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SafetySafety

SafetySafety andand RiskRisk

CustomersCustomers demanddemand safesafe prodproductuct andand servicesservices andand notnot threatenedthreatened byby potentialpotential harm.harm. However,However, therethere isis aa priceprice forfor havinghaving thisthis safety.safety. InIn otherother words,words, wewe maymay havehave toto paypay forfor thisthis safety.safety. ToTo complicatecomplicate matters,matters, whatwhat maymay bebe safesafe enoughenough forfor oneone personperson maymay notnot bebe forfor sosomeonemeone else.else. ThisThis isis duedue toto

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–– DifferentDifferent perceptionsperceptions aboutabout whatwhat isis safe.safe. –– DifferentDifferent inclinationinclination toto harm.harm.

AbsoluteAbsolute safetysafety isis

–– EntirelyEntirely riskrisk--freefree activitiesactivities andand products.products. –– AA degreedegree ofof safetysafety thatthat satisfiessatisfies allall individualsindividuals oror groupsgroups undeunderr allall conditionsconditions

AbsoluteAbsolute safetysafety isis usuallyusually nonott attainableattainable nonorr affordable.affordable.

ConceptConcept ofof SafetySafety

““AA thingthing isis safesafe if,if, werewere itsits risksrisks fullyfully known,known, thosethose risksrisks wouldwould bebe judgedjudged acceptableacceptable byby aa reasonablereasonable personperson inin lightlight ofof theirtheir settledsettled valuevalue principles.principles.”” SafetySafety isis aa mattermatter ofof howhow peoplepeople wouldwould findfind risksrisks acceptableacceptable oror unacceptableunacceptable ifif theythey knewknew thethe risksrisks andand judgejudge basedbased onon theirtheir mostmost settledsettled valuevalue perspectives.perspectives. SafetySafety isis aa subjectivesubjective mattermatter toto thethe extentextent thatthat valuevalue perspectivesperspectives differ.differ. SafetySafety isis thoughtthought ofof inin termsterms ofof degreesdegrees andand comparisons:comparisons: ““fairlyfairly safesafe”” oror ““relativelyrelatively safesafe”” ThisThis translatetranslate asas thethe degreedegree toto whichwhich aa group,group, judgingjudging onon thethe basisbasis ofof theirtheir settledsettled values,values, wouldwould decidedecide thatthat thethe risksrisks ofof somethingsomething areare momorere oror lessless acceptableacceptable inin comparisoncomparison withwith thethe riskriskss ofof somesome otherother thing.thing.

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RisksRisks

AA thingthing isis notnot safesafe ifif itit exexposesposes usus toto unacceptableunacceptable risk.risk. AA riskrisk isis thethe potentialpotential thatthat somethingsomething unwantedunwanted oror harmfulharmful maymay occur.occur. WeWe taketake aa riskrisk whenwhen wewe undundertakeertake somethingsomething oror useuse aa productproduct oror substancesubstance thatthat isis notnot safe.safe. InIn regardregard toto technology,technology, itit includesincludes dangersdangers ofof bodilybodily harm,harm, economiceconomic loss,loss, oror enenvironmentalvironmental degradationdegradation whichwhich cancan bebe causedcaused byby faulfaultyty products,products, oror economicallyeconomically oror environmentallyenvironmentally damagingdamaging solutionssolutions toto technologicaltechnological problems.problems. GoodGood engineeringengineering practicepractice hahass alwaysalways beenbeen concernedconcerned withwith safety.safety.

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AcceptabilityAcceptability ofof RiskRisk

““AA riskrisk isis acceptableacceptable whenwhen ththoseose affectedaffected areare generallygenerally nono longerlonger apprehensiveapprehensive aboutabout it.it.”” ApprehensivenessApprehensiveness dependsdepends onon

1.1. VoluntarismVoluntarism andand controlcontrol –– lessless apprehensiveapprehensive aboutabout thethe risksrisks toto whichwhich wewe exposeexpose ourselvesourselves voluntvoluntarily.arily. MayMay displaydisplay unrealisticunrealistic confidenceconfidence whenwhen wewe believebelieve hazardshazards toto bebe underunder ourour control.control.

