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Genetic Algorithm

1

Dnyaneshvar Y. Watpade, 2P. M. Sonwane

1

Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Limited, Nasik

2

K. K. Wagh Institute of Engineering Education & Research, Nasik

Abstract — Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a non-parametric optimization technique that is frequently used in problems of

combinatory nature with discrete or continuous variables. Depending on the evaluation function used this optimization

technique may be applied to solve problems containing more than one objective. In treating with multi-objective evaluation

functions it is important to have an adequate methodology to solve the multiple objectives problem so that each partial

objective composing the evaluation function is adequately treated in the overall optimal solution. In this paper the multi-

objective optimization problem is treated in details and a typical example concerning the allocation of capacitor banks in a

real distribution grid is presented. The allocation of capacitor banks corresponds to one of the most important problems

related to the planning of electrical distribution networks. This problem consists of determining, with the smallest possible

cost, the placement and the dimension of each capacitor bank to be installed in the electrical distribution grid with the

additional objectives of minimizing the voltage deviations and power losses. As many other problems of planning electrical

distribution networks, the allocation of capacitor banks are characterized by the high complexity in the search of the

optimum solution. In this context, the GA comes as a viable tool to obtaining practical solutions to this problem. Simulation

results obtained with a electrical distribution grid are presented and demonstrate the effectiveness of the methodology used.

Keywords— Genetic Algorithm, Multiple Objectives, Allocation of Capacitor Banks and Electric Distribution Grid.

I. INTRODUCTION

This Appropriate planning and maintenance of distribution systems are crucial for an efficient operation, with high quality

services being provided to consumers. In this context, power quality becomes a very important issue, since it deﬁnes the ﬁnal

product delivered to consumers. Voltages must be maintained within the limits speciﬁed by regulatory agencies, without

introducing harmonics, and the service should not suffer any interruptions. The maintenance of power quality regarding the

voltage proﬁle is taken into effect by using several measures, including preventive, corrective and emergency tools. Substation

transformers equipped with tap-changing control can limit voltage variations within a certain range, thus reducing voltage

deviations. However, with the load increase (for instance, at peak hours), tap position adjustments may happen to be

insufficient for maintaining the voltage within the desired range, resulting in low voltages at the secondary windings of

distribution transformers. Installing capacitor banks can be an interesting strategy for decreasing reactive power ﬂows through

the network, thus reducing voltage drops and real power losses. Several other beneﬁts can be obtained with the appropriate

allocation of capacitor banks, such as released feeder capacity, released distribution substation capacity, and ﬁnancial beneﬁts

due to voltage improvement and loss reduction.

The majority of power systems operate at a lagging power factor due to inductive loads and delivery apparatus (lines and

transformers). Power systems are inductive in nature, and require additional reactive power flow from the power grid. But

excessive reactive power demands result in reduced system capacity, increased losses, and decreased voltage, as well as higher

operating costs. Shunt capacitor banks are able to compensate for var requirements, but bank size, location, the capacitor

control method, and cost considerations are important issues that need to be optimized during the design phase. An ideal

solution would be a capacitor placement tool able to weigh all these factors and that considers load levels. This solution should

also be able to place capacitors for voltage support and power factor correction, while minimizing the total cost of installation

and operation.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

IJIRAE: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2015): 3.361 | PIF: 2.469 | Jour Info: 4.085 |

Index Copernicus 2014 = 6.57

© 2014- 16, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page -43

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2763

Issue 09, Volume 3 (September 2016) www.ijirae.com

AS DESCRIBED IN THE IEEE STANDARD 1036-1992 (IEEE GUIDE FOR APPLICATION OF SHUNT POWER CAPACITORS), THE

PURPOSES OF SHUNT CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS ARE:

PURPOSE BENEFITS

Var support Yields a primary benefit for transmission systems and a secondary benefit for

distribution systems.

Voltage control Yields a primary benefit for both transmission and distribution systems.

System capacity increase Yields a secondary benefit for transmission systems and a primary benefit for

distribution systems.

System power loss reduction Yields a secondary benefit for transmission systems and a primary benefit for

distribution systems.

Billing charge reduction Does not apply to transmission systems, but yields a primary benefit for

distribution systems.

