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1 Primary Data Collection Collection Collection Collection purpose process cost ti me For the problem at hand Very involved High Long Secondary Data For other problems Rapid & easy Relatively low Short

4-2 Uses of Secondary Data Identify the problem Better define the problem Develop an approach to the proble m Formulate an appropriate research design (for example, by identifying the key variables) Answer certain research questions and test some hypotheses Interpret primary data more insightfully

4-3 A Classification of Secondary Data Fig. 4.1 Secondary Data Internal External Ready to Use Requires Further Processing Published Materials Computerized Databases Syndicated Services

2 Published Secondary Data General Business Sources Government Sources Guides Directories Indexes Statistical Data Census Data Other Government Publications .4-4 A Classification of Published Secondary Sources Fig. 4.

4-5 A Classification of Computerized Databases Fig. 4.3 Computerized Databases Online Internet Off-Line Bibliographic Databases Numeric Databases Full-Text Databases Directory Databases SpecialPurpose Databases .

Households / Consumers Panels Electronic scanner services Purchase Media Surveys Volume Scanner Diary Scanner Diary Tracking Data Panels Panels with Cable TV Gen eral Advertising Evaluation Psychographic & Lifestyles .4 cont. 4.4-6 Syndicated Services: Consumers Fig.

4 cont. 4. Institutions Retailers Wholesalers Industrial firms Audits Direct Inquiries Clipping Services Corporate Reports .4-7 Syndicated Services: Institutions Fig.

4-8 A Classification of Marketing Research Data Fig.1 Marketing Research Data Secondary Data Primary Data Qualitative Data Descriptive Survey Data Observational and Other Data Quantitative Data Causal Experimental Data . 5.

Quantitative Research Table 5.4-9 Qualitative vs.1 Qualitative Research Objective To gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations Small number of nonrepresentative cases U nstructured Non-statistical Develop an initial understanding Quantitative Resear ch To quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the popula tion of interest Large number of representative cases Structured Statistical Rec ommend a final course of action Sample Data Collection Data Analysis Outcome .

4-10 A Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures Fig. 5.2 Qualitative Research Procedures Direct (Non disguised) Indirect (Disguised) Projective Techniques Focus Groups Depth Interviews Association Techniques Completion Techniques Construction Techniques Expressive Techniques .

beliefs. beliefs. In projective techniques.4-11 Definition of Projective Techniques An unstructured. respondents are asked to interpret the behavior of others. . attitudes or feelings regarding the issues of concern. indirect form of questioning that encourages respondents to pro ject their underlying motivations. respondents indi rectly project their own motivations. In interpreting the behavior of others. attitudes. or feelings into the s ituation.

one at a ti me and asked to respond to each with the first word that comes to mind. The word s of interest. called test words. respondents are presented with a list of words.4-12 Word Association In word association. and (3) the number of respondents who do not respond at all to a test word w ithin a reasonable period of time. . or filler words to disguise the purpose of the study. R esponses are analyzed by calculating: (1) the frequency with which any word is g iven as a response. are interspersed throughout the list which als o contains some neutral. (2) the amount of time that elapses before a response is giv en.

in which the respondent completes a paragraph beginning with the stimulus phrase. I ________ A variation of sentence c ompletion is paragraph completion. Penney is most liked by _________________________ When I think of shopping in a department store. C. .4-13 Completion Techniques In Sentence completion. Generally. A person who shops at Sears is ______________________ A person who receives a gift certificate good for Sak's Fifth Avenue would be _______________ ___________________ J. respondents are given incomplete sentences and asked to complete them. they are asked to use the first word or phrase that co mes to mind.

respondents are given part of a story – enough to direct atte ntion to a particular topic but not to hint at the ending. .4-14 Completion Techniques In story completion. They are required to give the conclusion in their own words.

Cartoon tests are simpler to administ er and analyze than picture response techniques. The respondent's interpretation of th e pictures gives indications of that individual's personality. . In cartoon tests. cartoon characters are shown in a specific situation related to the problem. the respondents are asked to describe a series of pictu res of ordinary as well as unusual events.4-15 Construction Techniques With a picture response. Th e respondents are asked to indicate what one cartoon character might say in resp onse to the comments of another character.

