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Contemporary

Teacher
Leadership
Assignment 1

Emily Hodge
17479921

Abstract
The following unit ‘Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations’ was
initially devised for delivery in a Stage 4, Year 7 class of lower ability students at Sarah
Redfern High School, NSW. This report details modification to the original unit program in
order to improve teaching and learning experiences intended for a classroom of students with
diverse learning styles and requirements. This unit has been constructed using the
Understanding by Design (UbD) process to ensure efficacious student learning and addresses
changes in developing Literacy and Numeracy skills, Critical and Creative Thinking,
Personal and Social Capabilities as well as amendments to ensure a stronger focus on Inquiry
Based Learning approaches as well as assessment style alterations in alignment with the
UbD framework.

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Table of Contents
Executive Summary…………………………………………………………………………………….…..3
Objective and Context……………………………………………………………………………...…...3
Goals…………………………………………………………………………………………….….…..5
Recommendations………………………………………………………………………………..….….5
Comparative Table……………………………………………………………………………………….…6
Unit Reconstruction………………………………………………………………………………………..10
Unit Background information……………………………………………………………………...10
Scope and Sequence………………………………………………………………………………..11
Concept Map……………………………………………………………………………………….12
Assessment Task………………………………………………………………………..………….13
Assessment Marking Rubric……………………….………………………………………………14
Unit Outline………………………………………………………………………………………..16
Unit Recommendations…………………………………………………………………………………….45
References………………………………………………………………………………………………….47
Appendices…………………………………………………………………………………………………48

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Executive Summary
Objective and Context

This report has been prepared for the Science faculty and staff of Sarah Redfern High School located in
Minto, New South Wales. Sarah Redfern is a co-educational school which places a large emphasis on
community involvement in the educational processes. This school has a total of 608 students currently
enrolled, with a small percentage (8%) identifying as being of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander
background. Sarah Redfern is a culturally diverse environment, with a large proportion of students (63%)
having a language background other than English (LBOTE). These statistics are demonstrated in figure 1.1.
The school Index of Community Socio-Educational Advantage (ICSEA), retrieved from parent given
information, shows that a majority (53%) of parents/families fall within the bottom quarter of earned
income, with 29% falling within the lower middle quarters. This demonstrates the low socio-economic status
of the school, depicted in figure 1.2.
With reference to NAPLAN statistics retrieved from 2017 examinations, most results for reading, writing,
spelling, grammar and numeracy were below or substantially below average when compared to all
Australian Schools (figure 1.3). However, when compared to schools with similar students, year 7 showed
above average results in writing and spelling, while year 9 showed below average results for reading. All
scores for the other tested categories showed close to average results when compared to schools with similar
students, shown in figure 1.4.

Fig 1.1: Depicts the total student enrolment and the ratio of male to female students, percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander students and LBOTE students at Sarah Redfern High School.

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Fig 1.2: Graphically demonstrated the socio-economic distribution at Sarah Redfern High School.

Fig 1.3: Tabulated statistics showing the average NAPLAN results of students at Sarah Redfern High School in comparison to all
Australian Schools.

Fig 1.4: Tabulated statistics showing the average NAPLAN results of students at Sarah Redfern High School in comparison to
schools with similar students.

Reference: Statistics and tables above are retrieved from the MySchool Website. Retrieved from:
https://www.myschool.edu.au/school/41602/profile/2017
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Goals
- To incorporate a more comprehensive focus on both Literacy and Numeracy strategies throughout
the unit.
- To improve the inclusion and development of critical and creative thinking skills in the classroom.
- To develop students personal and social capabilities through the integration of inquiry-based learning
approaches with a strong focus on collaborative learning.
- To improve student learning success through the use of backward designed programming and unit
activities designed to meet learning outcomes.
- To incorporate additional assessment activities and instances in which teachers may assess the
progression of student learning.

Recommendations
- Improve Literacy and Numeracy skills in the classroom through the incorporation of a variety of
teaching strategies and scaffolding which improve skills across all curriculum units.
- Improve student critical and creative thinking skills and encourage learning reflection and peer/self-
assessment to improve critical thinking.
- Improve student personal and social capabilities, encourage collaborative work and the development
of strong leadership skills.
- Improve teacher understanding of student growth through the incorporation of a variety of assessable
tasks and the formation of a formal performance task to gain a deeper understanding of the success
of student learning.

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Comparative Table
Area of Strengths of the area Concerns of the area of Suggested Changes to Research support for the changes suggested.
consideration of consideration consideration counteract concerns
Introduces students to Limited inclusion of Include activities such as Research notes the importance of including writing tasks as studies
a variety of new writing or comprehension definition have found that more new words and terminology are introduced in
Literacy scientific activities, formal learning/research and science textbooks than you would encounter in foreign language
metalanguage and definition learning or matching activities, studies. The number of new terms in a science textbook equate to
uses them in the formal spelling learning simple spelling quizzes, nearly that which a student would be expected to master over the
context of practical activities to deeply writing activities. whole grade. Therefore an emphasis on understanding vocabulary in
experiments to aid in understand these terms. the science classroom is importance for student understanding
students
understanding. Yager, R. (1983). The importance of terminology in teaching K-12
science. Journal Of Research In Science Teaching, 20(6), 577-588. doi:
10.1002/tea.3660200610
Students enhance Little emphasise placed Activities are included Several literacy strategies have been identified as aiding in student
writing skills through on developing writing to develop writing skills understanding of content while also simultaneously developing
the formation of skills or using literacy as a and aid in content reading and writing skills. these tasks allow student to better
scientific reports. means of summarising summarisation and understand the given content and develop key literacy skills that will
and articulating understanding. aid across all curriculum areas.
knowledge/understanding Summarisation, mind-
mapping, cloze passage Dew, T., & Teague, S. (2015). Using Disciplinary Literacy Strategies to
activities and ‘I think, Enhance Student Learning. Science Scope, 038(06). doi:
we think’ techniques 10.2505/4/ss15_038_06_33
are used to achieve this.
Numeracy is strongly Little emphasise on Scaffolding for students Studies have shown that a significant downfall for students is their
included in this interpreting graphs, focus regarding the correct ability to interpret and read graphical representations. Understanding
Numeracy program with inclusion is mostly placed on procedures involved in in science is heavily reliant on a students ability to confidently
of several graphing constructing graphs. No constructing a graph as understand and interpret mathematical concepts.
tasks. inclusion of activities to well as additional tasks
aid in student surrounding how to Lenton, G., & Stevens, B. (2005). Numeracy in Science. Issues in
understanding of the interpret graphs Science Teaching, 80-85
correct way to construct a correctly, and
graph. constructing graphs.

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Effective Minimal inclusion of such Modifications have Students also showed difficulties in performing equation-based
implementation of tasks involving been made to include a calculations with provided data. Many scientific concepts, such as
calculation tasks such calculations or greater emphasis on energy efficiency, reply heavily on applying mathematical principles. It
as calculations from given calculations, calculating is importance that teachers are aware of these difficulties so that a
Energy efficiency data sets. averages and stronger emphasise can be placed on them in class.
calculation. differences and
performing calculations Lenton, G., & Stevens, B. (2005). Numeracy in Science. Issues in
from given data sets. Science Teaching, 80-85

Incorporates the use Limited use of such Use this activity at the Mind-mapping is an important tool for critical and creative thinking as
Critical and of mind-mapping activities. Students do not beginning of the unit to it allows the use of graphical representation, vocabulary and colour. It
Creative activities to link expand on this mind-map determine the students allows for learners to organise and summarise their ideas in a logical
Thinking concepts together in a as their understanding current understanding and easy to understand manner. It is also seen to aid in understanding
graphical format. This grows. Used solely as a surrounding the unit and information retention.
aids students in diagnostic tool to topic. Frequently
connecting their determine their current engage in activities He, F., Miao, X., Wu, B., & Yao, S. (2014). Using Mind Map as Learning
understanding with understanding. requiring them to Tool in 'Data Structure' Teaching. 2014 IEEE International Conference
other concepts. modify, change, add On Computer And Information Technology. doi: 10.1109/cit.2014.34
new links, new words or
make changes to their
mind-map to reflect
how their
understanding has
changed.
Tasks such as the Minimal inclusion of such Include more activities Studies have concluded that a creative classroom is one in which
designing a brochure creative thinking tasks. that enhance student teachers focus on presenting students with activities tailored to their
task at the conclusion Creative tasks are limited creative thinking. interests and may involve cooperative learning groups, the inclusion of
of the unit outline to the creation of Inclusion of Think-Pair- artistic and hands on creative tasks, flexible direction for students and
allow for the artefacts or teacher Share activities, Town brainstorming activities. Experts perceive a creative classroom to not
developing of creative directed experiments. Circle activities, only involve strategies such as these but also place a strong emphasis
thinking. Classroom discussions, on teacher attitude and classroom climate. Something that is agreed
collaboration. on by teachers, students and experts, is that tailoring a classroom to a
Creative thinking can students interests fosters a creative environment in which students
also be achieved learn to think out of the box.
through the
implementation of

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inquiry, cooperative de Souza Fleith, D. (2000). Teacher and student perceptions of
groups, arts, flexible creativity in the classroom environment. Roeper Review, 22(3), 148-
direction, 153. doi: 10.1080/02783190009554022
brainstorming, hands on
activities such as
drawing.