To place shunt capacitors in power systems, it is necessary to:

Determine bank size in kvar

Determine connection location

Determine a control method

Determine a connection type (wye or delta)

The capacitor size and the appropriate location for voltage support and power factor correction can be determined in different

ways. A common method applies “rules of thumb” techniques, and then runs multiple load flow studies to fine-tune the size

and location. This method may not yield the optimal solution. And it can also be very time consuming and impractical for large

systems. It is also important to minimize cost, while mathematically determining the capacitor size and location. Because this

is an optimization issue, an optimization approach should be employed.

A. OBJECTIVE :

In the Objective group select the capacitor placement objective. This allows the OCP module to place capacitors to perform

voltage support, power factor correction, or perform both at the same time.

• VOLTAGE SUPPORT : The OCP module checks voltage limits and places capacitors to meet the voltage limits when

minimizing the cost.

• POWER FACTOR CORRECTION : The OCP module checks load power factor limits and places capacitors to meet the load

power factor limits when minimizing the cost.

• BOTH: The OCP module checks voltage limits and load power factor limits, and places capacitors to meet the voltage

limits and load power factor limits when minimizing the cost.

GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR OCP

GA is a search algorithm based on the mechanic of natural selection. Basically, a GA makes a population that evolves through

time using reproduction and mutation process. Only individuals representing good solutions of the capacitor placement

problem will survive longer, and their genetic information will be present in the next generation. At the end, after several

generations, the interaction between these high quality individuals will produce a ﬁnal population which represent the best

solutions set of the problem. Three most important aspects of using GA are:

• Deﬁnition of objective function

• Deﬁnition and implementation of genetic representation

• Deﬁnition and representation of genetic operators

Before of the genetic algorithm procedure, the real parameters of the problem must be represented in genetic algorithm

language. It means that location and size of the capacitors used are codiﬁed as a chromosome. The representation chosen for

this application is a chromosome divided in two parts. First part indexes location of the capacitors.

The second part indicates the size of the capacitors used. In reproduction process, ﬁrst we randomly select a pair of

chromosomes, with the same structure. In the next step, chromosomes are treated separately; one for binary part and another

for integer part. In binary part, for a given position, if two parents share value, the chromosome produced by reproduction will

keep it. If values are different, the result for new chromosome is selected at random. In integer part, for a given position, result

will be the average of values found in the parents. If result is not an integer value, it will be approximated until closer value at

random.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

IJIRAE: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2015): 3.361 | PIF: 2.469 | Jour Info: 4.085 |

Index Copernicus 2014 = 6.57

© 2014- 16, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page -44

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2763

Issue 09, Volume 3 (September 2016) www.ijirae.com

In mutation process, chromosome structure is modiﬁed. This change is performed at random, but there is a difference between

binary and integer part. The GA was able to improve the quality of the randomly generated population very fast, and created

good solutions in a very short time. In the selection of individuals for recombination, selection of a leader uniformly at random

is required. The next step is to choose which one of the three supporters will take part in the recombination. This choice is also

uniformly at random. Following this selection strategy, any pair of parents will belong to the same cluster. That makes the

population act similarly to a multiple-population approach with a high migration rate. After the parents were selected,

following the criterion described before, they are utilized as input parameters in the recombination operator. The

recombination returns a new individual the offspring. Since the chromosome is composed of two distinct parts, they should be

treated separately during the recombination process. The mutation operator aims to add diversity to the population of

individuals. Similarly to the crossover, the mutation is divided into two parts. The ﬁrst modiﬁes the binary portion of the

chromosome by choosing a position of the individual at random. The second part acts on the integer values by adding or

subtracting a unity from its value. The choice of whether to add or subtract is also decided at random. Mutation is applied to

10% of the offspring. In general, higher mutation rates may slow down evaluation speed and hence should be avoided.

After recombination and mutation, GA submits all or some of the new individuals to a local search procedure for the purpose

of improving their ﬁtness function. This local search acts at the ﬁrst part of the chromosome, i.e., trying to improve capacitor

location. If a speciﬁc location already has a capacitor, the local search tests the possibility of dropping that capacitor (‘drop’).

