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Electronics Coaching notes


 Lead acid does not depend on:

Ans: Rate of charge

 Lead acid consists of:

Ans: Dilute sulfuric acid, sponge lead, and lead peroxide

 Conputer on a chip is called:

Ans: Transputer

 Transputer consists of

Ans: 32 bits

 Nibble consists of ____ bits.

Ans: 4

 OP amp has a gain of approximately

Ans: 1,000,000

 The voice coil has an impedance between

Ans: 4 and 100 ohms.

 Semiconductor have ____ bonds.

Ans: covalent

 Nimak gantry robot has

Ans: good precision positioning

 Sulphation in a lead acid cell is

Ans: to incompletely charging

 Nickel cadmium can be charged or discharged because

Ans: water is neither absorbed or formed.

 Daisy chaining

Ans: method used in determining interrupt priorities in a microcontroller.

 Who coined the term robot?

Ans: Karel Capek

 LASER is classified as

Ans: monochromatic. Coherent and collimator.

 555 timer consists of

Ans: astable, monostable and VCO

 Early effect is also called

Ans: base width modulation

 The effect produced due to flow of electrons and holes

Ans: drift current

 Process of adding impurities in the intrinsic semiconductor

Ans: Doping

 What is reduced by using bundled conduction?

Ans: Power loss due to corona.

 ________ is also called modified Maxwell Wien bridge.

Ans: Anderson bridge.

 ________ is a bridge that compares the capacitance of the capacitor.

Ans: De Soutry bridge

 It measures unkonown inductance in terms of resistance and capacitance.

Ans: Anderson bridge

 An IC consists of passive devices.

Ans: Film IC

 SI unit of luminous intesnisty

Ans: Candela

 SI unit of illuminance

Ans: Lux

 A microwave diode that has a frequency range of 10-1000 GHZ

Ans: IMPATT diode

 A microwave diode in the negative resistance region.

Ans: PIN diode

 Schmitt trigger acts like a

Ans: Latch

 Fermi level is in the

Ans: Forbidden gap

 Invalid NAND flip-flop violation

Ans: S=0 C=0

 Invalid NOR flip-flop violation

Ans: S=1 C=1

 Range of depletion width

Ans: 0.5 and 1 um

 Impedance matching

Ans: Transformer coupling and emitter follower.

 Maxwell-Wien bridge measures

Ans: Inductance

 D flip-flop consists of

Ans: JK flip-flop, RS flip-flop and inverter

 Uses binary counters

Ans: D flip-flop

 Ideal CMRR

Ans: Infinity

 SCARA uses ____ operation

Ans: Assembly

 Gold doping has an advantage of

Ans: Reduced storage time.

 It is the time for the diode to be forward biased to off time

Ans: Reverse recovery time

 The reverse current doubles in every ___ °C increase in temperature.

Ans: 6

 LASER and LED are in what spectrum?

Ans: Infrared spectrum.

 GaAs is used for

Ans: Infrared light or invisible light

 Tapped coil oscillator

Ans: Hartley

 Tickler coil oscillator

Ans: Armstrong

 Tapped capacitor oscillator

Ans: Colpitts

 The sediment that allows the bottom of the lead acid cell

Ans: Antimony Lead alloy

 Two transistors in class B is in

Ans: Push-pull

 Photodarlington consists of

Ans: Transistor and phototransistor

 Largest voltage applied without irreversible damage

Ans: PIV

 Thermal neutron is also called _____ neutron.

Ans: Slow

 Avalanche breakdown is due to

Ans: collision

 One nibble consists of

Ans: 4 bits

 Large computer has a maximum of

Ans: 64 bits

 Card readers can read about

Ans: 10.000 cards per minute

 Advantage of ECL

Ans: Lowest propagation delay

 Schottky TTL has

Ans: Least propagation delay

 Main advantage of CMOS

Ans: Low power

 CC voltage gain

Ans: cannot be exceeded to unity.

 Largest voltage applied without irreversible damage

Ans: PIV

 Transputer operates in

Ans: parallel data

 It is an IC consist of passive and active devices

Ans: Monolithic IC

 It is an IC consist of passive devices

Ans: Film

 Discrete circuit

Ans: Digital circuit

 Linear circuit
Ans: Analog circuit

 Backhausen criterion is a condition that

Ans: stops oscillating

 Negative output swing occurs

Ans: near saturation

 Positive output swing occurs

Ans: towards cut-off

 When dry cell is charged,

Ans: It increased in volume

 Class C acts

Ans: as an RF amplifier

 Crystal uses

Ans: RF transmitter

 A class of amplifier that has 85% efficiency

Ans: Class C

 With Si, Z=14, it is

Ans: Half-filled

 Formation of Si in valence shell

Ans: 2, 8, 4

 Volatile memory is

Ans: Semiconductor ROM

 Semiconductor ROM is

Ans: Combinational Logic circuit

 EPROM erases when strikes by

Ans: Ultraviolet rays

 Bolometer acts like a

Ans: Thermistor

 Ondograph is

Ans: A waveshape of voltage and current.

 Nickel iron cell consists of

Ans: NiOH, powdered iron and its oxide and 21% of potassium.

 CE is

Ans: Phase reversal

 Photoconductive cell is also called

Ans: photoresistive cell

 The smallest of all h parameter is

Ans: hO

 The formula of h11 is

Ans: V1/I1

 The h parameter consists of

Ans: Construction, operating point and temperature

 Moving coil occurs in

Ans: DC
 VTVM internal resistance is

Ans: the highest internal resistance

 It measures magnetic properties of ferromagnetic

Ans: Permeameter

 Simple RL low pass measures -12 dB/octave, corresponds to ___ dB/decade

Ans: -40

 Rotational joins of the robot is called _____

Ans: Revolute joints.

 Straight line joints movement of the robot is called

Ans: Prismatic joints

 Input and output point

Ans: Handshaking

 RL high pass filter has a phase difference of

Ans: 45 degrees

 Who invented the microprocessor in 1969?

Ans: Ted Hoff

 Who invented the 1st IC?

Ans: Jack Kilby

 dI/dt of an SCR is

Ans: local hot spot

 3 ½ display maximum reading

Ans: 0999
 3 ½ 1 mV reading

Ans: 1000

 Straight line method

Ans: piecewise linear method

 Improper biasing of IC

Ans: causes distortion

 One kWh of energy is equivalent to

Ans: 860 kcal

 Junction breakdown occurs in

Ans: reverse bias

 Ratio of Ah and Wh is

Ans: greater than one.

 The capacity in a cell is measured in

Ans: Ah

 In the IC, the SiO2 layer is

Ans: isolation

 A V/I characteristic curve is

Ans: Boltzman diode characteristic.

 Early effect is also called

Ans: base width narrowing.

 Advantage of Swinburne’s test is

Ans: very convenient and very economical.

