in this part of the research they are valid. However. the total number of sets highlighted in yellow + the total number of sets highlighted in grey. 22 + 18 = 40 Therefore. The solutions highlighted grey. Hence. is the total number of ways that you can fill a square so that the resulting sum is 200. are those of which couldn’t be used in the previous part of the research as they repeatedly used the same number. as well as some of the ones that had to be excluded.

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