4-16 A Cartoon Test Figure 5.4 Sears Let’s see if we can pick up some house wares at Sears .

neighbor. Role playing Respondents are asked to play the role or assume the behavio r of someone else. Third-person technique The respondent is presented with a ver bal or visual situation and the respondent is asked to relate the beliefs and at titudes of a third person rather than directly expressing personal beliefs and a ttitudes.4-17 Expressive Techniques In expressive techniques. or a “typical” per son. . This third person may be a friend. respondents are presented with a verbal or visual situ ation and asked to relate the feelings and attitudes of other people to the situ ation. colleague.

Helpful when underlying motivations. Helpful when the issues to be addressed are personal. and attitudes are operating at a subconscious level. sensitive.4-18 Advantages of Projective Techniques They may elicit responses that subjects would be unwilling or unable to give if they knew the purpose of the study. or subject to strong social norms. . beliefs.

4-19 A Classification of Survey Methods Fig.1 Survey Methods Telephone Personal Mail Electronic In-Home Mall Intercept Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing Mail Interview E-mail Internet Traditional Telephone Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing Mail Panel . 6.

observing children playing with new t oys. the observer monitors all aspects of the phenomenon that s eem relevant to the problem at hand.g.. . In unst ructured observation. the resea rcher specifies in detail what is to be observed and how the measurements are to be recorded. e.g.Observation Methods 4-20 Structured versus Unstructured Observation For structured observation. an auditor performing inventory analysis in a store.. e.

.Observation Methods 4-21 Disguised versus Undisguised Observation In disguised observation. the respondents are aware that they are under observation. the responden ts are unaware that they are being observed. or inconspicuous mechanical devices. In undisguised observation. Observer s may be disguised as shoppers or sales clerks. hidden cameras. Disguise may be accomplished by usi ng oneway mirrors.

respondents behavior is observed in an artificial environment.Observation Methods 4-22 Natural versus Contrived Observation Natural observation involves observing beha vior as it takes places in the environment. one could observe the b ehavior of respondents eating fast food in Burger King. . In contrived observation . such as a test kitchen. For example.

3 Classifying Observation Methods Observation Methods Personal Observation Mechanical Observation Audit Content Analysis Trace Analysis . 6.4-23 A Classification of Observation Methods Fig.

It is possible to prove that X is a cause of Y. At best. X must always lead to Y (X is a deterministic cause of Y). ____________________________________________________ Scientific Meaning Ordinary Meaning ____________________________________________________ X is the only caus e of Y. The occurrence of X makes the occurrence of Y more probable (X is a probabilisti c cause of Y).4-24 Concept of Causality A statement such as "X causes Y " will have the following meaning to an ordinary person and to a scientist. . We can never prove that X is a cause of Y. we can infer that X is a cause of Y. X is only one of a number of possible causes of Y.

e. and competitive effort. Test units are individ uals. or other entities whose response to the independent variabl es or treatments is being examined. e. organizations.g. e.. store size. .g. e.g. profits.g. store location. Extraneous variables are all variables other than the independent variables that affect the response of t he test units. and market shares... price levels. sales. consumers or stores..4-25 Definitions and Concepts Independent variables are variables or alternatives that are manipulated and who se effects are measured and compared. Dependent variabl es are the variables which measure the effect of the independent variables on th e test units.

what dependent variables are to be measured. what independent variables or treatments are to be manipulated. .4-26 Experimental Design An experimental design is a set of procedures specifying the test units and how these units are to be divided into homogeneous subsamples . and how the extraneous variables are to be contro lled.

settings. times.4-27 Validity in Experimentation Internal validity refers to whether the manipulation of the independent variable s or treatments actually caused the observed effects on the dependent variables. independent variables and dependent variables can the results be projecte d? . Control of extraneous variables is a necessary condition for establishing inter nal validity. External validity refers to whether the cause-and-effect relations hips found in the experiment can be generalized. To what populations.

Treatment conditions are also randomly assigned to e xperimental groups. Matching involves comparing test units on a set of key backg round variables before assigning them to the treatment conditions.4-28 Controlling Extraneous Variables Randomization refers to the random assignment of test units to experimental grou ps by using random numbers. . Design control involves the use of experiments designed to control specific extraneous variables. Statistical c ontrol involves measuring the extraneous variables and adjusting for their effec ts through statistical analysis.