 An IC consists of ceramic substrate

Ans: thin film IC

 An IC consists of alumina substrate

Ans: thick film IC

 It is the development of a traverse electric field in a solid material when it carries an electric current

Ans: Hall effect

 It is used when the input signal has periodically occurring intervals in which the input waveform is


Ans: synchronized clamping

 A circuit that produces an output only when first activated by a preliminary pulse

Ans: sampling gate

 Successive trigerring signal induces a transition regardless of the state in which binary happens to be

Ans: symmetrical triggering

 Both carrier drift and carrier diffusion depend on ___

Ans: Einstein relation

 Microprogramming is

Ans: A technique to implement the control logic necessary to execute instructions within a processor.

 It is used to measure a speed by cutting off light at a regular interval

Ans: Stroboscope

 Thermal runaway is

Ans: is an electrochemical reaction that causes a battery to heat and possibly explode.

 A kind of ROM that degrades its own memory contents as the memory is read

 An inductor operates at 400 Hz

Ans: Toroidal core

 An inductor operates at 95 MHz

Ans: Air core

 Data bus

Ans: It is data lines in a system bus.

 In converting intrinsic into N-type extrinsic semiconductor, which element cannot be used?

Ans: Indium

 Pin resistor has industrial heating in

Ans: Hairpin form

 Any solid object has ___ degrees of freedom

Ans: 6

 Flip-flop as a latch

Ans: S-C flip flop

 PIN diode

Ans: A microwave diode frequencies up to GHz range.

 Ip/Iv of a tunnel diode is used in

Ans: Computer application

 Noise figure of MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit)

Ans: 3.5 to 6 dB

 Unique advantage feature of CMOS

Ans: Power in a nanowatt range

 Any charge in a battery when taken off the vehicle

Ans: Bench charge

 LASCR acts like a

Ans: Latch

 A word has

Ans: 16-bit length

 A double word has

Ans: 32-bit length

 A company who invented the word byte

Ans: IBM

 Degrees of freedom is the number of ______ independent movements including the end effector

Ans: independent

 An inductor operates at 400 Hz

Ans: Toroidal core

 Percentage loss of the dc wound machine

Ans: 1 %

 When dc voltage is removed, the clamper acts as a

Ans: Rectifier

 CMOS has extremely

Ans: Large packing density

 Solar cell has a principle of

Ans: Photovoltaic cell

 Sensor that detects change in resistance in extrinsic semiconductor

Ans: Spreading Resistance Sensor (SRS)

 Reduce the stray capacitance and capacitance between bridge arm by grounding

Ans: Wagner Grounding

 A meter sensitivity control in a test instrument

Ans: Linear Taper Potentiometer

 A volume control in a stereo compact disc player

Ans: Logarithmic Taper Potentiometer

 Faster in retrieval and storage compared to magnetic tape

Ans: Magnetic Disk

 It has more ripple in a bandpass and cut-off frequency

Ans: Chebyshev filter

 Darlington pair of transistors is _____ by Beta factor.

Ans: multiplied

 CCD has ___ transfer electrons

Ans: 6

 Neutral logic

Ans: Trinary logic

 Totally true, totally false

Ans: Fuzzy logic

 Which is not a factor of capacitance?

Ans: Plate thickness

 Ideal input impedance of an op-amp

Ans: Very high

 Ideal output impedance of an op-amp

Ans: Very low

 With 100 Ω to match with higher input impedance, the configuration is

Ans: Common base

 Optocoupler consists of an

Ans: LED and phototransistor

 Optoisolator consists of an

Ans: LED and phototransistor

 Positive feedback

Ans: Oscillator

 Phase locked loop

Ans: Frequency discriminator, FM detector

 Air as inductor core has

Ans: Greatest efficiency

 What increases noise immunity in op-amp?

Ans: Hysteresis

 Resisitve element

Ans: Horizontal axis

 Reactive element
Ans: Vertical axis

 Sine wave with all harmonics

Ans: Square wave

 It abruptly changes from 2 voltage leads

Ans: Square wave

 63.2 %

Ans: One time constant

 A sine wave oscillator, sine wave circuit

Ans: Crystal

 Positive pulse on anode terminal

Ans: Turning on an SCS

 3 phase rectifier that uses 6 rectifier element

Ans: Gratz rectifier

 What uses as marker of 100 kHz?

Ans: 2 flip-flops

 Feature of R-S to J-K flip-flop

Ans: Toggle

 LC balance bridge

Ans: Maxwell bridge

 Operator on microwave frequency

Ans: GaAs over Silicon or Germanium

 J-K flip-flop frequency

Ans: Divides the frequency by 2.

 Small capacitance formed by twisting 2 insulated wire

Ans: Gimmick Capacitor

 Modified Miller circuit

Ans: Phanastron

 Converts step to ramp circuit

Ans: Miller circuit

 Servocontrolled robots are robots within ___ mm range rather than a fraction of mm.

Ans: 2

 It is an electron tube which emits photoelectrons when the cathode is eliminated

Ans: Phototube

 It is a radiant energy absorbed by the radiant to incident energy

Ans: Absorptance

 Inventor circuit

Ans: Converts dc to ac circuit

 Laurence or Living stone

Ans: Magnetic resonator or cyclotron

 Microporgramming

Ans: Sequence of five binary codes

 540 degrees

Ans: Phase opposition

 Power efficiency of solar cell

Ans: 5% to 15%

 Thermal detector

Ans: Bolometer

 Exact location of data

Ans: Absolute code

 Fundamental frequency in all harmonics

Ans: Sawtooth wave

 dV/dt of SCR

Ans: False trigerring

 Monolithic IC uses

Ans: Extensive large components

 MOS IC uses


 A diode with no depletion region

Ans: Schottky diode

 LED emits light because

Ans: Electron and holes recombine

 What is the difference on the input impedance of BJT and FET?

Ans: A FET has high input impedance while BJT has low input impedance.