In case of deterioration of the solution, the position returns to the original value and the local search proceeds to the next one.

This local search acts on the second part of the chromosome. It adjusts the sizes of the capacitors already present in the

solution, trying to ﬁnd the best size for each location. Only the sizes immediately above and below the present capacitor’s size

are tested. For instance, if a 600 kVAr capacitor is installed in a given position, the procedure tries the capacitors with sizes

400 and 800 kVAr, looking for any improvement. Such tries are executed in a similar manner to the add/drop procedure, in one

capacitor at a time; accepting any change that improves the ﬁtness. The ﬁtness function quantiﬁes the quality of the individual.

Therefore, it will keep a close relation with the objective function of the problem. The ﬁrst factor to be observed is the cost of

the power losses, which takes into account the maximum voltage deviation observed in the distribution network’s nodes for a

given solution. Calculation of the power losses requires the execution of a load-ﬂow algorithm. The objective of optimal

capacitor placement is to minimize the cost of the system. This cost is measured in four ways:

2. CAPACITOR PURCHASE COST

3. CAPACITOR BANK OPERATING COST (MAINTENANCE AND DEPRECIATION)

4. COST OF REAL POWER LOSSES

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

IJIRAE: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2015): 3.361 | PIF: 2.469 | Jour Info: 4.085 |

Index Copernicus 2014 = 6.57

© 2014- 16, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page -45

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2763

Issue 09, Volume 3 (September 2016) www.ijirae.com

To understand in a clear way the applied methodology for equally considering the different evaluation functions (objectives) in

a multi-objective fitness function it is initially made use of the fundamental concepts of the basic GA for a single evaluation

function and, subsequently, this same principles are used so that each evaluation function behaves in the selection process as if

the others didn’t exist. The GA processing begins with an initial population in which the genetic material for each individual of

the population is established randomly. The Evaluation Process calculates the evaluation values for each chromosome

(solution). To avoid problems related to super-individuals or when the evaluation values of the individuals of the population

are very close amongst themselves and very distant from the reference, fitness evaluation techniques are adopted such as

Linear Normalization and Windowing. For this work the Linear Normalization is used as the fitness evaluation technique. This

avoids not only the two mentioned aspects as well as it allows the evaluation values to be negative.

In other words, the Linear Normalization is equal to establishing fitness values uniformly distributed in an interval and linearly

related with the rank of the best fit individuals. Therefore, what defines the selection frequency of each individual in the

population is its position in the rank of the best fit individuals. In the end of the evaluation process, the fitness values are

passed to the selection process. The selection process characterizes the most important step of the GA, because it is this

process that imitates the Natural Selection. The selection process is governed by selection techniques such as the Roulette-

Wheel Selection, the Tournament Selection and the Stochastic Universal Sampling .

The genetic operators of crossover and mutation act after the selection process and they determine the balance among the

exploitation and exploration elements during the evalution of the Genetic Algorithm. The crossover is commonly

accomplished by techniques such as the crossover of One-Point, Two-Points and Uniform. After the application of the genetic

operators, a new population is obtained. According to Figure 1, all of the individuals of the population are changed by their

descendants. But, with the purpose of adding components of memory of previous evolutions, individuals of the old population

can be added to the new population. That is accomplished through techniques such as Elitism and Stead State.

The methodology proposed in this work doesn't interfere in the way of processing the phases of the basic GA, described

previously. It just adds one more particularity to the process that will be presented in the next section. The Lab WASF

software, used to simulate the results presented in this paper, incorporate the basic GA configuration as well as the proposed

methodology.

B. CALCULATION OF THE TOTAL FITNESS VALUE

In general, one aspect that distinguishes an evaluation function from another is its metric, such as MW, Volts, $, among others.

It is common to observe the use of constant factors to penalize the values of the different evaluation functions. However, the

values of these constants must be defined by the user in a trial and error approach and may cause additional difficulty in the

interaction between the user and GA. In the following analyses it is considered only the evaluation process without losing of

view the impacts in the selection process. It is supposed a population with M chromosomes and that each chromosome of the

population must be evaluated by N evaluation functions.

