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SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL

Waste Water
Sewage Treatment
Pulp and Paper
Food Plants
Steel Plants
Alumina Refineries
Chemical Plants
Fertilizer Plants
Mining Process

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SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
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Index

Sonar principle of operation

Advantages of level monitoring interface

Applications

Sewage Treatment Plants (traditional)


Sewage Treatment Plants (Sequential batch reactor)
Water Treatment Plants
Mining Thickeners
Waste Water Treatment Plants

Cleaning mechanisms for Sonar Transducers

Sonar Diagrams

Portable Interface Analyser

PIA Instruction Manual

SA Sonar Data Sheet

SA Sonar Instruction Manual

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Sonar Principals of Operation


The Hawk "SA" Sonar Level Transmitter emits a sound pulse towards the interface blanket (bed level,
settling solids etc) which is at the bottom of the tank (sedimentation tank, primary clarifier, secondary
clarifier, humus tank, thickener DAF tank, tailings dam etc).

The pulse signal is reflected off the interface, back to the sonar transducer. The sonar transducer
interprets the signal, compensates for temperate and provides a distance reading and output,
proportional to the distance between the sonar transducer and interface level. The display can read
from the sonar transducer down to the interface, or from the bottom of the tank to the top of the
interface.

Selcting a Sonar Transducer Frequency


Performance of a Sonar interface transmitter is very dependent on the choice of the sonar transducer
operating frequency.

Example (1) Water Treatment Plant (measuring floculent blanket)


Floc is very light in density and can vary for different water types and the sources of the water.

To detect the actual interface, we must use a high frequency (short wavelength) sonar transducer to
detect the small impedance difference between the water and floc interfaces. This frequency range
could typically be between 300kHz and 700kHz. Floculant is added to encourage settling of solids
particles

Note: A lower frequency sonar transducer may not see the floc interface at all and measure the tank
bottom only.

Example (2) Mining Process Thickener (measuring bed level)


There could be two interface levels that are of interest to metalurgists or process engineers, in a mining
thickener application.

Bed Level
The bed level density is generally high in comparison to other interfaces in the thickener tank.
To measure the "bed" only and not be affected by the lighter floc level or particles in suspension, we
must use a lower frequency sonar transducer to "diffract" around the particles and "See through" the
lighter densities in suspension. These sonar frequencies can range from 70kHz down depending on the
size and density

To measure the "floc layer" interface that sits above the bed level which is lighter in density, we
use a higher frequency sonar transducer than for the bed level. These sonar frequencies range from
150kHz to 30 kHz.

By selecting the appropriate sonar frequency, we optimize the amplitude of the return signal from
the chosen interface to minimize commissioning time.
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SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
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The advantages in using sonar interface transmitters on thickener tanks are:

(1) By controlling the underflow pump rate, the density of the bed can be optimised for
downstream process requirements.

(2) The sonar transmitter can measure to the bottom of the tank and is not affected by
the scraper passing underneath. Other interface technologies eg. displacement float,
electrical mechanical dipping infra-red can only measure above the scraper.

(3) When the sonar transmitter is used in conjunction with an underflow density gauge
there can be a determination if the tank is being over flocced, which can result in a lower
bed density.

(a) The underflow density gauge reads a lower density. The sonar interface
monitors a bed level that is at an "acceptable level".
Possible cause: over floccing the tank.
(b) The underflow density gauge reads a lower density, the scraper torque
amperes are high, the sonar interface monitors a bed level that is low, reduce the underflow
pump rate and build the bed higher.
Cause: overpumping rate on the underflow pump.

(4) When the sonar interface transmitter is used it can provide feedback to the "Floc
dosing control loop" when there is an increase in suspended solids between the sonar
sensor and bed level.
This could be attributed to,
(a) Stratified layers at varying densities appearing at different levels.
(b) Pinfloccing in suspension or other particles in suspension not settling.

Both problems require further consideration to floc dosing control, where (a) could be
improved perhaps with an increase floc dose rate, (b) pinfloc in suspension could indicate
a problem with the bed and other suspended solids in suspension at a high level could
require higher floc dosing.

(5) Using scraper torque amperes for controlling underflow pump rates can be a major
problem.

(a) Scraper amperes are affected by density changes and do not relate only to
bed level
(b) Mechanical wear and tear will affect scraper amperes
(c) Thickener infeed rate will affect scraper amperes.
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Sewage Treatment Plants

Sludge Interface Level Applications

Traditional Treatment plants


- Primary
- Secondary
- Thickener (D.A.F) Dissolved air floatation

IDEA Sequential Batch Reactors

Application Notes
- Sludge level in sedimentation tanks
- Interface level in Secondary Clarifiers

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HAWK MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS

TYPCAL SECONDARY WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT APPLICAT IO N

(3) Primary / Primary Secondary


(1) "Pump Well": AW (Level) Secondary Clarifier Clarifier
(2) AWF Screens (5) Aeration Basin
Control of pumps. (6) SA Interface
(1) (4) SA Interface (Impact cleaner) (10) Disinfection AWF
Use lower frequency AW (Level) (Impact cleaner) (11) PIA (11) PIA (Flow)
transducers to overcome
froth, foam,
condensation. Inflow Outflow
Software Mapping to
remove spurious echoes

(2) "Open Channel Flow": AWF (Flow) SA Sonar Interface Transmitter


Monitor sewage flow into treatment AW Sultan Ultrasonic Level Transmitter
AW(F) Sultan Ultrasonic Open Channel Flow Transmitter
plant. (12) GSM (Return Activated
Either 2 wire or mains powered with Sludge)

flow algorithms. R.A.S


W.A.S (Waste Activated Sludge)
Choose transducer frequency according
Dewatering Supernatent
to enviroment. (7) SA Interface
(Scum cleaner)
(11) PIA (8) AW
(3) "Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Screens": (Liquid Level) (13) AW

Gravity Thickener Supernatent


Digester (Level) AW
AW (Differential Level) Option: May be (Level)
Controls cleaning mechanism when build- connected to Dewatering (9) Dewatered
up occurs, creating a difference in level Sludge
any units
between the inlet and outlet of the
screens. Choose transducer frequency Dry Sludge
according to enviroment. Storage Vessels
y Gauge

(4) "Primary Clarifier": SA (Sonar Interface Level) Underflow Pump


Control level of settling bed, to optimize pumping density to DAF
or Thickener. Choose correct Sonar Transducer frequency according
to enviroment.
Always use cleaning mechanism because of fats, rags, other (13) "Digester roof monitoring"
suspended solids. (8) "Digester": AW Exia (Level) (10) "Open Channel Flow": AWF (Flow)
(7) "Thickener": SA (Sonar Interface Level) To monitor floating roof.
Control of liquid level. Because of Monitor treated water "outflow" from treatment plant.
Control of bed level, to optimize density pumped to digester. Swivel roof on digester,
(5) "Aeration Basin": AW (Level) condensation, foam, use low freq- Either 2 wire or mains powered with flow algorithms.
Used in control with underflow density gauge and underflow to make sure its horizontal,
Control level of Aeration basic. uency transducer. Exia application
pump. Can provide alarm status or proportional output. when (11) "Primary Clafifier": PIA (Portable Interface) "Thickener" or its raise/lower position
Use lower frequency transducer. suspended solids percentage increases. "DAF". Hand held, portable interface analyzer to detect
(9) "Dewatered Sludge": AW (Level) settling blanket densities. For treatment plant operaters
(6) "Secondary Clarifier": SA (Sonar Interface Level) Control level of "RAS" Control of sludge/solids in bins, silos,
Interface level to optimize pumping density to aeration (RAS) or stockpile after filter press etc. Use low (12) "GSM Module"
Thickener (WAS) Prevents overscavenging and underscavenging. Can frequency transducer Powerful diagnostic and support tool. Allows full
provide alarm status or proportional output also for pinfloc of fluff layer rising technical support to be provided worldwide
SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
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Sewage Treament Plants: Sludge Interface Applications

(A) Primary sedimentation tank


Primary Clarifier
The main application of the sonar interface transmitter for these tanks is to,

(1) Maintain a bed level in the tank by controlling the settled solids sludge pump.

The advantages are:

(A) To optimise the density of the sludge being pumped to the thickener or to the
DAF tanks (dissolved air floatation tanks).
(B) To reduce wear of the sludge pump.
(C) To reduce running costs eg electricity, maintenance etc.
(D) Reduce the run time of filter presses.
(E) Provide alarm status on tanks on continous barsts.

(B) Secondary Clarifier / Final clarification

The main applications for the sonar interface transmitter for these tanks are

(1) Maintain a bed level in the tank, by controlling the RAS pump (return activated
sludge.
(2) Provide alarms or monitor fluff/pinfloc levels rising in the tank. (Fluff/Pinfloc is
caused by an out of balance biological affect and results in an increase of suspended
solids in the clarifier)

The advantages are:

(A) To optimise the density of the sludge being pumped back to the aeration tanks
(RAS) and to optimise the sludge being pumped to the thickener, "DAF" tanks (waste
activated sludge
(B) To reduce wear of the sludge pump.
(C) To reduce "loading" of the aeration and thickener "DAF" tank areas.
(D) To reduce electricity and running costs.
(E) To reduce manpower requirements by autmation.
(F) To provide alarms over a GSM/page system, especially at unmanned treatment
plants, if the clarifier becomes unsettled and high levels of solids flow into the clarifier
launder.
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(C) Thickener Tank

The main application of the sonar interface transmitter for these tanks are

(A) To optimise the density of the bed level being pumped to the digester, by
controlling the underflow pump.
(C) To provide alarm status, with high levels of suspended solids above the bed
(D) Used with an underflow density gauge, can provide feedback for control of floc
to the thickener to reduce floc useage.
(E) To reduce electricity and running costs.
(F) To reduce manpower requirements.
(G) Improve the performance of digestors by optimising the density pumped to
the digestor.
(H) Provides alarm status on a continuous basis, especially on unmanned sites.

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Application Note Controlling Sludge level in Primary


Sedimentation Tanks
Instrument: Hawk SAR-D-BS Transmitter ST002 sonar transducer
Client: Melbourne Water
Site: Eastern Treatment Plant
Application Primary sedimentation-Sludge interface control
Eastern treatment plant, is one of Australia’s largest sewerage treatment plants processing over450ML per
day. There are 8 primary clarifers, all of which run 24 hours a day. Melbourne Waterrequired automatic
control of the primary sludge pump catering for peak and off peak loads, tooptimize the density of the sludge
pumped to the DAF tanks. As well as reducing the load imposedon the sludge scraper blades to reduce wear
and maintenance downtime. To do this they requireaccurate measurement of the interface blanket with a
sonar interface transmitter that had anautomatic cleaning mechanism. The interface transmitter needed
to operate without operatorassistance, especially after hours.The system had many advantages over timed
related solutions. Melbourne Water uses this systemin a controlled loop configuration, rather than just monitoring
purposes

The unit is mounted to the side


of the clarifier.The transducer
is mounted just under the
surface of the water. The
Sludge transmitter is locatedin the control
interface
cabinet aprox 10 metres away.
Bottom
of tank The actuator strokes the transducer
in and out ofthe water with a
1.7 metres definite action causing any
buildup to be removed. This unit has
been in thesewerage for over 2
years without requiringmanual
Transmit
pulse cleaning.