1 Experimental Designs Pre-experimental One-Shot Case Study One Group Pretest-Posttest Static Group True Experimental Pretest-Posttest Control Group Posttest: Only Control Group So lomon FourGroup Quasi Experimental Time Series Multiple Time Series Statistical Randomized Blocks Latin Square Factorial Design .4-29 A Classification of Experimental Designs Figure 7.

4-30 Factorial Design Is used to measure the effects of two or more independent variables at various l evels. . In a two-factor design. each level of one variable represents a row and each level of another v ariable represents a column. A factorial design may also be conceptualized as a table.

4-31 Selecting a Test-Marketing Strategy Competition Socio-Cultural Environment Very +ve New Product Development Other Fa ctors Research on Existing Products Research on other Elements Very +ve Other Fa ctors Very +ve Other Factors Simulated Test Marketing Controlled Test Marketing Standard Test Marketing National Introduction Overall Marketing Strategy -ve -ve -ve -ve Stop and Reevaluate Need for Secrecy .

7) Have normal historical development in the product class 8) Have marketing resea rch and auditing services available 9) Not be over-tested . 3) Be representative with respect to product consumption behavior. They should contain at lea st 2% of the potential actual population. 2) Be representative demographically.4-32 Criteria for the Selection of Test Markets Test Markets should have the following qualities: 1) Be large enough to produce meaningful projections. 4) Be represe ntative with respect to media usage. 5) Be representative with respect to compet ition. 6) Be relatively isolated in terms of media and physical distribution.

. The rules for assigning number s should be standardized and applied uniformly. One-to-one correspondence between th e numbers and the characteristics being measured.4-33 Measurement and Scaling Measurement means assigning numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objec ts according to certain prespecified rules. Rules must not change over objec ts or time.

with 1 = Extremely Unfavorable. Meas urement is the actual assignment of a number from 1 to 100 to each respondent. S caling is the process of placing the respondents on a continuum with respect to their attitude toward department stores. .4-34 Measurement and Scaling Scaling involves creating a continuum upon which measured objects are located. C onsider an attitude scale from 1 to 100. and 100 = Extremely Favorable. Each respondent is assigned a number fr om 1 to 100.

6 Finish Interval Performance Rating on a 0 to 10 Scale Time to Finish. in Seconds 8.4 .1 13.1 First place 9.1 Nominal Numbers Assigned to Runners 7 8 3 Finish Ordinal Rank Order of Winners Third place Second place 9.2 14.4-35 Primary Scales of Measurement Scale Figure 8.2 Ratio 15.

2 Scaling Techniques Comparative Scales Noncomparative Scales Paired Comparison Rank Order Constant Sum Q-Sort and Other Procedures Continuous Itemized Rating Scales Rating Scales Likert Semantic Differential Stapel .4-36 A Classification of Scaling Techniques Figure 8.

4-37 A Comparison of Scaling Techniques Comparative scales involve the direct comparison of stimulus objects. In noncomparative scales. . each object is scaled independently of the others in the stimulus set. Comparativ e scale data must be interpreted in relative terms and have only ordinal or rank order properties. The resulting data are generally assumed to be interval or ratio scaled.

Close Up 8. Ultra Brite 7. Gleem 5. Stripe Rank Order _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ .Preference for Toothpaste Brands Using Rank Order Scaling Figure 8.4 cont. 4-38 Form Brand 1. Colgate 3. Crest 2. Macleans 6. Pepsodent 9. Aim 4. Plus White 10.

Price 5. 4-39 Form Attribute 1.Importance of Bathing Soap Attributes Using a Constant Sum Scale Figure 8. Mildness 2. Cleaning Power Sum Average Responses of Three Segments Segment I 8 2 3 53 9 7 5 13 100 Segment II 2 4 9 17 0 5 3 60 100 Segment III 4 17 7 9 19 9 20 15 100 . Lather 3.5 cont. Packaging 7. Fragrance 6. Shrinkage 4. Moisturizing 8.