2.2. EffectEffect ofof informationinformation onon riskrisk assessmentsassessments –– thethe mannermanner inin whichwhich informationinformation necessarynecessary forfor decisiondecision makingmaking isis presentedpresented cancan greatlygreatly influenceinfluence howhow risksrisks areare perceived.perceived. PeoplePeople tendtend toto avoidavoid firmfirm losseslosses thanthan toto winwin possiblepossible gain.gain.

3.3. JobJob--relatedrelated riskrisk –– OftenOften employeesemployees havehave littlelittle choicechoice overover this.this.

4.4. MagnitudeMagnitude andand proximityproximity –– ourour reactionreaction toto riskrisk isis affectedaffected byby itsits magnitudemagnitude andand thethe personalpersonal identificationidentification oror relationshiprelationship wewe maymay havehave withwith thethe potentialpotential victims.victims.

•• EngineersEngineers faceface twotwo problemsproblems withwith publicpublic conceptionsconceptions ofof safety:safety:

–– OverlyOverly optimisticoptimistic attitude.attitude. ThThisis isis especiallyespecially forfor thingsthings thatthat areare familiar,familiar, thatthat havehave notnot hurthurt usus before,before, andand overover whichwhich wewe havehave somesome control,control, presentpresent nono realreal risks.risks. –– TheThe dreaddread peoplepeople feelfeel whenwhen anan accidentaccident killskills inin largelarge numbersnumbers eveneven thoughthough statstatisticallyistically speakingspeaking suchsuch accidentsaccidents mightmight occuroccur infrequently.infrequently.

AssessingAssessing andand ReducingReducing RiskRisk

AnyAny improvementimprovement inin safetysafety inin anan engineeredengineered productproduct isis oftenoften accompaniedaccompanied byby anan inincreasecrease inin productproduct cost.cost. ProductsProducts thatthat areare notnot safesafe incurincur secondarysecondary costscosts toto thethe manufacturermanufacturer beyondbeyond thethe productionproduction costcost –– warrantywarranty expenses,expenses, lossloss ofof customerscustomers becausebecause ofof injuries,injuries, possiblepossible productionproduction downtime,downtime, litigation,litigation, etc.etc. ItIt isis importantimportant forfor manufamanufacturerscturers andand usersusers alikealike toto reachreach somesome understandingunderstanding ofof thethe risksrisks connectedconnected withwith anyany givengiven productproduct andand knowknow whatwhat itit mightmight costcost toto reducereduce thosethose risks.risks.

UncertaintiesUncertainties inin DesignDesign

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RiskRisk isis seldomseldom intentionallyintentionally designdesigneded intointo aa product.product. ItIt arisesarises becausebecause ofof thethe manymany uncertaintiesuncertainties facedfaced byby thethe designdesign engineers,engineers, manufacturingmanufacturing engineersengineers andand eveneven thethe salessales andand applicationsapplications engineers.engineers. DesignDesign thatthat dodo wellwell underunder staticstatic loadsloads maymay failfail underunder dynamicdynamic loading.loading. ThereThere areare alsoalso uncertaintiesuncertainties regardingregarding materials,materials, desigdesignn andand manufacturingmanufacturing skills.skills. EngineersEngineers traditionallytraditionally havehave copedcoped withwith suchsuch uncertaintiesuncertainties aboutabout materialsmaterials oror components,components, asas wellwell asas incompleteincomplete knowledgeknowledge aboutabout thethe actualactual operatingoperating conditionsconditions ofof theirtheir products,products, byby introducinintroducingg aa comfortablecomfortable ““factorfactor ofof safetysafety”” •• ThisThis factorfactor isis intendedintended toto protectprotect againstagainst problemsproblems thatthat arisearise wwhenhen thethe stressesstresses duedue toto anticipatedanticipated loadsloads departdepart fromfrom theirtheir expectedexpected values.values.

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RiskRisk--benefitbenefit analysesanalyses

ManyMany largelarge projectsprojects areare justifjustifiedied onon thethe basisbasis ofof aa riskrisk-- benefitbenefit analysis.analysis. WeWe areare willingwilling toto taketake certaincertain lelevelsvels ofof riskrisk asas longlong asas thethe projectproject promisespromises sufficientsufficient benefit.benefit. IfIf riskrisk andand benefitbenefit cancan bothboth bebe readilyreadily expressedexpressed inin aa commoncommon setset ofof unitsunits ($$),($$), thenthen itit isis relativelyrelatively easyeasy toto carrycarry outout aa riskrisk--benefitbenefit analysis.analysis. BothBoth risksrisks andand benefitsbenefits lielie inin thethe future.future. SiSincence therethere isis uncertaintiesuncertainties associatedassociated wiwithth them,them, wewe useuse expectedexpected valuesvalues byby multiplyingmultiplying thethe mamagnitudegnitude ofof potentialpotential lossloss byby thethe probabilityprobability ofof itsits occurreoccurrencence (similar(similar withwith thethe gain).gain).

