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Shearography

1.Introduction:
Because of high strength to weight ratio, the usage of composite material in load resisting structure is increasing at rapid rate. A composite material is a combination of two or more material and thus, the likelihood of having flaws in composite material generally is higher than that in metal. Consequently, there is a need to monitor the integrity of composite structure during and after fabrication. Since flaw and damage may develop during service, non destructive inspections are also required in service. Shearography is an optical nondestructive testing method that provides fast information about the inside quality of different materials. Shearography is being extensively used in production and development within aerospace, space, wind rotor blades, automotive and materials research areas. Main advantages of shearography are the large area testing capabilities (up to 1 m² per minute), non-contact properties and its good performance on honey-comb materials, which is a big challenge for traditional NDT methods. 1.1History of Shearography NDT: The electronic laser shearography imaging interferometer was pioneered in the early 1980¶s by three researchers, Dr. John Butters at Loughborough University in the UK, Dr. S. Nakadate in Japan and Dr. Mike Hung at Oakland University in the USA. The author¶s team at Laser Technology Inc. led the development of the shearography camera as a tool for nondestructive testing, delivering the world¶s first production shearography NDT system to Northrop Grumman in 1987 for the manufacturing of the USAF B2 Stealth Bomber. In the last twenty years more than 1,200 shearography systems have been integrated into the manufacturing process for aircraft composites, tires and high-reliability electronics. As with all NDT methods and technologies, shearography¶s strengths and weakness must be completely understood, and applications qualified through Probability of detection (PoD) verification with written procedures and rigorous training for operators and engineers alike. Once qualified, however, shearography systems can operate with extraordinary efficiency reaching through-puts from 25 to 1200 sq. ft per hour, 2.5 to 120 times the typical 10 sq. ft./hour inspection rate for ultrasonic C-Scan.

This shearogram is in fact a map of the strains the surface has un dergone due to the applied heat. Using a Phase Stepping Shearography Sensor will however give a much higher sensitivity to fractions of the wavelength. and if it has weak spots it will be allowed to expand more.[ The USAF B stealth bomber was the first aircraft to i corporate Shearography NDT technology in the manufacturing of complex composite] Basi i i l The very basic i ea with shearography is to take images of a test specimen's surface with a special shearography camera. Now we also have an interferometric footprint of the area at the deformed state.0 nanometers in the case of HeNe laser). The camera acquires an interferometric image of the surface and stores it in a computer. we subtract the two images and a shearogram is created. The size of the defects (in plane) can be quantified by measuring how large this fringe pattern is. in other words the gradients (slopes) of the expansions on the surface were measured. not the surface's expansion. normally 20 nm is a good rule of thumb. at this state. The material wants to expand when heated up. T defects will he be seen as fringe patterns resembling a pair of ³hills´ or a pair of "bullseyes" superimposed on the surface's image. This image can be thought of as a unique footprint of this surface. . The sensitivity of measurement normal to the surface (out of plane) is about one half the wavelength of the laser light used in illuminating the surface (about 30. including surface roughness and shape. for example with heat. At the loaded state one more interferometric image is taken. with appropriate software in the computer. The material is now stressed with a small amount of load. To extract information about the difference between the two states.

1 : Two physical points on test object will be projected on to one point on the CCD ship to record a interferometric footprint. 1A primitive shearography setup ] [ Fig.Sheari i [ Fig. Up to 1 square meter from a test object can be projected to a high-resolution CCD chip. typical 650 nm. Thereafter they are subtracted and in the result d efects can be detected. The tested surface is illuminated with a monochromatic light. 2 The primitive shearography principle] [Fig.] [Fig.2 : A shearography image is recorded at unloaded state and one image is recorded in the loaded state.] .

