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Ship Resistance and Powering

MM545 M.A. Kotb

Ship Similarities

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Recall

C T = f [R n , F n ]

C F = f [R n ] C R = f [F n ]
These Equations state that

if the parameters on the right hand side have the same values for two
geometrically similar but different sized bodies, the flow pattern will be
the same for each.

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Ship Similarities

Types of Similarities

1. Geometrical Similarities Length, Area, Volume

Position, Velocity,
2. Kinematic Similarities Acceleration

3. Kinetic Similarities Forces, Moments

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Preserved dimension ratios

S
13
Ls Bs Ds Ss ⎛ ∇s ⎞
= = = =⎜ ⎟
Lm Bm Dm Sm ⎝ ∇m ⎠
Object model
Preserved Coefficients
m
CBs = CBm CPs = CPm ..........
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Geometrically Similar but different scale

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Other Examples MM545

11/10/2009
Geometrically Similar but different scale
Ship Resistance and Powering
M.A. Kotb

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Ship Resistance and Powering
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More Examples

Geometrically Similar but different scale

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Geometrically Similar but different scale

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Geometric Similarities 13
Ls Bs Ds Ss ⎛ ∇s ⎞
= = = =⎜ ⎟
Lm Bm Dm Sm ⎝ ∇m ⎠
Ship

Ls

Model

CBs = CBm CPs = CPm ..........

Lm
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Example (1) Fire rescue boat
Ship Particulars
Ls = 10.0 m
Ship Bs = 3.0 m
CBs =0.55
Ss =27.6 m2
Vol s = 9.9 m3

10 m

Model

1m
Find model particulars
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CBs = CBm = 0.55
Solution

Ship and boat are geometrically Similar

Ls Bs 10 3
= = Bm = 0.3 m
Lm Bm 1 Bm
Ship
Similarly Dm = 0.06 m
Ls Ss
Also, =
Lm Sm
Ls 10 27.6
= S m = 0.276 m 2
Model
And, 1 Sm
13
Ls ⎛ ∇ s ⎞
13
10 ⎛ 9.9 ⎞
= ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ∇ m = 9.9 x10−3 m3
Lm ⎝ ∇ m ⎠ 1 ⎝ ∇m ⎠
Lm
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2. Kinematic Similarities F = Vs
ns
gLs
Ship
Fns = Fnm
⎛ Vs ⎞ ⎛ Vm ⎞
⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟
Ls ⎜ gL ⎟ ⎜ gL ⎟
⎝ s ⎠ ⎝ m ⎠
Model Vm
Fnm = ⎛ Vs ⎞
⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ =
Ls
gLm ⎝ Vm ⎠ Lm
Lm
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2. Kinematic Similarities
ρ sVs Ls
Rns =
μs
Ship

Rns = Rnm
ρ sVs Ls ρ mVm Lm
Ls =
μs μm
Model ρ mVm Lm Vs Lm
Rnm = =
μm Vm Ls
Lm
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Example (2) Fire rescue boatV = 12 knots
s
Ship Particulars
Ls = 10.0 m
Ship Bs = 3.0 m
Ds =0.60 m
CBs =0.55
Ss =27.6 m2
Vol s = 9.9 m3
10 m Vs = 12 knots
Find model speed if the ship and model are Vm
running at the same Froude numbers
i.e. kinematically similar Model

1m
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Solution Fire rescue boatV = 12 knots
s
Ship Particulars
Ls = 10.0 m
Ship Bs = 3.0 m
CBs =0.55
Ss =27.6 m2
Vol s = 9.9 m3
Vs = 12 knots
10 m

Fns = Fnm Vm = 3.79 knots

Vm
⎛ Vs ⎞ ⎛ Vm ⎞
⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟ Model
⎜ gL ⎟ ⎜ gL ⎟
⎝ s ⎠ ⎝ m ⎠
⎛ 12 ⎞ ⎛ Vm ⎞ 1m