•• PersonalPersonal riskrisk –– thethe difficultydifficulty inin assessingassessing personalpersonal risksrisks isis magnifiedmagnified whenwhen wewe considerconsider involuntaryinvoluntary risks.risks. InIn regardregard toto voluntaryvoluntary activities,activities, oneone couldcould possiblypossibly makemake judgmentsjudgments onon thethe basisbasis ofof thethe amountamount ofof lifelife insuranceinsurance aa personperson buys.buys. •• PublicPublic riskrisk –– areare moremore easilyeasily determineddetermined becausebecause individualindividual differencesdifferences evevenen outout asas largelarge numbersnumbers ofof peoplepeople areare considered.considered. StatisticalStatistical parametersparameters taketake onon greatergreater significance.significance.

SafeSafe ExitsExits

ItIt isis almostalmost impossibleimpossible toto bubuildild aa completelycompletely safesafe productproduct oror oneone thatthat willwill nevernever fail.fail. TheThe bestbest oneone cancan dodo isis toto ensureensure thatthat whenwhen aa productproduct fails,fails,

–– ItIt willwill failfail safely.safely. –– TheThe productproduct cancan bebe abandonedabandoned // repairedrepaired safely.safely. –– TheThe useruser cancan safelysafely escapeescape thethe product.product.

ItIt isis necessarynecessary forfor thethe useruser toto havehave proceduresprocedures forfor regularregular maintenancemaintenance andand safetysafety checks.checks. ThereThere shouldshould bebe

–– AvenuesAvenues forfor employeesemployees toto reportreport hazardoushazardous conditions.conditions. –– EmergencyEmergency procedures.procedures.

OccupationalOccupational SafetySafety andand HealthHealth

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OrganizationsOrganizations notnot onlyonly needneed toto reducereduce thethe occurrenceoccurrence ofof accidents,accidents, butbut aimaim forfor zerozero accidents.accidents. Everyday,Everyday, therethere areare overover thousandsthousands ofof accidentsaccidents causedcaused byby somesome failuresfailures ofof people,people, equipment,equipment, oror thethe surroundingsurrounding workingworking environment.environment. •• AllAll thesethese unplannedunplanned incidentsincidents causecause thethe lossloss ofof life,life, injuryinjury oror propertyproperty damage.damage. MostMost accidentsaccidents cancan bebe tracedtraced toto poorpoor managementmanagement policies,policies, proceduresprocedures andand decision,decision, wherewhere thethe casescases areare avoidable.avoidable.

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•• CausesCauses ofof accidentaccident cancan bebe groupedgrouped asas

Direct:Direct: attributedattributed toto equipmentequipment failurefailure oror unsafeunsafe operatingoperating condconditionition oror causedcaused byby hazardoushazardous material.material. Indirect:Indirect: HiddenHidden oror notnot asas readilyreadily apparent,apparent, cancan bebe generallygenerally bebeinging tiedtied toto somesome humanhuman shortcomingshortcoming oror failure.failure. EgEg UnsafeUnsafe actact byby inattentiveinattentive oror untraineduntrained personnel,personnel, unsafeunsafe operatingoperating conditioncondition asas thethe resultresult ofof inadequateinadequate planning,planning, faultyfaulty processprocess design,design, oror poorpoor plantplant layoutlayout –– RootRoot Causes:Causes: PoorPoor managementmanagement practicespractices andand inappropriateinappropriate oror inadequateinadequate safetysafety policiespolicies andand procedures.procedures. FutureFuture accidentsaccidents cancan bebe reducedreduced byby eliminatingeliminating potentialpotential causescauses throughthrough investigation.investigation.