 Marking of scale to accept standard

Ans: Calibration

 Zener diode is in
Ans: reverse diode

 The temperature coefficient of extrinsic semiconductor is

Ans: negative

 Voltage of selenium semiconductor

Ans: 1 V

 It is preferred to manufacture diode and temperature rating

Ans: Silicon

 Isotope …

Ans: Abundance ratio

 Electron hole pair is done by

Ans: Thermal energy

 JFET square law device is because

Ans: its characteristic curve is parabolic

 Tank circuit

Ans: Antiresonant

 Cut-in voltage or turn on voltage current

Ans: Exponentially increases

 Electron beam deflected from axial to enlarge

Ans: Deflection defocusing

 Equal ratio bridge

Ans: Heaviside Campbell bridge

 Silicon oxide (SiO2) is for

Ans: Insulation

 APD is better than PIN diode is for

Ans: Speed of operation

 Voltage for temperature stability of zener diode

Ans: 5.6 V

 3 superconducting inductor in parallel

Ans: Persistor

 Application of semiconductor

Ans: Wafer

 LC circuit is used for

Ans: Load current

 Power factor of RC is between

Ans: 0 and 1

 Minimum Duty Cycle of Bust converter

Ans: Dmin = 1 – 2fsLc


 Boost converter critical inductance

Ans: Lc = (1-D)2DRL


 Buck Boost converter critical inductance

Ans: Lc = (1-D)2RL


 Buck converter critical inductance

Ans: Lc = (1-D)RL


 Typical CMRR

Ans: 100 to 10,000

 Typical CMRR in dB

Ans: 40 to 80 dB

 Accuracy of Wien bridge

Ans: 0.5% - 1%

 Typical value of armature resistance

Ans: 0.5Ω

 The saturation voltage of an op-amp is ___ smaller than the power supply

Ans: 2 V

 Solid grounding has a voltage below

Ans: 660 V

 Resistance grounding has typical voltage between

Ans: 3.3 – 11 kV

 Percentage conductivity of pure annealed silver wire

Ans: 108.8%

 Percentage conductivity of 99.5% pure gold

Ans: 72.6%

 Percentage conductivity of 63% pure aluminum

Ans: 63%
 Corona is maximum on

Ans: transmission lines

 Transformer that operates on the frequency range of 20 kHz to 20 MHz

Ans: Carrier frequency transformer

 JFET configuration for buffer amplifier

Ans: common drain

 JFET configuration for good voltage amplification

Ans: common source

 JFET configuration for high frequency amplifier

Ans: common gate

 The dc-dc converterwith unregulated input voltage and regulated output voltage

Ans: SMPS (Single Mode Power Supply)

 Corona is due to

Ans: radio interference

 A transformer on the frequency of 15 kHz

Ans: Converter transformer

 Ingredients of wet cell

Ans: Zinc and copper

 Main ingredient of dry cell

Ans: Zinc container

 It reduces gain to a limiting level

Ans: Limiter
 First transistor

Ans: Point contact

 First fuel battery was invented by _____ in 1959.

Ans: F.T. Bacon

 Unlike buck and boost converter, the buck boost converter featured output voltage:

Ans: opposite polarity to input.

 Lattice in which the lattice points are only shown in the crystal

Ans: Bravais Lattice

 An error due to shortcoming of instruments

Ans: Systematic error

 An error that cannot be corrected

Ans: Random error

 It is a substance where the bulk is composed

Ans: Element

 Typical voltage of lead-acid

Ans: 2.1 V

 What type of cell used in the emergency system?

Ans: Silver-zinc cell

 Microcontroller consists of

Ans: Microprocessor, memory, input and output unit

 Percentage of the transistor current flows in the collector

Ans: 95%

 SMPC operates between ON state and OFF state at a frequency of

Ans: 10 kHz and 40 kHz

 A camera with imaging positron effect with multiple layer of silicon detector

Ans: Compton camera

 NMOS is _____ than PMOS

Ans: 6 times

 What is the diameter of the wafer used in manufacturing?

Ans: 3 to 8 inches

 Standard spacing for IC chip

Ans: 2 um and 3 um

 Advanced spacing for IC chip

Ans: 1 um

 BCC crystal structure

Ans: Chromium

 HPC crystal structure

Ans: Zinc

 Another name for differential amplifier

Ans: Subtractor

 A factor that determines the filter response

Ans: Damping factor

 Unity gain amplifier has ____ input impedance

Ans: Extremely high

 Megger is
Ans: used to measure high resistance

 Increasing transmitter height

Ans: Decrease capacitance and inductance remains the same.

 Undergrounding conductor is

Ans: Maximum at the conductor and minimum at the sheath

 A transformer that has a frequency range from 100 Hz – 150 kHz

Ans: Converter transformer

 Surge impedance of cable

Ans: 50 Ω

 Ideal input impedance of op-amp

Ans: 50 Ω

 Formula for the increase % in saturation current

Ans: 2((T2-T1)/10) X 100%

 Ideal noise factor

Ans: 0 dB

 Vacant lattice site with missing atom relocated to a interstitial space with no atom.

Ans: Frenkel effect

 FCC packing factor

Ans: 0.74

 Linear change of input

Ans: Ramp input

 Instantaneous, finite input

Ans: Step input

 Indicating device orientation of object

Ans: Selsyn

 An AC bridge that measures mutual inductance

Ans: Heaviside bridge

 One of the most important bridge in determining link capacitances

Ans: Schering bridge

 Highest dielectric strength

Ans: Glass

 High sensitivity

Ans: Permanent magnet

 A transformer in laminated core reduced

Ans: Eddy current

 An analysis used for more than one voltage source

Ans: Superposition theorem

 Maximum magnitude of the output voltage from an op-amp is called

Ans: Saturation voltage

 A graph of amplitude versus input frequency

Ans: Bode plot

 Effect of recombination on depletion region

Ans: Emission coefficient or ideality factor

 Magnetic amplifier operates at a frequency at ____ or less

Ans: 100 Hz

 Most commonly used coupling

Ans: Transformer coupling

 Typical LED voltage

Ans: 1.6 V

 Capacitance of disc ceramic capacitor

Ans: 100 pF

 A bypass capacitor at high frequency

Ans: Ceramic capacitor

 Indicating device orientation of object

Ans: Selsyn

 Odd parity checker

Ans: XOR

 Shelf life of lithium cell

Ans: 5 to 10 years

 Negative feedback

Ans: Increases bandwidth and decrease voltage gain

 Alkaline cell ingredient

Ans: Potassium hydroxide

 Advantage of NiCd over lead acid

Ans: Cell on NiCd can be replaced

 By adding parallel circuit to the inverting amplifier

Ans: Inverting summing

 Linear amplification

Ans: Level clamper

 Theory of magnetic flux in a closed system equal to zero

Ans: Gauss theorem

 Personal error

Ans: Gross error

 Advantage of magnetic disk to magnetic tape

Ans: Easier to read

 The maximum current can safely handle

Ans: Ampacity

 JFET reference voltage

Ans: Source

 Buffer amplifier gain

Ans: 1

 AWG no. 6

Ans: 0.395 Ω/1000 ft.

 AWG no. 12

Ans: 6350 cmil

 Indicating device orientation of object

Ans: Selsyn

 A mass of 1.66 x 10-27 kg.