Even slight pressure difference in the range of a few ten millibar is enough to make the faults visible. Then. a second image of the object is recorded and stored. it shears the image so a double image is created. the illumination of the components with laser light is much simpler. e. Even if the surface is only heated up by few Kelvin. Faulty parts of a component which lead to an inhomogeneous mechanical stiffness can be seen in the deformation image as inhomogeneous. Electronic speckle pattern interferometry. As a means of strain. Shearography uses the test object itself as the known reference. Due to the latest development of efficient laser diodes that are suitable for interferometry. a shear image. maximum practical use is guaranteed. This interference pattern is called a speckle and is projected on a rigid camera's CCD chip. This can be watched in real time while the component is put under strain. heat and pressure differences are especially suitable. Closed component faults. If a flaw is present it will be seen in this result.. In this condition. an image of the object which is not under load is recorded and stored. Since laser diodes are quite small and easy to handle. A non-uniform material quality will generate a non uniform movement of the surface of the test object. An object is put under heat excitation with heating lamps. A new shearing image is recorded at the loaded state and will be compared with the sheared image before load. Faulty areas show a specific deformation pattern in contrast to areas without defects. faults which are separated air tightly from the surrounding parts lead to deformations due to pressure difference. the material will deform. For low-pressure strain. the object to be measured is put under strain. By subtraction of these two images areas of the object will be clearly visible where the surface is deformed.When a surface area is illuminated with a highly coherent laser light a stochastical interference patterns is created. the material deforms in such a way that this can be measured with Shearography. heat or vacuum. Analogous with ESPI. the sample to be measured is placed inside a pressure chamber. A homogeneous illumination of the measurement area can be reali ed with an array of laser diodes.g. to obtain results from the speckle we need to compare it with a known reference light. During measurement. By applying a small load. This makes the method much more insensible to external vibrations and noise. represents the surface of the test object at this unloaded state. The superposition of the two images. .

at each position an image is recorded and sent through the software processor to evaluate the be phase relationship with a best fit algorithm. This contains a stepping mirror that shifts the reference beam.3 A modified Michelson cube is here used where a double breaking mirror as a beam splitter. One mirror is for adjustment of shear properties and the other one is the phase stepper Fig.Phase-shi echnology: Fig. which is then processed with a best fit algorithm and presents the information in real time. To increase the sensitivity of the measurement method.4 The phase stepper moves through its four positions with an internal difference of 1/4 wavelength. . a real-time phase shift process is used in the sensor.

automatic exposure and image storage. portable thermal shearography system designed for the nondestructive inspection of aerospace composite repairs. wing panels or cut -outs. control surfaces.Portable Thermal Shearography System Model LT 6200S Description The LTI-6200S is a compact. The LTI-6200S has a vacuum attach feature to allow operation in any orientation on-aircraft. The LTI -6200S includes the Inspection Head with built in digital shearography camera and Transit Case with all electronics and image processing computer built-in. The cantilevered design (Patent applied) allows inspection up to edges and corners of flaps. System Features Self contained Light weight Vacuum attach Test macros Defect measurement tools Simple image download . structures and components. The system features automatic operation with easily prog rammed NDE Procedure Macros. on panels in the shop or on the bench.

50/60 H . : 100 to 2 0 VAC.. cm x 6 inches.3 x 15.0 : Vacuum Window and Generator VW-10 External Hard Drive for Data Transport ( 0GB) . 32bit color. 16 inch/ 0cm.Material Applications: Composite Laminate Composite Repairs Metal and Composite Honeycomb Metal to Metal Bonds Specifications: Dimensions o Inspection Head o Transit Case : (L x W x H) : 15 x 12 x 12 inches.5 kg. 56 x 6 x 1 cm Weight o Inspection Head o Transit Case : 10 lbs. 11. 1200 x 800 pixels. . 32bit color Power Field of View (H x W) Displays (2) (H x W) Operation Modes : Time Resolved Thermal Shearography Analysis and Measurement Image Overlay System Software Options : Thermal Shear 2.3 kg.. : : x 6 inches. 15 amps max. 1200 x 800 pixels. 38 x 30 x 30 cm : 22 x 18 x 16 inches. cm.3 x 15. : 25 lbs.. 10. 10.

