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Rosita B. Maglie
Lexis and Terminology
“Studying psychologic(al) terminology in English is like learning a new language”
At first words look different and complicated. However, by understanding a few important guidelines, psychologic(al) terminology can become interesting and seem like solving a logical puzzle.
Classical (Greek and Latin) origin e.g. membrane, deficit, amnesia, cerebellum from Greek: e.g. catharsis (G. purification); from Latin: e.g. cerebellum (L. dim. of cerebrum, brain)
Germanic (Anglo-Saxon) origin e.g. behavior, chunking, coping, debriefing, fear, flooding etc.
ictus/stroke ecografia: *ecography☺ultrasonography, ultrasound scanning
Phonology & Spelling Italian psicologia. psicologico English psychology [sai’kolodji] psychologist [sai’kolojist] psicologic(al) [saiko’lodjikl] . psicologo.
No synonyms Anorexia nervosa = a mental disorder manifested by extreme fear of becoming obese and an aversion to food. Megacolon = a condition of extreme dilation of the colon. . usually occurring in young women and often resulting in life-threatening weight loss. and amenorrhea. Giant colon Hirschsprung disease for the Danes Ruysch disease for the Dutch. hyperactivity. accompanied by a disturbance in body image.Monoreferentiality or Semantic Uniqueness One Word/Term = a specific meaning and concept. Syn.
fundus uteri) ellipsis (Otto’s fever. corpus/body of uterus.Non-Emotionality Medical Terms have Denotative Functions Brain in EP and EGP The nerves connecting the brain and structures of the head are cranial nerves they were not the only ones to have brains and ambition He’s a hot head! catachresis (neck of uterus. Rio Bravo Fever) . parachute mitral valve) eponyms (Parkinson’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease) toponyms (Thogoto virus.
-psycho. Imprecision e.Accuracy and Transparency Affixation = Prefix . biopsychology = bio. trichotomy (the trimming of unwanted hair before surgery) . acrophobia = acro.g.Root – Suffix e.g.(=combining form denoting life).(=the mind. carcinoma (epithelial cancer) vs.(= highest point. extremity) -phobia (=fear ).g. logy (=study). mental). glaucoma (a rise in the pressure of the eyeball) Obscurity e.
type A1. Fld (fluid) Stacked Noun Phrases body mass index Redundancy caesarean section delivery . severity. compound: A-B-A design= Experimental design in which participants first experience the baseline condition (A). then experience the experimental treatment (B). combined (numerals and letters for types. Abbreviations CV (cardiovascular). DID = Dissociative Identity Disorder.Shortness e. measures): IQ 50-70. and then return to the baseline (A). stage.g. position. contraception (contraconception) Acronyms simple: ANS = Autonomic nervous system.
on. with: root nodule bacteria (bacteria to be found in root nodules) prepositional phrases with for.Syntax of EMP Omission of Phrasal Elements prepositional phrases with of. in. usually for + gerund: the operating room/theatre (the room for carrying out operations) .
Expressive Conciseness and Pre-Modification nouns modified by relative clauses: a blood donor (a person who donates blood). laboratory equipment (equipment which is used in a laboratory) a combination of for + gerund and passive voice: crisis intervention techniques (techniques which are used for intervening in a crisis) .
usually obtained through affixation: Measurable lesion ( = lesion which can be measured) Reactive force (= force which reacts) Absorbent material (= material which absorbs) .Relative clause (1) Replace the relative clause with adjectives.
Relative clause (2) Omission of subject and auxiliary when the clause has a passive form Patients assigned to the combinationtherapy group also received irinotecan… (= Patients that were assigned to the combination-therapy also received irinotecan…) .
Relative clause (3) the verb of the passive form in the relative clause without a complement: it precedes the noun it specifies and becomes a past participle: Predefined subgroup analyses included analyses of the patients whose disease progressed after… (= analyses of subgroups which had been predefined included analyses…) .
it is placed before the past participle and a hyphen is inserted in between: Non-treatment-related toxicities (= toxicities which are not related to treatment) .Relative clause (4) When the agent is expressed.
+ past participle permits the omission of the relative clause in the negative form: The unwanted liquid was thrown away (= the liquid which was not wanted was thrown away) .Relative clause (5) The prefix un.
) .Relative Clause (6) The verb of the passive form modified by an adverb: the latter is placed before the former with a hyphen in between At least one unidimensionallymeasurable lesion was required (= one lesion which can be measured unidimensionally was required..
Relative Clause (7) Thus and so are used not only in order to avoid a relative clause but also to coordinate clauses beginning with expressions like and in this way: Cetuximab is a chimericIgG1monoclonal antibody that binds to EGFR with high specificity and with a higher affinity than either epidermal growth factor TGF-α. thus blocking ligand-induced phosphorylation of EGFR. .
Relative Clause (8) The use of gerund: Increasing clinical evidence exists supporting the notion that radiotherapy dose-escalation results in improved prostate tumor control Late-reacting normal tissues (= normal tissues which have a late reaction). A robot controls the moving line (= a robot controls the line which is moving). .
Stacked Noun Phrases antibody-dependent cell-mediated tumor cell killing metastatic androgen-independent prostrate cancer metformin-associated lactic acidosis diabetes-related emotional stress drug injecting behaviour functional insertion and deletion polymorphism difficult-to-measure variables .
and modification in the dose of irinotecan were made in cases of hematologic or non hematologic toxic effects. .Nominalization (1) To reflect the same process of deduction of results from experiments or the same process of derivation of objects from a manufacturing process: Modifications of the dose of cetuximab were made only in cases of toxic effects to the skin.