Student group work Limited use of group work Alter learning activities Collaboration is an important aspect of learning and aids students in
Personal and and collaboration is or collaboration to further to include more learning to communicate with one another. Social interactions also
Social present within the unit social capabilities. collaborative group allow students to link existing knowledge with new knowledge and
Capabilities and allows students tasks in which students ideas. It also allows students to learn to resolve differences with one
the opportunity to are required to work another through discussion and reaching mutual understanding.
engage with others to together to achieve an
expand their outcome and solve DeWitt, D., Alias, N., & Siraj, S. (2014). The design and development of
understanding. differences of opinion. a Collaborative mLearning prototype for Malaysian secondary school
science. Educational Technology Research And Development, 62(4),
461-480. doi: 10.1007/s11423-014-9340-y
Students experience Students are not given Alter learning activities Research shows that the development of strong positive leadership
leadership roles the opportunity to be to include more skills can be achieved through the implementation of problem based
through problem leaders within their opportunities for learning tasks and student mentoring. Common traits attributed to the
based and inquiry groups or classroom and students to develop nurturing of leadership skills include communication, relationship skills
learning. thus do not get to fulfil a leadership roles within and positive attitude.
major aspect of the classroom. Students
developing personal and are given the Chopra, G. (2014). Developing positive attitude and leadership skills in
social capabilities. opportunity to be the students.Global Journal of Research in Management, 4(2), 35-50.
‘leader’ of their group in Retrieved from https://search-proquest-
which they facilitate com.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/docview/1846000287?accountid=36155
discussion and group
tasks.
Assessment is present In a UbD approach, Incorporate a series of There are two important facets of assessment in a UbD appracoh. A
within the unit and, as assessment is backward formal (performance performance task in which students are asked to apply their learned
Understanding an examination, will designed. Assessments task) and informal knowledge to new situations and produce something to assess their
by Design effectively determine should be planned first assessments over the transfer of knowledge. The second aspect is ‘other evidence’ which
the students with overall goals in mind. course of the unit, that can include quizzes, tests, informal observations and acquired work
knowledge of the unit By using a final can be used collectively samples. These forms are to aid in assessing a students capabilities
summative assessment as with a final and understanding.

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in a summative the only form of performance
manner. assessment, it is possible assessment task to Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2011). The Understanding by Design guide
that content and determine if the unit to creating high-quality units. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
important goals are not goals and outcomes
being assessed or have been met by the
‘slipping through the students.
cracks’.
Inquiry based research Students are taught this Alter class activities to Inquiry based learning fosters the development of critical thinking
task towards the information mostly focus on inquiry-based skills and allows students to create meaning for themselves through
conclusion of the unit through direct instruction approaches in which inference making and research. Inquiry based learning approaches aid
provides students with or teacher directed students are given the in creating an educational environment in which meaning making is a
the opportunity to experimentation. A UbD means of designing critical outcome of the learning process.
research the uses of approach requires their own experiments
energy efficient students to make and obtaining results Inquiry-based learning for science, technology, engineering, and math
technology and apply inferences and draw from their own inquiry (stem) programs : A conceptual and practical resource for educators.
it to a familiar context. conclusions from or student led research (2015). Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com
themselves. Students are tasks.
required to understand by
actively constructing
meaning and applying
learnt information
through an inquiry based
approach to learning.

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Background information of unit
This unit in its original format was delivered to Year 7 (Stage 4) students in 2018 Term 2 in a low ability
class, undertaking the junior science curriculum and who are impacted by the aforementioned statistics.
Several of these students also have diagnosed learning and behavioural disabilities. However, this unit was
also intended for delivery across all year 7 (Stage 4) science classes, with students ranging in ability from
GAT to students with additional learning needs. A significant number of students undertaking this unit are
also of a language background other than English. Prior to this unit, in Term 1 of 2018, students undertook
curriculum content involving Living World standards. No Scope and Sequence or Concept map were
obtained alongside this unit, and therefore we cannot know the progression of knowledge and capabilities up
until this point in the curriculum. For the purpose of this reconstruction, the Scope and Sequence and
Concept map have been created based on NESA templates and offer an approximate review of knowledge
progression for Stage 4.

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Science Stage 4 Scope and Sequence

Year 7 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10
Term 1 Classification, Survival and Reproduction
10 Weeks Outcomes: SC4-14LW, SC4-6WS, SC4-9WS
Term 2 Energy Conservation
10 Weeks Outcomes: SC4-11PW, SC4-4WS, SC4-5WS, SC4-6WS, SC4-7WS, SC4-8WS, SC4-9WS
Term 3 Matter, Particles, Mixtures and Solutions
10 Weeks Outcomes: SC4 – 16CW, SC4 – 17CW, SC4-4WS, SC4-5WS, SC4-6WS. SC4-7WS, SC4-8WS, SC4-9WS
Term 4 Our Earth and Space
10 Weeks Outcomes: SC4-12ES, SC4-6WS, SC4-8WS, SC4-9WS

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10
Year 8

Term 1 Living Science


10 Weeks SC4-14LW, SC4-15LW, SC4-6WS, SC4-9WS
Term 2 Forces
10 Weeks Outcomes: SC4-10PW, SC4-4WS, SC4-5WS, SC4-6WS, SC4-7WS, SC4-8WS, SC4-9WS
Term 3 Matter, Particles, Mixtures and Solutions
10 Weeks Outcomes: SC4 – 16CW, SC4 – 17CW, SC4-4WS, SC4-5WS, SC4-6WS, SC4-7WS, SC4-8WS, SC4-9WS
Term 4 Studying our Earth
10 Weeks Outcomes: SC4-12ES, SC4-13ES, SC4-6WS, SC4-7WS, SC4-8WS, SC4-9WS

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Concept Map

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SCIENCE STAGE 4 ASSESSMENT TASK 1 NOTIFICATION

Task Title: Designing an Informative Website/Poster


Nature of Task: Group Collaborative Task
Content/ Module: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and
Conservations
Weighting: 40%
Date Notification Issued: 18/4/19
Date Assessment Task 2 will be due: 20/5/19; Week 4, Term 2 2019

Task Description:
Your task is to design an informative website using the program ‘Weebly’ OR create an educational poster in a group of 3-4
students. You are a scientist studying energy efficiency technology and its implementation in modern housing. You need to
convince and educate the public of the importance of energy efficiency and how it impacts their lives. You will create an
informative website or poster which could be published/displayed in order to achieve this goal. This assignment has 3 key
components which students are required to fulfil.

1: Describe what energy is and why it is important in our daily lives. This should include the different types of energy and energy
transfer mechanisms in relation to the functioning of your home. Include in your description the importance of conductors and
insulators.

2: Include an experiment that you have conducted in class on energy transformations or energy transfers. Include photos (if
producing a poster) or video (if producing a website) of your group conducting the experiment. This section should include the
Aim, Materials, Method, Diagram, Results and Conclusion section. Also include Risks and hazards assessment. Relate this to
section 1.

3: Describe Energy Efficiency and why it is important. Design an Energy Efficient House: Draw or use sketch up software to
design an energy efficient house (remember to label). Include a justification of design choice including benefits and
disadvantages of your design choices (300 words).
Things to consider:
• Shape and location of house
• Insulation – controlling heat loss, maximising heat retention
• Appliances
• Reducing energy consumption
• Fossil fuels vs Green energy

Include any references on a separate page or on the back of your poster. References should be reliable and valid (not
Wikipedia). The link to your website is to be emailed to your class teacher by the due date mentioned above. Only 1 student
is required to email this link however please include the full names of all group participants.

Stage 4 Science Outcomes Assessed


Working Scientifically
• follows a sequence of instructions to safely undertake a range of investigation types, collaboratively and individually
SC4-6WS
• presents science ideas, findings and information to a given audience using appropriate scientific language, text types
and representations SC4-9WS
Curriculum
• SC4-11PW: Discuss how scientific understanding and technological developments have contributed to finding solutions
to problems involving energy transfers and transformations.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Student to complete and glue into books: ASSESSMENT TASK 1 NOTIFICATION


TASK TITLE: Designing an Informative Website/Poster WEIGHTING: 40%
DUE DATE: 20/5/19
Student Name: Date Submitted: / /
Teacher Name: Emily Hodge
Student Signature: I agree that all works submitted are original and my own _______________ Date: / /

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MARKING RUBRIC ASSESSMENT 1
Student Name:__________________ Final Mark _____/ 40%
Criteria Outstanding High Sound Limited Basic Not Attempted
Describe the function Demonstrates extensive Demonstrates thorough Demonstrates sound Limited description of Minimal description of No description of the
and purpose of energy knowledge of the knowledge of the knowledge of the the function of energy the function of energy function of energy with
including a description functions of energy, function of energy function of energy and with reference to the with little or no reference no reference to any
of the various types of detailed description of including a description lists or otherwise makes role energy and a to the role energy or named transfer
energy and energy its purpose in the of its purpose in a home; reference to several named transfer energy transfer mechanisms in the home.
transfer/conversion home, including including various named relevant energy transfer mechanism play in the mechanism play in the
mechanisms in the various named energy energy transfer mechanisms in the home. home.
home. transfer mechanisms mechanisms that can be modern home.
that can be observed. observed.

