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Because of high strength to weight ratio, the usage of composite material in load resisting structure is increasing at rapid rate. A composite material is a combination of two or more material and thus, the likelihood of having flaws in composite material generally is higher than that in metal. Consequently, there is a need to monitor the integrity of composite structure during and after fabrication. Since flaw and damage may develop during service, non destructive inspections are also required in service. Shearography is an optical nondestructive testing method that provides fast information about the inside quality of different materials. Shearography is being extensively used in production and development within aerospace, space, wind rotor blades, automotive and materials research areas. Main advantages of shearography are the large area testing capabilities (up to 1 m² per minute), non-contact properties and its good performance on honey-comb materials, which is a big challenge for traditional NDT methods. 1.1History of Shearography NDT: The electronic laser shearography imaging interferometer was pioneered in the early 1980¶s by three researchers, Dr. John Butters at Loughborough University in the UK, Dr. S. Nakadate in Japan and Dr. Mike Hung at Oakland University in the USA. The author¶s team at Laser Technology Inc. led the development of the shearography camera as a tool for nondestructive testing, delivering the world¶s first production shearography NDT system to Northrop Grumman in 1987 for the manufacturing of the USAF B2 Stealth Bomber. In the last twenty years more than 1,200 shearography systems have been integrated into the manufacturing process for aircraft composites, tires and high-reliability electronics. As with all NDT methods and technologies, shearography¶s strengths and weakness must be completely understood, and applications qualified through Probability of detection (PoD) verification with written procedures and rigorous training for operators and engineers alike. Once qualified, however, shearography systems can operate with extraordinary efficiency reaching through-puts from 25 to 1200 sq. ft per hour, 2.5 to 120 times the typical 10 sq. ft./hour inspection rate for ultrasonic C-Scan.
The material is now stressed with a small amount of load. for example with heat. At the loaded state one more interferometric image is taken. This image can be thought of as a unique footprint of this surface. The size of the defects (in plane) can be quantified by measuring how large this fringe pattern is. The material wants to expand when heated up. To extract information about the difference between the two states. . with appropriate software in the computer. we subtract the two images and a shearogram is created. normally 20 nm is a good rule of thumb. and if it has weak spots it will be allowed to expand more. Now we also have an interferometric footprint of the area at the deformed state. This shearogram is in fact a map of the strains the surface has un dergone due to the applied heat. in other words the gradients (slopes) of the expansions on the surface were measured. Using a Phase Stepping Shearography Sensor will however give a much higher sensitivity to fractions of the wavelength.0 nanometers in the case of HeNe laser). not the surface's expansion.[ The USAF B stealth bomber was the first aircraft to i corporate Shearography NDT technology in the manufacturing of complex composite] Basi i i l The very basic i ea with shearography is to take images of a test specimen's surface with a special shearography camera. The camera acquires an interferometric image of the surface and stores it in a computer. including surface roughness and shape. at this state. The sensitivity of measurement normal to the surface (out of plane) is about one half the wavelength of the laser light used in illuminating the surface (about 30. T defects will he be seen as fringe patterns resembling a pair of ³hills´ or a pair of "bullseyes" superimposed on the surface's image.
Sheari i [ Fig. 1A primitive shearography setup ] [ Fig. Up to 1 square meter from a test object can be projected to a high-resolution CCD chip.] . The tested surface is illuminated with a monochromatic light.] [Fig. Thereafter they are subtracted and in the result d efects can be detected. 1 : Two physical points on test object will be projected on to one point on the CCD ship to record a interferometric footprint. typical 650 nm.2 : A shearography image is recorded at unloaded state and one image is recorded in the loaded state. 2 The primitive shearography principle] [Fig.
