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Documentation Guide: American Psychological Association (APA) Format

Academic writers document information that they paraphrase or quote from other sources so that readers may locate the original source material. Documenting sources also gives writers credibility and protects them from accusations of plagiarism.

APA Format consists of 2 parts: Parenthetical References in the Text; References List

A. Parenthetical References in the Text
These references consist of the author’s last name, date of publication and page number inserted parenthetically within the text (See Example 1 below) or just the date and the page number if the author’s name introduces the information (Example 2). Example (3) is a paraphrase. In the case of a paraphrase, page reference is optional. 1) It is important to improve your study skills because “to reach higher levels of knowledge, you must become an active learner” (Packard, 1970, p. 24). 2) As Packard (1970) states, “you must become an active learner” (p. 24) to be a successful student. 3) According to Packard (1970), students must learn active study strategies to be a successful student (p. 24).

B. References List
This list should be placed on a separate page at the end of your paper (continuing page numbers) with the heading References centred at the top of the page. Always list your references double spaced in alphabetical order starting with the author’s last name first. Only the first word of a book or article title should be capitalised. However, all the words in the title of a journal should be capitalised. Titles of both books and journals should be italicized. The second and subsequent line(s) of each reference should be indented 5 spaces. When there is more than one person who has written the work, use the symbol “&” rather than “and”.

Basic Forms for Sources in Print Book with one author
Author, A. (year). Title of book. Location: Publisher. Ellis, D. (1997). Becoming a master student. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Book with two or more authors
Rhoden, C., & Gordon, C. T. (2000). Studying engineering at university. St. Leonards, Austral: Allen & Unwin.

Two or more books by the same author: Arrange by date of publication from earliest to most recent
Elbow, P. (1973). Writing without teachers. New York: Oxford University Press. Elbow, P. (1991). Writing with power. New York: Oxford University Press.

A book or article with no author or editor named (e.g. encyclopaedia, dictionary)
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

A part of a book (chapter or essay)
Author(s). (year). Name of chapter or article. In Editor’s Name(s) first name initials first and full last name (Ed.), Title of collection. (pp. ). Place of Publication: Publisher. Hairstone, M. (1994). The winds of change: Thomas Kuhn and the revolution in the teaching of writing. In S. Perl (Ed.), Landmark essays on writing process. (pp. 113-126). Davis, CA: Hermagoras Press.

from The Bridge:Concordia University New Student Program web site: http://relish.B. (Original work published 1987) N. Cite the original (primary) source in the body of your paper. or course lectures in the APA References list. Counselling and Development web site: http://cdev.concordia. Journal of College Reading and Learning. Trans. Retrieved Feb. 2002. 1987/1988) Article in a periodical (such as a journal or magazine) Suppose you were consulting I. (1990). August. New Hampshire: Boynton/Cook Publishers. Concordia University . K. 28(1). Government publication Ontario Legislative Assembly. A.. 2001). .. volume #. –L. In the References list: Leki. Citation of a work discussed in a secondary source N.concordia. & Devereux. How to benefit from a low (1988). M. Critical thinking assessment of college students. Learning from your textbook Retrieved January 31.. from Concordia University. Leki’s book. Aretz. emails. Toronto: Government of Ontario. . Author B. Sept. 2003 Student Learning Services. Inc. Cite sources for these only in the text.). (Servan-Schreiber. E. (1994) Title of article.g.BRIDGE/v1n3b. 34th Parliament). Electronic Sources Article on a web site O’Malley. Report on food banks (2nd Session. Cite the secondary source (the book you actually consulted) in your References list. Title of Periodical. 1992). cite both original and translation publication dates. Here is an example. Standing committee on social development. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. The art of time (F. (2000). Portsmouth. 20. . Here’s how to cite information that your source (secondary source) got from another source (primary source). Understanding ESL Writers: A Guide for Teachers.English translation of a book Servan-Schreiber.html NOTE: Do not include any personal communications such as interviews. Canadian women benefited from women’s involvement in World War II (Lecture by G. and wanted to use information that this author gives from a study written by Burt and Kiparsky: In the text: Burt and Kiparsky’s study (as cited in Leki. A. T. (1992). 2002.B. 12-23. (1997). J. pages. & Author C. I. Bolen. Understanding ESL writers: A guide for teachers. In text.E. M. Decarie. (1999). Philip..htm#omalley A web page Student Learning Services.