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Ship Similarities

11/10/2009 1

Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

Recall

C T = f [R n , F n ]

C F = f [R n ] C R = f [F n ]

These Equations state that

if the parameters on the right hand side have the same values for two

geometrically similar but different sized bodies, the flow pattern will be

the same for each.

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Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

Ship Similarities

Types of Similarities

Position, Velocity,

2. Kinematic Similarities Acceleration

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Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

S

13

Ls Bs Ds Ss ⎛ ∇s ⎞

= = = =⎜ ⎟

Lm Bm Dm Sm ⎝ ∇m ⎠

Object model

Preserved Coefficients

m

CBs = CBm CPs = CPm ..........

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Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

11/10/2009 5

Other Examples MM545

11/10/2009

Geometrically Similar but different scale

Ship Resistance and Powering

M.A. Kotb

6

Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

More Examples

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Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

11/10/2009 8

Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

Geometric Similarities 13

Ls Bs Ds Ss ⎛ ∇s ⎞

= = = =⎜ ⎟

Lm Bm Dm Sm ⎝ ∇m ⎠

Ship

Ls

Model

Lm

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Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

Example (1) Fire rescue boat

Ship Particulars

Ls = 10.0 m

Ship Bs = 3.0 m

CBs =0.55

Ss =27.6 m2

Vol s = 9.9 m3

10 m

Model

1m

Find model particulars

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Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

CBs = CBm = 0.55

Solution

Ls Bs 10 3

= = Bm = 0.3 m

Lm Bm 1 Bm

Ship

Similarly Dm = 0.06 m

Ls Ss

Also, =

Lm Sm

Ls 10 27.6

= S m = 0.276 m 2

Model

And, 1 Sm

13

Ls ⎛ ∇ s ⎞

13

10 ⎛ 9.9 ⎞

= ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ∇ m = 9.9 x10−3 m3

Lm ⎝ ∇ m ⎠ 1 ⎝ ∇m ⎠

Lm

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Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

2. Kinematic Similarities F = Vs

ns

gLs

Ship

Fns = Fnm

⎛ Vs ⎞ ⎛ Vm ⎞

⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟

Ls ⎜ gL ⎟ ⎜ gL ⎟

⎝ s ⎠ ⎝ m ⎠

Model Vm

Fnm = ⎛ Vs ⎞

⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ =

Ls

gLm ⎝ Vm ⎠ Lm

Lm

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Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

2. Kinematic Similarities

ρ sVs Ls

Rns =

μs

Ship

Rns = Rnm

ρ sVs Ls ρ mVm Lm

Ls =

μs μm

Model ρ mVm Lm Vs Lm

Rnm = =

μm Vm Ls

Lm

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Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

Example (2) Fire rescue boatV = 12 knots

s

Ship Particulars

Ls = 10.0 m

Ship Bs = 3.0 m

Ds =0.60 m

CBs =0.55

Ss =27.6 m2

Vol s = 9.9 m3

10 m Vs = 12 knots

Find model speed if the ship and model are Vm

running at the same Froude numbers

i.e. kinematically similar Model

1m

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Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

Solution Fire rescue boatV = 12 knots

s

Ship Particulars

Ls = 10.0 m

Ship Bs = 3.0 m

CBs =0.55

Ss =27.6 m2

Vol s = 9.9 m3

Vs = 12 knots

10 m

Vm

⎛ Vs ⎞ ⎛ Vm ⎞

⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟ Model

⎜ gL ⎟ ⎜ gL ⎟

⎝ s ⎠ ⎝ m ⎠

⎛ 12 ⎞ ⎛ Vm ⎞ 1m

⎜

11/10/2009 ⎟=⎜ ⎟ 15

⎝ 9 . 81 * 10 ⎠ ⎝ 9 . 81 * 1 ⎠

Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

Example (2) Fire rescue boatV = 12 knots

s

Ship Particulars

Ls = 10.0 m

Ship Bs = 3.0 m

CBs =0.55

Ss =27.6 m2

Vol s = 9.9 m3

Vs = 12 knots

10 m

running at the same Reynolds number

i.e. kinematically similar Model

1m

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Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

Solution Vs = 12 knots

Ship Particulars

Ship Ls = 10.0 m

Bs = 3.0 m

CBs =0.55

Ss =27.6 m2

Vol s = 9.9 m3

10 m

Vs = 12 knots

= Vm

μs μm

Vs Ls = Vm Lm 12 *10 = Vm *1 Model

Vm = 120 knots 1m

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Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

Fns = Fnm

Hence,

CRs = CRm

Also,

Ls Vs2 Ls

2

=

S s L2s Vm Lm

= 2

S m Lm Find the ratio RRs/ RRm

Lm

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Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

1 ρ S V 2C

= 2 s s s Rs

RRm 1 ρ m S mVm2CRm

2

RRs ρ s S sVs2

=

RRm ρ m S mVm2

RRs ρ s L2s Ls

Ls =

RRm ρ m L2m Lm

RRs ρ s L3s RRs ρ s ∇ s RRs Δ s

= = =

RRm ρ m L3m RRm ρ m ∇ m RRm Δ m

Lm

11/10/2009 19

Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

Rns = Rnm

Hence,

Ship

CFs = CFm

Also,

Ls Vs Lm

=

Model S s L2s Vm Ls

= 2

S m Lm Find the ratio RFs/ RFm

Lm

11/10/2009 20

Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

1 ρ S V 2C

= 2 s s s Fs

RFm 1 ρ m S mVm2CFm

2

RFs ρ s S sVs2

=

RFm ρ m S mVm2

RFs ρ s L2s L2m

Ls =

RFm ρ m L2m L2s

RFs ρ s RFs

= =1

RFm ρ m RFm

Lm

11/10/2009 21

Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

Hence,

CTs = CTm

Also,

Vs Ls Vs Lm

Ls = =

Vm Lm Vm Ls

2

Ls Lm

= Ls ⎛ Lm ⎞

= ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ Ls = Lm

Lm Ls Lm ⎝ Ls ⎠

Lm

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Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

Case 3 (Cont.)

Ship and Model are identical

Ship Sisters

Practically Impossible

Ls

Model

Lm

11/10/2009 Lm 23

Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

Ship RTs 1

2

ρ S V 2

s s s CTs

=

RTm 1 ρ m S mVm2CTm

2

Ls RTs ρ s S sVs2

=

RTm ρ m S mVm2

Model

RTs

=1

RTm

11/10/2009 Lm 24

Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

3. Kinetic Similarity If

The ship and the model are Geometrically Similar

Ship and

Kinematically Similar

Model Then

CRs = CRm

11/10/2009 25

Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

3. Kinetic Similarity If

The ship and the model are Geometrically Similar

Ship and

Kinematically Similar

Model Then

CFs = CFm

This is called Kinetic Similarity

Lm

11/10/2009 26

Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

3. Kinetic Similarity If

The ship and the model are Geometrically Similar

Ship and

Kinematically Similar

Model Then

CTs = CTm

11/10/2009 27

Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

Kinetic Similarity

If

Geometrical Similarities

Satisfied

and

Kinematic Similarities satisfied

then

11/10/2009 28

Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

AIR

Air-Water

Interface

Water

11/10/2009 29

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