/5 5 MARKS 4 MARKS 3 MARKS 2 MARKS 1 MARK 0 MARKS


Experiment is written Demonstrates extensive Demonstrates significant Demonstrates a general Demonstrates a limited Demonstrates a basic Provides no attempt at
in the correct format understanding of the knowledge of the correct understanding of the understanding of the understanding of the including an experiment
for a scientific report correct format of a format of a scientific correct format of a correct format of a correct format of a conducted during class.
and is related to the scientific report, uses report, mostly uses scientific report, mostly scientific report, scientific report. Attempts Provides no associated
function and purpose of scientific language scientific language uses scientific language limited use of correct to use scientific language scientific report or
energy. Including the correctly and includes correctly and includes correctly and includes scientific language, correctly and includes attempt to include any of
listed elements. all of the listed aspects all of the listed aspects most of the listed including several of the some of the listed aspects the listed aspects.
in detail. in detail. aspects in detail. listed aspects.

/5 5 MARKS 4 MARKS 3 MARKS 2 MARKS 1 MARK 0 MARKS


Risk Assessment of the Extensively evaluates Provides significant Provides a general Provides limited Provides a basic No risk assessment
chosen experiment has the risks and hazards evaluation of the risks evaluation of the risks evaluation of the risks evaluation of the risks provided based on the
been performed and involved in conducting and hazards involved in and hazards involved in and hazards involved in and hazards involved in experiment performed.
including in a table the chosen experiment. conducting the chosen conducting the chosen conducting the chosen conducting the chosen
format detailing the Includes a detailed and experiment. Includes a experiment and experiment. Includes experiment. Includes
described aspects. logical table containing detailed and logical table includes several of the some of the described some of the listed
all of the listed containing most of the described aspects. aspects. elements.
elements. listed elements.

/5 5 MARKS 4 MARKS 3 MARKS 2 MARKS 1 MARK 0 MARKS


Description of Energy Demonstrates deep Demonstrates thorough Demonstrates a general Demonstrates a limited Demonstrates a basic No description or
efficiency and why this understanding of the understanding of the understanding of the understanding of the understanding of the term understanding of the
is important in a term ‘energy term ‘energy efficiency’ term ‘energy efficiency’ term ‘energy efficiency’ ‘energy efficiency’ but term ‘energy efficiency’
modern home. efficiency’ and and describes some and lists some instances and lists some instances provides no justification and provides no
succinctly describes the instances or reasons for or reasons for energy or reasons for energy as to its importance in the information on the
importance of energy energy efficiency in the efficiency in the home efficiency in the home. home. importance of energy
efficiency in the home. home efficiency in the home.

/5 5 MARKS 4 MARKS 3 MARKS 2 MARKS 1 MARK 0 MARKS

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Design an energy Demonstrates a deep Demonstrates a Demonstrates a Demonstrates a limited Demonstrates a basic Provides no attempt to
efficient house with understanding of the significant thorough understanding understanding of the understanding of the design and energy
descriptions of several importance of energy understanding of the of the importance of importance of energy importance of energy efficient house or
features impacting its efficiency in relation to importance of energy energy efficiency and efficiency and related efficiency and related this describe any features of
energy efficiency. house design through efficiency and related related this to their this to their design to their design creation of a modern home that
the creation of an this to their design design creation of an creation of an energy an energy efficient house. could impact on
energy efficient house creation of an energy energy efficient house. efficient house. The diagram/design is efficiency.
design. efficient house. The diagram/design is The diagram/design is incorrectly or not
The diagram/design is The diagram/design is mostly correctly labelled with some labelled. Includes limited
correctly labelled with correctly labelled with labelled with detailed errors. Includes limited descriptions of some
detailed descriptions of detailed descriptions of descriptions of 3-4 descriptions of 2-3 named aspects that
5 aspects that impacts 4-5 aspects that impacts aspects that impacts the aspects that impacts the impacts the houses energy
the houses energy the houses energy houses energy houses energy efficiency rating.
efficiency rating. efficiency rating. efficiency rating. efficiency rating.

/10 10 MARKS 8 MARKS 6 MARKS 4 MARKS 2 MARKS 0 MARKS


Justification and Provides an extensive Provides a detailed Provides a thorough Provides a limited Provides a basic Provides no justification
detailed description of justification and justification and justification and justification and justification or based on design choices
house design choices, detailed description of description of design description of design description of design description of design with no reference to
including the benefits design choices choices demonstrated in choices demonstrated in choices demonstrated in choices demonstrated in benefits or disadvantages
of these choices and demonstrated in the the previous section. the previous section. the previous section. the previous section. of choices in the home.
any potential previous section. Provides a list of several Provides a list of some Provides a list of some Provides a brief overview
disadvantages. Provides a perceived benefits perceived benefits or perceived benefits or of some perceived
comprehensive and/or disadvantages disadvantages disadvantages benefits or disadvantages
description of all associates with the associates with the associates with the associates with the design
perceived benefits design choices. design choices. design choices. choices.
and/or disadvantages
associates with the
design choices.

/10 10 MARKS 8 MARKS 6 MARKS 4 MARKS 2 MARKS 0 MARKS

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Unit Outline
Modification Colour Key
Literacy Amendments
Numeracy Amendments
Personal and Social Capabilities Amendments
Critical and Creative Thinking Amendments
Understanding by Design; Inquiry Based Learning Amendments
Assessment Amendments

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Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

When objects stop moving, they no longer have kinetic energy. But the energy is not lost. Instead, it is converted (transformed) into another type of energy or passed on
(transferred) to another object. The Law of Conservation of Energy tells us that the amount of energy in a system is always the same. Energy is never lost and energy is never
created.
Concept
Sometimes it is difficult to track where the energy goes. For example, most of the kinetic energy when you clap your hands is transferred to air as sound, but you might also notice
and Rationale that your hands get warm. This demonstrates that some of the original energy is transformed to heat. Another example is fireworks. Fireworks are noisy, colourful and bright. They
contain a fuel that explodes when ignited, creating a loud explosion. Powdered metals are included in the mixture of explosives to produce the brightly coloured sparks we see.
Energy transformations take place when fireworks explode, producing sound and light.
What is energy?
How does energy impact our daily lives?
Why is Energy Important?
What is energy efficiency?
How can we measure energy?
Essential Question

Half – Yearly Exam


Performance task
Informal assessments regarding spelling quizzes, mind-
maps, PowerPoint tasks, formal quizzes.
Assessment

Outcomes SC4-11PW: discusses how scientific understanding and technological developments have contributed to finding solutions to problems involving energy transfers
and transformations
The outcomes that will be SC4-4WS: Questioning and Predicting
reported on for this topic SC4-5WS: Planning Investigation
and assessed in the SC4-6WS: Conducting Investigation
assessment task. Does not SC4-7WS: Processing & Analysing data & information
preclude teachers from SC4-8WS: Problem Solving
applying other outcomes SC4-9WS: Communicating
to class tasks.
Resource List
Teachers to select resources according to KLA in order to cater for Stage 4 Syllabus.
Books Software Online Equipment Human Resources
Longman Science 1 Core Science eBook Scienceedge.com.au Trampoline (from PDHPE)
Hieneman Interactive 1 Google Sketch up Jacplus.com.au Bunsen Burner
Science Edge 1 Weebly Data logger
About Science 1 Office Laboratory equipment
Core Science Stage 4

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Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

1R Connect Creating an experience

Syllabus Points 4MAT Learning Experiences Evidence of Learning Reg/Date


Critical Thinking Task:
Prior to commencing this unit, provide students with a large square of butchers paper and some markers.
As a table group as students to create a mind-map based on the word ‘Energy’. Ask students to consider
the meaning of this word, the different types of energy, how energy is used and some examples. Collect
these mind-maps for students to revisit at a later time.

SC4-6WS: Conducting Introduction: Lesson 1 - Safe handling of Bunsen Burner


Investigation Students learn to use the Bunsen burner safely and follow a sequence of Students successfully follows
instructions to safely undertake a range of investigation types. a sequence of instructions
Safely
Students successfully construct
a labelled diagram of the
Bunsen burner using the given
Personal and Social Capabilities: materials.
Collaborative learning Activity: Assessment of prior knowledge
- In small groups, students are given laminated pictures of the different pieces of a Bunsen burner.
In addition, they are given small cards with the name of each piece (i.e. Barrel, Collar, Air Holes, Gas Intake,
Gas Valve, Base, Inner Cone, Outer Cone). The cards and pictures are shuffled on the desk and students are
asked to work as a group to reconstruct the diagram of the Bunsen burner and label it correctly.