.4-40 Noncomparative Scaling Techniques Respondents evaluate only one object at a time. Noncomparative techniques con sist of continuous and itemized rating scales. and for this reason noncomparati ve scales are often referred to as monadic scales.

1 1 1 2X 2X 2 5 5 5 The analysis can be conducted on an item-by-item basis (profile analysis). I like to shop at Sears. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither Agree agree nor disagree 3 3 3X 4 4 4 Strongl y agree 1. . When arriving at a total score. Sears has poor in-store service. the ca tegories assigned to the negative statements by the respondents should be scored by reversing the scale. 2. or a total (summated) score can be calculated.4-41 Likert Scale The Likert scale requires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or d isagreement with each of a series of statements about the stimulus objects. Sears sells high quality merchandise. 3.

This controls the tendency of some respondents. SEARS IS: Powerful --:--:--:-:-X-:--:--: Weak Unreliable --:--:--:--:--:-X-:--: Reliable Modern --:--:--:--: --:--:-X-: Old-fashioned The negative adjective or phrase sometimes appears at t he left side of the scale and sometimes at the right. Indivi dual items on a semantic differential scale may be scored on either a -3 to +3 o r a 1 to 7 scale.or left-hand sides without reading the labels. to mark the right.4-42 Semantic Differential Scale The semantic differential is a seven-point rating scale with end points associat ed with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning. . particularly those with very positive or very negative att itudes.

and P roduct Concepts 1) Rugged 2) Excitable 3) Uncomfortable 4) Dominating 5) Thrifty 6) Pleasant 7) Contemporary 8) Organized 9) Rational 10) Youthful 11) Formal 12) Orthodox 13) C omplex 14) Colorless 15) Modest :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Delicate :---:---: ---:---:---:---:---: Calm :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Comfortable :---:---:--:---:---:---:---: Submissive :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Indulgent :---:---:--:---:---:---:---: Unpleasant :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Obsolete :---:---:--:---:---:---:---: Unorganized :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Emotional :---:---: ---:---:---:---:---: Mature :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Informal :---:---:---: ---:---:---:---: Liberal :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Simple :---:---:---:---:--:---:---: Colorful :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Vain 4-43 .A Semantic Differential Scale for Measuring SelfConcepts. Person Concepts.

4-44 Stapel Scale The Stapel scale is a unipolar rating scale with ten categories numbered from -5 to +5, without a neutral point (zero). This scale is usually presented vertical ly. SEARS +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 HIGH QUALITY -1 -2 -3 -4X -5 +5 +4 +3 +2X +1 POOR SERVICE 1 -2 -3 -4 -5 The data obtained by using a Stapel scale can be analyzed in the same way as sem antic differential data.

4-45 Some Unique Rating Scale Configurations Figure 9.3 Thermometer Scale Instructions: Please indicate how much you like McD onald’s hamburgers by coloring in the thermometer. Start at the bottom and color up to the temperature level that best indicates how strong your preference is. Form: Like very much Dislike very much 100 75 50 25 0 Smiling Face Scale Instructions: Please point to the face that shows how much yo u like the Barbie Doll. If you do not like the Barbie Doll at all, you would point to Face 1. If you liked it very much, you would point to Face 5. Form: 1 2 3 4 5

4-46 Validity Construct validity addresses the question of what construct or characteristic th e scale is, in fact, measuring. Construct validity includes convergent, discrimi nant, and nomological validity. Convergent validity is the extent to which the s cale correlates positively with other measures of the same construct. Discrimina nt validity is the extent to which a measure does not correlate with other const ructs from which it is supposed to differ. Nomological validity is the extent to which the scale correlates in theoretically predicted ways with measures of dif ferent but related constructs.

.4-47 Questionnaire Definition A questionnaire is a formalized set of questions for obtaining information from respondents.

1 Specify the Information Needed Specify the Type of Interviewing Method Determine the Content of Individual Questions Design the Question to Overcome the Respond ent’s Inability and Unwillingness to Answer Decide the Question Structure Determin e the Question Wording Arrange the Questions in Proper Order Identify the Form a nd Layout Reproduce the Questionnaire Eliminate Bugs by Pre-testing . 10.4-48 Questionnaire Design Process Fig.

