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# Electronics

Lab Report

Dated: 23 - 10 - 2019

Experiment # 6
Application of Operational Amplifier

Submitted by

## Muhammad Farooq Roll no. 23

Taha Saeed Malik Roll no. 43
Muhammad Waqar-Ul-Hassan Roll no. 38
Abstract
The purpose of this experiment is to study the characteristics of operational amplifier. We applied
certain value of voltage at the inverting and then at the non-inverting terminal of the operational
amplifier and we have found the output voltage and observed its nature i.e. whether inverting or
non-inverting.

Introduction
An “ideal” or perfect operational amplifier is a device with certain special characteristics such as
infinite open-loop gain, infinite input resistance, zero output resistance, infinite bandwidth and
zero offset. Operational amplifiers are used extensively in signal conditioning or perform
mathematical operations as they are nearly ideal for DC amplification. It is fundamentally a
voltage amplifying device used with external feedback components such as resistors and
capacitors between its output and input terminals. An operational amplifier is basically a three-
terminal device consisting of two high impedance inputs, one called the inverting input (–) and
the other one called the non-inverting input (+). The third terminal represents the operational
amplifiers output port which can both sink and source either a voltage or a current.

 Inverting amplifier
In an inverting amplifier circuit, the operational amplifier inverting input receives feedback from
the output of the amplifier. Assuming the op-amp is ideal and applying the concept of virtual
short at the input terminals of op-amp, the voltage at the inverting terminal is equal to non-
inverting terminal. The non-inverting input of the operational amplifier is connected to ground.
As the gain of the op amp itself is very high and the output from the amplifier is a matter of only
a few volts, this means that the difference between the two input terminals is exceedingly small
and can be ignored. As the non-inverting input of the operational amplifier is held at ground
potential this means that the inverting input must be virtually at earth potential.
Voltage gain (A)= Vout/ Vin = – Rf/Rin

## Figure 1: Inverting operational amplifier

 Non-Inverting Amplifier
The non-inverting amplifier is one in which the output is in phase with respect to the input. The
feedback is applied at the inverting input. However, the input is now applied at the non-inverting
input. The output is a non-Inverted (in terms of phase) amplified version of input. The gain of the
non-inverting amplifier circuit for the operational amplifier is easy to determine. The calculation
hinges around the fact that the voltage at both inputs is the same. This arises from the fact that
the gain of the amplifier is exceedingly high. If the output of the circuit remains within the
supply rails of the amplifier, then the output voltage divided by the gain means that there is
virtually no difference between the two inputs.
Voltage gain (A) = Vout/ Vin = (1+ Rf/Rin)

## Figure 2: Non inverting amplifier

Apparatus
 Operational Amplifier
 Resistances (10k, 5k)
 Variable DC Voltage source (15 V)
 Function Generator
Procedure
 Task 1: Inverting Amplifier Configuration

##  Connect the circuit as shown in figure.

 Apply the +12V VCC and -12V VEE at 7th and 4th terminal respectively.
 Apply input ac signal of 3VP at inverting terminal.
 Observed the input and output waveform on oscilloscope.
 Derive the voltage gain formula and calculate it.

##  Task 2: Non-Inverting Amplifier Configuration

 Connect the circuit as shown in figure.

 Apply the +12V VCC and -12V VCE at 7th and 4th terminal respectively.
 Apply input ac signal of 3VP at non inverting terminal.
 Observed the input and output waveform on oscilloscope.
 Derive the voltage gain formula and calculate it.
 Connect the circuit as shown in
figure.

##  Apply the +12V VCC and -12V

VCE at 7th and 4th terminal
respectively.
 Apply input ac signal of 3VP at non
inverting terminal.
 Observed the input and output
waveform on oscilloscope.
 Derive the voltage gain formula and
calculate it.

## Figure 3 Schematic Diagram

 Inverting:

Ch1=Input
Ch2=Output

Inverting
Input Output
Vp 960mV 9.80V
Vrms 695mV 6.88V

 Non-Inverting

Ch1=Input
Ch2=Output

Non-Inverting
Input Output
Vp 960mV 9.9V
Vrms 712mV 7.76V

Ch1=Input
Ch2=Output

Input Output
Vp 22.4mV 8V
Vrms 6.60mV 5.63V

Discussion
When we applied the input voltage of 1V at the inverting terminal then Voutput = 10V approximately
but it is inverting. It shows the we have voltage gain of 10V and output voltage is inverted as well.

Similarly, when we applied the input voltage at the non-inverting terminal then we received output
voltage of 10V but non inverting. We have seen its waveform in the oscilloscope which confirms
all the results.

Our experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical one which shows that our
experiment is acceptable.
The main sources of error are following.

##  Small resistance of connecting wires

 Other internal resistances
 Human error
 Random error

Conclusion
We performed the experiment and concluded that in inverting amplification the voltage is
amplified and the output is inverted while in non-inverting the output phase is same as the input.
Using Operational amplifier as an adder is also observed and proved in the calculations.