Activity 1.1: The Bunsen-burner flame


- To be conducted in small groups
AIM: To determine which Bunsen-burner flame is hotter
Equipment: Bunsen burner, heatproof mat, matches, tongs, pieces of porcelain, safety glasses, clock or
watch
Method: Light the Bunsen burner according to a guide to using the Bunsen burner; Open the air hole;
Using the tongs, hold a piece of porcelain over the flame with the air hole open; Record how long it takes
for the porcelain to turn red-hot; Let the porcelain cool on the heatproof mat; Close the air hole; Hold
the porcelain in the yellow flame for a few minutes until it becomes red hot
Numeracy Task:
Introduction to graphing based on given data sets. Students are introduced to the basic concept of
graphing that they will be exposed to throughout this unit.
Students are to record these results in the form of a table (example below):
- As an additional numeracy task, students may be asked to use these results and plot graphical
representation of their results (bar graph).
Minutes until porcelain Hole Open Hole Closed
become red hot
1 0.00 0.00

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2 0.00 0.00

Activity 1.2: The hottest part of the flame


- To be conducted in small groups
AIM: To determine the hottest part of a blue flame
Equipment: Bunsen burner, heatproof mat, matches, image, safety glasses, nichrome wire, tongs, pin
Part A:
Use a pin to hang an unburnt match over the barrel of a Bunsen burner.
Light the Bunsen burner according to the guide above.
Turn the collar to produce a blue flame.
Turn the Bunsen burner off and remove the match and pin with tongs.
Part B:
Re-light the Bunsen burner and turn the collar to produce a blue flame again.
Use the tongs to hold the wire across the flame, close to the barrel of the Bunsen burner and observe the
wire. Move the wire up a little and continue observing.

Literacy Task:
Students are to write a short paragraph detailing how they undertook the practical and what results they
obtained.
During class discussions, one student acts as the chair and leads the group in discussions. As a group,
students are asked to discuss and propose a conclusion using their obtained results and write this
conclusion in their books.

Class discussion:
- What did each group find?
- What can we conclude from these results?
Students record their findings in
a table which they will use post-
practical as a basis for group
discussion.

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Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

Lesson 2: To create an experiment to students on the concept on Transformation.

Activity 2.1: Popping corn


Observation of students
To be conducted in small groups – this task is to be undertaken as an assessment of prior knowledge and conducting the practical.
an introduction to the topic of energy conversions. Students conduct practical
Students are asked to write up the given practical into their workbooks, clearly outlining the Aim, Materials correctly and achieve logical
method and results. intro to report writing and scaffolding may be required. results.
AIM: To investigate the transformation of energy
Equipment: saucepan with lid Bunsen burner, vegetable oil matches, popping corn heatproof mat
Method:
1. Pour a little cooking oil in the saucepan.
2. Pour enough popping corn into the saucepan to cover the base and place the lid securely on top.
3. Light the Bunsen burner and heat the saucepan in a blue flame, making sure the flame is spread
evenly over the base of the saucepan.
4. Heat the corn until the popping stops.
5. Turn off the Bunsen burner, put the saucepan on the heatproof mat to cool and take the lid off
the saucepan to observe any changes.
6. Record your observations.
Creative Thinking Task:
7. Students are asked to draw a diagram of their experimental set up and what reaction occurred. This can
be done by hand or through sketching software. Students are then asked to consider other things that
have similar reactions such as these and draw depictions of these reactions into their books.

Literacy Task:
Students are given key words surrounding energy transfers and reactions (i.e exothermic, endothermic, Teacher is to collect these as
Reaction, heat, energy, kinetic). Students are asked to research the definitions of these given words evidence of learning and
And use the words to write a short sentence for each. informal assessment. Students
are able to correctly define
key words.

Activity 2.2: Energy and chemical reactions


AIM: To investigate the energy changes in exothermic and endothermic reactions
Equipment: dilute (0.1M) hydrochloric acid solution, test tubes, test-tube rack, 1 cm long strip of
magnesium metal, data logger and temperature probe (or glass thermometer accurate to 0.2 °C),
ammonium chloride, spatula

20
Reaction 1

Pour approximately 2 mL of dilute


hydrochloric acid solution into a
test tube in a test-tube rack.

Place the temperature probe or


thermometer into the solution and
record the initial temperature once
it reaches a steady value.

Put the strip of magnesium metal


into the acid solution and record
your observations. Swirl the
contents of the test tube and
record the maximum temperature
reached.
Reaction 2
Pour 2 mL of tap water into a clean test tube. Students are able to
Place the temperature probe into the correctly graph given
solution and record the initial numerical data.
temperature once it reaches a steady
value.
Quickly remove the temperature probe and add half a spatula of ammonium chloride.
Replace the temperature probe in the
test tube and record your observations.
Swirl the contents of the test tube and
record the minimum temperature
reached.
Record all your observations and measurements in a single suitable table.

Numeracy task:
Students are instructed to create a line graph using their results. Prior to this exercise students should be
given sample data and, as a class, should discuss how to go about constructing a graph such as this.
Students are to hand in the graphs they have constructed of their results. Use this to assess their
graphing skills/understanding and their experimental accuracy

21
Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

1L Attend Reflecting on an experience

Syllabus Points
4MAT Learning Experiences Evidence of Learning Reg/Date
Lesson 3: Reflecting on: Energy has different forms and can be transferred from one form to another
Literacy Task:
Students are given a spelling quiz using key terms involved in energy transfer. These should be a range of
simple 2-3 syllable words and harder 4-5 syllable words. These words should incorporate those that they
have used previously on their definitions research and some new words. Any common errors should be
addressed as a group in the following class.

Students should be able to


Activity 3.1: Class Discussion on Popping Corn experiment processes and analyses data
1. What type of energy did the popping corn have before heating? What type did it have during from a first-hand
heating? investigation and secondary
2. Even though you could not see the corn when the lid was on, how do you know that an energy information to identify
transformation took place? trends, patterns and
relationships, and draw
Conclusions
Activity 3.2: Class Discussion on Energy and chemical reactions

Use the students mind-map


task to informally assess
how their understanding of
1. Which reaction was exothermic and which was endothermic? How do you know? energy has altered so far.
2. Identify the energy transformation that took place in the exothermic reaction.
3. Explain why the temperature drops in an endothermic reaction.

Activity 3.3: Thinking about energy


1. In groups create a mind map around the central theme of energy. Begin by brainstorming different
types of energy. Then continue your mind map outwards to include examples of devices that use or
release each type of energy. The mind map has been started for you.
Critical Thinking Task:
As this activity was changed to the beginning of the unit, use this time to provide students with their
original mind-map and ask them to make changes, add new links or words, add examples that they
have learnt about, and expand their mind-map (using a different colour pen) to reflect their new
understanding. Collect these at the conclusion of the activity to assess student learning growth.
2. Conduct an audit of your house. Walk around the house and speak to your parents to list features
that keep your house:

22
- cool in summer
- warm in winter.

3.
If you were to renovate your house, what
features would you add to improve how
well it keeps you cool in summer and warm
in winter?
4.
You have 100 mL of water in a beaker at 20
°C and a second beaker with 100 mL of
water at 80 °C. Predict what would happen
if you combine the two samples in the
same beaker. Test your prediction by
carrying out this experiment.

5.
Draw up a table with two columns. In the
first column, list objects that give out light.
In the second column, outline how the light
is produced or identify the source of
energy.

6.
Take a look at the light globes used in your
home. Do they get hot after they have
been switched on for a while? Why might
compact fluorescent light globes be
increasing in popularity?

7.
Provide students with two photos of houses.
One house is designed for a hot climate and
the other one is designed for a cold climate.
Identify which is suited to which climate.
Compare the two houses by listing features of
each that make them suited to their Students are able to
respective climates. participate in active
Collaborative Learning: Personal and Social discussion and share
In alteration to dot point 7 in this task, use this activity to engage in a classroom discussion by placing the two ideas.
photos of houses on the board. Students may then share their ideas to the class which are then written on the
board. Alternatively, use software such as Padlet to allow for the class to collaborate and share their ideas. This
can then be brought up on the interactive whiteboard and discussed. Data obtained from the Padlet software
can be kept and recorded as an informal assessment of student learning and understanding.