The profile of the tank shows a very defined interface. This


means that there is excellent settling of the solids with minimal
light interface. You can see from the above screen save that the
echo off the interface is over 2.5 volts. Melbourne Water have
used the analogue signal from this instrument to control the
speed of the pump which sends the sludge to the DAF area. Our
unit can monitor the level so they can ensure that they optomise
the sludge density while at the same time not let the level get to
high which will put more wear on the mechanical scrapers

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SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
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Application Note Primary Sedimentation Tank


Beenyup STP
Hawk SAR-D-BS, ST002 Sonar Transducer and Impact Plate

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SONAR INTERFACE TRANSMITTER WITH IMAPACT PLATE


Typical mounting of
the "SAR" transmitter
with sun hood on walkway

Sonar transducer
with impact plate
cleaner mechanism

Counter
weight
Typical installation of a sonar
interface transmitter on a "clarifier",
"thickener", "primary sedimentation
tank", that has a surface scum
collector, showing sonar sensor and
impact plate

Sonar
Transducer
Impact plate

Part No. Sonar Transducer


ST002-4X2P with impact plate

SAR-D-SH Sonar Transmitter

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HAWK MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS

SONAR - SCUM CLEANING ELECTRIC ACTUATOR ASSEMBLY


APPLICATION

Sonar scum cleaning


mechanism in initial
Mounting: The scum cleaning mechanism is generally position
mounted from the bridge on a clarifier, thickener or from
the side of the tank near the moveable launder on a
IDAL/Sequential batch tank. Sonar sensor mounted
below water level.
>

<
Electric Actuator

<
< Sonar
< Transducer
Sonar scum cleaning
mechanism mounting
possibilities. Sonar scum cleaning
See data sheet for mechanism full/extended.
dimensions Note: length of stroke is
Part No. adjustable.
<

ST002-4A2X Sonar Transducer with Auto Scum Cleaning


SAR-D-SH Sonar Transmitter Sonar <
Transducer

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Thickener application for sonar interface

(1) Controls underflow pump rate.


(2) Provides feedback to floc densing control.
(3) Provides visual display on the interface profile.
(4) Provides turbidity infornation on solids in suspension

Interface Profile

Bed Level Bottom of tank

Floc interface

Transmit pulse

1.4m per millisecond

Bed level monitoring / floc control


Using a specially chosen low frequency transducer guarantees that the bed level
will always be the largest echo. This is very important for floc control.
(See Hawk application sheet on thickener interface measurement.

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Sewage Treatment Plant

Thickener Installation
"Sonar Interface"
Approx. Mounting = 1/3 Radius

Sonar Transmitter Thickener


Bridge

Automatic
scum
cleaning
actuator

Launder

Sonar
Transducer

Scraper
Bed Level

Inflow
from Primary Sedimentation Tank Underflow
W.A.S from secondary clarifier
(Waste activated sludge)
Launder
Outfeed

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Sewage Treatment Plants (IDEA . Sequential Batch Reactors)

(A) Sequential Batch Reactor

The main application for the sonar interface transmitter for these tanks are:

(1) To monitor the settling blanket after the aeration phase, to automatically start the
decant phase.

(2) To provide alarm status if the tank bulks up and high levels of suspended solids
are present.

The advantages are:

(A) By monitoring the settling blanket after the aeration phase, we can start the decant
earlier, thereby increasing the volume throughput by up to 20% for each tank. All tests have
shown that in the majority of installations, that 20 minutes after aeration has ceased, the
settling blanket has dropped by over 1 meter below the surface. This in general is enough
clearance to start decanting.

If the settling blanket is slower to settle because of a biological problems (change in the
effluence load makeup) then the sonar will start the decant when the blanket has settled
to the preprogrammed start level or activate an alarm.

(B) Increase efficiency of the tank throughput by reducing fixed time delay on the
"settling wait period", by controlling directly in the process.

(C) Provide alarm status if the tank bulks, or high levels of suspended solids are present
Especially advantageous on small unmanned sites or partially manned sites. Remote
monitoring of the process.

(D) Reduce manpower requirements by automating.

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Application Note Sewage Treatment


(IDEA / Sequential Batch Plant)
Controlling Effluent Decant after aeration.Detecting Bulking / Fluff levels rising
during effluent decant.

Instrument: Hawk sonar Transmitter Complete with Float / scum cleaning actuator.

Problem
The client who has a number of IDEA (Intermittent Decant Extended Areation / Sequential
batch plants, wanted to increase the number of batches per week by controlling the start of
the effluent decant sequence. The client also wanted the system to monitor bulking or pinfloc
rising during the decant phase. The sequence for each batch was, Aeration for 2 hours,
settling for 1 hour, decant for 1 hour, Total batch time = 4 hours.

These plants are run 24 hours a day, 7 days a week however are only manned 8 hours a day
5 days a week

The unit is mounted on the


side of the tank. The sensor
is mounted within a float so
it can rise and fall with the
decanting of the tank. It can
also clean on a time base
by stroking in and out. After
several months of continuous
use the sensor was still
spotlessly clean.

Solution
We installed our Hawk SAR-D-BS transmitter with a ST003-4AL2X-F35 sonar transducer,
complete with a 300mm float and auto scum cleaner. The float allows the sonar to ride on the
surface, during the decant when the liquid level drops.

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SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
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Application Note Sewage Treatment


(IDEA / Sequential Batch Plant)
The auto scum cleaner removes all fat and other solids that are in suspension during
aeration that impinge on the sensor. ( No Cleaning by operators).

We found that after the aeration cycle (2 hrs) had finished, That within 20 minutes of settling
a 1 metre gap between the settling solids (blanket) and the launder / decant start position
had emerged. This was more than enough margin to start decanting. Within 30 minutes of
the start of settling the blanket was 1.5 metres below the launder / decant position.

Outcome

Over a seven day period, the sonar transmitter saved approximately 28 hours ( 7 additional
batches / week ). This approximated an increased throughput of 17% for the plant by
automating the decanting process. The client also had a system that would prevent
decanting if bulking / fluff pinfloc were detected rising near the launder
Sludge Blanket Depth - 3-4 Feb during aeration

120

This is a typical trend from the sonar


transmitter indicating slight changes 100

in each profile during settling.


80

*During aeration the sonar reads


Pe r ce nt

60

high because the sludge level


goes high. When settling occurs 40

the unit follows the level down.


20

Typical bed settling time


0
1 07

10

59

38

28

07

35

00: 4
:4 17

56

35

24

:3 03

9: 1

1
:0 4 9

:3 5
3
17 : 3

03 : 4

12 : 4
16 :00

18 :28

22 :45

00 :14

02 5: 2

05 21

07 4: 9

10 1: 7

11 5: 6

14 2: 4

3
20 :

05 :

06 :

08 :

09 :

10 :

13 :

9:
1

8
7:

19 :

21 :

23 :

23 :

01 :

04 :
7

6
:0

:5

:4

:3

:2

:1

:0

:5

:2

:1

:1
:2

:1

:5

:5

:3

:2

:1

:0

:5

:4

:2

:1

:0

:4
15

17

15

The transducer has been recessed


into the ball float to maximise the
available range out of the transducer.
.
The regular cleaning action keeps
the unit free from fats and buildup
on the face.

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Application Note Floating Sonar Sensor


Applications with varying level heights

Measuring position float/sensor


perpendicular to water surface

Cleaning mechanism
with electrical actuator

Cleaning actuator
extended during
'cleaning cycle'

Tank level variations can APPLICATIONS:


be from 50mm (2") to 5.0m
(advise decant range) Monitoring interface bed level and
settling solids on SBR/Idea Tanks.
Ideal for all sonar interface applications where
the upper liquid tank varies and requires continuous
monitoring of settling interface and blanket.

Float rises and falls


dependent on tank levels

Part Numbers Pipe Guide


Polystyrene Float
ST003-4A2X-F350 Sonar Transducer 350mm Sonar Sensor
polystyrene float. max range 30m
Sonar sensor mounted
in float.
Float moves up and
down with level Stainless Steel Base
Friction Grips (2)

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Water Treatment Plants

Interface Level Applications

Primary Sedimentation Tanks

Thickeners

Application Notes
- Monitoring floc level in Sedimentation Tanks
- Bed level monitoring - Thickeners

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Water Treatment Plant - Sonar Applications

(A) Primary Sedimentation Tank

The main application of the Sonar interface transmitter for these tanks is to:

(1) Monitor the floc level accurately to improve efficiencies of the tank.

(2) Provide automatic control and alarms of the floc in thanks where
"settling tubes" have been installed in the top to increase throughput.

The advantages are

(A) Provide a control to the floc bed level in the tank, thereby optimising the quality
of the water flowing over the launders.

(B) Provide an alarm status where the floc floats to the surface.

(C) Reduces manpower requirement by automation.

(D) Especially advantageous for small unmanned sites, or partially manned sites.

(B) Thickener

The main application of the Sonar Interface Transmitter for the thickener
tank is to monitor the bed level, to optimise the bed density being pumped to
the filter presses by controlling the underflow pump rate.

The advantages are

(A) Optimise sludge density being pumped to the filter presses.

(B) Reduce run time of the filter presses, lower running costs.

(C) Provide alarm status if settling does not occur.

(D) Automate the process and reduce manning costs.

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SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
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pplication Note Floc level control in freshwater Clarifiers


Winnike Treatment Plant
Instrument: Hawk SAR-D-BS Transmitter ST003 sonar transducer 300KHz.

Winnike treatment is located in the hills outside Melbourne. It supplies 440ML of water per
day to over 2 Million people. Although they have a large storage reservoir they often pull
water straight from the Yarra River. During these times it place a high load on the plant
and Floc blanket level monitoring becomes very critical. The nature of the product means
that they are interested in looking at the top of the light interface. Hawk measurement
determined the correct sensor frequency to best suit this light interface

Floc interface

Transmit
pulse
3.4m

Bottom of tank

This trend shows an excellent Floc interface. There is a small amount of material
in front of the interface. The bottom of the tank is also clearly visible

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Application Note Floc level control in freshwater Clarifiers


Winnike Treatment Plant (cont)
The unit is mounted to the side of the clarifier. The transducer is mounted just under the
surface of the water. The transmitter is located on the handrail. The actuator strokes the
transducer in and out of the water with a definite action causing any buildup to be removed.
This unit has never requiring manual cleaning, which had been an issue with previous
interface floc transmitters that required constant operator cleaning intervention.

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Application Note Thickener Application for Sonar Interface

(1) Controls underflow pump rate.


(2) Provides feedback to floc densing control.
(3) Provides visual display on the interface profile.
(4) Provides turbidity infornation on solids in suspension

Interface Profile

Bed Level Bottom of tank

Floc interface

Transmit pulse

1.4m per millisecond

Bed level monitoring / floc control


Using a specially chosen low frequency transducer guarantees that the bed level
will always be the largest echo. This is very important for floc control.
(See Hawk application sheet on thickener interface measurement.

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SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
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Application Note Water Treatment Plant

Thickener Installation
"Sonar Interface"
Approx. Mounting = 1/3 Radius

Sonar Transmitter Thickener


Bridge

Automatic
scum
cleaning
actuator

Launder

Sonar
Transducer

Scraper
Bed Level

Inflow
sludge from Underflow
primary sedimentation to filter press
tanks. dry sludge
plant Launder
Outfeed
return
water
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Thickener Tanks

Bed level / floc monitoring

Paste Thickener bed level

Thickener bed level

Leach infeed Thickener

PN Clarifier

CCD Thickeners

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Thickeners - Bed Level / Floc Monitoring

Industries that use Thickeners

Mining Process Plants


Steel Plants
Alumina Refineries
Sewage Treatment Plants
Pulp and Paper Plants
Food Plants
Chemical Plants
Waste Water Treatment Plants
Water Treatment Plants
Fertilizer Plant

The main applications for the sonar interface transmitter for all the above mentioned
"thickener" tanks are as follows.

*Note: "Sonar transducer frequency choice is critical to success"

(1) To control the underflow pumprate by monitoring the bed level in the Thickener.

(2) To provide feedback information to the floc dosing control loop, when used in conjunction
with a density underflow gauge regarding "over dosing" of floc.

(3) To provide feedback information to the floc dosing control loop when there is an increase
in suspended solids which could relate to "under dosing" of floc

(4) To provide a visual display to the control room on the interface profiles in the tank.