The value corresponding to the evaluation function i of the chromosome k is defined as:

In this point, no effort should be made to join the evaluation functions. It is calculated the individuals aptitudes according to

the adopted fitness evaluation technique (Linear Normalization). However, to apply this technique it is necessary to establish

the rank values of the most capable individuals for each evaluation function. In this context, each one of the evaluation

function i is used without considering the other functions, as what happens in a GA that makes use of a single evaluation

function. Then, each evaluation function i will create a rank i. Figure 2 allows to observe the classification of the individuals of

a hypothetical population for each rank i. In this figure, j is the placement of the chromosomes in the rank, i indicates the

evaluation function to which the rank is associated and k is the index of the chromosome. Then, Figure 2 illustrates a rank

matrix whose elements are the indexes k of the chromosomes, the lines are given by j and the columns by i.

Each rank i creates a fitness value for each chromosome of the population and, therefore, for the N ranks there is, for each

chromosome, N fitness values. Considering the technique of Linear Normalization the aptitude value of chromosome k with

placement j in the rank i is given for:

Fitnesski = max-[(max-min)/(1-M)].(j-1)

Where k = rank[ j][i] , 1≤ j ≤ M and 1≤ i ≤ N .

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

IJIRAE: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2015): 3.361 | PIF: 2.469 | Jour Info: 4.085 |

Index Copernicus 2014 = 6.57

© 2014- 16, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page -46

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2763

Issue 09, Volume 3 (September 2016) www.ijirae.com

The values of min and max are defined by the user. However, if the selection method is the Roulette-Wheel Selection and the

size of the population is not very big, a good choice would be min=1 and max=M. This choice gives to the less fit chromosome

a chance of survival equal to the difference among the chances of two any consecutive chromosomes. However, if the selection

method is the Tournament, the less fit individual will be dead for any value min. In this case a convenient value would be

min=0 and max=100.

SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION

INTRODUCTION

A new and efficient approach for optimal capacitor configuration in IEEE 14 bus system is selected as case study.

Determination of optimal locations and size of capacitor with an objective function for the constraints like maintaining the

voltage profile and power factor as per standard. Other benefits of optimal capacitor configuration are reduction in power loss

and enhancement of reliability of the system. The solution methodology genetic algorithm is used to optimal capacitor

placement using ETAP 11.1.1 software. The Capacitor Location or Placement for low voltage systems determines capacitor

size, location and control schemes. Optimal capacitor placement is generally a hard combinatorial optimization problem that

can be formulated as a nonlinear multiobjective problem. Many researchers had carried out work on optimal capacitor

placement including Neural Network, Partial Swarm Optimization and Fuzzy theory. This dissertation work is based on

Genetic Algorithm based optimal capacitor placement and sizing. ETAP software 11.1.1 is used to evaluate the capacitor size

and place in the system network. IEEE 14 bus system is selected as test system for OCP using ETAP software. This system

consist of 14 bus in addition to 20 branches and 11 Load points. It is observed that capacitor placement in this system improves

voltage profile attain the marginal power factor and reduces active and reactive losses. This also supports in capacity release.

CAPACITOR PLACEMENT PROBLEMS CAN BE SOLVED IN TWO STEPS:

Use of load flow model and find system parameters including feeder losses Minimize the cost function-min f- subject to

constraints, like practical limits of voltage and capacitor size available, power factor.

OBJECTIVE FUNCTION

Min COST = ∑ni=0 KpLP + KE LE + CC

Where, KpLP= Peak Power Loss, KE LE = Energy Loss,CC = Cost of capacitor, N= No. of buses

For constraint- 0.95 <= V=<1.05; pf=>0.95

(a) Balanced network considered for simplicity

(b) Capacitors are available in step size and

(c) Capacitor placement affects only the flow of reactive power in the feeder.