6: Disbands on composite repair Fig.Types of Results Fig. 7: Impact damage to aircraft composite honeycomb fairing fig. 5: Tool drop impact damage to composite wing panel Fig. 8: Metal honeycomb cells .

The light intensity of the speckle pattern is converted to an electric video signal and this is sent ot frame grabber board where it is sampled to yield a digital image. A schematic diagram of the shearing interferometer. The diffusely scattered light from the object passes through a beam splitter and is imaged at the plane of the CCD camera by the two mirrors. A single mode and single frequency HeNe laser of 60 mW output power with an emission wavelength of 632 nm is used as the coherent source in the setup. The laser light illuminates the object to be measured via a single mode fibre. . The whole optical set-up was mounted on a vibration isolation table. The mirror 1 acts as the shearing mirror and the amount of shear can be adjusted by shifting the angle of the mirror.Shearography: The optical set-up for the speckle shearing interferometer is shown in Figure Fig. the two laterally sheared wave fronts interfere and overlap each other at the plane of the camera and produce the resultant speckle pattern. After passing through the prism. which are orthogonally placed at an equal distance of 15 mm from the beam splitter.

Moreover. The shearography images for all selected panels are shown in Fig. thus shearography is relative insensitive to such motion. Surface deformations of a few microns can be observed. which results in an interference phenomenon. This is a significant advantage of shearography. The shearing device brings the light waves from two points on the object surface into one point on the image plane. The heat loading was used within all measurements. which is thus predetermined for use in a typical industrial environment. vibrations or by pressure. .e. It can be recalculated to the gradient of deformation. so-called speckle interferogram. a rigid-body motion does not produce strain. The specimen tested is put under low strain generated either by heating.Damage area measurement using laser shearography system Laser shearography inspection method belongs to optical methods working with laser beam and is based on concept of optical holography and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI). i. the µphase shifting technique¶ is used. 8(a)±(f). These figures show measured and smoothed phase maps recalculated to deformation gradient. without using an additional reference beam as holography and ESPI does. visuali ation and storage of the measured data. Defects are typically indicated as µbutterfly pattern¶. The measurement presented in this paper was performed with the Dantec Ettemeyer Q-800 portable shearography system with two shearing directions and software package ISTRA for analysis. By comparing interferograms before and after loading a fringe pattern is produced and displayed in real-time. The image quality can also be improved by image post-processing like a noise filtering etc. and a change in surface strain caused by the presence of a fault in the material is detected by the shearographic camera. To improve image quality as well as defect visibility.

(d) Shearography image of damage in panel number 30 impacted with 1 in. (e) Shearography image of damage in panel number 31 impacted with 1 in. diameter impactor and 40 J impact energy level under thermal load. . (f) Shearography image of damage in panel number 33 impacted with 1 in. diameter impactor and 40 J impact energy level under thermal load. (c) Shearography image of damage in panel number 24 impacted with 1 in. diameter impactor and 10 J impact energy level under thermal load. diameter impactor and 10 J impact energy level under thermal load. (b) Shearography image of damage in panel number 12 impacted with 1 in. diameter impactor and 10 J impact energy level under thermal load. diameter impactor and 40 J impact energy level under thermal load.(a)Shearography image of damage in panel number 4 impacted with 1 in.

generally. one had to investigate the second derivative of deformation. 9. clear from the performed test. [Fig. From the deformation gradient profile it is possible to determine the boundary of the dent. This also helps us to explain the butterfly pattern of the defect response with positive and negative branch showing where the deformation is increasing or decreasing. the exact depth of the flaw because the response intensity depends on the load magnitude that in case of the thermal one decrease with time as the sample gets colder.The measured area with a dent and delamination in panel number 4 has a diameter 26 mm.e. Whether the surface is dented or bulged out. differentiate numerically the measured deformation gradient data. Fig. is usually.] The derivative is zero on the dent's border as in the maximal depth where is the global extreme. Measured and smoothed planar phase map recalculated todeformation gradient (in the middle) with two selected profiles of deformation gradient through delaminations (up and down) for panel No. 9 shows the example of two . Note that it is not possible to determine. i. 4.