23
Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

2R Image Imaging the concepts

Syllabus Points 4MAT Learning Experiences Evidence of Learning Reg/Date

PW3: Energy appears Lesson 4: Trampoline Experience


in different forms
including movement deepens the connection between the concept and its relationship to the student’s lives Students should be able to
(kinetic energy), heat identify that objects possess
and potential energy, Note: Trampoline to be borrowed from PDHPE faculty energy because of their
and causes change motion (kinetic) or because
within systems Activity 4.1: Types of energy changes involved in bouncing on a trampoline of other properties
Students to experience jumping up and down on the trampoline safely. After the activity, students (potential)
identify and discuss the types of energy changes involved in bouncing:
A. At the very top of a jump
B. As the bouncer strikes the trampoline
C. As the bouncer about to spring back up
D. As the bouncer rises
Critical Thinking:
Think, pair, share activity: students are asked to draw themselves or
their partner jumping on the trampoline. Individually students
should consider how the energy is transformed or transferred in this
scenario. With their partner students are to discuss their ideas and
understanding and afterwards share with the whole group.

24
Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

2L Inform Defining theories and concepts


3L Practice – Working on defined concepts
3R Extend – Messing around
Syllabus Points 4MAT Learning Experiences Evidence of Learning Reg/Date

PW3: Energy appears Lesson 5: Energy Transfers and Transformations:


in different forms
including movement • Watch Video: Energy in Disguise Students should be able to
(kinetic energy), heat • Discuss Energy transformation from the video define Energy, Laws of
and potential energy, • Define Energy (Energy Booklet page 334) Conservation of Energy and
and causes change • Identify Types of Energy (Energy Booklet pages 334-335) Identify forms of Energy
within systems • Calculating the amount of Energy (Energy Booklet page 336)
• Discuss The Law of Conservation of Energy (Energy Booklet pages 336-337 OR Transformation
Booklet P 170)

Activity 5.1 – Chemical Energy


Aim: To release chemical energy and change it into other forms.
Equipment: test tubes, test-tube rack, two 50 mL beakers, measuring cylinder, sodium
hydrogen carbonate (i.e. bicarb soda), hydrochloric acid (1 M), acetic acid (i.e. vinegar) (1M)
Method:
1 Place a spatula of sodium hydrogen carbonate (i.e. bicarb soda) into a test tube.
2 Place the test tube in a test-tube rack.
3 Use a measuring cylinder to measure 10 mL of the acetic acid (i.e. vinegar) in a beaker.
4 Carefully pour the acid into the test tube.
5 Observe any energy released during the reaction. There may be more than one type of energy released,
so use your senses of sight and hearing to examine the reaction carefully. Students should be able to
describe the transfer of
6 Repeat steps 1 to 5 using the hydrochloric acid. heat
energy by conduction,
Activity 5.2 - Class Discussion on Chemical Energy: convection and radiation
1 Describe the energy transformations that took place in this reaction.
2 Describe any difference in the amount of bubbles formed by each acid.
3 Identify which acid: A. released energy the fastest. Explain how you could tell; B. released the most
energy. Explain how you could tell; C. had more chemical potential energy stored in it.

25
Personal capabilities Task:
Alter this class discussion activity to a ‘town hall circle’ in which a student is ‘given the floor’ and time to
discuss their ideas before passing this on to the next student. A student leader is appointed to guide the
discussion.

26
Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

Lesson 6: Heat Energy


• Differentiate between Heat and Temperature (Transformation Booklet p176) (Energy
Booklet p340)
• Heat transfer by Conduction (Energy Booklet p341; Transformation Booklet pp177-178)
• Conductors and Insulators (Energy Booklet p341,345-346; Transformation Booklet pp177-178)
• Heat Transfer by Convection (Transformation Booklet pp179-180 OR Energy Booklet p342-344)
• Heat Transfer by Radiation (Energy Booklet pp344-345 OR Transformation Booklet p181-182)

Literacy Task:
Comprehension cloze passage task involving key words and understanding for heat transfer methods.
Including the words ‘heat’ and ‘temperature’ and their definitions.

Activity 6.1: Feeling the heat


Aim: To find out if our senses can detect temperature accurately.
Equipment: • three large beakers or tubs • hot (not Students identify the
scalding) water • ice concepts behind
Method: heat expansion
1 Fill three beakers or tubs with water—one with causing a
hot (not scalding) water, one with lukewarm water
and one with icy cold water. thermometer to
2 Place one hand in the hot water (beaker 1) and rise.
the other hand in icy-cold water (beaker 3) for one
minute.
3 Now place both hands in the lukewarm
water. Record any differences you feel.
Class Discussion:
1 State what each hand feels when placed in lukewarm water.
2 Explain what happened in terms of movement of heat to each hand.
Brainstorming activity: students are to brainstorm ways in which they could model a thermometer.
Students should consider how a thermometer works and what materials they could use to
achieve this.
Activity 6.2: Modelling Thermometer
AIM: To model a thermometer using the expansion
and contraction of a liquid
Equipment: heatproof mat, Bunsen burner and matches,
gauze mat and tripod, rubber stopper containing a glass
tube, retort stand, boss head and clamp, food colouring,
water-based marker
Method:
◗◗ Set up the equipment
◗◗ Use the retort stand and clamp to keep the flask
and glass tube steady.
27
◗◗ Use a water-based marker to mark the level
of coloured water in the glass tube. Place a mark
at 1cm intervals up the tube.
◗◗ Light the Bunsen burner.
◗◗ Observe what happens to the level of coloured water
in the glass tube while it is being heated. Record your observations.
Numeracy Task:
Students are to record time vs Cm in a table. Students are to calculate the average time it took the water to
reach 10 cm by letting the water cool and repeating the experiment 3 times. Students are to graph the
results by constructing a table of Time vs Distance travelled (cm).

Numeracy task: calculating temperature difference


A range of beakers will be set up around the classroom, students much calculate
difference in temperature between each beaker pair by observing the temperature probe.

Literacy Task: Students are given bulk information to read and decipher and are asked to

Summarise this information into key learning points.

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Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

◗◗ Turn the Bunsen burner off before the water spills out of the tube.
◗◗ Observe what happens as the water cools. Record your
observations. Class Discussion:
1 Explain how the equipment used in this experiment could be used as a thermometer.
2 Use the particle model to explain what happens to the level of water when the flask is heated and
cooled.

For all heat transfer experiments; each group is to appoint a leader which will rotate with each
experiment. This leader is in charge of facilitating the experiment and ensuring safe practices.
Activity 6.3: Conduction in metal rods
Inquiry based learning approach: as an alternative, provide students with a list of materials that they
Students should be able to
will have at their disposal and prompt a group discussion/critical thinking exercise in which students
describe the transfer of heat
decide on their method and how they will conduct the practical. Prompt students to discuss the possible
energy by conduction
results from their method prior to commencing. Students are to document their results and progress,
including photos for their assessment task.
Aim: To compare the heat conductivity of different metals.
Equipment: • three rods made of different metals (e.g. iron, copper, brass) • candle or wax drops
• tripod • Bunsen burner • bench mat • timer
Method:
1 Assemble the apparatus. Melt a piece of candle wax or place wax drops at regular intervals along each
rod. (Alternatively, use a temperature probe to monitor the temperature at the end of each rod for a
given time.)
2 Begin heating the non-waxed ends of each rod, and time how long it takes each blob of wax to melt.
3 Stop heating after five minutes, if not before.
Class Discussion:
1 What evidence is there to suggest that heat travelled along the rods?
2 Through which rod did heat travel the fastest?
3 Which rod is the poorest conductor of heat? What evidence do you have for this conclusion?
4 Why was it important to put the blobs
of wax the same distance from the
Bunsen burner?
5 List the rods in order from best to worst
conductor.
Numeracy Task:
Students are to tabulate their results and present as a graph.
Critical Thinking Task:
Students are to discuss as a group what went wrong and how
they could alter their prac method to improve their experiment.
Students should make a list of suggested improvements to share.

29
Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

Activity 6.4: Insulators


Inquiry approach lesson 1: Students are instructed that they are builders testing the effectiveness of
different insulating materials. They are to devise a method of testing insulation effectiveness and devise a
plan for what materials they plan to use when conducting the practical. They may then inform the teacher
of which materials they require so they can be brought in next lesson.
lesson 2: students undertake their practical using their devised method and materials. Students are to
write this into their books as a report. Students should document their results and progress, including
photos of their experimental setup and group preparation for potential use in their performance task.
Aim: To compare the insulating properties of different materials.
Equipment: • two soft drink cans or small metal containers • insulating
materials (e.g. cloth, cotton wool, foam, rubber, newspaper, carpet scraps,
fibreglass insulation) • thermometer or temperature probe
• hot water • measuring cylinder • timer
Method:
1 Surround one can or container with a layer of one of the insulating
materials. Leave the other can
uncovered. This can is referred to as the control.
2.Use a measuring cylinder to measure a certain amount (e.g. 100 mL) of
hot water into each can. (Note: You will need hot water of the same
temperature later in this experiment.)
3 Place a thermometer or temperature probe in the cans and record the
temperature every minute for 10 minutes.
4 Repeat steps 1 to 3 for each of the other insulating materials, making sure the hot water is at the same
temperature as that used previously.
Extension
5 Try different thicknesses (number of layers) of a particular material.
6 Repeat the experiment but, instead of using hot water, use cold water, and attempt to heat the
containers using sunlight or other suitable heating sources.
Class Discussion A:
1 Present your results in a table.
2 Construct a line graph for each container on the same set of axes. Put time along the horizontal or x-
axis. Label each graph.
3 Identify which material is the: a best insulator b worst insulator.
4 Explain why one container was left uncovered.