Optimal capacitor placement and sizing problem is formulated based on the requirements of beneﬁts due to reliability cost, cost

of capacitor, purchase cost, operating cost, maintenance cost and savings due to transmission and distribution loss for IEEE 14

bus system. The one line diagram of an IEEE-14 bus system is shown in Fig.1. The System data is taken from IEEE PES

Society and discussed in Appendix A. In this system five generators placed at bus numbers 1,2,3,6 and 8. Trans- formers are

placed in between buses 4-7; 4-9; 5-9. IEEE 14 bus system is benchmark system selected for the case study. The system is also

graphically represented and tabulated in Appendix A. In short, this network consists of 14 buses, 20 branches, and 12 loads.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

IJIRAE: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2015): 3.361 | PIF: 2.469 | Jour Info: 4.085 |

Index Copernicus 2014 = 6.57

© 2014- 16, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page -47

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2763

Issue 09, Volume 3 (September 2016) www.ijirae.com

BUSES 14

BRANCHES 20

GENERATORS 5

POWER GRIDS 0

LOADS 12

During load Flow study, this research work is carried out for the system as it is for evaluation of power factor, capacity of

transmission line, voltage proﬁle and other parameters. As this research is oriented for optimal capacitor placement, the

existing ﬁxed capacitors in the network is removed ﬁrst and then load ﬂow is carried out before capacitor placement as well as

with capacitor placement.

TABLE 2: LINE DATA FROM LOAD FLOW IN ETAP

ID RATING RATE KV KW KVAR AMP % PF % LOADING V TERMAL

BUS SHUNT 9 19000 KVA 1 2.118 -21183 11583 -0.01 105.6 105.59

LOAD 2 25143 KVA 1 21700 12699 13891 86.31 95.7 104.5

LOAD 3 96097 KVA 1 94200 19000 54932 98.03 99 101

LOAD 4 47959 KVA 1 47800 -3900 27208 -99.67 98.3 101.77

LOAD 5 7767 KVA 1 7600 1600 4398 97.85 98.1 101.95

LOAD 6 13479 KVA 1 11200 7500 7273 83.09 93.5 107

LOAD 9 33850 KVA 1 29500 16599 18508 87.15 94.7 105.59

LOAD 10 10707 KVA 1 9000 5800 5882 84.06 95.2 105.1

LOAD 11 3936 KVA 1 3500 1800 2150 88.93 94.6 105.69

LOAD 12 6306 KVA 1 6100 1600 3451 96.73 94.8 105.52

LOAD 13 14693 KVA 1 13500 5800 8076 91.88 95.2 105.04

LOAD 14 15717 KVA 1 14900 5000 8763 94.8 96.6 103.55

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

IJIRAE: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2015): 3.361 | PIF: 2.469 | Jour Info: 4.085 |

Index Copernicus 2014 = 6.57

© 2014- 16, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page -48

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2763

Issue 09, Volume 3 (September 2016) www.ijirae.com

ID RATING RATED KV MW MVAR AMP % PF % GENE RATION

GEN_1 232.4 MW 1 232.404 -16.561 126904 -99.75 100

GEN_2 40 MW 1 40 43.533 32663 67.66 100

GEN_3 0 MW 1 0 25.063 14327 0

GEN_6 0 MW 1 0 12.77 6891 0

GEN_8 0 MW 1 0 17.635 9341 0

LOAD FLOW OF IEEE 14 BUS

ETAP based load ﬂow study is carried out using ETAP 11.1.1 and given in Table 2 Fig. 3 shows IEEE 14 bus system. The

details of this system is also illustrated in Appendix A. OCP-PSO software initialize with ETAP based load ﬂow data.

Necessary information relating to bus and line is passed through OCP treatment in two modules. First module simulates

objective function without capacitor and second module introduces PSO treatment with capacitor placement with Local and

Global minima.

IV. ETAP SIMULATION PROCESS FOR LOAD FLOW

Table 2 shows bus data simulations for bus voltage in per unit, rated voltage, active and reactive power loading and ampere

loading on every bus. Table 3 indicates load data information regarding active and reactive power drawn by load, power factor

load current, percentage loading and terminal voltage. All these information is essential in OCP simulation process which is

developed in dot net framework. Table 2 shows load data without capacitor while Table 3 represents generator data. This

useful data is then provided as input to OCP software module. Five generators are connected to bus 1, 2, 3,6, 8. Generator 1 is

connected to swing bus and rated with 232.40 MW as shown in Table 5.5. This generator is running with 100 % generation

with 232.40MW, -16.56 MVAr with 99.75 leading power factor. Generator 2 is producing 40MW active and 43.53 MVAr

reactive powers. Whereas genera tors placed at buses 3,6, 8 are standby and used to absorb reactive power. IEEE 14 bus line

data is shown in Table 2 with line number, active and reactive power ﬂow, current ﬂow, voltage drop in line and active and

reactive power losses due to resistance and inductance of transmission line or transformer device. This line data is provided to

OCP software for further evaluation process through two treatments in the module, one without capacitor and other with

capacitor placement module.