Choosing Question Structure Unstructured Questions 4-49 Unstructured questions are open-ended questions that respondents answer in their own words. Do you intend to buy a new car within the next six months? _________ _________________________ .

or a scale. . A structured question may be multiple-choice. dichotomous.Choosing Question Structure Structured Questions 4-50 Structured questions specify the set of response alternatives and the response f ormat.

Do you inte nd to buy a new car within the next six months? ____ Definitely will not buy ___ _ Probably will not buy ____ Undecided ____ Probably will buy ____ Definitely wi ll buy ____ Other (please specify) . the researcher provides a choice of answers and re spondents are asked to select one or more of the alternatives given.Choosing Question Structure Multiple-Choice Questions 4-51 In multiple-choice questions.

” or “none. such as “no opinion.” “both. Often.” Do you intend uy a new car within the next six months? _____ Yes _____ No _____ Don t know .Choosing Question Structure Dichotomous Questions 4-52 A dichotomous question has only two response alternatives: yes or no. agree or d isagree.” “don t know. the two alternatives of interest are supplemented by a neutral alternative. and so on.

Choosing Question Wording Use Ordinary Words 4-53 “Do you think the distribution of soft drinks is adequate?” (Incorrect) “Do you think soft drinks are readily available when you want to buy them?” (Correct) .

Choosing Question Wording Use Unambiguous Words In a typical month. how often do you shop in department stores? _____ Never ____ _ Occasionally _____ Sometimes _____ Often _____ Regularly (Incorrect) In a typi cal month. how often do you shop in department stores? _____ Less than once ____ _ 1 or 2 times _____ 3 or 4 times _____ More than 4 times (Correct) 4-54 .

2 Introduction Ownership of Store. and Other Charge Cards Purchased Products in a Specific Department Store during the Last Two Months Yes No Ever Purchased in a Department Store? Yes How was Payment made? Credit Cash Other No Store Charge Card Bank Charge Card Other Charge Card Intentions to Use Store. 10. Bank.4-55 Flow Chart for Questionnaire Design Fig. Bank. and other Charge Cards .

4-56 Pretesting Pretesting refers to the testing of the questionnaire on a small sample of respo ndents to identify and eliminate potential problems. Pretests are best done by personal interviews. A questionnaire should not be used in the field survey without adequate pretesting. including question content. telephone. even if the actual survey is to be conduct ed by mail. and instructions. sequence. The respondents for the prete st and for the actual survey should be drawn from the same population. wording. form and layout. All aspects of the ques tionnaire should be tested. . because interviewers can observe res pondents reactions and attitudes. or electronic means. question difficulty.

products/brands purchased. When: Day. size. or type of department within the store. . or children alone. Why: Influence of price. What: Products/brands considered. hidden camera. undisguised personal observer. date of observation. ch eckout counter. package size. browsers. price of package inspected. Where: Inside the store. parents with children. or influence of children or other f amily members. females. males. promotion. hour. brand name.4-57 Observational Forms Department Store Project Who: Purchasers. or obtrusive mechanical device. or family members on the purchase. Way: Pe rsonal observer disguised as sales clerk.

Form and Layout Step 9. Choose Question Structure Step 6. Overcome Inability and Unwillingness to A nswer Step 5. Choose Question Wording Step 7. Pretest . Determine the Order of Questions Step 8. Type of Interviewing Method Step 3. Specify The Information Needed Step 2.4-58 Questionnaire Design Checklist Table 10. Reproduce the Q uestionnaire Step 10.1 Step 1. Individual Question Content Step 4.

Attention to individual cases .4-59 Sample vs.1 Conditions Favoring the Use of Sample Census Small Short Large Small Low High De structive Yes Large Long Small Large High Low Nondestructive No Type of Study 1. Time available 3. Cost of sampling errors 6. Population size 4. Budget 2. Nature of measurement 8. Census Table 11. Cost of nonsampling errors 7. Variance in the characteristic 5 .

11.1 Define the Population Determine the Sampling Frame Select Sampling Technique(s) Determine the Sample Size Execute the Sampling Process .4-60 The Sampling Design Process Fig.