Class Discussion B:
1 Identify the variables that you attempted to control in this experiment.
2 Explain whether it was important for each can of water to start off at the same temperature.

30
3 Which material was the best insulator? Support your conclusion with your data.
4 The insulating material slowed the transfer of heat by two processes. Name these processes and
explain how the insulation prevented them.
5 Why was it important to include a control in this experiment?

31
Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

Activity 6.5: Modelling Convection current (using dried beans)


Inquiry based approach: students are given the following problem
“a scientist wonders studying the movement of convection currents wonders how you could observe
moving currents in air or water since both substances are clear, help her find a solution to this problem”
Students begin by brainstorming their ideas on how you could test for non-visible convection currents in a
clear fluid in small groups. Students are given paper and markers to write down their ideas. Students should be able to
Students are then allowed to conduct their experiment (provided it is safe to do so). Possible solutions describe the transfer of heat
that students may come up with to overcome this problem may include the below two experiments in energy by convection
which the teacher can provide them with potassium permanganate or beans.
Students are to write their experiment into their books, remembering to take photos/video of their
experiment for potential use in their performance task.

Aim: To observe convection currents in water.


Equipment: • large beaker (e.g. 500 mL or 1 L)
• dried beans (e.g. borlotti beans or chickpeas)
• Bunsen burner • tripod • gauze mat • bench mat
Method:
1 Assemble the apparatus as shown
2 Add enough dried beans to cover the base of the
beaker.
Most should sink to the bottom.
3 Heat the beaker and carefully observe what
happens.
Class Discussion:
1 Sketch the pattern formed by the moving beans.
2 Explain why the particles moved in the path they
did.
3 Identify where you would find similar convection currents
in the home or industry.

Activity 6.6: Modelling Convection Current (using KMnO4)


AIM: To observe the transfer of heat in a liquid by
the process of convection
Equipment: 250 mL beaker, heatproof mat, Bunsen burner
and matches, tripod and gauze mat, forceps, potassium
permanganate crystal, drinking straw Method:

◗◗ Fill the beaker with water. Place it over the


Bunsen burner as shown below.
◗◗ Carefully drop a crystal of potassium
permanganate down the straw.

32
◗◗ Slowly remove the straw, making sure not to disturb
the water.
◗◗ Light the Bunsen burner and turn it to a blue flame,
being careful not to disturb the beaker.
◗◗ Draw a diagram to show what happens as the water
is heated and the crystal begins to dissolve.
Class Discussion:

1. Explain why the chemical moved the way it did in


this experiment as it dissolved.
2. This investigation modelled heat transfer by
convection. Outline the benefits of modelling concepts
in science.
3. Are convection currents modelled accurately in this investigation? What limitations are
there to modelling this concept?

Critical Thinking Task:


As a class, students are encouraged to share how their
group overcome the problem and tested for convection
currents. Students discuss other ways in which this
could be achieved, limitations and benefits to their or
other groups methods.

33
Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

Activity 6.7: Radiation Emission .


Literacy Task: Students are given a sheet containing
the aim, materials and steps of the method jumbled
up. Students are asked to read each step, unjumble
them and stick them into their books in the correct
and logical order.
Aim: To find what colour best radiates heat energy.
Equipment: • two cans (one black and one silver or
white) • measuring cylinder or beaker
• two thermometers or temperature probes • hot
water • beaker • timer
Method:
1 Fill each can with an equal amount of hot water at
the same temperature.
2 Place a thermometer (or a temperature probe) in
each container and record the temperature every
minute for 20 minutes.
3 Record your results in a table.
Class Discussion:
1 Construct a line graph for each container on the one set of axes.
Numeracy Task:
Repeat experiment and tabulate results. calculate and average time for each can colour.
Extension Numeracy Task: students are given a graph which they are required to interpret and draw
conclusions based on the given results.
2 Identify which material is the:
a better emitter of heat
b worse emitter of heat.
3 It was important that the water in each can was at the same temperature at the start. Explain why.

Brainstorming activity: students are to brainstorm what they think the outcome of this experiment
will be. Students are to write this into their books for later reflection.
Activity 6.8: Radiation Absorption
Aim: To find what colour best absorbs radiated heat energy.
Equipment: • two thermometers or temperature
probes • black card • white card • two retort stands
with clamps • 100 W light globe • bench mat
Method: Students should be able to
1 Attach the black card to the bulb of one describe the transfer of heat
thermometer and the white card to the other, as energy by radiation
shown. (Alternatively, use a temperature probe and
study one surface at a time.) Ensure the cards are
the same size.
2 Clamp the thermometers and place them on either
side of the light globe

34
3 Measure and record the distance between the
globe and the card. Ensure the globe is placed at
an
equal distance between the two thermometers.

4 Connect the light globe to a power point and switch on.


5 Record the temperature on each thermometer in a table
6 Repeat steps 3 to 5, but with the cards placed twice the distance from the light globe.

Research Task: Introduction to Weebly


Students are to engage in creating a website in preparation for their assessment task.
Students are asked to use their experiment on radiation absorption and create and informative
website based on their experiment and results. This website should include research into
background information regarding the discovery of radiation absorption and the history of
experiments surrounding its discovery. Students should include their own experiment with
instructions on ‘how to perform it at home’. Students should email teachers the link to their
website upon conclusion.
The teacher is to provide feedback on their website information and design and any areas of
improvement.

Informal Assessment:
Students workbooks are collected at the conclusion of these heat transfer practicals to
informally assess student progress and understanding.

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Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

Class Discussion:
1 Identify which colour card absorbed radiation the best.
2 In this experiment, the light globe must not be closer to one thermometer than the other. Explain why.
3 Explain why the same-sized card should be used on each thermometer.
4 State what happened to the temperature when the cards were twice the distance away. Propose a
reason for this observation.
Literacy Task:
Spelling quiz exercise: students are given a short spelling quiz using the words and metalanguage
involved in the unit up until this point. Quizzes are collected by the teacher. Teacher should make
note of incorrect words and readdress them in class, providing feedback on the common mistakes.
Individual feedback should also be given.

Research Inquiry Task: students are asked to research how these forms of heat radiation can impact
our lives and we combat these problems using modern technological solution in things such as house
construction, cooking or air conditioning. Students are to present their research in the form of a
short PowerPoint presentation in the following lesson. This PowerPoint should also include their
knowledge of heat transfer methods as a culmination of what they have learnt. students are
encouraged to work within groups however may choose to work individually. Students hand in their
project at the conclusion for informal assessment.

Lesson 7: Electrical Energy


• Discuss Electric Circuit (Energy Booklet p348); Circuit Diagrams (Energy Booklet p351)
• Discuss Investigation 11.9 ‘Making the right connection’: For an electric circuit to do its job of
converting electrical energy to other useful forms of energy, three things are necessary –
Power supply, load and conducting path. (Energy Booklet p348)
• Discuss Current & Voltage (Energy Booklet p350) and Conductors & Insulators; Metals &
Non-metals; Transporting Electricity (Energy Booklet p350)
• Discuss: Ammeter & Voltmeter, Series & Parallel Circuit (Energy Booklet pp352-354)
• Discuss: What Affects brightness? (Energy Booklet p355)
• Discuss: Batteries and Power Supply (Energy Booklet pp355-356)

Critical Thinking: Fact or Fib Review activity


Students are given 2 post-it notes and asked to write “fact” on one and “fib” on the other. The teach will
then read a series of game/quiz questions in which students must decide as fast as possible whether it
was a fact or a fib. Students are given points and may work collaboratively or individually.

Literacy Task:
Definitions and important metalanguage: students are given a list of important words and metalanguage
and asked to research the definitions of these words prior to the commencement of this following section.
Students may also be asked to use these words in short sentences. These should be collected/recorded.
Common mistakes or misunderstandings should be addressed in the following class.

36
Literacy Task: I think, We Think
Students are given a table with two columns in which they are to write what they think individually what
making the connections and electrical energy is about, the second column is for their group thoughts on
the topic. This is to be revisited after the learning in which they answer ‘I used to think, I now think’

Activity 7.1: Making the right connection


AIM: To investigate how to create an electric circuit
NOTE: Try this investigation as an introduction of Lesson 7: Electrical Energy.
Equipment: two 1.5 V batteries, two 3 V globes, 3 wire leads, Blu-tack
Part A
◗◗ Using the equipment provided, how would you connect a battery to a single light globe so that
it glows? Try it out until you’ve got it working.
◗◗ Record your successful set-up as a labelled diagram.