V. OCP MODULE IN ETAP

Optimal Capacitor Placement module in ETAP consist,

• Optimal location & bank size

• Minimize installation & operation costs

• Individual source or average energy cost

• Voltage & power factor objectives

• Minimum, maximum, & average loading

• Branch capacity release & cost savings

• Review capacitor impact on the system

• Capacitor control method To place shunt capacitors in power systems.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

IJIRAE: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2015): 3.361 | PIF: 2.469 | Jour Info: 4.085 |

Index Copernicus 2014 = 6.57

© 2014- 16, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page -49

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2763

Issue 09, Volume 3 (September 2016) www.ijirae.com

It is necessary to determine bank size in kvar, determine connection location, determine a control method and determine a

connection type. The capacitor size and the appropriate location for voltage support and power factor correction can be

determined in different ways. A common method applies “rules of thumb” techniques, and then runs multiple load ﬂow studies

to ﬁne-tune the size and location. Unfortunately, this method may not yield the optimal solution and it can also be very time

consuming and impractical for large systems.

A. KEY FEATURES OF ETAP

• Calculate the most cost-effective installation locations and best bank size

• Minimize total installation and operation cost

• Consider voltage support and power factor correction

• Evaluate Capacitor control method

• Allow review of capacitor impact on the system

• Employ most advanced optimum techniques

B. FLEXIBLE OPERATION

• Show available locations

• Apply user-selected load categories

• Utilize individual and global constraints

• Handle unlimited network conﬁgurations

• Use only user selected installation locations

• Constrain maximum capacitors installed at a location to user speciﬁed quantity

C. CAPABILITY OF ETAP OCP MODULE

• Advanced graphic user interface

• User friendly input and output

• Instantly view new capacitors

• Speed and precision control

• Integrated load ﬂow results

• Standard Crystal reports

D. PLOTTING IN ETAP

• Loss reduction savings during the planning period

• Capacitor operation cost during the planning period

• Proﬁt during the planning period

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

IJIRAE: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2015): 3.361 | PIF: 2.469 | Jour Info: 4.085 |

Index Copernicus 2014 = 6.57

© 2014- 16, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page -50

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2763

Issue 09, Volume 3 (September 2016) www.ijirae.com

E. REPORTING

• Capacitor properties

• Capacitor locations and sizes

• Load ﬂow results for maximum, average and minimum loads

• Branch capacity release • Cost summary

VI. CALCULATION METHOD

ETAP currently utilizes the genetic algorithm for optimal capacitor placement. The genetic algorithm is an optimization

technique based on the theory of natural selection. A genetic algorithm starts with a generation of solutions with wide diversity

to represent characteristics of the whole search space. By mutation and crossover, good characteristics are selected and carried

to the next generation. The optimal solution can be reached through repeated generations. OCP uses the present worth method

to perform alternative comparisons. It considers initial installation and operating costs, which include maintenance,

depreciation, and loss reduction savings.

OBJECTIVE FUNCTION OF OCP IN ETAP

The objective of optimal capacitor placement is to minimize the cost of the system. This cost is measured in four ways:

• Fixed capacitor installation cost

• Capacitor purchase cost

• Capacitor bank operating cost (maintenance and depreciation)

• Cost of real power losses

Cost can be represented mathematically as:

minf =∑xiC0i + QciC1i + BiC2iT + C2∑TlPLi

Nbus - No of bus candidate

Xi - 0/1,0 means no cap installed at bus i

C0i - Installation cost

C1i - per kVAr cost of capacitor bank

Qci - Capacitor bank size in KVAr

Bi - Number of capacitor banks

C2i - Operating cost of per bank, per year

T - Planning period(years)