to obtain results from the speckle we need to compare it with a known reference light. Faulty parts of a component which lead to an inhomogeneous mechanical stiffness can be seen in the deformation image as inhomogeneous. During measurement.g. it shears the image so a double image is created. the material deforms in such a way that this can be measured with Shearography.When a surface area is illuminated with a highly coherent laser light a stochastical interference patterns is created. a second image of the object is recorded and stored. A new shearing image is recorded at the loaded state and will be compared with the sheared image before load. Due to the latest development of efficient laser diodes that are suitable for interferometry. the object to be measured is put under strain. The superposition of the two images. By applying a small load. Closed component faults. Shearography uses the test object itself as the known reference. a shear image. For low-pressure strain. By subtraction of these two images areas of the object will be clearly visible where the surface is deformed. e. In this condition. Electronic speckle pattern interferometry. Since laser diodes are quite small and easy to handle. As a means of strain. maximum practical use is guaranteed. This can be watched in real time while the component is put under strain. This makes the method much more insensible to external vibrations and noise. the sample to be measured is placed inside a pressure chamber. Even if the surface is only heated up by few Kelvin. heat or vacuum. an image of the object which is not under load is recorded and stored. A homogeneous illumination of the measurement area can be reali ed with an array of laser diodes. the illumination of the components with laser light is much simpler. Even slight pressure difference in the range of a few ten millibar is enough to make the faults visible. If a flaw is present it will be seen in this result.. A non-uniform material quality will generate a non uniform movement of the surface of the test object. faults which are separated air tightly from the surrounding parts lead to deformations due to pressure difference. heat and pressure differences are especially suitable. Faulty areas show a specific deformation pattern in contrast to areas without defects. . An object is put under heat excitation with heating lamps. Then. This interference pattern is called a speckle and is projected on a rigid camera's CCD chip. the material will deform. Analogous with ESPI. represents the surface of the test object at this unloaded state.
at each position an image is recorded and sent through the software processor to evaluate the be phase relationship with a best fit algorithm.Phase-shi echnology: Fig.3 A modified Michelson cube is here used where a double breaking mirror as a beam splitter. This contains a stepping mirror that shifts the reference beam. One mirror is for adjustment of shear properties and the other one is the phase stepper Fig. . a real-time phase shift process is used in the sensor.4 The phase stepper moves through its four positions with an internal difference of 1/4 wavelength. To increase the sensitivity of the measurement method. which is then processed with a best fit algorithm and presents the information in real time.
Portable Thermal Shearography System Model LT 6200S Description The LTI-6200S is a compact. portable thermal shearography system designed for the nondestructive inspection of aerospace composite repairs. The cantilevered design (Patent applied) allows inspection up to edges and corners of flaps. automatic exposure and image storage. control surfaces. The LTI -6200S includes the Inspection Head with built in digital shearography camera and Transit Case with all electronics and image processing computer built-in. System Features Self contained Light weight Vacuum attach Test macros Defect measurement tools Simple image download . The system features automatic operation with easily prog rammed NDE Procedure Macros. structures and components. wing panels or cut -outs. The LTI-6200S has a vacuum attach feature to allow operation in any orientation on-aircraft. on panels in the shop or on the bench.
.0 : Vacuum Window and Generator VW-10 External Hard Drive for Data Transport ( 0GB) . 15 amps max. cm x 6 inches.. : 100 to 2 0 VAC.3 x 15.. 38 x 30 x 30 cm : 22 x 18 x 16 inches. cm. 11. : 25 lbs. 1200 x 800 pixels.5 kg. 1200 x 800 pixels.Material Applications: Composite Laminate Composite Repairs Metal and Composite Honeycomb Metal to Metal Bonds Specifications: Dimensions o Inspection Head o Transit Case : (L x W x H) : 15 x 12 x 12 inches.3 x 15. 56 x 6 x 1 cm Weight o Inspection Head o Transit Case : 10 lbs. 32bit color Power Field of View (H x W) Displays (2) (H x W) Operation Modes : Time Resolved Thermal Shearography Analysis and Measurement Image Overlay System Software Options : Thermal Shear 2. : : x 6 inches.3 kg. 32bit color. 10. 50/60 H . . 10. 16 inch/ 0cm.
