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Apartheid:-It was a system enforced on the natives of South Africa by the white Europeans. It divided people on the basis of their skin color. The ‘whites’ considered themselves superior to all the non-whites which were the blacks, mixed races and Asians. The Blacks were forbidden from living in areas where the whites lived. They were not allowed to work in white areas without permits and weren’t allowed inside places where the whites went. They were not even allowed to visit the churches where the whites worshipped. This was known as segregation. ANC:-This was the umbrella organisation which led the struggle against apartheid. It included many workers’ unions and the Communist Party. Some of the whites who were sensitive for the cause of welfare of the non-whites also joined. Causes for South Africa to emerge as a Democracy:-• Struggles and protests had rapidly increased which made the White government realize that they could no longer keep the blacks under their rule through repression. • Discriminatory laws were repealed. • Ban on political parties and media was uplifted. • Nelson Mandela was freed as a prisoner. Principles of Nelson Mandela:-• Forgive and forget the atrocities committed by the whites while in power. • Build a nation based on equality for all, social justice and human rights. South African Constitution:-1. The constitution of South Africa gave extensive rights available in any other country to its citizens. 2. Everyone should be a part of the solution irrespective of their past deeds. Why do we need a constitution??? • 1st- it generates a degree of trust and coordination that is necessary for people of different kinds to live together. • 2nd- it specifies how the government will be constituted and who has how much power to make decisions. • 3rd- it sets limits to the powers of the govt, and awares the citizens of their rights. • 4th- it expresses the aspirations of the people of how a society should be.
3. . It emphasizes on the basic rules that are in the interest of citizens’ rights that no government will be able to ignore. . INDIAN CONSTITUTION: Difficulties faced during the time of making:-1. 4. The makers had many anxieties about the past. There existed in a difference in ideas about what path our country should take after independence but some basic ideas were accepted by all. There did not arise a need for a consensus about what a democratic India should look like as it had evolved during the independence struggle. Preamble of the Constitution: The preamble of the Constitution reads like a poem on democracy and contains the philosophy on which the entire constitution is based. It is the supreme law which determines the relations between its citizens and th relationship of the citizens with the government. Constitution:-The constitution is a set of written rules that are accepted by all the people living in a country.Consensus: the constitution didn’t express the views of its makers alone but a broad consensus of its time. 5. 2.People: the makers of the constitution represented the people of India . 2. Acceptance of Constitution made by assembly more than 50 years ago:-. The people of India were being raised from the status of subjects to citizens.Compromise made between the blacks and the whites:-. Our national struggle had not only been for freedom but also we wanted to rejuvenate our country and transform our society and government. Advantages during the time of making:-1. The British had left it to the choice of the princely states to merge with India or stay independent. It is the soul of the constitution. Preamble:-The constitution begins with a short statement of its basic values which is known as the preamble. When the constitution was being written the future of India looked very bleak. The merger of these was a big problem. .Sanctity: the manner in which the constituent assembly worked was systematic and open which gave sanctity to the constitution. 3. present and future of India. The partition had been a traumatic experience for the people of India as well as Pakistan.The whites agreed to the basic rights of the poor and the workers. It provides a standard to evaluate any law or action of the government good or bad.The blacks agreed that majority rule will not be absolute and the majority would not take away the whites’ rights and property.
is supposed to treat every religion equally. Govt.Wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by the society. The govt. Equality. should work for welfare of all especially disadvantaged groups. Secular.There are no unreasonable restrictions on citizens on how they think. Republic.All are equal before the law and social inequalities should be ended.A form of govt. Govt. etc. . elect their rulers and hold them accountable. religion. Fraternity. Socialist. Liberty. where people enjoy equal political rights.There are provisions made in the constitution to incorporate changes from time to time. race.Citizens can’t be discriminated on grounds of caste. their opinion and speech.Glossary: Sovereign.People have the right to make decision on internal and external matters and no external power can dictate over them. The govt. Constitutional amendments. Justice. is based on a basic set of rules. should regulate land ownership and industry to reduce socio-economic inequalities. Govt. These changes are known as constitutional amendments.The head of the state is an elected person and not of hereditary position. should ensure equal opportunities for all. Democratic.No one is inferior and all are of one big family.Citizens have freedom to follow any religion and there is no official religion.