C2 - Cost of each kWh loss in Rs/kWh

L - Load levels, maximum, average and minimum

Tl - Time duration, in hours, of load level

lPLi - Total system loss at load level l Constraints

The main constraints for capacitor placement are to meet the load ﬂow constraints. In addition, all voltage magnitudes of load

(PQ) buses should be within the lower and upper bars. Load Power Factor (PF) should be greater than the minimum. It may be

a maximum power factor bar at unity. The constraints can be represented mathematically as:

Vmin < V < Vmax PFmin ≤ PF VTHD ≤ V max THD Qci ≤ Bi × KVAR

ETAP based optimal capacitor placement for IEEE 14 bus system is studied.

VII. SIMULATION AND RESULTS

For this research work, a case study of IEEE 14 bus system is selected to implement optimal capacitor placement. ETAP has

different module for reliability and optimal capacitor placement. This research work is carried out for ETAP based optimal

capacitor placement for IEEE 14 bus . Adding KVAr through capacitor placement can/may improve voltage proﬁle, modify

power factor, decrease losses, improve reliability indices, decrease cost associated to reliability and lot of beneﬁts. Most

importantly capacitor placement should be proﬁt oriented in addition to above beneﬁts. all above parameters which modiﬁes as

number of capacitor increases while placing capacitor is evaluated. All these parameters are then compared with the results

when no capacitor is placed. This comparison study is required to take decision whether to place a capacitor or not. This study

includes voltage constraint, power factor constraint and both constraint separately At the same time, voltage constraint is

studied for two different limits (i) 0.95 < V < 1.05 and (ii) 0.9 < V < 1.1 for 10 cases for this study.

In ETAP software, OCP and reliability is evaluated separately and cost function is added such that the objective function

developed should match with objectives of genetic algorithm technique used in ETAP. Before optimal capacitor placement in

ETAP following parameters are set as bus constraints

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

IJIRAE: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2015): 3.361 | PIF: 2.469 | Jour Info: 4.085 |

Index Copernicus 2014 = 6.57

© 2014- 16, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page -51

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2763

Issue 09, Volume 3 (September 2016) www.ijirae.com

BUS ID %VOLTAGE (MIN) %VOLTAGE (MAX) P.F. (MIN) P.F. (MAX)

BUS 4 95 105 90

BUS 5 95 105 90

BUS 7 95 105 90

BUS 9 95 105 90

BUS 10 95 105 90

BUS 11 90

BUS 12 90

After applying these constraints ETAP proposed capacitor bank at following buses

TABLE 5 CAPACITOR PLACEMENT AFTER OCP

BUS NO CAPCITOR SIZE NO. OF CAPACITORS PLACED

BUS 4 20 KVAR 8

BUS 5 20 KVAR 2

BUS 7 20 KVAR 14

BUS 10 20 KVAR 100

BUS 11 20 KVAR 37

BUS 12 20 KVAR 11

BUS 14 20 KVAR 88

Results are compared for loss reduction, p.f. improvement, capacity release in dissertation work before and after OCP

implementation

TABLE 6 BRANCH/CKT LOSS COMPARISON BEFORE OCP AND AFTER OCP

BRANCH LOSSES BEFORE OCP LOSSES BEFORE OCP LOSSES AFTER OCP LOSSES AFTER OCP

(KW) (KVAR) (KW) (KVAR)