5: Tool drop impact damage to composite wing panel Fig. 8: Metal honeycomb cells .Types of Results Fig. 6: Disbands on composite repair Fig. 7: Impact damage to aircraft composite honeycomb fairing fig.
Shearography: The optical set-up for the speckle shearing interferometer is shown in Figure Fig. A schematic diagram of the shearing interferometer. The light intensity of the speckle pattern is converted to an electric video signal and this is sent ot frame grabber board where it is sampled to yield a digital image. After passing through the prism. A single mode and single frequency HeNe laser of 60 mW output power with an emission wavelength of 632 nm is used as the coherent source in the setup. which are orthogonally placed at an equal distance of 15 mm from the beam splitter. . The diffusely scattered light from the object passes through a beam splitter and is imaged at the plane of the CCD camera by the two mirrors. The whole optical set-up was mounted on a vibration isolation table. The laser light illuminates the object to be measured via a single mode fibre. the two laterally sheared wave fronts interfere and overlap each other at the plane of the camera and produce the resultant speckle pattern. The mirror 1 acts as the shearing mirror and the amount of shear can be adjusted by shifting the angle of the mirror.
a rigid-body motion does not produce strain. Moreover. To improve image quality as well as defect visibility. 8(a)±(f).Damage area measurement using laser shearography system Laser shearography inspection method belongs to optical methods working with laser beam and is based on concept of optical holography and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI). vibrations or by pressure. The shearography images for all selected panels are shown in Fig. The specimen tested is put under low strain generated either by heating. which results in an interference phenomenon. without using an additional reference beam as holography and ESPI does. Surface deformations of a few microns can be observed. which is thus predetermined for use in a typical industrial environment. thus shearography is relative insensitive to such motion. Defects are typically indicated as µbutterfly pattern¶. By comparing interferograms before and after loading a fringe pattern is produced and displayed in real-time. This is a significant advantage of shearography. The shearing device brings the light waves from two points on the object surface into one point on the image plane. i. and a change in surface strain caused by the presence of a fault in the material is detected by the shearographic camera. The measurement presented in this paper was performed with the Dantec Ettemeyer Q-800 portable shearography system with two shearing directions and software package ISTRA for analysis.e. so-called speckle interferogram. . It can be recalculated to the gradient of deformation. visuali ation and storage of the measured data. The image quality can also be improved by image post-processing like a noise filtering etc. These figures show measured and smoothed phase maps recalculated to deformation gradient. The heat loading was used within all measurements. the µphase shifting technique¶ is used.
(f) Shearography image of damage in panel number 33 impacted with 1 in.(a)Shearography image of damage in panel number 4 impacted with 1 in. diameter impactor and 40 J impact energy level under thermal load. diameter impactor and 10 J impact energy level under thermal load. diameter impactor and 10 J impact energy level under thermal load. (d) Shearography image of damage in panel number 30 impacted with 1 in. diameter impactor and 40 J impact energy level under thermal load. (c) Shearography image of damage in panel number 24 impacted with 1 in. (e) Shearography image of damage in panel number 31 impacted with 1 in. diameter impactor and 40 J impact energy level under thermal load. (b) Shearography image of damage in panel number 12 impacted with 1 in. . diameter impactor and 10 J impact energy level under thermal load.
generally. Note that it is not possible to determine. 9 shows the example of two . Measured and smoothed planar phase map recalculated todeformation gradient (in the middle) with two selected profiles of deformation gradient through delaminations (up and down) for panel No. the exact depth of the flaw because the response intensity depends on the load magnitude that in case of the thermal one decrease with time as the sample gets colder. clear from the performed test.] The derivative is zero on the dent's border as in the maximal depth where is the global extreme. Whether the surface is dented or bulged out. is usually. i. Fig. 4. From the deformation gradient profile it is possible to determine the boundary of the dent. 9. differentiate numerically the measured deformation gradient data.The measured area with a dent and delamination in panel number 4 has a diameter 26 mm. one had to investigate the second derivative of deformation. This also helps us to explain the butterfly pattern of the defect response with positive and negative branch showing where the deformation is increasing or decreasing.e. [Fig.