An element is the object about which or from which the informati on is desired. The target population should be defined in terms of elements. . the respondent. ex tent.4-61 Define the Target Population The target population is the collection of elements or objects that possess the information sought by the researcher and about which inferences are to be made. sampling units. and time. Time is the time peri od under consideration. Extent refers to the geographical boundaries. A sampling unit is an element. or a unit co ntaining the element. e.g. that is available for selection at some stage of the sampl ing process..

000-2.g.500 3 00-500 300-500 300-500 200-300 10-20 stores 4-12 groups 4-62 . radio. market potential) Problem-so lving research (e.2 Type of Study Problem identification research (e.g.Sample Sizes Used in Marketing Research Studies Table 11. pricing) Product tests Test marketing studies TV. or print advertising (per commercial or ad tested) Test-market audits Focus groups Minimum Size Typical Range 500 200 200 200 150 10 stores 2 groups 1.

11.2 Sampling Techniques Probability Sampling Techniques Nonprobability Sampling Techniques Convenience Sampling Judgmental Sampling Quota Sampling Snowball Sampling Simple Random Sampling Systematic Sampling Stratified Sampling Cluster Sampling Other Sampling Techniques .4-63 Classification of Sampling Techniques Fig.

1 Prepare Preliminary Plan of Data Analysis Check Questionnaire Edit Cod e Transcribe Clean Data Statistically Adjust the Data Select Data Analysis Strat egy .4-64 Data Preparation Process Fig. 14.

& 3) of the Marketing Research Process Known Char acteristics of the Data Properties of Statistical Techniques Background and Phil osophy of the Researcher Data Analysis Strategy .5 Earlier Steps (1. 2. 14.4-65 Selecting a Data Analysis Strategy Fig.

14.4-66 A Classification of Univariate Techniques Fig.6 Univariate Techniques Metric Data One Sample * t test * Z test Two or More Samples Non-numeric Data One Sample * Frequency * Chi-Square * K-S * Runs * Binomial Ind ependent * Chi-Square * Mann-Whitney * Median * K-S * K-W ANOVA Two or More Samp les Independent * TwoGroup test * Z test * One-Way ANOVA Related * Paired t test Related * Sign * Wilcoxon * McNemar * Chi-Square .

14.4-67 A Classification of Multivariate Techniques Fig.7 Multivariate Techniques Interdependence Technique Variable Interdependence * Factor Analysis Interobject Similarity * Cluster Analysis * Multidimensional Scaling Dependence Technique One Dependent Variable * CrossTabulation * Analysis of Vari ance and Covariance * Multiple Regression * Conjoint Analysis More Than One Depe ndent Variable * Multivariate Analysis of Variance and Covariance * Canonical Co rrelation * Multiple Discriminant Analysis .

. percentages. A frequency d istribution for a variable produces a table of frequency counts.4-68 Frequency Distribution In a frequency distribution. one variable is considered at a time. an d cumulative percentages for all the values associated with that variable.

The mode is a good measure of location when the va riable is inherently categorical or has otherwise been grouped into categories. or average value. X .is given by X = Σ X i /n i=1 n 4-69 Where. It represents the high est peak of the distribution.Statistics Associated with Frequency Distribution Measures of Location The mean. . Xi = Observed values of the variable X n = Number of observations (sample size) The mode is the value that occurs most frequently. is the most commonly used measure of central tendenc y. The mean.

4-70 ¡ .tatistics Associated with Frequency Distribution Measures of Location The median of a sample is the middle value when the data are arranged in ascendi ng or descending order. If the number of data points is even. The median is the 50th percentile. the median is usua lly estimated as the midpoint between the two middle values – by adding the two mi ddle values and dividing their sum by 2.

For a set of data points arranged in order of magnitude. ¡ .tatistics Associated with Frequency Distribution Measures of Variability The range measures the spread of the data.p)% above it. the pth percentile is the value that has p% of the data points below it and (100 . It is simply the difference between t he largest and smallest values in the sample. 4-71 Xsmallest. Range = Xlargest – The interquartile range is the difference between the 75th and 25th percentile.