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Application Note Paste Thickener Bed Level


Pajingo Mine, Newmont Australia
Low frequency sonar, auto cleaner & transmitter

Transducer face

3.5m

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Application Note Paste Thickener Bed Level


Pajingo Mine (cont)

Bed level of the Paste Thickener is required for control of floculant dosing. The customer is
using a bed level sensor, which utilises a float on a magnetic rod. A rake on a hydraulic lift
scrapes the settled bed towards the underflow pump inlet. The rakes have pickets welded
on the structure. The float is positioned above the pickets, and the bed layer never reaches
this height, unless the thickener goes out of control and slimes. Torque amps Bed mass and
Bed level are measured. The torque amps are measured as precautionary and acts as an alar
for too much bed to avoid mechanical damage of the rake. This measurement is fairly
coarse, and cannot be relied on for dosing purposes. The Bed Mass is used to determine
the Specific Gravity of the material. Bed level is critical for floc dosing control, and ensures
that underdosing does not occur to overflow the thickener with suspended solids.
Overdosing of floc is expensive and can reduce the bed density. The Thickener is
approximately 10m deep at the centre, 6m below the sonar sensor, and is positioned
approximately one third of the radius from the outside wall. Despite a reasonably high
rotational flow, scaling is fairly severe in both the launder, and the internal piping structures.
An anti-scaling dosing pump is utilised to minimise the scaling. However the use of the
scum cleaner on a timed operate cycle keeps the sonar transducer diaphragm free of scale
build-up. No operator cleaning required.

Comments :
The Sonar instrument worked perfectly on first power up with no changes to default settings.
Readings were compared to a portable Hawk analyze PIA gap sensor (2MHz), and
correlated to within 300mm on all occasions. The portable device detected a change in
density over a distance of around 300mm above the bed, from "clear” to “cloudy”
to “thick” Bed (0% to 80%).

Gap sensors are only used with Portable Density / Interface Analysers on Thickeners.

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SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
P RE SE NT AT ION

Application Note Thickener Bed Level


WMC Australia
Low frequency Sonar, auto cleaner & transmitter

Picture top left shows


walkway to accommodate
sweep from automatic
actuator. Sonar amplifier
(left) is mounted on the
bridge.

Sonar Part No.


SAR-D-SH Sonar Transmitter
ST007-4A2X Sonar Transducer
C/- Scum cleaner
Application details :
Bed level of the Thickener is required for control of floculant dosing. Torque, bed mass
and bed level are measured. The torque is measured as precautionary and acts as an
alarm for too much bed to avoid mechanical damage of the rake. This measurement is
fairly coarse, and cannot be relied on for dosing purposes. The bed mass is used to
determine the Specific Gravity of the material. Bed level is critical for floc dosing control,
and ensures that underdosing does not occur to overflow the thickener, rendering it
superfluous. Overdosing is expensive and unnecessary! The sonar sensor, and is
positioned approximately one third of the diameter from the outside wall. Despite a
reasonably high rotational flow, scaling is fairly severe. The automatic cleaning
mechanism ensures long term reliability, as well as the higher pressure wave affect
achieved by the low frequency sonar transducer.

RETURN TO CONTENTS 29
SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
P RE SE NT AT ION

pplication Note Leach Infeed Thickener


Bulong Nickel Operations

1.4m

Bed Level
Sonar transducer Sonar frequency is optimized.
Transmit point Good amplitude signal
(launder Level) Distance: 1.4m from launder

The “Leach infeed thickener” screen save, shows a significant signal from the bed level
at 1.4m from the sonar sensor Using a manual dip, we were able to confirm this position.
The height of the bed was quite high , when compared with the operators guess, using
scraper torque amps and hydrostatic pressure.

The operator felt that the bed level was at least 2.5 m down from the launder.

The sonar provides a more accurate means of determining bed level, which would
provide a better overall control of the under flow pumps.The signal height was 2.75 volts
and no other lighter density interfaces were monitered.

Note: The amplitude of the signal increases proportionally to the density. The higher the
density the greater theamplitude of the signal.Optimizing the sonar frequency to the
density is critical.
RETURN TO CONTENTS 30
SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
P RE SE NT AT ION

pplication Note PN Clarifier


Bulong Nickel Operations

Sonar Part No.


2.32m SAR-D-SH Sonar Transmitter
ST002-4A2X Sonar Transducer
2.0m c/i Scum cleaner

“Very light density interface” Light density interface


Sonar transducer Reasonable amplitude signal. Signal Amplitude 2.0V
Transmit point Could be enhanced by higher Good Sonar Frequency
(launder Level) frequency transducer. optimization.
Distance: 2.0m from launder Distance: 2.32m from launder

The “PN clarifier” tank screen save shows a density profile of lighter density interfaces. The
monitoring of these lighter interfaces is critical to the tanks performance. Suspended solids
flowing over the launder are very detrimental to the process.

Choosing the correct sonar frequency, that is optimized to the density of the interface is critical.

The “very light density” interface, has a signal amplitude of 800mV and could be
enhanced further by using a higher frequency sonar transducer. (Sonar frequency 300KHz)

The “light density interface” has a signal amplitude of 2.00 volt and shows high
optimization to the sonar sensor used.

Note: The amplitude of the signal increases proportionally to the density. The higher the
density the greater the amplitude of the signal.
RETURN TO CONTENTS 31
SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
P RE SE NT AT ION

Application Note CCD 3 - Interface Level


OM Group Cawse Nickel Operations

Sonar Part No.


4.28m SAR-D-SH Sonar Transducer
ST007-4A2X c/- Scum cleaner
2.28m
2.00m

Bed Level
Sonar transducer “Light density” Sonar frequency is optimized.
Transmit point Note: Small amplitude Good amplitude signal because of
(launder Level) signal. Sonar frequency heavier density material.
needs to be higher for Distance: 4.28 from launder
optimization Distance
2.0m from Launder

The CCD Tank screen save, shows a density profile with the heavier density bed level at 4.28m from the sonar sensor (Launder
level) and a number of lighter density interfaces, appearing above the bed level.
Using a manually operated air lance, we confirmed that the first interface appeared approximately 2.00 metres down from the
sensor. From an operators point of view, it looked as though this was the bed level.
When comparing to the screen save, this interface at 2.00 metres was not the bed level. The bed was at 4.28 metres and the
amplitude was 3.5 times greater in size, than the lighter density interface.
Note: the amplitude of the signal increases proportionally to density. The higher the density the greater the amplitude or signal.
Optimizing the sonar frequency to the density is the most critical decision.
You will note that the amplitude of the lighter density interface is quite small. To monitor the lighter interface in the control strategy
as well as the blanket level we would have to utilize another frequency sonar transducer that is optimized for lighter density. Two
sonar transducers can be fitted to the scum cleaner.

This way we could monitor the bed level (lower Frequency) 30KHz and the lighter density interface (higher frequency) 150KHz
simultaneously.

Advantages:
(1) Bed level: Provide continuous control of the under flow pumps, to prevent over pumping of the “bed level”. This will allow
stability of the density being pumped by the underflow pumps.
(2) Lighter density interface: Provide alarm status when the lighter interface approaches the launder level. Provide profile data
to operators on settling rates in tanks.

RETURN TO CONTENTS 32
SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
P RE SE NT AT ION

Application Note CCD 1 - Interface Level


OM Group Cawse Nickel Operations

Sonar Part No.


SAR-D-SH Sonar Transducer
ST007-4A2X Sonar Transducer
3.57m c/- Scum cleaner

Sonar transducer
Transmit point Bed Level
(launder Level) Sonar frequency is optimized.
Good amplitude signal because of
heavier density material.No lighter
density interface present, good settling.
Distance: 3.57m from launder

The CCD Tank screen save, shows a density profile with the heavier density bed level at 3.57m from
the sonar sensor (Launder level) and a number of very lighter density interfaces, appearing above the
bed level.
The bed level amplitude was 3.0 volt and the lighter was approximately 100mv in amplitude.
The bed level signal was perfectly optimized with the correct sonar sensor.
To continuously monitor the lighter density interfaces, as well as the bed level, an aditional higher
frequency sonar transducer would have to be added.
Note: The amplitude of the signal increases proportionally to the density. The higher the density the
greater the amplitude of the signal.
Optimizing the sonar frequency to the density is the critical decision
RETURN TO CONTENTS 33
SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
P RE SE NT AT ION

Installation Notes

Sonar Transducer and cleaning mechanisms

Thickener Tank etc

Electric/Pneumatic Actuator Mechanism

Actuator Float Mechanism for varying liquid levels

Impact Plate for tanks with surface scum collectors

RETURN TO CONTENTS 34
SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
P RE SE NT AT ION

Application Note Electric/Pneumatic scum cleaning version


Suitable for a fixed or moving bridge

Thickener Installation
"Sonar Interface"
Approx. Mounting = 1/3 Radius

Sonar Transmitter Thickener


Bridge

Automatic
scum
cleaning
actuator

Launder

Sonar
Transducer

Scraper
Bed Level

Inflow
Underflow

Notes: (1) Sonar transducer frequency selection is


application based.
(2) Sonar transducer must always be immersed Launder
or use the floating sensor system. Outfeed
RETURN TO CONTENTS 35
SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
P RE SE NT AT ION

Application Note Sonar Interface Impact Plate Cleaning Mechanism


Clarifiers, thickeners etc
(use with surface scum collectors)

Typical mounting of
the "SAR" transmitter
with sun hood on walkway

Sonar transducer
with impact plate
cleaner mechanism

Counter
weight
Typical installation of a sonar
interface transmitter on a "clarifier",
"thickener", "primary sedimentation
tank", that has a surface scum
collector, showing sonar sensor and
impact plate

Sonar
Transducer
Impact plate

RETURN TO CONTENTS 36
SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
P RE SE NT AT ION

Application Note Sonar Scum Cleaning Mechanism


Full/extended length of stroke is adjustable

Mounting: The sonar transducer is mounted approximately 1/3 radius from the
circumferance of the clarifier thickener etc. The pole is available in
various lengths and the Sonar sensor must be immersed in
liquid, for the entire Sonar sensor housing

>
Actuator extended

Sonar
Transducer
>

Electric Actuator

Sonar scum cleaning mechanism,


in its initial position mounted to
bridge on a clarifier or thickener
using angle iron brackets
Sonar
Transducer

RETURN TO CONTENTS 37
SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
P RE SE NT AT ION

Application Note Floating Sensor


For applications with varying level heights

Measuring position float/sensor


perpendicular to water surface

Cleaning mechanism
with electrical actuator

Cleaning actuator
extended during
'cleaning cycle'

Tank level variations can APPLICATIONS:


be from 50mm (2") to 5.0m
(advise decant range) Monitoring interface bed level and
settling solids on SBR/Idea Tanks.
Ideal for all sonar interface applications where
the upper liquid tank varies and requires continuous
monitoring of settling interface and blanket.

Float rises and falls


dependent on tank levels

Pipe Guide
Polystyrene Float
Part Numbers
Sonar Sensor
max range 30m
ST003-4A2X-F350 Sonar Transducer
350mm polystyrene
float.
Sonar sensor
mounted in float.
Float moves up and Stainless Steel Base

down with level Friction Grips (2)

RETURN TO CONTENTS 38
SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
P RE SE NT AT ION

Sonar Impact Plate Assembly

3 4

ITEM NO. QTY. PART NO.


1 1 ST-SS-EP
2 1 SA-FCLEVIS-2
3 1 SA-MCLEVIS-2
4 1 SA-CBALANCE-2
5 1 SA-IMPACT-2
6 1 Sonar Transducer

RETURN TO CONTENTS
SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
P RE SE NT AT ION

Impact Plate

RETURN TO CONTENTS
SONAR INTERFACE LEVEL
P RE SE NT AT ION

Sonar Sludge Swing Bracket

ITEM NO. QTY. DRAWING NO. DESCRIPTION


1 1 HAW_A_SA-SS-SBA
2 1 HAW_A_SA-SS-EPA
3 1 HAW_A_SA-0 Sonar Sensor

RETURN TO CONTENTS
NON CONTACT LEVEL MEASUREMENT

SONAR TRANSDUCER + SCUM BRUSH


Diagram Diagr am

Mounting: Flange or External Bracket

Sealing : Sonar Transducer IP68 Wiring to SAR-D


11 Transmitter
Scum Brush IP68 (weited area)

>
> >
>
9
Bracket to support
Scum Brush Motor / Electrics > 5 Scum Brush motor
24 VDC
Supply from SAR-D Transmitter

316SS
3
>
Mounting pole

5
>

10 >
316 SS Protection tube
for rotating shaft > 2 1.0" BSP nipple 316SS

>
4 Sonar Sensor
ST002
8
>
>

Nylon Brush
>

6
7
Sealed Bearing
Replaceable Brush
D ATA S H E E T
AUGUST 2001

EN
ON T
OFF
“PORTA
BLE INT
RFACE
ANALYZ
ER”

ENT
ON
OFF


LYZER
E ANA
TRFAC
ORTABLE IN
“P

INTERFACE LEVEL MONITORING FUNCTION


The portable (PIA) weatherproof analyzer, allows for an early

Portable Interface determination of where the interface is. When the interface is
detected, an audible signal, as well as either a Bar Graph indicating
percentage or a 0 - 100% digital display, provides the operator
Analyzer with all the necessary information to accurately gauge the interface
depth.
PIA Series Because the analyzer uses sonar technology, it is not affected
by colour change, (eg. use of ferric chloride). A single sensor
Portable Sludge and Interface Level Analyzer works on all density levels, including applications with heavy
solids, such as the Daf area in a sewage treatment plant.
Range: 0 - 20,000 mg/1
Not affected by colour change TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
■ WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT: Primary and
Secondary Clarifier Interface or bed level. Daf Plant.
■ MINING: Clarifiers, thickeners, settlers, settling ponds.
■ FOOD: Carbon columns.
■ WATER: Clarifiers, potable and raw water plants.