Isolines of deformation gradient. Measured damaged area in panel number 30 from impact caused penetration of the facesheet is about 25×30 mm. Their length is about 40 mm. The facesheet of panel number 12 was completely penetrated and it is seen on the response. 10. . Thick lines mark the cracks in the facesheet (panel No. Thick lines mark the cracks in the facesheet. [Fig. This is a typical result of the impact damage measurement.profiles of deformation gradient through the areas of founded delaminations in the pane l number 4. 12)] The shearogram of panel number 24 shows a dent of diameter 25 mm approximately in the middle of the plate. Defects are indicated as typical butterfly patterns. The shearography of the panel number 31 revealed a dent of diameter 24 mm. For this type of damage isolines of deformation gradient are plotted in Fig. due to two cracks bounding the facesheet perforation. in panel number 33 is about 20×28 mm. 10. The impact spot is not distinguishable.

real time shearography should be employed to observe the transient thermal deformation. The difference in the co-efficient of thermal expansion between the materials gives rise to a quasi bi-metallic strip effect. the heat will cause. In the case. This defects are detected in thermal shearography. This stressing mode is particularly suited to the evaluation of the of bonding between two different materials. The debond area is not constrained and is there fore free to deform away from the interface. The temperature gradient developed induces stresses in the object. causing the material above the flaw to bulge out. In this type of testing. . This in turn produces a strain analogy on the surface. the trapped air to expand. where there is trapped air in the debond region. Usually the steady state thermal deformation may not be easily maintained. In this case. the object is radiated with heat between the exposure.Engineered Composite Laminate repair with Thermal Shearography The various defects in the composite laminate material is shown in figure.

Warm with Infrared Radiation.] . Uniform material thermally expands (U).STEP 1: Capture initial shearography image of repair at ambient temperature. voids. [Fig.] STEP 2: Heat diffuses through composite material. Areas with discontinuities. porosity and disbonds have greater thermal expansion (D). [Fig.

Examples: Repaired Aluminum HoneycombAircraft Control Surfaces Extensive repairs make conventional UT difficult or impossible Shearography tests shows all disbonds and core damage in 7 min. AWACS Rotodome Shearography NDE Detects and measures Impact Damage & Disbonds Differentiates between damage and repairs .

no special safety regulations. Often highlighting of the surface necessary. Classification of defects is subjective. Simpel setup. Ests parts 3-100 times faster than UT C-Scan. Mustang Helicopter Blades Concorde AWACS. Constant results. Inspection without loading the component.Advantages: Easy inspection of large and flat surfaces. § Limited possibilities on strongly s aped surfaces.Citation X. E2 Rotodomes Boeing Delta IV Roc et NASA Space Shuttle Space Boat Wind power Automotive Tire ¨ £ ¥¤£¢¡   . Disadvantages: ¢ ¦ Me s dev ce is bound to ty e of mate ial. Advanced inspection documentation. independent from operator. Application : Industries where Shearography is used are Application Aerospace : Raytheon Aircraft Premier 1 Cessna Aircraft.

Sandwich Core Materials and Filament Wound Pressure Wessel¶s in Aerospace Applications" . Shearography is incorporated in following standard documents: NAS 10. 2006 edition ASTM E2581 -07. 2008 Rev 3 ASNT SNT-TC-1A. "Standard Practice for Shearography on Polymer Matrix Composites.The non-destructive testing industry is controlled by Inspection Standard Documents & Codes. 2006 edition ASNT CP-105.