The protection of original software. away from the computer . however. An additional security precaution consists in storing copies at different sites.Nominalization (2) The concept in thematic position. thus making the communication of information more natural by placing it in thematic position It is essential to keep magnetic disks and tapes in fireproof safes. is not sufficient.
Nominalization (3) Greater objectivity to the author’s thought The effectiveness of the combination of irinotecan and cetuximab in patients with irinotecan-refractory tumors suggests that cetuximab may circumvent irinotecan resistance. .
. the higher lexical density of the sentence and the more complex structure of stacked noun phrases makes its decoding more and more difficult. The complete development of the fracture model requires an understanding of the bond-rupture reaction.Nominalization (4) The verb only links more and more complex noun phrases. even if the structure is simplified. With regard to the understanding of a specialized text.
each electron is considered to possess an electric charge. which is a numerical measure of the force of repulsion that is experienced between two electrons) . the charge being a numerical measure of the force of repulsion experienced between two electrons (= To explain this remarkable behaviour. each electron is considered to possess an electric charge.Tense Use A great number of non-finite forms: To explain this remarkable behaviour.
6 mmol per liter]. histologically confirmed colorectal adenocarcinoma. and platelet count at least 100. Passive Voice We considered patients eligible if they were more than 18 years of age and had stage IV. at least 9 g per decilitre [5. Other criteria for eligibility were used: a Karnofsky performance-status score of 60 or more. at least 1500 per cubic millimetre.Active Voice vs. . neutrophil count. adequate hematologic function (haemoglobin.000 per cubic millimetre .
predictors of biopsy outcome have been investigated including DRE and TRUS findings and PSA correction methods such as density. . velocity.Sentence Length In order to improve the positive predictive value (PPV) for cancer. and ageadjusted reference ranges. but none of them has proved useful to select cases for biopsy with an acceptable balance in terms of avoided biopsies versus reduced sensitivity.
irinotecan. once these tree standard drugs have failed. . However. and oxaliplatin in combination or sequentially may survive 18 to 21 months. there are no accepted treatment options.Textual Features in EMP Conjunctions: a cohesive function and a pragmatic function Patients with advanced colorectal cancer who receive fluoropyrimidine.
. mainly owing to the introduction of irinotecan and oxaliplatin. Irinotecan and oxaliplatin are widely used…. the median duration of survival among patients with advanced colorectal cancer has increased from 12 months to about 18 to 21 months.Theme and Rheme Theme (where the subject is introduced) & Rheme (showing what is said about the subject) In the past decade.
Text Genres in EMP Patient Information Leaflets (PILs) En PIL User friendly Common words and Technical terms It PIL Difficult Technical terms Case histories: or SOAP Subjective (the patient’s statement of his/her condition) Objective (the physician’s observations of the patient’s condition) Assessment Plan .
department Date of submission .Research Article (RA) Title Title Authors Name of the affiliation.
Research Article Abstract Overview or summary of the article (100-150 words) Highlights of results General statement of significance .
patho-physiology. clinical presentation. Background information to clarify topic: history.Research Article Introduction Specific problem under study. Rationale and purpose of the manuscript .
Research Article Methods Study Design Subject selection procedures Methods of measurements Descriptions of analytical techniques .
Research Article Results What happened? Graphs. figures that summarize findings. tables. charts. Statistics .
.Research Article Discussion Meaning and significance of work Evaluation and interpretation of results Critique of study: discussions of limitations. speculation. equivocation. chest thumping. further analysis Comparison with work of others Disclaimers. as well as strengths. instruction. apologies. fantasy and so on.
Research Article References Evidence that the work of others has been considered Leads to further exploration of the subject (adapted from Gehlbach 2002: 6) .
indicating only the topic informative. giving some idea of the message of the paper .Title indicative.
Abstract What the author did How the author did it What the author found What the author concluded .
Abstract a) Introducing purpose b) Describing methodology c) Summarizing results d) Presenting conclusions (Bhatia 1993: 78-79) .
Verb Use Extended review of other literature surrounding the topic. If it is relevant to the previous study.Introduction . the latter is always presented in the present perfect tense Work which is perceived as distant from the present study. or is refuted by the authors. is usually given in the simple past Hence the choice of tense is not governed only by considerations of time but also implies the author’s attitude to the content .
..” (Webber 1996) .Introduction – Verb Use (2) Only a universally accepted truth is given in the present tense “Saliva contains IgA and IgM antibodies derived from perioral lymphoid tissue.
Introduction – Tense Use When the authors speak of their own work. There is also a switch in the tense choice here – to the simple past if the study is finished. . they often use a personal form – generally the first person plural.
It details the patient population studied. and data collection techniques employed. it describes in more detail than many of us care to know the analytical and evaluative procedures used in the course of the study.Materials and Methods The methods section describes the methodology of the study. the study design utilized. .
and figures. graphs. charts. . presents the information obtained from the execution of the study. Results are usually found both in the text and in accompanying tables.Results The results section. quite logically. The analysis and some interpretation of the data are also presented in the results section.
Passives are used by convention. very few author-marked elements and very little use of connectors. The tone is thus factual and detached.Materials and Results These two sections are characterized by a high percentage of lexical items. Wide use of nominalizations focus the reader’s attention on the procedures and the findings. .
and suggestions for future research.Discussion The longest section of the paper. The first sentence of the discussion. occupying up to 40% of the total. usually contains a further analysis of the results. there are usually recommendations. the authors may offer apologies for oversights and transgressions or build a case to strengthen and support the results. . or comment. Finally. often with the use of the verb should. Other topics are discussed in it such as the outcomes and conclusions of other studies may be compared and contrasted.
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