KEY FEATURES
■ Single sonar transducer, handles all density ranges.
T RALI A ■ Rugged stainless (316SS) sonar transducer plus
US
metal carrying case and battery charger.
N
A

DESIGNED
■ Audible alarm when interface detected, as well as digital
&
MA

ED

N Approved display.
R

UF
A CTU
■ Not affected by colour change.

PATENTS PENDING 1
I N T E R FA C E L E V E L M O N I T O R I N G

Portable Interface Analyzer


PIA Series D ATA S H E E T
AUGUST 2001

Principal of Operation Features


The PIA Series Sonar Interface/Density Analyzer ■ Full range of Echo processing software to cover
consists of a Hand Calibrater and the appropriate the heavy and light density interfaces.
SSA-1-2-10 sonar transducer.
■ Audjble buzzer for blanket level detection,
The transducer may be used on a wide range of programmable to operate at a required density.
densities. The Interface/Density Analyzer, detects
a density change and provides an autible alarm as ■ NEMA 4X (IP67) enclosure for PIA Analyzer.
well as a Bar Graph Display.
■ NEMA 4X (IP68) enclosure for Sonar Transducer.
Example:
High density sludge with suspended solids can use ■ Full operational diagnosics display on the
the same sensor as used for lower density operation of the PIA Analyzer.
sludge/interfaces.
■ Simple Auto Calibrate function.
The PIA Sonar Interface/Density Analyzer transmits
a sound pulse towards the reflector plate. The pulse ■ Re-chargable batteries, with battery charger.
signal is reflected off the plate, back to the sonar
■ 4 hours continuous operation.
transducer, then the PIA Analyzer interprets the
signal, compensates for temperature and provides, ■ One Sonar Sensor does all Densities.
an audible output and display of the sludge/interface.

Echo processing software monitors the operating


efficiency of the sonar transducer. When the density
of the monitored liquid increases or decreases this
change is displayed on the PIA Hand Calibrator in
% terms or simple bar graph representation. The
auto zero can be set in clean water or an area in
the tank where a lower density is known to be. This
will become the zero point and will show a
corresponding change on the Display (0%) of the
Hand Analyzer.

Using the Portable Interface Analyzer


As the PIA can be used in very light densities eg:
(water clarifier, measuring floculent) to heavy
densities (thickeners), an auto-calibrate is required
to set the zero (0%). The transducer (SSA-1) is
immersed below the surface of the liquid. A simple
push button function, will auto calibrate the
instrument to zero. Lowering the transducer into
the vessel, will see the display change in percentage,
as the density changes. An audible alarm, can be
set for a desired density level. Changing liquid
colours has no effect on the interface reading.

2
I N T E R FA C E L E V E L M O N I T O R I N G

Portable Interface Analyzer


PIA Series D ATA S H E E T
AUGUST 2001

DIMENSIONS
PIA Remote Sonar Density Analyzer
P/N: (PIA-1-D)

130mm 60mm

243mm

ENT
ON
OFF

“PORTABLE INTRFACE ANALYZER”

90mm 42mm

PIA Remote Sonar Transducer


P/N: (SSA-1-2-10)

1" BSP
Nipple

180mm

60mm 25mm 50mm

3
I N T E R FA C E L E V E L M O N I T O R I N G

Portable Interface Analyzer


PIA Series D ATA S H E E T
AUGUST 2001

SPECIFICATIONS
Range Transducer/Amplifier Separation
• 0 – 20,000mg/1 • 10m (33ft) supplied (longer cable on request)
Operating Voltage Display
• 4 x 1.5V batteries • 2 x 8 digit alphanumeric LCD with Diagnostics
Display
Memory
• % change
• Non-Volatile (No backup battery required)
• Bar graph
• >10 years data retention
Alarm
Enclosure Sealing
• Audible alarm
• Remote Analyzer IP67
Electronic Accuracy • Remote Transducer IP68
• + 0.25% of maximum range
Typical Weight
Operating Temperature
• Remote Analyzer 1kg (2.2lb)
• Remote electronics • Remote Transducer 2kg (4.4lb)
-20°C (-4°F) to 60°C (140°F)
• Remote transducer Transducer
-20°C (-4°F) to 100°C (212°F) • 316 Stainless Steel (Other Materials option)

PART NUMBERING

PIA Remote Sonar Interface Analyzer PIA Series Transducer


SSA-1
MODEL
PIA-1 = Sonar Interface Analyser (PORTABLE) HOUSING MATERIAL
(Complete with metal carrying 0 = UPVC
case and battery charger) 2 = Stainless Steel
4 = Polypropylene
Charging Kit 5 = PVDF Kynar
6 = Teflon
D = 220 to 240Vac
E = 110 to 120Vac
10 = Cable lenth 10 metres (Standard)

PIA-1 - D SSA-1 - 2 - 10

Hawk Measurement Systems Represented by:


15-17 Maurice Court
Nunawading 3131 Victoria Australia
Telephone: 61 3 9873 4750
Facsimile: 61 3 9873 4538
E-mail Address: HawkSales@hawk.com.au
Measurement Systems We b S i t e : h t t p : / / w w w. h a w k l e v e l . c o m
ADDITIONAL PRODUCT WARRANTY AND APPLICATION GUARANTEES UPON REQUEST.
TECHNICAL DATA SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE.

8/01 4
Portable Interface
Analyzer
Sonar - PIA Series
Interface level monitoring

T RALI A
US
N
A

DESIGNED
&
MA

ED

N
R

UF
A CTU Approved

Installation and Operating Instructions


Measurement Systems
SONAR - PIA Series

INTRODUCTION CONTENTS
PROPRIETARY NOTICE
The information contained in this publication is PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 2
derived in part from proprietary and patent data.
This information has been prepared for the express ST SELECTION GUIDELINES 2
purpose of assisting operating and maintenance
personnel in the efficient use of the instrument
described herein. SPECIFICATIONS 3
Publication of this information does not convey
any rights to use or reproduce it, or to use for any DIMENSIONS 5
purpose other than in connection with the
installation, operation and maintenance of the
equipment described herein. MOUNTING 7

Copyright 1995
Printed by Graphic Zone, Australia FACIA 8
All Rights Reserved.

WIRING 9
WARNING
This instrument contains electronic components
that are susceptible to damage by static electricity. PARAMETER and FLOW CHARTS 13
Proper handling* procedures must be observed
during the removal, installation, or handling or FLOW CHARTS 14
internal circuit boards or devices.

* Handling Procedure TRACKING 16


1. Power to unit must be removed.
2. Personnel must be grounded, via wrist strap or WARRANTY/PART NUMBERING 18
other safe, suitable means, before any printed
circuit board or other internal device is installed,
removed or adjusted.
3. Printed circuit boards must be transported in
a conductive bag or other conductive container.
Boards must not be removed from protective
enclosure until the immediate time of
installation. Removed boards must be placed
immediately in a protective container for
transport, storage, or return to factory.

Comments:
This instrument is not unique in its content of ESD
(electrostatic discharge) sensitive components.
Most modern electronic designs contain
components that utilize metal oxide technology
(NMOS, CMOS, etc.) Experience has proven that
even small amounts of static electricity can damage
or destroy these devices. Damaged components,
even though they appear to function properly,
exhibit early failure. Edition: No. 1

1
SONAR - PIA Series

PRINCIPALE OF OPERATION
The PIA Series Sonar sends a series of high zero point. Densities higher than this will
frequency pulses to thr reflecting plate and cause the display to increase its displayed
monitors the return sigal. Whn an interface valve. The gain valve and the sensitivity
with a higher density than the calibrated setting for the auto cal operation can be
density is reached, the calibration density is observed by pressing the up and down
reached, the return signal size changes. This button. The top line of the display will show
change in signal size is reflected in the display these settings.
changing according to the difference detected.
A manual adjustment for fine tuning or for
Differing densities may be zeroed out by small density changes can be best adjusted
calibration. Always chooseto calibrate in the within the manual adjustment under the trim
lowest density position within the liquid to heading.
be tested. The lowest density will be set as a

SPECIFICATIONS

Range Transducer/Amplifier Separation


• 0 – 20,000mg/1 • 10m (33ft) supplied (longer cable on request)
Operating Voltage Display
• 4 x 1.5V batteries
• 2 x 8 digit alphanumeric LCD with Diagnostics
Display
Memory
• % change
• Bar graph • Non-Volatile (No backup battery required)
• >10 years data retention
Alarm
• Audible alarm Enclosure Sealing
• Remote Analyzer IP67
Electronic Accuracy
• Remote Transducer IP68
• + 0.25% of maximum range
Typical Weight
Operating Temperature
• Remote Analyzer 1kg (2.2lb)
• Remote electronics
• Remote Transducer 2kg (4.4lb)
-20°C (-4°F) to 60°C (140°F)
• Remote transducer Transducer
-20°C (-4°F) to 100°C (212°F) • 316 Stainless Steel (Other Materials option)

2
SONAR - PIA Series

DIMENSIONS
PIA Remote Sonar Density Analyzer
P/N: (PIA-1-D)

130mm 60mm

Sludge %
35.6%

243mm

ENT
ON
OFF

“PORTABLE INTRFACE ANALYZER”

90mm 42mm

3
SONAR - PIA Series

DIMENSIONS cont’d
PIA Remote Sonar Transducer
P/N: (SSA-1-2-10)

1" BSP
Nipple

180mm

60mm 25mm 50mm

4
SONAR - PIA Series

DIMENSIONS cont’d
PIA Remote Sonar Case

SSA Sensor
Slu35
dg %
.6
e
%
EN
T
“P

ON OFF
OR
TA
BL
E IN
TR
FA
CE
AN
ALY
ZE
”R

Battery Charger
PIA Handheld Analyzer

Charging /Battery Replacement


Whn the A.C. power supply is connected to the PIA no charging of the batteries occur.
To re-charge the battery it is necessary to use the battery charger supplied. Batteries
may be removed by carefully gripping the base of the PIA where the indentations are
located. Push these two (2) places and remove the bottom seal.
A tongue is attached to allow the battery pack to be removed. It is necessary to push
down on the tongue to release this pack. Pull out the pack. There are five (5) batteries
(1.2 V Nickl Metal Hydride). If you replace these batteries with new batteries they MUST
be the same type.

5
SONAR - PIA Series

CALIBRATION PROCEDURE
Press RUN for 1 sec to start unit operating.
Press RUN for 1 sec to stop unit operating.