Ans: Unified amu

 Reciprocal of Avogadro’s number

Ans: amu

 Electrostatic radius of an atom

Ans: 10-14

 Manipulator has ___ degrees of freedom

Ans: 3

 Arrange in data arrays

Ans: RAM

 OS memory


 Voltage amplifier

Ans: Pre-amplifier

 Latest used data

Ans: Cache memory


Ans: Stack memory

 Minimum distance of features in a chip

Ans: Geometry

 Number of elements not found in nature but also prepared in laboratories

Ans: 105
 IC advantage

Ans: Reliability

 Minimum to maximum range

Ans: Span

 1/5 of the Wi-Fi range

Ans: Bluetooth

 Temperature of Class B motor

Ans: 130°C

 Temperature of Class F motor

Ans: 155°C

 Pure ac voltage single frequency

Ans: Single pip

 Cannot be used as a permanent magnet

Ans: Caryon

 In double’s Kelvin bridge, 1Ω to 10 uΩ

Ans: 0.05% - 0.2%

 Wien bridge oscillator

Ans: f = 1/(2πRC)

 Most important IEEE standard interface

Ans: IEEE 488 digital interface

 Common method of coupling used in cascade amplifier stages

Ans: Transformer
 It is most obvious at higher frequencies

Ans: Corona

 Early IC packaging method used in transistors

Ans: TO (Transistor Outline)


Ans: Plastic Lead chip memory

 It is used in Hi-Fi audio system to split frequencies to fed tweeter and woofer

Ans: Crossover network

 Resistance offered by a PN junction in AC conditions

Ans: Dynamic resistance

 Characteristic of shared systems to avoid mixing up of print outs or programs

Ans: Spooling

 Absorption of slow moving electrons by an interleaving matter

Ans: Ramsauer effect

 If a load is removed from a long transmission line, the sending voltage end is less than receiving end

Ans: Ferranti effect

 Corona results in

Ans: Radio interference

 Ratio of thermal conductivity to electrical conductivity is directly proportional to the absolute temperature

of all metals

Ans: Weidemann Franz Law

 Color of neutral in 3-core flexible cable

Ans: Blue
 It is neglected in short transmission line analysis

Ans: Shunt admittance

 It is located near transformer

Ans: Lightning arrester

 Volume of atom ratio to cell volume

Ans: Packing factor

 RLC circuit that provides undamped oscillation

Ans: Ringing circuit

 Contact between metal and heavily doped-semiconductor

Ans: Ohmic contact

 Comparator with hysteresis

Ans: Schmitt trigger

 Negative electron

Ans: Negatron

 Input continuously increases constant output

Ans: Level Clamp

 Four arm AC bridge measures inductance by standard capacitance

Ans: Maxwell Bridge

 Shows positions of lattice points

Ans: Bravais Lattice

 Measures the diameter of an atom

Ans: Ernest Rutherford

 Ratio of the AC power supply to the plate power supply

Ans: Plate efficiency

 Electromechanical device that converts electrical to mechanical by attraction of iron plunger to the


Ans: Solenoid

 Lithium battery

Ans: Microcomputer memory back-up

 Protection against electric shock

Ans: Earthing

 The heat generated melts the portion at the tip of the electrode and the base of the metal

Ans: Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

 Advantages of PCB

Ans: Eliminates bigger chassis and point to point mounting

 Energy to raise the electron to another orbit

Ans: Excitation

 It is used in high voltage and high current application for most efficient regulator

Ans: Switching regulator

 What refers to garaging the two adjustments of an Ac bridge together in such a way that changing one

adjustment changes the other in a special way, but changing the second adjustment does not change first?

Ans: Orthogonal nulling

 Not common sine wave generator

Ans: Multivibrator
 Range of degrees of freedom

Ans: Work envelope

 Physical bend, twist, and reach

Ans: Manipulator

 Poor selectivity

Ans: Wide bandwidth

 It has amplifier and feedback

Ans: Electronic amplifier

 Maintenance of oscillation

Ans: Flywheel effect

 Free electrons collidal to bound electrons causing mere current carriers

Ans: Avalanche effect

 Magnetic leakage due to 100% coupling

Ans: Electromagnetic effect

 A particle resulting to an atom of an element combined to form a compound

Ans: Molecule

 P shell number of electrons

Ans: 72

 Solid formed by covalent bonding

Ans: Crystal

 The resistance in the magnetic path to the magnetic lines of force

Ans: Reluctance
 The flux density in an iron core when the magnetic intensity is zero

Ans: Residual magnetism

 When an electron rises to the conduction band a hole is created in the valence band, this called _____

Ans: Electron hole pair

 Operating temperature of silicon.

Ans: -175 to 350°C

 Highly sensitive material

Ans: Permanent magnet

 Smallest ripple voltage

Ans: Multi-section LC filter

 Highest torque

Ans: Series motors

 Motivating input in a control system which is independent with the output

Ans: Command input

 Development process of a microcrystal molten

Ans: Crystal growth

 The voltage regulator, the component used as a comparator

Ans: Op-amp

 It is not an resistance welding

Ans: Arc welding

 Atom to atom bond on surface with oxide free surface

Ans: Pressure welding

 Elimination of stray capacitance

Ans: Shielding and grounding

 2 identical shunt motor

Ans: Hopkinson

 In double’s Kelvin bridge, 1Ω to 10 uΩ

Ans: 0.05% - 0.2%

 AC voltage frequency converter from one form to another

Ans: Cyclo converter

 Skin effect seen at

Ans: High frequencies

 Indicates the address of next instruction

Ans: Program counter

 Drift current is directly proportional to mobility, diffusion is directly proportional to concentration of diffusion

Ans: Einstein relation

 dV/dt in SCR

Ans: False trigerring

 It divides an HF signal so that a low frequency counter would be able to display the operating frequency

Ans: Prescaler circuit

 Responds to the variation in incident photon

Ans: Quantum detector

 Draws less current from circuit under test

 It provides very high electrical isolation between control ckt and power ckt, has high impedance between

light source and phototransistor.

Ans: Optoisolator

 It is used to measure variations by the changing metallic resistance

Ans: Bolometer

 Most common bolometric device

Ans: Thermistor

 These are mostly used in robot than AC because it can with stand large overload.

Ans: DC motor and stepper motor

 Converting sine wave to series of pulses

Ans: Timing Marker Generator

 Current regulator alone

Ans: Regulator IC alone

 What do you call a short circuit having minimum resistance?

Ans: Dead short

 What is used in measuring wires from number 0 to number 36?

Ans: AWG

 Discharge of electricity from a conductor with a high potential

Ans: Corona

 Power transformer normally operates at ____ alternating current.

Ans: 60 or 400 Hz

 What probable effect on the human body if subjected to a current of 0 to 1 mA, 60 Hz, AC or 0 to 4 mA

Ans: Perception

 What probable effect on the human body if subjected to a current of 1 to 4mA, 60 Hz, AC or 4 to 15 mA


Ans: Surprise

 What probable effect on the human body if subjected to a current of 4 to 21 mA, 60 Hz, AC or 15 to 80

mA DC?