Thick lines mark the cracks in the facesheet (panel No. This is a typical result of the impact damage measurement. due to two cracks bounding the facesheet perforation. Measured damaged area in panel number 30 from impact caused penetration of the facesheet is about 25×30 mm. The facesheet of panel number 12 was completely penetrated and it is seen on the response. The impact spot is not distinguishable. 12)] The shearogram of panel number 24 shows a dent of diameter 25 mm approximately in the middle of the plate. in panel number 33 is about 20×28 mm. . 10. Defects are indicated as typical butterfly patterns. Isolines of deformation gradient. Thick lines mark the cracks in the facesheet.profiles of deformation gradient through the areas of founded delaminations in the pane l number 4. [Fig. 10. The shearography of the panel number 31 revealed a dent of diameter 24 mm. For this type of damage isolines of deformation gradient are plotted in Fig. Their length is about 40 mm.
the heat will cause. The temperature gradient developed induces stresses in the object. real time shearography should be employed to observe the transient thermal deformation. The difference in the co-efficient of thermal expansion between the materials gives rise to a quasi bi-metallic strip effect. This defects are detected in thermal shearography.Engineered Composite Laminate repair with Thermal Shearography The various defects in the composite laminate material is shown in figure. This stressing mode is particularly suited to the evaluation of the of bonding between two different materials. the trapped air to expand. In the case. In this case. This in turn produces a strain analogy on the surface. the object is radiated with heat between the exposure. The debond area is not constrained and is there fore free to deform away from the interface. . where there is trapped air in the debond region. In this type of testing. causing the material above the flaw to bulge out. Usually the steady state thermal deformation may not be easily maintained.
] . [Fig.STEP 1: Capture initial shearography image of repair at ambient temperature. porosity and disbonds have greater thermal expansion (D). Uniform material thermally expands (U). [Fig.] STEP 2: Heat diffuses through composite material. voids. Warm with Infrared Radiation. Areas with discontinuities.
AWACS Rotodome Shearography NDE Detects and measures Impact Damage & Disbonds Differentiates between damage and repairs .Examples: Repaired Aluminum HoneycombAircraft Control Surfaces Extensive repairs make conventional UT difficult or impossible Shearography tests shows all disbonds and core damage in 7 min.
Often highlighting of the surface necessary. independent from operator. Classification of defects is subjective. Application : Industries where Shearography is used are Application Aerospace : Raytheon Aircraft Premier 1 Cessna Aircraft. § Limited possibilities on strongly s aped surfaces. Constant results. Ests parts 3-100 times faster than UT C-Scan. Simpel setup. no special safety regulations. Inspection without loading the component. Mustang Helicopter Blades Concorde AWACS. E2 Rotodomes Boeing Delta IV Roc et NASA Space Shuttle Space Boat Wind power Automotive Tire ¨ £ ¥¤£¢¡ . Advanced inspection documentation. Disadvantages: ¢ ¦ Me s dev ce is bound to ty e of mate ial.Citation X.Advantages: Easy inspection of large and flat surfaces.
Sandwich Core Materials and Filament Wound Pressure Wessel¶s in Aerospace Applications" . 2006 edition ASTM E2581 -07. 2008 Rev 3 ASNT SNT-TC-1A. "Standard Practice for Shearography on Polymer Matrix Composites. 2006 edition ASNT CP-105.The non-destructive testing industry is controlled by Inspection Standard Documents & Codes. Shearography is incorporated in following standard documents: NAS 10.