The sensor must be lowered into the liquid where the density (% Solids) is the lowest. The sensor
must be lowered to where the reflecting bracket is beneath the liquid surface by a minimum of
at least 20mm.
It would be best to lower the sensor until the black sealing cap is at the liquid level.
Once this is done follow the Normal Calibration procedure under SET UP heading (for large %
solids change in the liquid) or the Fine Calibration under TRIM heading which is better for liquids
where there is a smaller % solids change.
Normal Calibration
Sludge %
Sludge %
35.50% Gn 80% (operating gain diagnostic)
Sens 9 (sensitivity setting diagnostic)

☞ CAL Allows or coded entry 0-200


Unlock:
0 Enter code if coded entry is used. adjustments can be accelerated by
holding the up or down button and then push the CAL button.
☞ CAL
Set Up Set Up Trim
Trim

☞ CAL
Disp Mode Sludge %
Sludge % Bar Graph

☞ CAL Yes
Calibrate
No Calibrate
No Wait
No

☞ CAL
Calibrate
Done

Damping
10 0-239 Allows damping of the display

☞ CAL
SW Point
30% Audible Alarm % Set Point

☞ CAL No
Alarm Set Allows audible alarm to actuate
No at SW Point % selected
Yes

☞ CAL No
Code Access Code Adjustment
No
Yes

☞ RUN * When the sensor is lowered this will increase Sludge % displayed value.
If no change is shown when the sensor is lowered you should go to Trim
* Sledge % heading and manually adjust the gain to read 0.5% at the point you know
0.0% to be the lowwest % solids, then press RUN and repeat the lowering
proceedure of the transducer into the liquid to be monitored.

6
SONAR - PIA Series

CALIBRATION PROCEDURE
Fine Calibration
Sludge %
Sludge %
35.50% Gn 80% (operating gain diagnostic)
Sens 9 (sensitivity setting diagnostic)

☞ CAL
Unlock:
0

☞ CAL
Set Up Set Up Set Up
Trim Trim
Trim

Trim

☞ CAL Yes
Sens 5
Adjust Sensitivity
1-9
Calibrate 35.50% 1 = low sensitivity
No 9 = high sensitivity
☞ CAL
No

☞ RUN
Gn:50%
Manual gain
adjustment for
Sludge 35.50% selected sensitivity
35.5% number. Adjust to
read 0 to 0.5% on

CAL
display

☞RUN
Calibrate
No

☞RUN Resume normal


operation
Sludge %
0.5%

When the sensor is lowered this %


value will increase with increasing
Sludge %.

7
SONAR - PIA Series

SOFTWARE FLOW CHART


PIA Hand held Sonar Density Meter
Display when in Running Mode.

Sludge %
35.5%
Unlock: 200
or ENT
0 0
(CAL)
Sludge %
ENT (CAL)

Set Up Trim

ENT (CAL) ENT (CAL)

Disp Mode Bar Graph Calibrate YES


Bar Graph SLUDGE % NO NO
ENT (CAL) ENT (CAL)

Calibrate YES Calibrate


ENT
NO NO Wait Sensitive
(CAL)

ENT (CAL)

230 Sense 3
Damping
0 0 Sense 10
or
ENT (CAL) Sense 1
Sense 3
SW Point 100.0% 35.5%
30% 0% ENT (CAL)

ENT (CAL)
Gain
Alarm Set YES
NO NO
Gn: 80%
ENT (CAL)
Gn:99%
YES 200 or
Code ENT
Code Gn:0%
NO O Gain 80%
NO (CAL) 0 35.5%
ENT (CAL) ENT (CAL)
ENT (CAL)

Note: Parameter values may vary from the above depending upon measurement and previous programming.
Press On/Off (RUN) button at any time to step back to normal running mode.
Calibrate function in Setup menu preforms Automatic Calibration.
Calibrate function in Trim menu allows Manual Calibration.
Transducer must be plugged in and immersed in liquid for calibration to be successful.

8
SA SONAR - Manual

WARRANTY
Hawk control products will be replaced, put breach of warranty, and Hawk shall not be
in good operating condition, or the purchase liable to any person for consequential
price refunded, at the option of Hawk, free damages for injury or commercial loss
of charges except transportation, if defective resulting from any breach of any warranty.
in their manufacture, labeling, packaging, or Hawk makes no warranty of fitness for a
shipping, and if notice of said defect is particular purpose, and makes no other
received by Hawk within one year from the warranty, express or implied, including
date of shipment. The cost of such implied warranty arising from course of
replacement, repair or refund or purchase dealing or usage of trade.
price shall be the exclusive remedy for any

PART NUMBERING
PIA Remote Sonar Interface Compete System

PIA - 1 - D - 1 - 2 - 10

PIA Remote Sonar Interface Analyzer


MODEL
PIA-1 = Sonar Interface Analyser (PORTABLE)
(Complete with metal carrying case and
battery charger)

Charging Kit
D = 220 to 240Vac
E = 110 to 120Vac

PIA-1 - D Analyzer Only

PIA Series Transducer


SSA-1 = Standard
2 = High Sensitivity (for low % solids)

HOUSING MATERIAL
0 = UPVC
2 = Stainless Steel
4 = Polypropylene
5 = PVDF Kynar
6 = Teflon

10 = Cable lenth 10 metres (Standard)

SSA-1 - 2 - 10 Sensor Only

9
Measurement Systems
Hawk Measurement Systems Pty. Ltd.
ACN 006 782 449
15-17 Maurice Court
Nunawading 3131 Victoria Australia
Telephone: 61 3 9873 4750
Facsimile: 61 3 9873 4538
INTERNET: http://www.hawklevel.com.au
E-mail Address: hawksales@hawk.com.au
INTERFACE LEVEL MONITORING

Sonar Level Transmitter DATA SHE E T


SA Series J A N U A R Y 2 00 4

SONAR with “GSM” capability

INTERFACE LEVEL MONITORING FUNCTION


Bed/Interface/Sludge Blanket, continuous level
measurement using HAWK’s comprehensive range of
Sonar Level Sonar Transducers and proven Sonar echo processing
algorithms.

Transmitter TYPICAL APPLICATIONS


■ WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT: Primary
SA Series and Secondary Clarifier interface level,
Sequential batch reactors, Idal plants, Thickeners.
Sludge, Interface / Bed Level, Water Clarity. ■ MINING: Clarifiers, thickeners, settlers, settling
ponds. (Coal, Zinc, Nickel, Lead, Iron,
Sonar frequency range from 1mHz to 10kHz Magnesium, Copper, Aluminium)
depending on Interface Density.
■ FOOD: Carbon columns, Thickeners, Clarifiers.
SPECIAL SONAR TRANSDUCER ■ WATER: Clarifiers, Thickeners, and raw water
Version with 150mm Blanking Range. plants.

KEY FEATURES
GSM Modem for remote technical and
■ Widest range of Sonar Transducers to improve
diagnostic support. interface measurements, especially light and
very heavy densities.
US
T RALI A ■ Automatic cleaning mechanism removes build-
N
A

Approved DESIGNED
up on the Sonar sensor, especially where scaling
&
and suspended solids are present.
MA

ED

N
SAA. Class 1 Zone 1 pending ■ Surface skimmers in primary clarifiers can be
R

UF
A CTU
SAA. Class 1 Zone 0 pending accomadated with the addition of the skimmer
impact plate. 1
INTERFACE LEVEL MONITORING

Sonar Level Transmitter DATA SHE E T


SA Series J A NU A R Y 20 04

PRINCIPAL OF OPERATION FEATURES


The SA Series Sonar Level System consists of an SA ■ Full range of sonar transducers to optimise
transmitter and the appropriate ST001, ST002, ST003, detection of heavy and light density interfaces.
ST004, ST005, ST006, ST007, ST008, ST009, ST010, ■ The SA Sonar transmitter handles all Hawk
sonar transducer. sonar transducers.
■ Standard range to 15 metres. Option: 30 metres.
The transducer selection will vary dependent upon
the density of the interface to be detected. Performance ■ Ultrasonic cleaning (light build-up) of the sonar
is very frequency (sonar transducer) dependent. transducer face and automatic control of the
heavy build-up “Scum Cleaner” (option).
Example: ■ 4-20mA (Isolated) analog output for blanket/bed
High density sludge with suspended solids level or distance to blanket/bed (interface).
will use a lower frequency transmitter, to defract ■ 200m sonar transducer/sonar transmitter
the signal around the particles in suspension. separation distance.
■ NEMA 4X (IP67) enclosure for SA transmitter.
Lower density sludge/interfaces require higher ■ 4 relays, field programmable for control purposes.
frequency transducers in order to maximize the return
■ Modbus Communications, RS485.
signal.
■ Windows based Sonar Hawk diagnostic and
The SA Sonar level transmitter emits a sound pulse communication software.
towards the interface/sludge which is at the bottom ■ Full operational diagnostics display on the SA
of the clarifier/tank, etc. The pulse signal is reflected transmitter.
off the interface, back to the sonar transducer, then ■ Special Short Blanking Range.
the level transmitter interprets the signal, compensates ■ GSM Modem for remote technical and diagnostic
for temperature and provides a distance reading, and support. * Consult Factory
an analog output proportional to the sludge/interface
height. Modbus Communications is also available. Thickener application for Sonar Interface
DATA BLOCK CURSOR VALUES
Echo processing software monitors the operating Name = Input A Input B X1 : 0.74ms
efficiency of the sonar transducer. As the efficiency Date = 19/01/95 19/01/95 X2 : 3.26 ms
Time = 10:35:32 PM 10:35:32 PM
of the transducer drops off due to build-up on the dX : 2.52 ms
Y scale = 500 mV/Div 1 V/Div Y1 : -0.20 -0.16 V
sensing face (generally caused by fats settling out, or Y at 50% = 1.54 V -2.68 V Y2 : 0.94 1.12 V
suspended solids attaching to the transducer), the X scale = 500 us/Div 500 us/Div dY : 1.14 1.28 V
sonar transmitter will increase the level of ultrasonic X at 0% = -0.50 ms -0.50 ms
cleaning of the face or where fitted will activate the X size = 250 (254) 250 (254)
Maximum = 2.66 V Overload
automatic “Scum Cleaner” which will remove all heavy Minimum = -0.03 V -0.16 V
build-up on the sonar transducer.

As a rule, the lower the frequency, the greater the


pressure wave with each pulse, the greater the
cleaning. Bed Level
Bottom
of Tank
Application Example:
Mining Thickener. (Dense mud layer)
Floc Interface
For this application we must use a low
frequency sonar transducer to measure the Transmit Pulse
bed level and not see the floc interface level.
We select the ST009 (15kHz) sonar transducer
and appropriate housing material for chemical
compatibility. Also select the auto-scum
500 us/Div 1.4m per millisecond
cleaner because of suspended solids that will
attach to the sensor, as well as minimizing Bed Level monitoring / Floc Control
scale build-up. High temperature service to Using a specially chosen low frequency transducer guarantees
150ºC (302ºF). that the bed level will always be the largest echo. This is very
important for floc control. (See Hawk application sheet on
thickener interface measuring.)
2
INTERFACE LEVEL MONITORING

Sonar Level Transmitter DATA SHE E T


SA Series J A N U A R Y 2 00 4

WIRING DIAGRAM
SA Remote Transducer Wiring

Yellow
RED
N/C
Actuator
AC Power Relay 1 Relay 2 Relay 3 Power
NEUTRAL
ACTIVE

Push
GND
GND

GND
Com
1ND

1NC
2ND

2NC
3ND

3NC
Pull
1C

2C

3C
301 SLUDGE
F303 MASTER

Sensor ECHO
TX
500mA, T

F302
AC Fuse Actuator CAL
1A, T 10A, T
RELAY 1
RELAY 2
RELAY 3
RUN

BROWN
TEST-IN

YELLOW
GND

BLACK

BLUE
GREEN
GND

GND

WHITE
+ DC

RemCirt
RED

ICOM I- I+
B
A

4 . . .20mA TRANSDUCER

Yellow
RED
N/C
Actuator
AC Power Relay 1 Relay 2 Relay 3 Power

NEUTRAL
DC-IN RS485

ACTIVE

Push
GND
GND

GND
Com
1ND

1NC
2ND

2NC
3ND

3NC
Pull
1C

2C

3C
Test
301
F302
Sensor
500mA, T

Input Modbus AC Fuse


1A, T
F302
Actuator
10mA, T

TEST-IN

YELLOW
GND

BLACK

BLUE
GREEN
GND

GND

GND
WHITE
+ DC

RemCirt
RED
ICOM I- I+

B
A
Isolated Remote 4 . . .20mA TRANSDUCER

Output Control Switch

Black, Brown & Shield


to be joined together.
ST001 - ST010

DIMENSIONS

ST Transducer SA Remote Transmitter


ST001 - ST010

1" BSP
Nipple
302mm (11.9")

175mm
(6.9")

A or B

A ST001 - ST006 135mm


75mm 186mm
B ST007 - ST010 250mm
(7.3")

3
INTERFACE LEVEL MONITORING

Sonar Level Transmitter DATA SHE E T


SA Series J A NU A R Y 20 04

DIMENSIONS

ST Auto Scum Cleaner (Option)

400mm

2
1.3m
510mm

5
6
3
400mm

4
Base mounting plate to be
mounted on brackets or on
clarifier structure.

1 Base mounting plate (Stainless steel) 7


2 Mounting holes (ø10mm)
3 ST Transducer mounting pipe
4 ST Transducer
5 Electro-actuator
6 ST Transducer termination enclosure
7 Special ST Short Blanking Range

4
INTERFACE LEVEL MONITORING

Sonar Level Transmitter DATA SHE E T


SA Series J A NU A R Y 20 04

FLOATING SONAR SENSOR


Measuring position APPLICATIONS:
float/sensor perpendicular Monitoring interface bed level and settling
Cleaning mechanism solids on SBR/Idea Tanks. Ideal for all sonar
with electrical actuator to water surface interface applications where the upper liquid
tank varies and requires continous monitoring
of settling interface and blanket.