Ans: Reflex action

 What probable effect on the human body if subjected to a current of 21 to 40 mA, 60 Hz, AC or 80 to 160

mA DC?

Ans: Muscular Inhibition

 What probable effect on the human body if subjected to a current of 40 to 100 mA, 60 Hz, AC or 160 to

300 mA DC?

Ans: Respiratory failure

 What probable effect on the human body if subjected to a current of over 100 mA, 60 Hz, AC or 300 mA


Ans: Fatal

 What is the effect of hydrogen surrounding the anode of a cell which increases the internal resistance of

the cell?

Ans: Polarization

 What is the anode of a lead –acid cell?

Ans: Lead peroxide

 What is the cathode of a lead acid cell?

Ans: Sponge lead

 What is the anode of a NiCad Cell ?

Ans: Hydroxide

 What is the anode of a silver zinc cell?

Ans: Silver oxide

 What is the cathode of a silver zinc cell ?

Ans: Zinc

 What is the production of the hydrogen gas caused by a portion of the charge current breaking down the

water in the electrolyte?

Ans: Gassing

 What is the shelf life of lithium organic cell and lithium inorganic cell?

Ans: 20 years

 In what charge is the charging rate determined by the battery voltage rather than a definite current value?

Ans: Floating charge

 What charge is used to keep a battery at full charge while the battery is idle or light duty?

Ans: Floating charge

 Floating charge is sometimes referred to as ___ and is accomplished with low current.

Ans: Trickle charge

 What is used when a battery must be recharged in the shortest possible time?

Ans: Fast charge

 Electrical safety precatutions must be observed. A fatal shock can occur from ___ ampere of current.

Ans: 0.1

 Voltages as low as ___ volts have been recorded as causing sufficient current to be fatal.

Ans: 30
 What type of extinguishers are used to extinguish electrical fires?

Ans: CO2

 Under favorable conditions, the body resistance may be as low as ___ ohms

Ans: 300

 The body resistance is possibly as low as ___ from temple to temple if the skin is broken.

Ans: 100

 In a voltage divider, bleeder current is usually determined by the ___ percent rule of thumb.

Ans: 10

 A theory of magnetism based upon the electron-spin principle.

Ans: Domain Theory.

 What action results in the increase in current that generates more heat and the cycle repeats itself until

the diode draws excessive current?

Ans: Thermal runaway

 What is the faithful reproduction of a signal in an amplifier?

Ans: Fidelity

 What dc generators are designed to act as high gain amplifier?

Ans: Amplidynes

 What is the range of the dc resistance of most motor armatures?

Ans: 0.05 to 0.5 ohms

 What is usually the lamination thickness of the armature core of a small generator?

Ans: 1/64 inches

 Mechanical rotation of frequency is measured using a device called___.

Ans: Tachometer
 The rotation of frequency of recording devices and teletypewriter motors can be measured by the use of


Ans: Stroboscope.

 What is an instrument that allows you to view rotating or reciprocating objects intermittently and produces

the optical effect of a slowing down or stopping motion?

Ans: Stroboscope

 What is an electronic flash device in which the flash duration is very short, a few millionths of a second

and can measure very rapid motion?

Ans: Strobotac

 What is a combination of watch and revolution counter?

Ans: Chronometric tachometer

 What type of bolometer is characterized as an increase in resistance as the dissipated power rises?

Ans: Barreter

 What type of bolometer is characterized by decrease in resistance as the power increases?

Ans: Thermistor

 What instrument is used for measuring radio frequency (rf) power?

Ans: Thermocouple ammeter

 Which of the following robots is used for machining processes?

Ans: Cincinatti T3

 Kuka spot welding has ___ degrees of freedom.

Ans: 6

 Exx1x

Ans: All positions

 Exx2x

Ans: horizontal positions

 Magnetic audio tape

Ans: Parallel

 Magnetic video tape

Ans: Diagonal

 Thickness of magnetic audio tape

Ans: 1 mil

 A sawtooth wave has a ____ added to become trapezoidal wave.

Ans: resistor

 Absent of current welding

Ans: cool sub-interval

 1.5 H

Ans: Air pot core

 Who coined the term robotics?

Ans: Isaac Asimov

 Oldest welding

Ans: Forge welding

 Klystron

Ans: High achievable power output

 Inert gas

Ans: MIG
 Active gas

Ans: MAG

 Antrophomorphic robot is

Ans: more maneuverable

 It is also known as metal inert gas.

Ans: Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

 Robot with facial expression

Ans: Kismet

 Toy dinosaur robot

Ans: Pleo

 Snap acting switch

Ans: Microswitch

 Approach in which introduce factory automation technology

Ans: Islands of automation

 Degree of automatic.

Ans: Level of automation

 Orange, blue and gray diode

Ans: IN368

 It is the welding electrode comes forward and engage the metal pressing against the surface.

Ans: squeeze interval

 It is the welding in which the welding transformer energized and the current flows and create a weld.

Ans: weld interval

 It is the weld interval that is finished

Ans: hold interval

 Welding electrode is retracted

Ans: release interval

 A time after release interval to the next start sequence.

Ans: Standby interval.

 It is a closed loop feedback control system in which one or more of the system signals represent

mechanical motion.

Ans: Servomechanism.

 Exx3x

Ans: Flat

 E60xx has a tensile strength of ___

Ans: 60,000 psi

 With AC or DC similar to E6010

Ans: E6011

 Major power supply of MIG


 Medium penetration

Ans: E6013

 Can be prevented by arc welding

Ans: Arc flow

 Faying surfaces in one spot

Ans: Resistance spot welding

 Faying surfaces

Ans: Resistance seam welding

 Resistance of the work

Ans: Resistance welding

 Mass of 60-lb IR robot

Ans: 60 kg

 Deep penetration

Ans: Submerged arc

 Deep penetration

Ans: DC reverse

 Medium penetration

Ans: DC straight

 Fast welding

Ans: Flash welding

 10,000 to 50,000 Hz welding

Ans: High frequency welding

 Image resolution

Ans: Dot pitch

 Voltage of dry electrolytic capacitor

Ans: 500 V

 Apply electrostatic voltage in plastic

Ans: Electroactive polymer

 In electrolytic positive, ___ of the total heat.

Ans: 2/3

 Prevents corona

Ans: Braid

 450°F below…

Ans: Soldering

 above 450°F joining of two metals

Ans: Brazing

 Metal active gas

Ans: CO2

 Multimeter on the lower center switch

Ans: Range switch

 Multimeter on the lower left switch

Ans: Function switch

 Aluminum D-ARsonval movement

Ans: Bobbin

 Positive lead

Ans: Red

 Negative lead

Ans: Black

 Angular momentum of robot

Ans: Yaw
 GaAs disadvantage

Ans: more expensive

 Disadvantage of Transformer to capacitive coupling

Ans: more expensive

 A motor or transducer that converts energy (electrical, hydraulic, or pneumatic) into power used to produce

motion or power.