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•• JobJob safetysafety analysisanalysis isis usedused toto studystudy thethe basicbasic proceduresprocedures ofof thethe job,job, identifyidentify thethe hazardhazard andand prescribeprescribe appropriateappropriate safetysafety precautionsprecautions HazardHazard analysisanalysis isis aa systematicsystematic approachapproach toto analyzeanalyze andand identifyidentify hazardshazards andand furtherfurther recommendrecommend correctivecorrective action.action. EngineersEngineers areare notnot onlyonly involvedinvolved inin designingdesigning endend productsproducts butbut ththeyey areare alsoalso responsibleresponsible inin designingdesigning aa suitablesuitable workplace.workplace.

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OccupationalOccupational SafetySafety && HealthHealth InIn MalaysiaMalaysia

TheThe MachineryMachinery OrdinanceOrdinance 19531953 marksmarks thethe birthbirth ofof thethe MachineryMachinery DepartmentDepartment untiluntil 1967.1967. InIn 1967,1967, withwith thethe proclamatiproclamationon ofof thethe FactoriesFactories andand MachineryMachinery ActAct 19671967 (FMA(FMA 1967),1967), thethe MachineryMachinery DepartmentDepartment expandedexpanded toto becomebecome thethe FactoriesFactories andand MachineryMachinery DepartmentDepartment (FMD),(FMD), WithWith thethe developmentdevelopment ofof ththee OccupationalOccupational SafetySafety andand HealthHealth ActAct 19941994 (OSHA(OSHA 1994),1994), FMDFMD waswas restructuredrestructured andand transformedtransformed intointo thethe DepartmentDepartment ofof OccupationalOccupational SafetySafety andand HealthHealth (DOSH).(DOSH). DOSHDOSH isis nownow thethe premierpremier governmentgovernment authorityauthority respresponsibleonsible forfor occupationaloccupational safety,safety, healthhealth andand welfarewelfare ofof personspersons atat work,work, andand oror otherother personspersons affectedaffected byby ththee activitiesactivities ofof personspersons atat work.work.

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DepartmentDepartment ofof OccupationalOccupational SafetySafety andand HealthHealth (DOSH)(DOSH)

DOSHDOSH isis aa departmentdepartment underunder thethe MinistryMinistry ofof HumanHuman Resources.Resources.

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ItIt isis responsibleresponsible forfor ensuringensuring ththee occupationaloccupational safety,safety, healthhealth aandnd welfarewelfare ofof

peoplepeople atat workwork asas wellwell asas protectingprotecting otherother peoplepeople fromfrom thethe safetsafetyy andand healthhealth hazardshazards arisingarising fromfrom thethe activitiesactivities ofof variousvarious sectorssectors whwhichich includeinclude manufacturing,manufacturing, agriculture,agriculture, forestforestryry andand fishing,fishing, transport,transport, stostoragerage andand communication,communication, publicpublic servicesservices anandd statutorystatutory authorities,authorities, utilitutilities,ies, finance,finance, insurance,insurance, realreal estateestate andand businessbusiness services.services. TheThe priciplepriciple objectivesobjectives ofof DOSHDOSH are:are:

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ToTo draftdraft (legislation)(legislation) andand regularegularlyrly reviewreview viavia aa tripartitetripartite proprocesscess thethe policies,policies, laws,laws, codescodes ofof practicepractice andand guidelinesguidelines pertainingpertaining toto occupationaoccupationall safety,safety, healthhealth andand welfarewelfare asas aa basisbasis forfor ensuriensuringng safetysafety andand healthhealth atat workwork ToTo ensure,ensure, throughthrough enforcementenforcement andand promotionpromotion activities,activities, thatthat ememployers,ployers, selfself-- employedemployed persons,persons, designers,designers, manufacturersmanufacturers oror suppliers,suppliers, importeimportersrs andand employeesemployees alwaysalways practicepractice aa safesafe andand healthyhealthy workwork cultureculture andand coconstantlynstantly complycomply withwith thethe existingexisting laws,laws, codescodes ofof practicepractice andand guidelines.guidelines. ToTo assistassist andand provideprovide specialistspecialist servicesservices inin promotionpromotion activitieactivities,s, training,training, informationinformation disseminationdissemination andand researchresearch activitiesactivities organizedorganized byby ggovernmentovernment andand nonnon--governmentgovernment agencies,agencies, institutionsinstitutions ofof higherhigher learning,learning, andand associassociationsations ofof employers,employers, employeesemployees and/orand/or profeprofessionalsssionals inin thethe efforteffort toto furthfurtherer upgradeupgrade thethe standardstandard ofof occupationaloccupational safety,safety, healthhealth andand welfare.welfare.

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