Cleaning actuator
extended during
‘cleaning cycle’ Pipe guide
Tank level variation can be from
50mm (2”) to 5.0m (advise
decant range)

Polystyrene Float

Float rises and falls


depending on tank levels
Sonar Sensor
maximum range 30 metres Stainless Steel Base
Friction Grips (2)

SONAR - SCUM CLEANING ELECTRIC ACTUATOR ASSEMBLY


MOUNTING: The scum cleaning mechanism is
generally mounted from the bridge on a clarifier,
thickener or from the side of the tank near the
moveable launder on a IDAL/ Sequential batch tank.
Sonar senor mounted below water level.

Cleaning mechanism
with electrical actuator

Sonar scun cleaning


mechanism in initial Sonar scun cleaning
position mechanism in fully
extended position.
Note: length of
Sonar scun cleaning Sonar Transducer stroke is adjustable.
mechanism mounting
possibilities.
(See manual for dimensions)

SONAR INTERFACE TRANSMITTER WITH IMPACT PLATE


Typical mounting of the SAR
transmitter with Sun Hood on walkway
Sonar transducer with
impact plate cleaner
mechanism

Impact Plate

Typical installation of a sonar


interface transmitter on a Counter
clarifier, Thickener, primary weight
sedimentation tank, that has
a surface scum collector,
showing sonar sensor and
impact plate.
Sonar Transducer

5
INTERFACE LEVEL MONITORING

Sonar Level Transmitter DATA SHE E T


SA Series J A NU A R Y 20 04

Communication Network Overview — Modbus, Profibus


Multidrop connection of Sultan "AW" Ultrasonics, Variable "AS" Admittance Probes, Sonar "SA" interface transmitter

Variable AS
Admittance
Switch

Sultan "AW" Sultan "AW"


Ultrasonic Transmitter Ultrasonic Transmitter
Slurries Floatation Cells
Sultan "AW" Ultrasonic Transmitter
Silo, bin levels, coal, plastic powder, SULTAN 234

woodchip, sawdust, cement,


clinker, iron ore, lime etc.

Sonar "SA" Interface. SULTAN 234

Thickener, CCD Sultan "AWSTA" Smart Transducer


Farm Tanks, Grain Terminals

Sonar "SA" Inteface Clarifier Sultan "AW"


Ultrasonic Switch
Blocked Chute Detection

SONAR "SA" with GSM or CDMA Network


Using the GSM or CDMA modem with the Sonar
Interface allows for technical assistance from our
GSM Network
factory trained experts and design engineers.
or
The SA Sonar can be Commissioned, CDMA Network
Re-Programmed, Monitored and supported
anywhere in the world where GSM or CDMA
networks are found, by factory specialists.
This provides Customers in remote locations the Sultan “ AW” Transmitter
highest possible level of support. Stockpiles, Stackers,
Reclaimers
GSM or CDMA Network
• Typically up to 32 transmitters or switches per string. Up to
• Maximum 256 transmitters or switches. 32 sonar
• Using GSM/CDMA network, transmitters and switches can be
monitored, calibrated remotely.
transmitters Laptop or PC Communications
• Alarm status, diagnostics can be monitored. off one GSM or PLC / DCS with
• Support from factory engineering for customer application problems. modem MODBUS RTU Port
• Specifications for all other communication systems, eg HART, Profibus, Goshawk Software for
Modbus etc check instruction manual. Inventory monitoring on P.C.

6
INTERFACE LEVEL MONITORING

Sonar Level Transmitter DATA SHE E T


SA Series J A NU A R Y 20 04

SPECIFICATIONS
SA Transmitter ST Transducer
MEASUREMENT RANGE TRANSDUCER SELECTION
• 0.4/0.8 to 15.0 metres - Transducer dependent • See sonar transducer selection guidslines.
Option: 30.0 metres ST001, ST002, ST003, ST004, ST005, ST006,
ST007, ST008, ST009, ST010.
• Sonar tranducer frequency - All frequency versions HOUSING
MINIMUM DENSITY • Polypropylene, PVDF (Kynar), Teflon and PVC.
• 0.2% (For lower density consult the factory.) SEALING
ACCURACY • IP68 (Fully encapsulated)
• ±0.5% of span SPECIAL BLANKING
RESOLUTION • 150mm minimum
• Better than 10mm TEMPERATURE SENSOR
TEMPERATURE • Internal (max. 60ºC Standard) high Temperature
• -20 Degrees C. to 60 Degrees C. 150ºC with external pre-amp.
DISPLAY MOUNTING
• 1 x 16 digit alpha/numeric display. • 1.00 inch BSP/NPT nipple
CABLE
ECHO PROCESSING
• Belden 83659/Tycab DMC 71402
• Advanced Sonar Hawk algorithms.
WEIGHT
OUTPUTS • 3.5kg
• Analog 4-20mA (Isolated) max. 700 ohms
APPROVALS Approved

• Relays: 4 x S.P.D.T. 10A/240Vac non-inductive • SAA. Class 1 Zone 1 pending


• Driver for Auto scum cleaner • SAA. Class 1 Zone 0 pending
• Modbus Communications RS485
Auto Scum Cleaner (Option)
DIAGNOSTICS
CONSTRUCTION
• Full operational diagnostics display.
• Stainless Steel
ENCLOSURE
• NEMA 4x (IP67) polycarbonate - wall mount. MOUNTING
• Base mount x 4 holes. (see drawing)
OPTION
ACTUATOR
• Automatic scum cleaner
• Electric 24Vdc
• Sun hood Pneumatic Contact factory
WEIGHT WEIGHT
• 3kgs (6.6 lbs) • 15Kg

ST TRANSDUCER SELECTION GUIDELINES


Typically, the most difficult task when wanting to determine the level The higher the transducer frequency, the easier it becomes to see
of an interface, lies in the correct selection of the transducer frequency. smaller particle sizes. The disadvantage, is the lack of penetration and
There are many other variables to consider. They include particle size, a higher likelihood of air bubbles forming on the sensor face, creating
impedance to the transmit and received signals.
flow, velocity, material, air bubble retention . . .
Lower transducer frequencies will not see such small particles, but
will see a more clearly defined interface.
IN GENERAL, THE FOLLOWING SHOULD BE UNDERTAKEN:
The frequency selection should be based upon the % solids, plus a
(1) Identify a position away from direct inflow, where turbulence is logical position for the placement of the sensor.
minimised.
All sonar transducers will be affected by air bubble accumulation on
(2) If air bubbles are present within heavy suspended solids, use the the sensor face. If the auto cleaner is used, the SA System will operate
scum cleaner option. to ensure accumulation of air bubble interface does not cause operational
(3) The transducer selection should be: problems.
Example:
Example: % SOLIDS TRANSDUCER BLANKING % SOLIDS TRANSDUCER BLANKING
Mining
Water and ST006 400mm
>8% ST001 400mm Thickeners
Waste/water
Settlers
5-8% ST002 400mm Washers
ST007 400mm
2% - 5% ST003 400mm ST008 500mm
1% - 2% ST004 400mm ST009 500mm
<1% ST005 400mm ST010 700mm

7
INTERFACE LEVEL MONITORING

Sonar Level Transmitter DATA SHE E T


SA Series J A NU A R Y 20 04

PART NUMBERING
ST Series Transducer ST001
TRANSDUCER

ST001
% SOLIDS

>8%
BLANKING

400mm

}
ST002 ST002 5-8% 400mm
ST003
ST004 ST003 2% - 5% 400mm
ST005 ST004 1% - 2% 400mm
ST006 See Table
ST005 <1% 400mm
ST007
ST008 HOUSING MATERIAL ST006 400mm
ST009 0 = UPVC ST007 400mm
ST010 4 = Polypropylene
ST008 500mm
5 = PVDF Kynar
6 = Teflon ST009 500mm
44 = Full Polypropylene ST010 700mm
AUTO SCUM CLEANER
A = Electric Actuator 24Vdc
B = Pneumatic Actuator
C = Motorised Scum Brush
X = Not required
MOUNTING EXTENSION PIPE (Metres)
X = Not required
IMPACT PLATE (for Surface Skimmer)
P = Impact Plate
X = Not required
HIGH TEMPERATURE
H = High Temp
X = Not required
BLANKING
X = Normal
* Note: Floating Sonar Sensor used for S = Special Short Blanking
Sequential Batch Reactors, FLOATING SONAR SENSOR*
X = Not required
Idal Plants, etc. F = Float
SENSOR Ex RATING
Ex = Class 1 Zone 1
Exin = Class 1 Zone 0

ST001 - 4 A 2 P H X X Ex

SA Remote Transmitter MODEL


SA = Sonar level transmitter with analog output and level relays
FREQUENCY
R = Remote Transmitter
POWER SUPPLY
A = 12Vdc
B = 24Vdc
C = 48Vdc
D = 220 to 240Vac and 24Vdc
E = 110 to 120Vac and 24Vdc
MOUNTING
BP = Black Powder Coated Mouting Bracket
BS = Stainless Steel Mounting Bracket
COMMUNICATIONS
M = Modbus
G = GSM Modem
C = CDMA Modem
X = Not required

SA R - D - BS M

Hawk Measurement Systems Telephone: 61 3 9873 4750


Facsimile: 61 3 9873 4538
15-17 Maurice Court
Email: hawksales@hawk.com.au
Nunawading 3131 Victoria Australia
Measurement Systems w w w. h a w k l e v e l . c o m
ADDITIONAL PRODUCT WARRANTY AND APPLICATION GUARANTEES UPON REQUEST. TECHNICAL DATA SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE.

SA Series 1/04
8
SLUDGE MASTER
Sonar Level Transmitter
SA Series
Interface level monitoring

T RALI A
US
N
A

DESIGNED
&
MA

ED

N
R

UF
A CTU Approved

Installation and Operating Instructions


Measurement Systems
SONAR - SA Series

INTRODUCTION CONTENTS
PROPRIETARY NOTICE
The information contained in this publication is PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 2
derived in part from proprietary and patent data.
This information has been prepared for the express ST SELECTION GUIDELINES 2
purpose of assisting operating and maintenance
personnel in the efficient use of the instrument
described herein. SPECIFICATIONS 3
Publication of this information does not convey
any rights to use or reproduce it, or to use for any DIMENSIONS 5
purpose other than in connection with the
installation, operation and maintenance of the
equipment described herein. MOUNTING 7

Copyright 1995
Printed by Graphic Zone, Australia FACIA 8
All Rights Reserved.

WIRING 9
WARNING
This instrument contains electronic components
that are susceptible to damage by static electricity. PARAMETER and FLOW CHARTS 13
Proper handling* procedures must be observed
during the removal, installation, or handling or FLOW CHARTS 14
internal circuit boards or devices.