Ans: actuator

 The ability of a robot to position its end effector at a programmed location in space.

Ans: accuracy

 Control signals that are processed by directly measuring quantities (voltages, resistances or rotation).

This can be hydraulic, electronic or pneumatic.

Ans: analog control

 A robot or machine that resembles a human.

Ans: android

 A robot with rotary joints that can move much like a person’s arm.

Ans: anthrophomorphic robot

 An interconnected set of links and powered joints comprising a manipulator that supports or moves a wrist,

hand or end effector.

Ans: arm

 The ability of a machine system to perceived anticipated or unanticipated new conditions, decide what

actions must be performed under the conditions and plan the actions accordingly. The main areas of

applications are expert systems and computer vision.

Ans: artificial intelligence

 Also known as assembly cell or assembly station. A concentrated group of equipment such as

manipulators, vision modules, parts presenters, and support tables that are dedicated to compute assembly

operations at one physical location.

Ans: assembly

 The use of any one several techniques to determine the presence or absence of features. This technique

include simple mechanical probes and vision systems.

Ans: automated inspection

 Automatically controlled operation of an apparatus, process or system by mechanical or electronic devices

that replace human observation, effort and decision.

Ans: automation

 A traveled path in space, usually referred to as a linear direction of travel in any of three dimensions.

Ans: axis

 A robot in which motions are controlled by driving each axis or degree of freedom against a mechanical

limit stop.

Ans: bang-bang robot

 A platform or structure to which a robot arm is attached; the end of a kinematic chain of arm links and

joints opposite to which grasps or processes external objects.

Ans: base

 A manufacturing unit consisting of two or more workstations or machines and the material transport

mechanisms and storage buffers that interconnect them.

Ans: cell

 A manufacturing unit consisting of two or more cells, and the material transport mechanisms and storage

buffers that interconnect them.

Ans: center
 An assembly between two closely related rigid members enabling on member to rotate in relation to the

other around a mobile axis.

Ans: complex joint

 The use of an interactive terminal workstation usually with graphics capability to automate the design of

products. It includes functions such as drafting and fit-up parts.

Ans: computer aided design (CAD)

 Working from a product design likely to exist in a CAD data base, it encompases the computer based

technologies that physically produce the product, including parts program preparation, process planning,

tool design, process analysis and parts processing by numerically controlled machines.

Ans: computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)

 A numerical control system with a dictated mini or micro computer that performs the functions of data

processing and control.

Ans: computerized numerical control (CNC)

 The unit of automatic work for a robot. Within a cycle, subelements called trajectories define lesser but

integral elements. Each trajectory is made up of points where the robot performs an operation or passes

through depending upon the programming.

Ans: cycle (program)

 The number of independent ways the end effector can move. It is defined by the number of rotational or

translational axes through which motion can be obtained.

Ans: degrees of freedom

 The joint that connects the upper arm and forearm on a robot.

Ans: elbow

 Also known as end of arm tooling or simply a hand. The subsystem that links the mechanical portion of

the robot (manipulator) to the part being handled or work on, and gives the robot the ability to pick yp and

transfer parts and/or handle a multitude of different tools to perform work on parts.

Ans: end effector

 Robots with little if any computer power. Their only intelligent functions consist of learning a sequence of

manipulative actions, choreographed by a human operator using a teach box.

Ans: first generation robot system

 Also known as nonservo robot or open robot. A robot with stoppoint control but no trajectory control.

Ans: fixed stop robot

 Multipurpose robots that are adaptable and capable of being redirected trained or used for new purposes.

Ans: flexibility operational

 An arrangement of machine tools that is capable of standing alone, interconnected by a workpiece

transport system and controlled by a central computer.

Ans: flexible manufacturing system (FMS)

 Also known as pedestal robot. A robot with its base permanently or semi-permanently attached to the floor

or bench. Such a robot is working at one location with a maximum limited work area and in many cases

servicing only one machine.

Ans: floor mounted robot

 That portion of a jointed arm which is connected to the wrist and elbow

Ans: forearm.

 An overhead mounted, rectilinear robot with a minimum of three degrees of freedom and normally not

exceeding six.

Ans: gantry robot.

 The grasping hand of a robot, which manipulates objects and tools to fulfill a given task.

Ans: gripper

 An approach used to introduce factory automation technology into manufacturing by selective application

of automation.

Ans: islands of automation.

 The degree to which a process has been made automatic. Relevant to the level of automation are

questions of automatic failure recovery, the variety of situations that will be automatically handled, and the

conditions under which manual intervention or action by human beings is required.

Ans: level of automation

 An electrical switched positioned to be switched where a motion limit occurs, thereby deactivating the

actuator that causes the motion.

Ans: limit switch

 A mechanism usually consisting of a series of segments or links, jointed or sliding to one another, for

grasping or moving objects, usually in several degrees of freedom.

Ans: manipulator

 A method for the control of machine tool systems. A program containing all the information, in symbolic

numerical form, needed for processing a workpiece is stored on a medium such as paper or magnetic tape.

Ans: numerical control

 Developing robot programs partially or completely without requiring the use of the robot itself. The program

is loaded into the robot’s controller for subsequent automatic action of the manipulator.

Ans: off-line programming

 Software that controls the execution of computer programs, may provide scheduling, allocation,

debugging data management, and other functions.

Ans: operating systems

 Also known as positioning. The consistent movement or manipulation of an object into controlled position

and altitude in space.

Ans: orientation

 The equipment used in conjunction with the robot for a complete robotic system. This includes grippers,

conveyors, parts positioners and parts or materials feeders that are needed with the robot.

Ans: peripheral equipment

 Also known as bend. The angular rotation of a moving body about an axis that is perpendicular to its

direction of motion and in the same plane as its top side.

Ans: pitch

 Also known as photoelement or photosite. A digital picture or sensor element, picture is short for picture


Ans: pixel

 The act of providing the control instructions required for a robot to perform its intended task.

Ans: programming

 The envelope of variance of the robot tool print position for repeated cycles under the same conditions. It

is obtained from the deviation between the positions and orientations reached at the end of several similar

cycles. Contrast with accuracy.

Ans: repeatability

 A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move a material, parts, tools, or specialized

devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.

Ans: robot

 The science of designing, building and applying robots.

Ans: robotics

 Also known as twist. The rotational displacement of a joint around the principal axis of its motionj,

particularly at the wrist.

Ans: roll

 A robot with a computer processes added to the robotic controller. This addition makes it possible to

perform, in real time, the calculations required to control the motions of each degree of freedom in a

cooperative manner to effect smooth motions of the end effector along predetermined paths. It also become

possible to integrate simple sensors, such as force torque, and proximity into the robot system ,providing

some degree of adaptability to the robot’s environment.