11/10/2009 ⎟=⎜ ⎟ 15
⎝ 9 . 81 * 10 ⎠ ⎝ 9 . 81 * 1 ⎠
Ship Resistance and Powering
MM545 M.A. Kotb
Example (2) Fire rescue boatV = 12 knots
s
Ship Particulars
Ls = 10.0 m
Ship Bs = 3.0 m
CBs =0.55
Ss =27.6 m2
Vol s = 9.9 m3
Vs = 12 knots
10 m

Find model speed if the ship and model are Vm

running at the same Reynolds number
i.e. kinematically similar Model

1m
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Solution Vs = 12 knots
Ship Particulars
Ship Ls = 10.0 m
Bs = 3.0 m
CBs =0.55
Ss =27.6 m2
Vol s = 9.9 m3
10 m
Vs = 12 knots

Rns = Rnm ρ sVs Ls ρ mVm Lm

= Vm
μs μm
Vs Ls = Vm Lm 12 *10 = Vm *1 Model

Vm = 120 knots 1m
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Case 1 Geometrically Similar kinematically Similar

Fns = Fnm
Hence,

CRs = CRm
Also,

Ls Vs2 Ls
2
=
S s L2s Vm Lm
= 2
S m Lm Find the ratio RRs/ RRm
Lm
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Case 1 (Cont.) RRs

1 ρ S V 2C
= 2 s s s Rs

RRm 1 ρ m S mVm2CRm
2
RRs ρ s S sVs2
=
RRm ρ m S mVm2
RRs ρ s L2s Ls
Ls =
RRm ρ m L2m Lm
RRs ρ s L3s RRs ρ s ∇ s RRs Δ s
= = =
RRm ρ m L3m RRm ρ m ∇ m RRm Δ m
Lm
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Case 2 Geometrically Similar Kinematically Similar

Rns = Rnm
Hence,
Ship
CFs = CFm
Also,

Ls Vs Lm
=
Model S s L2s Vm Ls
= 2
S m Lm Find the ratio RFs/ RFm
Lm
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Case 2 (Cont.) RFs

1 ρ S V 2C
= 2 s s s Fs

RFm 1 ρ m S mVm2CFm
2
RFs ρ s S sVs2
=
RFm ρ m S mVm2
RFs ρ s L2s L2m
Ls =
RFm ρ m L2m L2s

RFs ρ s RFs
= =1
RFm ρ m RFm
Lm
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Fns = Fnm Rns = Rnm

Hence,
CTs = CTm
Also,
Vs Ls Vs Lm
Ls = =
Vm Lm Vm Ls
2
Ls Lm
= Ls ⎛ Lm ⎞
= ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ Ls = Lm
Lm Ls Lm ⎝ Ls ⎠
Lm
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Case 3 (Cont.)
Ship and Model are identical

Ship Sisters

Practically Impossible

Ls

Model

Lm
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Case 3 (Cont.) Find the ratio RTs/ RTm

Ship RTs 1
2
ρ S V 2
s s s CTs
=
RTm 1 ρ m S mVm2CTm
2
Ls RTs ρ s S sVs2
=
RTm ρ m S mVm2
Model
RTs
=1
RTm
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3. Kinetic Similarity If
The ship and the model are Geometrically Similar

Ship and

The ship and the model are

Kinematically Similar

Model Then
CRs = CRm

Lm This is called Kinetic Similarity

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3. Kinetic Similarity If
The ship and the model are Geometrically Similar

Ship and

The ship and the model are

Kinematically Similar

Ls where, Rns = Rnm

Model Then
CFs = CFm
This is called Kinetic Similarity
Lm
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MM545 M.A. Kotb

3. Kinetic Similarity If
The ship and the model are Geometrically Similar

Ship and

The ship and the model are

Kinematically Similar

Model Then
CTs = CTm

Lm This is called Kinetic Similarity

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Kinetic Similarity
If
Geometrical Similarities
Satisfied
and
Kinematic Similarities satisfied

then

Kinetic Similarities Automatically satisfied

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AIR

Air-Water
Interface

Water

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