* Handling Procedure TRACKING 16


1. Power to unit must be removed.
2. Personnel must be grounded, via wrist strap or WARRANTY/PART NUMBERING 18
other safe, suitable means, before any printed
circuit board or other internal device is installed,
removed or adjusted.
3. Printed circuit boards must be transported in
a conductive bag or other conductive container.
Boards must not be removed from protective
enclosure until the immediate time of
installation. Removed boards must be placed
immediately in a protective container for
transport, storage, or return to factory.

Comments:
This instrument is not unique in its content of ESD
(electrostatic discharge) sensitive components.
Most modern electronic designs contain
components that utilize metal oxide technology
(NMOS, CMOS, etc.) Experience has proven that
even small amounts of static electricity can damage
or destroy these devices. Damaged components,
even though they appear to function properly,
exhibit early failure. Edition: No. 1

1
SONAR - SA Series

PRINCIPALE OF OPERATION
The SA Series Sonar Level System consists of The SA Sonar level transmitter emits a sound
an SA transmitter and the appropriate ST001, pulse towards the interface/sludge which is
ST002, ST003, ST004 or ST005 sonar at the bottom of the clarifier/tank, etc. The
transducer. pulse signal is reflected off the interface, back
to the sonar transducer, then the level
The transducer selection will vary dependent transmitter interprets the signal,
upon the density of the interface to be compensates for temperature and provides
detected. a distance reading, and an analog output
Example: proportional to the sludge/interface height.
High density sludge with suspended Echo processing software monitors the
solids will use a lower frequency operating efficiency of the sonar transducer.
transmitter - ST001 or ST002. As the efficiency of the transducer drops off
due to build-up on the sensing face (generally
Lower density sludge/interfaces require higher caused by fats settling out, or suspended
frequency transducers in order to maximise solids attaching to the transducer), the sonar
the return signal - ST003, ST004 or ST005. transmitter will increase the level of
Note: ultrasonic cleaning of the face or where fitted
will activate the automatic “Scum Cleaner”
See guideline selection chart for sonar which will remove all heavy build-up on the
transducers. sonar transducer.

ST TRANSDUCER SELECTION
GUIDELINES
Typically, the most difficult task when wanting The higher the transducer frequency, the
to determine the level of an interface, lies in easier it becomes to see smaller particle sizes.
the correct selection of the transducer The disadvantage, is the lack of penetration
frequency. and a higher likelihood of air bubbles forming
There are many other variables to consider. on the sensor face, creating impedance to
They include particle size, flow, velocity, the transmit and received signals.
material, air bubble retention.........
Lower transducer frequencies will not see
In general, the following should be undertaken: such small particles, but will see a more
(1) Identify a position away from direct inflow, clearly defined interface.
where turbulence is minimised. The frequency selection should be based
(2) If air bubbles are present within heavy upon the % solids, plus a logical position for
suspended solids, use the scum cleaner the placement of the sensor.
option. All sonar transducers will be affected by air
(3) The transducer selection should be: bubble accumulation on the sensor face. If
the auto cleaner is used, the SA System will
% Solids Transducer Blanking
operate to ensure accumulation of air bubble
>5% ST001 800mm interface does not cause operational
2-5% ST002 600mm problems.
0.5% - 2% ST003 500mm
0.2% - 0.5% ST004 400mm
<0.2% ST005 400mm

2
SONAR - SA Series

SPECIFICATIONS
% Solids Detection Memory
>5% ST-001 • Non-Volatile (No backup battery required)
2-5% ST-002 • >10 years data retention
0.5-2.0% ST-003 Enclosure Sealing
<0.5% ST-004
• Integral System IP67
Operating Voltage • Remote Electronics IP67
• 24Vdc • Remote Transducer IP68
• 110, 220, 240Vac 50/60Hz
Cable Entries
Power Consumption • IP68 cable glands Integral: 2 x 16mm
T.B.A. Remote: 3 x 16mm
Analog Output Mounting
• 4-20/20-4mA Isolated (700 Ohm) • ANSI, JIS or DIN Flange
Relay Output • 4 in/100mm or 10 in/250mm
• Form ‘C’ (SPDT) contacts rated 10A at • BSP Thread / NPT Thread 2in or 3in
240Vac non-indictive. All relays have
Typical Weight
independantly adjustable dead bands.
• Remove failsafe test facility. • Remote Amplifier 2kg (4.4lb)
• Remove actuator operation.
• Remote Transducer 2kg (4.4lb)
Blanking Distance
• Actuator 15kg (33lb)
ST-001 800mm
ST-002 700mm SA Transmitter
ST-003 600mm Measurement Range
ST-004 500mm • 0.4/0.8 to 10.0 metres - Transducer
Maximum Range dependent
• 10 metres Option: 30.0 metres
Resolution Minimum Density
• 5mm • 0.2% (For lower density consult the
factory.)
Electronic Accuacy
Accuracy
• ±0.25% of maximum range
• ±0.5% of span
Operating Temperature
Resolution
• Amplifier -20ºC (-4º F) to 60ºC (140º F)
• Better than 10mm
• Remote Transducer
-20ºC (-4º F) to 80ºC (170º F) Temperature
Transducer/Amplifier Separation • -20 Degrees C. to 60 Degrees C.
• >100m (334ft) Display
Cable • 2 x 8 digit alpha/numeric display.
• TYCAB DMC 71402 or BELDEN 83659 Echo Processing
Maximum Operating Pressure • Advanced Sonar Hawk algorithms.
• 30 P.S.I. (2 Bar) Outputs
Beam Angle • Analog 4-20mA (Isolated) max. 700 ohms
• <4º • Relays: 4 x S.P.D.T. 10A/240Vac
Display non-inductive
• 2 x 8 digit alphanumeric LCD • Driver for Auto scum cleaner

3
SONAR - SA Series

SPECIFICATIONS
Diagnostics Temperature Sensor
• Full operational diagnostics display. • Internal (max. 60ºC Standard) high
Enclosure Temperature 90ºC
• NEMA 4x (IP67) polycarbonate - wall Mounting
mount. • 1.00 inch BSP/NPT nipple
Option Cable
• Automatic scum cleaner • Belden 83659/Tycab DMC 71402
Weight
Weight
• 3.5kg
• 3kgs (6.6 lbs)
Approvals
ST Transducer
Approved
Transducer Selection
• See sonar transducer selection
guidslines. ST001, ST002, ST003, Auto Scum Cleaner (Option)
ST004 and ST005.
Construction
Housing
• Stainless Steel
• Polypropylene, PVDF (Kynar), Teflon and Mounting
PVC.
• Base mount x 4 holes. (see drawing)
Sealing
Actuator
• IP68 (Fully encapsulated) • Electric 24Vdc
Pneumatic
Weight
• 15Kg

4
SONAR - SA Series

DIMENSIONS cont’d
ST Auto Scum Cleaner (Option)

400mm

2
1.3m
510mm

5
6
3

400mm

4
Base mounting plate to be
mounted on brackets or on
clarifier structure.

1 Base mounting plate (Stainless steel)


2 Mounting holes (ø10mm)
3 ST Transducer mounting pipe
4 ST Transducer
5 Electro-actuator
6 ST Transducer termination enclosure

5
SONAR - SA Series

DIMENSIONS cont’d
ST Transducer ST001 - ST005

1" BSP
Nipple

135mm

75mm

SA Remote Transmitter
302mm (11.9")

175mm
(6.9")

186mm
(7.3")

6
SONAR - SA Series

MOUNTING
Transmitter Enclosed

166mm
(6.5")

281mm (11.06")

Mounting holes - 5mm/0.197" dia. 4 places

Sun Shield

400mm
(15.75")

300mm (11.8") 450mm (17.7")

The RangeMaster Amplifier should be mounted out of direct sunlight. If mounted outside, the
RangeMaster should face away from the sun and have a sunshield fitted.

7
SONAR - SA Series

FACIA

SLUDGE
MASTER
Return Signal
ECHO
TX

Transmit Pulse
Indicator

Switching
CAL Relays
RELAY 1
RELAY 2
RELAY 3
RUN

Actuator
Position
Indicator

8
SONAR - SA Series

WIRING
SA Remote Transducer Wiring

Yellow
RED
N/C
Actuator
AC Power Relay 1 Relay 2 Relay 3 Power
NEUTRAL
ACTIVE

Push
GND
GND

GND
Com
1ND

1NC
2ND

2NC
3ND

3NC
Pull
1C

2C

3C
301 SLUDGE
F303 MASTER

Sensor ECHO
TX
500mA, T

F302
AC Fuse Actuator CAL
1A, T 10A, T
RELAY 1
RELAY 2
RELAY 3
RUN
TEST-IN

YELLOW
GND

BLACK

BLUE
GREEN
GND

GND

GND
WHITE
+ DC

RemCirt
RED

ICOM I- I+
B
A

4 . . .20mA TRANSDUCER

Yellow
RED
N/C
Actuator
AC Power Relay 1 Relay 2 Relay 3 Power

NEUTRAL
DC-IN

ACTIVE

Push
GND
GND

GND
Com
1ND

1NC
2ND

2NC
3ND

3NC
RS485

Pull
1C

2C

3C
301
F302

Test
Sensor
500mA, T

F302
AC Fuse

Input
Actuator
1A, T 10mA, T

TEST-IN

YELLOW
GND

BLACK

BLUE
GREEN
GND

GND

WHITE

GND
+ DC

RemCirt
RED
ICOM I- I+

B
A
Isolated Remote ACT 4 . . .20mA TRANSDUCER

Output Control Switch

Black, Brown & Shield


to be joined together.
ST001 - ST005

Extending Transducer Cable


Use TYCAB DMC 71402 or BELDEN 9538
SLUDGE
MASTER

CAL RELAY 1
RELAY 2
RELAY 3
RUN
Yellow
RED
N/C

Actuator
AC Power Relay 1 Relay 2 Relay 3 Power
NEUTRAL
ACTIVE

Push
GND
GND

GND
Com
1ND

1NC
2ND

2NC
3ND

3NC
Pull
1C

2C

3C

301
F302
Sensor
500mA, T

F302
AC Fuse Actuator
1A, T 10mA, T
TEST-IN

YELLOW
GND

BLACK

BLUE
GREEN
GND

GND

WHITE

GND
+ DC

RemCirt
RED

ICOM I- I+
B
A

4 . . .20mA TRANSDUCER

JUNCTION BOX

DRAIN/SHIELD

BROWN
BLACK
RED
WHITE
BLUE

GREEN
YELLOW

9
SONAR - SA Series

WIRING cont’d

ACTUATORS MECHANISM
The cable on this side
must be connected to
the Transducer and
Actuator mechanism
JUNCTION
BOX

Black and Brown


to be joined together

Black
Blue
Green Red

TRANSDUCER ACTUATOR Transducer


CABLE White
YELLOW

D-PUSH
D-PULL
GREEN
BLACK

WHITE

PUSH
SHLD
BLUE

PULL

COM
RED

BRKT Actuator
LED
1,3,5,....
Enlargement
Switch

of
2,4,6,....
JUNCTION
BOX
BLUE

PUSH

REM-Ct.
PULL

P-WIPR
COM
GREEN
WHITE

YELLOW
RED

SHLD
BLACK

AMP

TRANSDUCER
EXTENSION CABLE ACTUATOR
The cable on this side
must be connected to
the Sonar Transmitter
3 Core
Extension Cable

Actuator
Power
SONAR TRANSMITTER
6 Core
plus Shield
Extension Cable AC Power Relay 1 Relay 2 Relay 3
NEUTRAL
ACTIVE

Push
GND
GND

GND
Com
1ND

1NC
2ND

2NC
3ND

3NC
Pull
1C

2C

3C

301
F303
Sensor
500mA, T

F302
AC Fuse Actuator
1A, T 10A, T
TEST-IN

YELLOW
SHIELD/BLACK
GND

BLUE
GREEN
GND

GND

GND
WHITE
+ DC

RemCirt
RED

ICOM I- I+
B
A

4 . . .20mA TRANSDUCER Remote


Actuator
EXTENSION CABLE Push
DC In
RS485 Button
TEST
INPUT
OUTPUT
4-20MA

To
Junction Box

10
SONAR - SA Series

WIRING cont’d
Terminal Connections
I+ Current loop isolated supply (Driving only. Norm. +18Vdc).
I- Current loop return.
ICOM Current loop common (Modulating user supply only).
RELAY 1 N.O. Relay 1 Normally Open contact.
RELAY 1 C Relay 1 Common contact.
RELAY 1 N.C. Relay 1 Normally Closed contact.
RELAY 2 N.O. Relay 2 Normally Open contact.
RELAY 2 C Relay 2 Common contact.
RELAY 2 N.C. Relay 2 Normally Closed contact.
RELAY 3 Similar (Remote unit only).
RELAY 4 Similar (Remote unit only).
TEST-IN Test Input: Unit is forced into Standby Mode.
Relays switch to pre-programmed 00.0m state, current loop goes
to 4mA, and unit stops pulsing.
+DC DC Supply input: Nominal 12Vdc or 24Vdc depending on model.
GND DC Supply input Common/Ground terminal.
EARTH AC Supply Earth terminal.
NEUTRAL AC Supply Neutral terminal.
ACTIVE AC Supply Active terminal. Nom 110Vac or 220Vac or 240Vac
depending on model.
RS485-A Do Not Use.
RS485-B Do Not Use.
TEST (pad) Used to test loop current – refer to diagrams below.