Ans: second generation robot system

 A controller that operates an application though a fixed sequence of events.

Ans: sequencer

 A robot driven by servomechanisms, that is, motors or actuators whose driving signal is a function of the

difference between a commanded position and/or rate is measured actual position and/or rate.

Ans: servocontrolled robot

 An automatic control mechanism consisting of a motor or actuator driven by a signal that is a function of

the difference between a commanded position and/or rate and measured actual position and/or rate.

Ans: servomechanism

 The manipulator arm linkage joint that is attached to the base.

Ans: shoulder

 The maximum velocity at which a manipulator joint can move; a rate imposed by saturation in the

servoloop controlling the joint.

Ans: slew rate

 The use of two or more cameras to pinpoint the location of an object in a three dimensional space.

Ans: stereo imaging

 The detection by a robot though contact of touch, force, pattern slip and movement. It allows for the

determination of local shape, orientation and feedback forces of a grasped workspace.

Ans: tactile sensing

 A robot system characterized by the incorporation of multiple computer processors, each operating

asynchronously to perform specific functions. It includes a separate low level processor for each degree of

freedom and a master computer supervising and coordinating these processors, as well as providing

higher-level functions.

Ans: third generation robot system

 The orientation of a view with a video camera, in elevation.

Ans: tilt

 A continuous position control response to continuously changing input requirements.

Ans: tracking

 A movement such that all axes remain parallel to what they were.

Ans: translation

 The acquisition, movement thorugh space, and release of an object by a robot.

Ans: transport

 The portion of a jointed arm that is connected to the shoulder.

Ans: upper arm

 Also known as the robot operating envelope. The set of points representing the maximum extent or reach

of the robot tool in a directions.

Ans: work envelope

 The envelope reached by the center of the interface between the wrist and the tool, using all available

axis motions.

Ans: workspace

 A set of joints, usually rotational, between the arm and the hand or end effector, which allow the hand or

end effector to be oriented relative to the workpiece.

Ans: wrist

 The angular displacement of a moving joint about an axis which is perpendicular to the line of motion and

the top side of the body.

Ans: yaw

 What magnet is used in computer memory circuits?

Ans: Ring magnet

 What magnet is used in some meter circuits?

Ans: Horseshoe magnet

 “If the electrons of the atom in a material spin more in one direction than in the other, the material will

become magnetized”. This refers to what theorem?

Ans: The Domain theory of Magnetism

 What theorem assumes that all magnetic materials are made up of magnetic molecules which, if lined up

in north to south pole order, will be a magnet. If not lined up, the magnetic fields about the molecules will

neutralize each other and no magnetic effect will be noted?

Ans: Weber’s theory of magnetism

 What do you call a short circuit having minimum resistance?

Ans: Dead short

 What refers to a continuation of current flow within an electrical cell when there is no external load?

Ans: Local action

 The amount of increase in the resistance of 1 ohm sample of the conductor per degree of temperature

rise above 0°C is called what?

Ans: Temperature coefficient of resistance

 What do you call the resistance to current leakage through the insulation?

Ans: Insulation resistance

 What is the common name for enamel insulated wire?

Ans: Magnet wire

 What term is general one and usually applies only to the larger sizes of conductors?

Ans: Cables

 The process of applying thin coat of solder to materials prior to their being soldered.
Ans: Tinning

 The addition of atmospheric oxygen to metal to form rust, or to cause a breakdown in the internal

construction of the metal.

Ans: Oxidation

 What refers to a continuation of current flow within an electrical cell when there is not external load?

Ans: Local action

 A continuous jacket of lead molded around a single conductor or multiple conductor cable.

Ans: Lead sheath

 What do you call the force exerted on an insulator by the voltage in a conductor?

Ans: Electrostatic stress

 The discharge of electricity from a conductor with a high potential.

Ans: Corona

 A material that removes oxides from surfaces to be joined by soldering or welding.

Ans: Flux

 A synthetic mixture of rosins that is flexible and used as an insulating material. Generally used as an

insulator for low and medium range voltages.

Ans: Thermoplastic

 The capacity of a soldering iron to generate and maintain a satisfactory soldering temperature while giving

up heat to the material being soldered.

Ans: Thermal inertia

 What is the working voltage of a dry electrolytic capacitor?

Ans: 500 V
 If arcing should occur between the plates of an oil filled capacitor, the oil will tend to reseal the hole caused

by the arcing. Such a capacitor is referred to as ____ capacitor.

Ans: self-healing

 The maximum voltage that can be steadily applied to the capacitor without the capacitor breaking down

(shorting) is called ____ of the capacitor.

Ans: working voltage

 What is meant by “local action”?

Ans: Current flow in cell with no external load.

 The left side of the pulse

Ans: Leading edge

 The right side of the pulse

Ans: Trailing edge

 What is the process by which an atoms gain or losses electrons?

Ans: Ionization

 Any group of energy levels that results from the close proximity of atoms in a solid.

Ans: Energy bands

 How many pulsations per revolution have the output voltage of an elementary single coil dc generator?

Ans: Two

 How many commutator segments are required in a two-coil generator?

Ans: Four

 What is the distortion of the main field due to the effects of armature current?

Ans: Armature reaction

 What type of prime mover requires a specially designed high speed alternator?
Ans: Steam turbine

 What type of rotor is used in slower speed alternators?

Ans: Salient pole rotor

 What type of rotor is wound in a manner to allow high-speed use without flying apart?

Ans: Turbine driven type rotor

 What term is used to denote the difference in speed between the rotor which is always somewhat less

than the speed of the rotating field?

Ans: Slip

 What mechanical device reverses armature connections in motors and generators at the proper instant

so that current continues to flow only in one direction?

Ans: Commutator

 What motor characteristic is affected by counter emf?

Ans: Speed

 How is EPROM erased?

Ans: with a burst of ultraviolet light

 Whenever data is transferred between devices, it involves the exchange of prearranged signals. What is

this process called?

Ans: Handshaking

 What test is used to check for opens (or to see if the circuit is complete or continuous) and is accomplished

with an ohmmeter?

Ans: Continuity test

 What type of circuits are caused by some conducting part of the circuit making contact either directly or

indirectly with the metallic structure of the ship or chassis?

Ans: Ground circuits

 Shunts are usually made from what alloy?

Ans: Manganin

 What property of shunt is desired because of the heavy currents that often flow through shunts producing


Ans: Zero-temperature coefficient

 In D’Arsonval meter, many turns of fine wire would be used, each turn adding more effective length to the

coil. The coil is wound on an aluminum frame called ___.

Ans: bobbin

 What is an important point to remember when you are making an accurate resistance measurement?

Ans: “Zero” the meter each time you select a new range.

