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His arrival represents the first attempt by Spain to convert Filipinos to Roman Catholicism. March 31, 1521 The first Holy Sacrifice of the Mass was celebrated by Father Pedro de Valderama. After the Mass, the natives expressed their desire to be Christians and for this, Magellan planted hastily a big cross on the top of the hill. This was the first Holy Cross planted in these isles, and it was the Easter Sunday when they do it! ‘April 14, 1521 ‘Aweek after the arrival of Magellan in Cebu, Father de Valderama erected and blessed the Holy Cross in the middle of their settlement. ‘There in that plaza, that same day, the King and the Queen with 800 of their subjects - men ‘women and children were baptized, Magellan gave them the “Santo Nino of Cebu” that became the symbol of the Catholic faith in the Philippines ‘April 27, 1521 ‘The life of Magellan was tragically ended in Cebu and after his defeat, the Cebuanos lose heart and most of them returned to their idols burying on the ground both the Cross and Our Lady's statue. But they keep with them the Santo Nino whom the revered as the "Bathala," the Supreme God. February 2, 1543 ‘Spanish Expedition commandeered by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos claims the islands for Spain; named the area "Philippines" in honor to Philip the Prince of Asturias, son and successor of Charles V to the throne of Spain. The Philippines becomes part of Spanish Empire. Villalobos then died because of deep melancholia. Ca, 1553 Philip I ascended the Spanish throne. Ca, 1559 King Philip Il ordered for the spiritual and the material conquest of the Philippines and an Augustinian priest Fr. Andres de Urdaneta presented himself to the mission as the chief pilot and the fleet was commanded by a royal official Don Miguel Lopez de Legazpi but due to some delays, the fleet sail on November 20, 1564 Ca. 1565 They arrived in the eastern coast of Samar. Proceeding to Bohol, Legazpi made the famous blood-compact with the chieftain Rajah Sikatuna May 8, 1565, ‘The formal ground breaking and possession of the first Spanish settlement. (the Feast of the Apparition of the Archangel) June 1, 1565 Father de Urdaneta blessed the new church (Church for the Santo Nino) built by the Spaniards before he sailed back to Acapulco in Mexico. The image of the Santo Nifio was carried in solemn procession where the natives were deeply impressed by the colorful, glorious pageantry and some solemn chants. June 4, 1565 ‘The most sensational conversion of King Tupas and his son happened, because for a long time they refused to abandon the religion of their ancestors. Phis entailed the renunciation of polygamy and the restitution of ill-gotten goods. Moreover, this broke the final barrier so that the islanders, after the example of their chief, voluntarily presented themselves in mass to be instructed and to be baptized. Ca, 1570 ‘Legazpi conquered Manila while the others conquered other parts of the country not so much by force, but by the zeal of the first missionaries. i Late Spanish Catholic orders and their friars were the wealthiest and most politically powerful elements, Colonial Period within Filipino society. Spanish friars represented the hegemonic power of the Spanish government and foreign Catholic Church, while native priests pushed forward demands for greater authority in in Filipino parishes 1872 ‘Gomburza, (Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jocinto Zamora) Catholic priests were among the revolutionary figures that deeply inspired nationalist efforts were executed by the Spanish army on suspicion of formenting the 1872 Cavite Mutin 1887 José Rizal's Noli Me Tangere which told stories of corruption in the priesthood, and which was banned in Catholic schools well into the 20 century was condemned by Spanish friars. 1898 ‘The coupling of the Catholic Church and Philippine state proved a challenge for the incoming Americans, who promoted a policy of absolute separation between church and state. They also inherited the problem of the Spanish friars, many of whom had no intention of leaving the Philippines despite hostility from nationalist Filipinos. -Emilio Aguinaldo assembled the Malolos Congress in Bulacan, then declares independence in Kawit, Cavite 1900-1946 ‘American Colonial Period, a lot of Protestant teachers and missionaries came to the Philippines to ‘purify’ what they viewed as the incorrect or ‘syncretic’ characteristics of charismatic blends of Filipino Roman Catholicism, Ca. 1930 ‘The power of the Catholic Church reemerged in part due its control over Philippine Universities of which Filipino elites were graduates. As a result, the vast majority of Filipino politicians were Roman Catholic and Catholicism was an important aspect of political identity. 1965 Ferdinand Marcos being elected as president and his tenure was remembered as a dark period of deep corruption, violence, chaos, and repression. The Church played various roles during that period. By his second term in office, the Catholic Church in the Philippines was profoundly impacted by Vatican I and was working more closely with impoverished Filipinos on basic issues of social justice. 1974 With the death of his predecessor, Cardinal Jaime Sin assumed the position of Archbishop and immediately became an influential opposition figure and under his leadership, the Church called for an end to martial law and a full restoration of civil liberties. 1986 The Church helped to organize massive protests in a show of People Power, in such large numbers that it became impossible for Marcos to ignore. Marcos and his family were exiled to Hawaii and Corazon Aquino was sworn in as president. Y Sources: Steven Shirley, Guided By God: The Legacy of the Catholic Church in Philippine Politics (Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Academic, 2004), hhutp://rlp catholicism-philippines htp:// htp:// Books ARCILLA, Jose S. S}. 1998. An introduction to Philippine History. Manila. Ateneo de Manila University Press, Fourth enlarged edition. BRAGANZA, Jose Vicente, SVD. 1965. The Encounter. Manila. Catholic Trade School. FERNANDEZ, Pablo, OP. 1988. History of the Church in the Philippines. Manila. Life Today Publications. VILLAROEL, Publication. Fidel, OP. 1981. Lorenzo Ruiz : The Protomartyr of the Philippines. Manila. Saint Paul's WALSH, William Thomas. 1987. Philip Il. Ilinois, USA. Tan Books and Publishers.