RL connected RL not connected

mA mA
ICOM I-

ICOM I-

Test Test
+ – + –
I+

RL
I+

11
SONAR - SA Series

WIRING cont’d
Terminal Connections for DC Supply – Model dependant
a) 4 Wire DC – Driving from Internal Isolated Supply (I+)

User + +DC
DC Supply
– GND
+
PLC
ICOM (Not used)
DCS RL Max 700Ω I–
IND
I+
– Use
4-20mA
shielded
cable

Note: Isolated current output can be made common with +DC or GND if required.
(e.g. RL – connected to GND)

b) 3 Wire DC – Modulating from Common User Supply (RL to +DC)

User + +DC
DC Supply
– GND

+
ICOM
PLC
DCS RL Max 700Ω I–
IND Use I+ (Not used)
shielded
– cable
4-20mA

Note: RL max = 700Ω if user DC Supply ≥18V

c) 3 Wire DC – Modulating from Common User Supply (RL to GND)

User + +DC
DC Supply
– GND

+
ICOM
PLC
DCS RL Max 700Ω Use I–
IND shielded
cable I+ (Not used)

4-20mA

Note: RL max = 700Ω if user DC Supply ≥18V

12
SONAR - SA Series

WIRING cont’d
Terminal Connections for AC Supply – Model dependant
d) 4 Wire DC – Driving from Internal Isolated Supply (I+)

Active
110/220/240Vac
Supply { Neutral
Earth

+
PLC ICOM (Not used)
DCS RL Max 700Ω
IND
I–
– I+
4-20mA
Use
shielded
cable
Note: Isolated current output can be made common with external DC Supply Pos.or Neg. if required.
(e.g. RL – connected to GND)

e) Modulating from User’s External DC Supply (RL to Pos.)

Active
110/220/240Vac
Supply { Neutral
Earth
User +
DC Supply –
ICOM
+ I–
PLC
DCS RL Max 700Ω Use I+ (Not used)
IND shielded
4-20mA cable

Note: RL max = 700Ω if user DC Supply ≥18V

f) Modulating from User’s External DC Supply (RL to Neg.)

Active
110/220/240Vac
Supply { Neutral
Earth
User +
DC Supply –
ICOM
+ I–
PLC
DCS RL Max 700Ω Use I+ (Not used)
IND shielded
cable

4-20mA
Note: RL max = 700Ω if user DC Supply ≥18V

13
SONAR - SA Series

PARAMETER and FLOW CHARTS


Setup Fail Opt
Allows the user to select their preferred
To gain access to the parameter menu, press Failsafe condition. There are 5 possible mA
and hold the button until "Unlock 0" is
CAL output failure values. They are: 20mA, 4mA,
displayed on the LCD. Then use the buttons Last Known, <4.00mA and >20.00mA.
to select the access code. The factory default Failsafe Time
is 0. Allows the user to enter the number of pulses
when a last echo condition occurs prior to
Units failing. It is recommended to enter a minimum
Allows the user to select the units for display of 50 pulses.
of measured distances and relay set point
programming. The choices are metres or feet. Relays
Allows the user to set the relays for switching.
Display The relays are programmed in a distance
Allows the user to select the prefered display from the transducer face to the position where
on the LCD, options Space, Material, % Material. switching is required.
Relays work in the following manner:
Application Type OFF The relays will remain de-energised
Allows the user to select the type of regardless of the measured distance
application Liquids, Slurries, Solids. The or vessel contents.
response of the system is automatically The relays can be programmed to energise
changed to allow for application requirments. or de-energise depending on the product level
in the vessel being monitored.
Speed FS If FS is selected, the relay will operate
Allows the user to select the approximate as a failsafe relay. The relay will be
speed of the level change. This automatically energised at all times and will
sets various parameters to allow a faster or de-energise if the ultrasonic switch
goes in to failsafe condition.
slower response.
EN The relay is normally energised and
Damping will de -energise when the product rises
Allows the user to define how quickly the switch above the level determined by L1 and
remain de -energised until the product
responds to changes in the measured level falls below the level determined by L2.
within the vessel being monitored. A low DEN The relay is normally de -energised and
damping value gives a fast response and a high will energise when the product rises
damping gives a slow response. The damping above the level determined by L1 and
limits are from 0 to 239. Eg. If you set the remain energised until the product falls
damping to a value of 60, the displayed distance below the level determined by L2.
will be the average of the last 60 pulses. L1 L1 determines the first switch point
for relay switching.
Low Level - HA Series Only
L2 L2 determines the second switch point
Sets the distance from the face of the transducer for relay switching.
that corresponds to the low level in the vessel Note: L1 and L2 are set in the chosen display
being monitored - 4mA analog output level. units relative to the face of the transducer.
High level - HA Series Only Blanking
Sets the distance from the face of the transducer Allows the user to set the blanking distance
that corresponds to the High level in the vessel beyond the minimum specified distance to
being monitored - 20mA analog output level. ignore unwanted echoes between the target
product and the transducer. Use the
Note: When setting the High and Low levels a buttons to set required blanking.
minimum span of 100mm MUST be maintained.
Blanking Code
Allows the user to blank out unwanted near Allows the user to set an access code other
than 0 to avoid unauthorised changes to the
the senor echoes. Any echoes within this
programming. Use the buttons to select
entered distance will be ignored.
the desired access code.

14
SONAR - SA Series

SET-UP FLOW CHART


Search

☞ CAL
Setup

☞ CAL
Units Metres
Metres Feet

☞ CAL
Display Display Display
Level % Level Distance

Speed
0.2.0m/m Den
Rly: No:1 FS
En
☞ CAL Off

Speed Adj
Yes / No
☞ CAL Den
Rly: No:2 FS
En
☞ CAL Off

Damping
229
☞ CAL
Den
Rly: No:3 FS
En
☞ CAL Off

Low Level
4m
☞ CAL
Rly 3 L1
0.851m
☞ CAL
High Level
0.250
☞ CAL
Rly 3 L2
0.853m
☞ CAL
Blanketing
0.307m
☞ CAL
Code 0

☞ CAL

Fail Opt
Last
20.00mA ☞ CAL
4.0mA <4.00mA
>20.00mA Set up

☞ CAL

Den
Rly No: 2 FS Note: To increment and decrement digital numbers
En Off faster, press and hold either or then press and
hold button. This will scroll the numbers faster.
CAL

☞ CAL

15
SONAR - SA Series

TRIM FLOW CHART



SET UP PRESS TRIM

☞ CAL
YES
GAIN TRIM
GN:- 11.3%

☞ CAL
NO
GS:- 50.1%

MA TRIM
YES ☞ CAL
4MA ADJ DS:- 1.6%

NO ☞ CAL ☞ CAL
20MA ADJ THLD:- 1.00%
YES
DIST TRIM ☞ CAL
OFFSET OM ANALOG 4-20
☞ CAL
☞ CAL
NO VELOCITY1.00 FAILBREAK
NO-YES
☞ CAL

OFFSET 0

RUN CAL

YES
SIMULATE
*Can only Adjust
15.563m
Not Back

NO

YES
ACT SET UP

RLY DRN ACT TYPE POT


NO ☞ CAL ☞ CAL
ACTUATOR ACTUATOR
240MIN 240MIN

☞ CAL ☞ CAL
CLEANING ACTUATOR
YES/NO IN/OUT

☞ CAL ☞ CAL
ACT SET LO 60

☞ CAL
ACT SET HI 23º

☞ CAL
CLEANING
NO/YES

16
SONAR - SA Series

TRACKING
Standard Entry
Space
1.623m

☞ CAL
Unlock: Combined with CAL will
0 195
increase speed of display.
Unlock:
195

☞ CAL
Set up Trim Tracking Set up

☞ CAL
GN 14.5% Gain increase starting
from Gain Step Value
1.022m

☞ CAL
Gain Step Initial Gain value
GS : 12.5% starting value
1.023m

☞ CAL
Distance Step Distance for initial gain
DS : 0.9 value
1.023m

☞ CAL
Slope 8 Angle of gain increase
1.023m

☞ CAL
Window
2.336m

☞ CAL
Acceptable return
Confirm echoes before output
2 update

☞ CAL
The amount of pulses
Hold before reaction if echo
235 moves out of window

☞ CAL
Recover Gain increase when no
0.0% echo is present

☞ CAL
Stable Distance echo must
0.000m move to move output

☞ CAL
Comm Adds Communication
1 address

☞ CAL
End Distance Maximum distance the
4.62m echo is expected

☞ CAL
Voltage above which an
THLD acceptable echo can
Note: To increment and decrement digital numbers be identified
faster, press and hold either or then
press and hold button.
CAL
☞ CAL
This will scroll the numbers faster. Tracking

17
SA SONAR - Manual

WARRANTY
Hawk control products will be replaced, put breach of warranty, and Hawk shall not be
in good operating condition, or the purchase liable to any person for consequential
price refunded, at the option of Hawk, free damages for injury or commercial loss
of charges except transportation, if defective resulting from any breach of any warranty.
in their manufacture, labeling, packaging, or Hawk makes no warranty of fitness for a
shipping, and if notice of said defect is particular purpose, and makes no other
received by Hawk within one year from the warranty, express or implied, including
date of shipment. The cost of such implied warranty arising from course of
replacement, repair or refund or purchase dealing or usage of trade.
price shall be the exclusive remedy for any

PART NUMBERING
SA Remote Transmitter
MODEL
SA = Sonar level transmitter with analog output and level relays
FREQUENCY
R = Remote Transmitter

POWER SUPPLY
A = 12Vdc
B = 24Vdc
C = 48Vdc
D = 220 to 240Vac and 24Vdc
E = 110 to 120Vac and 24Vdc

MOUNTING
BP = Black Powder Coated Mouting Bracket
BS = Stainless Steel Mounting Bracket

SA R - D - BS

ST Series Transducer
ST001 Transducer % Solids Blanking
ST002
ST003
ST004
ST005
} See Table

HOUSING MATERIAL
ST001
ST002
ST003
ST004
>8%
5-8%
2% - 5%
1% - 2%
1000mm
800mm
600mm
600mm
0 = UPVC ST005 <1% 600mm
4 = Polypropylene
5 = PVDF Kynar
6 = Teflon
AUTO SCUM CLEANER
A = Electric Actuator 24Vdc
B = Pneumatic Actuator
X = Not required
MOUNTING EXTENSION PIPE (Metres)
X = Not required
P IMPACT PLATE (for Surface Skimmer)
X = Not required

ST001 - 4 A 2 P

18
Measurement Systems
Hawk Measurement Systems Pty. Ltd.
ACN 006 782 449
15-17 Maurice Court
Nunawading 3131 Victoria Australia
Telephone: 61 3 9873 4750
Facsimile: 61 3 9873 4538
INTERNET: http://www.hawklevel.com.au
E-mail Address: h awks a l e s @ h a w k. c o m . a u