 BJT better than FET

Ans: radio receiver

 Wineglass

Ans: Plasma arc welding

 … plasma

Ans: Plasma arc welding

 Slow speed

Ans: Salient pole

 High speed

Ans: Turbine driven type rotor

 Differentiation

Ans: Submerged
 Comparison solenoid

Ans: Relay fixed core

 Human arm

Ans: Serial robot

 Input display signal voltage

Ans: Vertical deflection coil

 Replacing DC motor/recently used

Ans: Piezo motor

 Rapid discharge of electrical energy

Ans: Percussion welding

 Hydrogen Electrode

Ans: E7018

 False

Ans: Air has the concentrated magnetic field

 Electron gun tube

Ans: CRT

 Electron field tube

Ans: Electron beam

 Multicavity Klystron

Ans: Variable electron speed

 Fuse

Ans: Quick break type

 Magnetic frequency increases

Ans: Power output decreases

 Cause of electrons due to the longitudinal

Ans: Magnetic field

 Along a joint

Ans: Upset welding

 Fastest memory

Ans: Flash memory

 Tungsten electrode

Ans: TIG

 Use of non-interlaced monitor

Ans: Fast graph

 CMOS disadvantage

Ans: cannot handle high power


Ans: least susceptible to noise

 E stands for

Ans: American Wire Electrode

 Exceeding 450°F

Ans: Brazing

 Not exceeding 450°F

Ans: Soldering
 Generators used

Ans: Magnetic

 Battery used as

Ans: chemical

 Responsible of pulsating DC

Ans: Commutator

 Low voltage high power

Ans: Center tapped Full Wave

 Oldest 1940 general magnetic phenomenon

Ans: Colding or cold contact

 Joints

Ans: Direct Kinematics

 End effector

Ans: Inverse Direct Kinematics

 Nothing but to memory

Ans: Flag field

 Unwanted connection

Ans: Fault connection

 Frequency synthesizer used as

Ans: Divider

 Output amplitude

Ans: Amplitude stability

 DC motor is preferred as driver in robotics because

Ans: it can withstand large overload

 Welding is not used direct source because

Ans: it is impracticable to draw heavy currents

 Atomic hydrogen is long lived because

Ans: ac is used

 RF power amplifier

Ans: Common base

 Choke

Ans: passes dc but not RF

 Multivibrator

Ans: Common emitter or common source

 Algorithm better than ZMP

Ans: Dynamic balancing

 One feet with small

Ans: Hopping

 Automatic welding

Ans: 5 intervals

 Control grid of a tube

Ans: gate of a FET

 Impedance mismatch reactance output

Ans: Transformer
 Laminated core

Ans: reduces eddy current loss

 No load loss but not electrical loss

Ans: Windage

 Manganese Dioxide Alkaline Acid

Ans: Alkaline Cell

 Draws large amount of current

Ans: Rheostat

 Increase RL

Ans: Improved Efficiency

 Single coil

Ans: Elementary generator

 3 classifications of robot

Ans: Anthrophomorphic, SCARA, and articulated

 Connects arm and end effectors

Ans: Wrist

 ____ for bones, ____ for muscle and ____for degrees of freedom.

Ans: links, actuator, and joints

 Early actuator

Ans: Elastic nanotube

 Changing of electric energy

Ans: Electroactive polymer

 Variable speed

Ans: DC generator

 Constant speed

Ans: AC generator

 More robot than worker

Ans: Japan

 Transient suppression prevents

Ans: diode failure

 Tunnel diode

Ans: Dr. Leo Esaki

 Zener Diode

Ans: Dr. Carl Zener

 Varactor diode uses

Ans: Frequency stability

 2 terminal communicate

Ans: Handshaking

 Highest fidelity

Ans: Class A

 Portion

Ans: Class AB

 FET amplifier

Ans: Class AB2

 Medium penetration

Ans: E6013

 Oxy fuel arc

Ans: Oxy fuel gas welding

 Electrical requirement of arc welding

Ans: high open circuit voltage

 Horizontal oscilloscope

Ans: Time/division

 Joining of metals

Ans: Welding

 Radio using tubes

Ans: Bulk and heavy

 The purpose of I in PIN diode

Ans: minimizes junction capacitance

 1/16 to 5/16 in in diameter

Ans: American Welding Society

 Degrees of freedom for General purpose effectors

Ans: 20

 Deep penetration welding

Ans: Submerge arc welding

 JFET except

Ans: transconductance
 Pinch off voltage

Ans: Transconductance is zero

 Formula for IC with leakage current

Ans: IC = βIB + (β+1)ICBO

 IE

Ans: IE = IC - ICBO


Ans: ICQ = βIBQ + ICEO


Ans: IEQ = ICQ + IBQ

 Increase temperature leakage current

Ans: ICBO = ICBO (T2-T1)/10

 Charge of a capacitor

Ans: Q = CV

 Charge

Ans: Q = Qo (1-e(-t/RC))

 Dependent on gap

Ans: Charge efficiency

 NRZI means

Ans: Non-return to zero invert

 Pilot cell
Ans: identifies the condition of the battery

 More likely to occur than zener breakdown because lightl doped

Ans: Avalanche breakdown

 How wire

Ans: measure dc and ac

 Dielectric constant of mica

Ans: 6

 Buck boost lossless

Ans: D = (V2)/(V1+V2)

 Buck

Ans: D = V2/V1

 Op-amp filter

Ans: Polysterene


Ans: open circuit high level

 I2L

Ans: bipolar saturated logic


Ans: Degrade data if used

 6 rectifying elements

Ans: Gratz rectifier

 Superconductivity thin film memory consisting of a superconducting inductor

Ans: Permistor

 Register and counters are the same because

Ans: they have the same array of flip flop and gates

 High Q

Ans: High selectivity

 2 principles of detector

Ans: Rectifier and filter

 Microprocessor

Ans: ALU and control unit


Ans: ALU and control unit

 Simulate

Ans: Simulator

 Servocontrolled robot

Ans: Soft stop

 Nonservo robot

Ans: Hard stop

 Lowest resistivity at 293 K

Ans: Copper

 BIG elements

Ans: Trivalent

 PAA elements

Ans: Pentavalent
 Analog preferred than digital because

Ans: of measuring signal strength

 Opposing torques

Ans: Deflecting and restoring torques

 Code that…

Ans: Absolute code

 Equal ripple

Ans: Eliptic filter

 Illuminance

Ans: Lux

 Ripple sharp cutoff

Ans: Chebyshev filter

 Adds all harmonics

Ans: Sawtooth

 Odd harmonics

Ans: Square

 All even harmonics

Ans: Push pull

 The single grid of vacuum

Ans: Control grid

 In low frequency cutoff, amplitude decreases by ___ from midrange value

Ans: 3 dB
 Change in audio range

Ans: 1 dB