Discussion:
1 What did you try that didn’t work?
2 Where does the electrical energy come from?
3 In which direction do you think the electric charges flow? Label this on your diagram.
Part B
◗◗ How would you connect two batteries to a single light globe? Try it out until you’ve got it working.
◗◗ Record your successful set-up as a labelled diagram.
Discussion
4 What effect does providing a second battery have on the light? Explain why.
Part C
◗◗ How would you connect two light globes to a single battery so that you get a:
(a) bright glow
(b) dim glow?
◗◗ Record your successful set-up as a labelled diagram.
Discussion
5 Explain your results.

37
Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

Activity 7.2: Switch on circuits


AIM: To investigate the effect of the position of the switch in an electric circuit
Equipment: 3-volt globe and holder, 1.5-volt battery, 5
connecting leads with alligator clips or banana plugs, 2
tapping switches

Part A Students should be able to


relate electricity with energy
◗◗ Connect circuit 1 as shown in Circuit
transfer in a simple circuit
1. Discussion
1 How can you stop the globe in circuit 1 from glowing?
Explain why.

Part B
◗◗ Connect circuit 2 as shown in Circuit 2.
◗◗ Close the switch.
◗◗ Open the switch and remove the globe from its
holder. Close the switch.
Discussion Students should be able to
2 Describe what happens to the globe in circuit 2 construct and draw circuits
when the switch is closed. containing a number of
3 Does the globe light up when it is removed? components to show a
Why not? transfer of electricity

Part C
◗◗ Put the globe back in its holder and add a
second switch as shown in circuit 3.
Discussion
4 Explain what happens to the light globe in
circuit 3 when:
(a) neither of the switches is closed
(b) either one of the switches is closed
(c) both of the switches are closed.
5 How could a circuit like this be useful in the
wiring at your home?
Literacy Task: students are given information on circuits and
are asked to summarise this into key points and information

38
Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

Literacy Task:
Students are given a list of key words and a list of definitions. They are asked to match the
definition to the correct word and paste these into their books.
Activity 7.3: Conductors and Insulators
Inquiry Task: in alteration to the below task, provide students with the materials to be tested. Students
may then discuss with their group and devise a way of testing whether these materials are conductors
or insulators. Teacher is to hold informal discussion with each group regarding their testing methods to
gauge their understanding.
AIM: To test whether materials are conductors or insulators
Equipment: light globe and light-globe holder, battery or other power supply (no more than 6 V),
3 connecting wires (at least 2 with alligator clips), objects to test (for example, copper sheet, paper,
plastic, coin, fabric, iron nail, glass, ice-cream stick, paperclip and aluminium foil)
Method:
◗◗ Set up the equipment as shown.
◗◗ Draw up a table like the one below.

◗◗ Place each item in turn between the alligator clips.


◗◗ Complete the table for each item as you test it.

Discussion
1 List the items that conducted electricity.
2 What is the purpose of the light globe?
3 Look at the items that are conductors of
electricity. What do they have in common?
4 (a) Is air a conductor of electricity?
(b) How can you test to see if it is?
5 Are the alligator clips conductors or insulators?
Explain your answer.

39
Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

Literacy Task: students are given a cloze passage based on key learning concepts surrounding
series and parallel circuits, students are to work individually or collaboratively to complete this
task.
Activity 7.4: Series and Parallel Circuit Students should be able to
AIM: To compare the brightness of globes in series and parallel circuits carry out first hand
Equipment: two 3-volt globes and holders, 1.5-volt battery and holder, 6 wire leads investigation on some
everyday energy
Part A: Series circuits transformations that causes
◗◗ Connect one globe and the battery together change within the system
with wire leads so that the globe lights up.
◗◗ Add a second globe in series with the
first globe as shown in the diagram below.
◗◗ Remove one globe from its holder.
Students identify the
◗◗ Replace the globe that was removed,
and then remove the other one. differences between
Discussion series and parallel
1 Draw a circuit diagram to represent the circuit circuits
that you have connected.
2 How does the brightness of the two globes
compare with the brightness of a single globe
connected to the same battery?
3 What effect does the removal of one globe
have on the other globe when the battery is connected?
4 Does it matter which globe is removed?
5 Can electric current flow in this series circuit when either globe is removed? Explain.
6 Would it be sensible to have all of the ceiling lights in your home connected in series? Give a reason for
your answer.
7 What would be the effect on the other globes if a
third globe were added in series? If a third globe is
available, test your prediction.
Part B: Parallel circuits
◗◗ Connect the two globes, battery and wire leads
as shown in the diagram below.
◗◗ Remove one globe from its holder.
◗◗ Replace the globe that was removed, and
then remove the other one.
Discussion:
8 How does the brightness of the two globes compare
with the brightness of a single globe connected to the
same battery?

40
Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

9 What effect does the removal of one globe have on the other globe?
10 Does it matter which globe is removed?
11 Can electric current flow in this parallel circuit when either globe is removed?
12 Outline whether the removal of one globe has any effect on the other globe.
13 What would be the effect on the other globes if a third globe were added in parallel? If a third
globe and enough connecting leads are available, design a circuit to test your prediction.
Assessment: Students are given a sheet of instructions. Instruction questions may involve questions
such as:
“connect a parallel circuit using two globes, one switch”
PW4: Science & “connect a series circuit using 1 globe, two switches” Students should be able to
Technology “connect a parallel circuit using an ammeter, one globe, one switch” identify the inefficiency of
contribute to finding Students are asked to undertake this in a small group (2-3) and draw their created circuit. energy conversions.
solutions to a range The teacher observes during this process and checks the groups circuit after each question. Teacher
of contemporary may also collect the sheets and diagrams for additional assessment.
issues; these
solutions may impact Lesson 8: Energy Efficiency
on other areas of • Discuss Energy Efficiency and wasted energy (Energy Booklet p35)
society and involve • Identify input energy, useful output energy and wasted energy in common
ethical household appliances on a table:
considerations • Explain how a traditional incandescent light globe works and compact fluorescent lamp works
• Calculate energy efficiency of common household appliances

Activity 8.1: Calculating Energy Efficiency


Part A:
Calculate the energy of:
a. a 65 kg bungee jumper about to jump from a height of 60 metres
b. an 800 kg car travelling 15 m/s.
Part B:
Calculate the efficiency of a blender that converts 200 J of electrical energy to 120 J of kinetic energy
and 80 J as heat per second.
Part C:
In 10 minutes, an incandescent light globe is supplied with 1000 joules of electrical energy. During that
time, the globe emits 400 joules of light energy along with 600 joules of heat energy. Calculate the
efficiency of the globe in terms of light output.
Literacy Task:
Spelling quiz activity: students are given a spelling quiz including the key words and metalanguage
from the second half of this unit outline. Spelling quiz is to be collected afterwards and assessed. Any Students are able to correctly
common mistakes should be addressed in the next class. Individual feedback should also be given.
Spell the given key words.

41
Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

4L Refine - Refining for application and relevance

Syllabus Points 4MAT Learning Experiences Evidence of Learning Reg/Date

Lesson 9: Technological Solutions to energy efficiency -


PW4: Science & Students should be able to
Technology • Design a Brochure: to advertise the Energy Efficiency of comparing Incandescent lamp, identify the inefficiency of
contribute to finding Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) and Light-emitting Diode (LED) energy conversion
solutions to a range The brochure should include a brief research on:
of contemporary o Pictures or photos
issues; these o How these different lamp works?
solutions may impact o Light output Students should be able to
on other areas of o Comparative efficiency or energy use (shown in graphs or table) research in which scientific
society and involve o Benefits or advantages or disadvantages knowledge have led to finding
ethical solution to making energy
considerations • OR Design a Brochure: to advertise the Energy Efficiency of comparing Induction Cooktop, gas conversion more efficient
stove and electric stove
The brochure should include a brief research on:
o Pictures or photos
o How these different stove works Students should be able to
o Energy or heat output / Heat loss discuss
o Comparative efficiency or energy use (shown in graphs or table)
o Benefits or advantages or disadvantages
Numeracy Task:
In their brochure, students should include numerical figures and statistics surrounding the
energy efficiency of the products they are comparing.

solutions to increase the


• Sketch-up Software or Poster Making: Designing an Energy Efficient House (Design showing efficiency of energy
percentage of heat loss in various parts of uninsulated house and making this house energy conversion
efficient)
Your Energy Efficient house should incorporate the following features:
o Warm in winter and cool in summer with minimal use of appliances for heating and
cooling
o Controlling heat loss (walls, roof, windows) should include drawing
o Takes into account the position of the sun
o Natural heating and cooling
o Reducing energy bills (gas and electric)
o Optional: conserves fossil fuels & reduces greenhouse gas emissions

42
The above task of designing and energy efficient house has been incorporated into the
performance task for this unit and is therefore not conducted in class.

Literacy Task: I used to think, I now think


Students are to revisit their ‘I think, we think’ table from earlier in the unit and answer the
questions, ‘I used to think, I now think’ to reflect on how their learning has changed over the
course of the unit.