1-2 7527.1 17180.2 4297.9 7272.8

1-5 4628.4 13841.7 2763.2 6085.6

2-3 3739.5 11215.8 2323.3 5162.4

2-4 2657.0 4517.6 1676.8 1470.6

2-5 1406.9 679.4 903.8 -927.9

3-4 623.3 304.5 373.4 -362.7

4-5 837.6 2642.1 514.3 1622.3

4-7 2.7 2734.3 1.7 1703.1

4-9 2.1 2080.4 1.3 1304.9

5-6 6.8 6768.5 4.4 4421.3

6-11 84.3 176.5 55.4 116.1

6-12 111.9 232.8 71.8 149.5

6-13 331.1 652.1 212.1 417.8

7-8 0.0 658.9 0.0 461.1

7-9 0.0 1236.2 0.0 801.9

9-10 14.3 38.1 12.9 34.1

9-14 170.4 362.5 116.1 246.9

10-11 21.1 49.4 12.6 29.5

12-13 10.1 9.1 6.3 5.7

13-14 84.3 171.6 54.1 110.2

TOTAL 22258.8 65551.6 13410.5 30125.3

TABLE 7 BUS % VTG COMPARISON BEFORE OCP AND AFTER OCP

BUS NO. % VOLTAGE BEFORE OCP % VOLTAGE AFTER OCP

BUS 1 106 104.8

BUS 2 104.5 104.5

BUS 3 101 101

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

IJIRAE: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2015): 3.361 | PIF: 2.469 | Jour Info: 4.085 |

Index Copernicus 2014 = 6.57

© 2014- 16, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page -52

International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2763

Issue 09, Volume 3 (September 2016) www.ijirae.com

BUS 5 101.95 101.95

BUS 6 107 104.9

BUS 7 106.15 104.1

BUS 8 109 104.3

BUS 9 105.59 105

BUS 10 105.1 105

BUS 11 105.69 104.8

BUS 12 105.52 104.7

BUS 13 105.04 105

BUS 14 103.55 103.50

TABLE 8 BUS % P.F. COMPARISON BEFORE OCP AND AFTER OCP

BUS NO % P. F. BEFORE OCP % P. F. AFTER OCP

BUS 1 99.6 -99.6

BUS 2 97.4 -99.5

BUS 3 96.6 99.8

BUS 4 98.7 -99.9

BUS 5 99.0 100

BUS 6 90.5 99

BUS 7 85.3 0

BUS 8 0 0

BUS 9 86.0 99.5

BUS 10 84.1 89.0

BUS 11 90.4 99.1

BUS 12 95.6 97.3

BUS 13 93.0 95.7

BUS 14 94.8 96.2

VIII. CONCLUSION

In this paper, a new method for solving capacitor placement problem was described. It can provide specific location of fixed

capacitors in order to reduce energy system's losses. The load variation, the energy cost and capacitors sizes easily found in

market were considered in the model. The program developed can be used in radial systems with different topologies and load

variation because it has flexible parameters. Also it can be used as an analysis tool to make planning studies or to take

decisions about the convenience of a specific reactive compensation plan. Then is a powerful tool in the design of an electrical

distribution system.So, the work presented is possible, cheap and reliable to find the optimal capacitor placement in a radial

system.

REFERENCES

[1] Carpinelli, G. ; Celli, G. ; Mocci, S. ; Mottola, F.; Pilo, F.; Proto, D., Optimal Integration of Distributed Energy Storage

Devices in Smart Grids, Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on Volume: 4, Issue: 2 DOI: Year: 2013,

[2] Biswas, S. ; Goswami, S.K. ; Chatterjee, A., Optimal distributed generation place- ment in shuntcapacitor compensated

distribution systems considering voltage sag and harmonics distortions, Generation, Transmission & Distribution, IET

Volume: 8 , Is- sue: 5 Publication Year: 2014,

[3] Hamid Reza Esmaeilian, Omid Darijany, Mohsen Mohammadian, Optimal place- ment and sizing of DG units and

capacitors simultaneously in radial distribution networks based on the voltage stability security margin, Turkish Journal of

Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences, Published Online,2014,

[4] Calderaro, V. ; Galdi, V. ; Piccolo, A. ; Conio, G. ; Fusco, R. , Wind farm power plant: Optimal capacitor placement for

reactive power compensation, Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT EUROPE), 2013 4th IEEE/PES Year:

2013 ,

[5] Sathya Siva Chandan. G, Optimal Placement of Capacitor and Sizing in a Radial Distribution Network to Reduce Real

Power Losses, International Journal of Scien- tiﬁc Engineering and Research (IJSER) ISSN (Online): 2347-3878 Volume

2 Issue 9, September 2014.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

IJIRAE: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2015): 3.361 | PIF: 2.469 | Jour Info: 4.085 |

Index Copernicus 2014 = 6.57

© 2014- 16, IJIRAE- All Rights Reserved Page -53

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