43
Science: Transformation – a study in Energy Transfers and Conservations Year 7, Stage 4
Term 2, 2018

4R Perform - Doing it themselves and sharing with others

Syllabus Points 4MAT Learning Experiences Evidence of Learning Reg/Date

Lesson 10
Students to present their work to class.
Collaborative Learning Task:
Students are asked to work collaboratively on this project and present their brochure to the class,
accompanied by a 3-5minute speech detailing their research findings and recommendations. As a group,
students should decide on the role they wish to undertake during this assessment (design, speech writing
etc) or if they wish to each contribute to all roles. Students should be able to
discuss the implications for

society and the environment


Lesson 11 of some solutions to increase
Teacher to discuss their brochures, posters or software design and give constructive feedback and the efficiency of energy
identify areas to improve students’ outcomes conversions by reducing the

Critical Thinking Task:


Students engage in peer assessment and marking. Students are given a marking sheet with the developed
rubric criteria and are asked to fairly assess their fellow peers presentation/performance.

Assessment: teacher is to collect brochures and make notes regarding their speech. Provide feedback to
the group about their performance and any possible improvements.

Critical thinking activity: students are given their mind-maps from the beginning of the unit and are asked
to make amendments (in a different colour pen) to reflect the growth of their understanding. Teacher is
to collect these mind-maps to assess student learning growth. production of heat energy

44
Recommendations
The Understanding by Design (UbD) framework is an important tool used by teachers and program
planners during the planning of curriculum, assessment and instruction. This framework has been applied
during the evaluation of a stage 4 science unit program used at Sarah Redfern High School, with the
purpose of enhancing student learning and ensuring deep understanding. This framework revolves around
the concept of ‘backwards design’ in which teachers begin unit planning by first considering the goals and
standards they wish for students to achieve by the conclusion of the unit.
In doing so, teachers plan the assessments which students will undertake in order to effectively demonstrate
their knowledge and understanding of the essential unit concepts. An important aspect of assessment
presented in the UbD framework is the utilisation of a performance task (Wiggins & McTighe, 2011). This
aspect has been employed in the reconstruction of this unit through the implementation of a summative
performance assessment task in which students are given the opportunity to demonstrate their ability to
transfer their learning to the authentic and real-life scenario of housing design in relation to energy
efficiency. Students also draw on their practical experiment experiences during the unit to aid in their
design. This assessment requires students to reflect on their learning throughout the unit and apply their
understanding of energy, transfer/transformation mechanisms and energy efficiency. In doing this, students
consider the implications of these concepts and how it affects them in their daily lives. Various formative
assessment tasks, which are crucial in ascertaining if students are meeting their learning goals, have been
incorporated throughout the unit to aid in informing teachers of a student’s development, understanding
and growth as the unit progresses (Ruiz-Primo, 2011).
Inquiry based learning is another key aspect of UbD and requires that students are given the opportunity to
construct meaning for themselves through active inquiry, making inferences and drawing conclusions and
has been shown to be one of the most effective methods of teaching. It is an important tool in student
directed learning and is now a significant contributor to employability (Acar & Tuncdogan, 2018). Thus,
inquiry-based teaching and learning activities play a significant role in the reconstruction of this unit.
Based on the strategies outlined by Wiggins and Mctighe (2011) the implementation of various strategies
such as the use of graphical organisational tools, questioning and discussion, inquiry driven and student
directed practical experiences and research tasks, serve to ensure meaning-making and deep learning
through an inquiry approach.
The inclusion of literacy and numeracy skills have been evaluated throughout this unit and modifications
have been made to increase the prevalence of this aspect. To achieve this, literacy activities aimed at
improving comprehension such as spelling quizzes, definition learning and matching, cloze passage
activities and writing tasks have been incorporated. Research shows that the inclusion of writing tasks
allows students to summarise their thoughts to aid understanding and thought progression and greatly aids
in student content comprehension skills which also transfer to other curriculum units (Dew & Teague,
2015). Numeracy tasks have also been included and modified in this program to incorporate a strong focus
on science-based mathematics skills such as tabulation and graphing, with additional modifications to
include further scaffolding activities in which students learn how to graph or interpret data. Studies have
shown that this area is an important area of focus in addition to student difficulties in performing science
related calculations from given data (Lenton & Stevens, 2005), thus these aspects have been addressed in
the unit evaluation.
Critical thinking skills are a crucial aspect of learning and have been addressed for modification in this unit
program. The modified unit program places a strong emphasis on mind-mapping and brainstorming as it
has been ascertained through research studies that such activities allow to students to organise and
summarise their ideas in a logical and easy to understand manner and has also been seen to aid in
information retention (He, Miao, Wu & Yao, 2014). Additional activities include think-pair-share
activities, peer assessment and fostering a creative learning environment through hands-on tasks, drawing
and arts and flexible student direction which have also been seen to improve classroom climate and student
engagement (de Souza Fleith, 2000).

45
The use of collaboration is an important tool to enhance the personal and social capabilities of students.
Because of this, it is recommended that group work and collaborative tasks be a point of focus throughout
all learning programs. Collaboration allows for students to develop communication skills and to reflect and
learn from one another’s understanding (DeWitt, Alias & Siraj, 2014). The fostering of strong leadership
skills is also enhanced through problem-based learning tasks and peer mentoring (Chopra, 2014).
Additional leadership roles during practical activities have also been incorporated along with activities that
encourage personal and social skills such as class discussions and ‘town hall circle’ style sharing of ideas.
Understanding by Design places an emphasis on meaning-making through the implementation of various
teaching strategies including questioning and discussion, formative and ongoing assessment, feedback,
reflection and differentiation. These aspects have been incorporated into the modified unit plan to aid
students in acquiring meaning from their learning. Differentiation is important to ensure all students are
able to learn the content successfully and has been incorporated in the form of varying methods of
instruction to cater to a variety of learning needs, for example, some activities involve kinaesthetic or
hands-on approach, graphical representations aid visual learners, class discussion activities assist auditory
learners. Varying the ways in which students present their work, through essays, oral presentations,
physical demonstrations, or creativity is also an important differentiation tool (Westwood,2016). Teaching
for transfer is another important aspect of UbD and is thus incorporated into the program through the use of
ongoing assessment, providing students with feedback on their work and promoting self-reflection and
self/peer assessment (Wiggins & McTighe, 2011).
As no scope and sequence or concept map were obtained with the original documentation, these aspects
have been added to the modified unit outline above. These aspects are important as they allow for a full
understanding of the progression of a unit and how each unit interrelates. However, a sample NESA scope
and sequence was used to give a more inclusive picture of the progression of learning. The above
recommendations have been incorporated into the unit outline to improve a student’s capacity for academic
learning and success and to provide teachers with a means of successfully assessing a student’s growth and
learning. Should changes such as this be implemented, studies show that a student’s capacity for learning
will be greatly improved, increasing their chances of academic success.

46
References
Acar, O., & Tuncdogan, A. (2018). Using the inquiry-based learning approach to enhance student
innovativeness: a conceptual model. Teaching In Higher Education, 1-15. doi:
10.1080/13562517.2018.1516636

Chopra, G. (2014). Developing positive attitude and leadership skills in students. Global Journal of Research in
Management, 4(2), 35-50. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-
com.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/docview/1846000287?accountid=36155

de Souza Fleith, D. (2000). Teacher and student perceptions of creativity in the classroom environment. Roeper
Review, 22(3), 148-153. doi: 10.1080/02783190009554022

Dew, T., & Teague, S. (2015). Using Disciplinary Literacy Strategies to Enhance Student Learning. Science
Scope, 038(06). doi: 10.2505/4/ss15_038_06_33

DeWitt, D., Alias, N., & Siraj, S. (2014). The design and development of a Collaborative mLearning prototype
for Malaysian secondary school science. Educational Technology Research And Development, 62(4),
461-480. doi: 10.1007/s11423-014-9340-y

He, F., Miao, X., Wu, B., & Yao, S. (2014). Using Mind Map as Learning Tool in 'Data Structure'
Teaching. 2014 IEEE International Conference On Computer And Information Technology. doi:
10.1109/cit.2014.34

Lenton, G., & Stevens, B. (2005). Numeracy in Science. Issues in Science Teaching, 80-85

Ruiz-Primo, M. (2011). Informal formative assessment: The role of instructional dialogues in assessing
students’ learning. Studies In Educational Evaluation, 37(1), 15-24. doi: 10.1016/j.stueduc.2011.04.003

Westwood, P. (2016). What teachers need to know about differentiated instruction. (What Teachers Need
to Know About).

Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2011). The Understanding by Design guide to creating high-quality units.
Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Yager, R. (1983). The importance of terminology in teaching K-12 science. Journal Of Research In Science
Teaching, 20(6), 577-588. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660200610

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Appendices

Note: All original documents have been submitted via the alternate additional materials link.

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