The standard deviation is the square root of the variance. and is a unitless measure of relative variability. n (Xi X)2 sx = i =1 n .tatistics Associated with Frequency Distribution Measures of Variability The variance is the mean squared deviation from the mean. CV = s x/X ¡ .1 4-72 Σ The coefficient of variation is the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean expressed as a percentage. The variance can never be negative.

The kurtosis of a normal distribution is zero.tatistics Associated with Frequency Distribution Measures of hape kewness. A negative value means that the distribution is flatter than a normal distribution. It can be thought of as the tendency for one tail of the distribution to be heavier than the other. 4-73 ¡ ¡ ¡ . The tendency of the deviations from the mean to be larger in one direc tion than in the other. then th e distribution is more peaked than a normal distribution. Kurtosis is a measure of the relativ e peakedness or flatness of the curve defined by the frequency distribution. If the kurtosis is positive.

4-74 kewness of a Distribution Figure 15.2 ¡ ¡ ¡ ymmetric Distribution kewed Distribution Mean Median Mode (a) Mean Median Mode (b) .

α tatistic Compare with Level of igni Determine Critic l V lue of Test St tistic TSCR Determine if TSCR f lls into (No n) Rejection Region Reject or Do not Reject H0 Dr w M rketing Rese rch Conclusion ¡ ¡ teps Involved in Hypothesis Testing Fig. 15.3 Formulate H0 and H1 elect Appropriate Test Choose Level of ce Collect Data and Calculate Test tatistic ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ignifican .4-75 Determine Probability Associated with Test ficance.

4-76 A Bro d Cl ssific tion of Hypothesis Tests Figure 15.6 Hypothesis Tests Tests of Associ tion Tests of Differences Distributions Me ns Proportions Medi n/ R nkings ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ .

3. e. T ble 15.. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . cross-t bul t ion describes two or more v ri bles simult neously.4-77 Cross-T bul tion While frequency distribution describes one v ri ble t time.g. Cross-t bul tion results in t bles th t reflect the joint distribution of two or more v ri bles with limit ed number of c tegories or distinct v lues.

3 Gender Internet Us ge Light (1) He vy (2) Column Tot l M le 5 10 15 Fem le 10 5 15 Row Tot l 15 15 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ .4-78 Gender nd Internet Us ge T ble 15.

3% 100% ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ .7 % 33.4-79 Internet Us ge by Gender T ble 15.4 Gender Internet Us ge Light He vy Column tot l M le 33.3% 66.7% 100% Fem le 66.

3% Tot l 100.3% 66.5 Internet Us ge Gender M le Fem le Light 33.7% 33.0% ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . 0% 100.4-80 Gender by Internet Us ge T ble 15.7% He vy 66.

Introduction of Third V ri ble in CrossT bul tion Fig. 15.7 Origin l Two V ri bles 4-81 Refined Associ tion between the Two V ri bles No Associ tion between the Two V ri bles No Ch nge in the Initi l P ttern Some Associ tion between the Two V ri bles ¢ ¢ ¢ No Associ tion between the Two V ri bles Introduce Third V ri ble ¢ ¢ ¢ Some Associ tion between the Two V ri bles Introduce ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ Third V ri ble ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ .

4-82 Purch se of F shion Clothing by M rit l St tus T ble 15.6 Purch se of F shion Clothing High Low Column Number of respondents Current M rit l St tus M rried 31% 69% 100% 700 Unm rried 52% 48% 100% 300 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ .

4-83 Purch se of F shion Clothing by M rit l St tus T ble 15.7 Pur ch se of F shion Clothing High Low Column tot ls Number of c ses M rr ied 35 % 65% 100% 400 Sex M le Not M r r ied 40% 60% 100% 120 M r r ied 25% 75% 100% 30 0 Fem le Not M r r ied 60% 40% 100% 180 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ .

E ting Frequently in F st-Food Rest ur nts by F mily Size T ble 15.12 4-84 E t Frequently in F stFood Rest ur nts Sm ll Yes No Column tot ls Number of c se s 65% 35% 100% 500 F mily Size L rge 65% 35% 100% 500 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ .

E ting Frequently in F st Food-Rest ur nts by F mily Size & Income T ble 15.13 4-85 Income E t Frequently in F stFood Rest ur nts Low High F mily size Sm ll L rge 6 5% 65% 35% 35% 100% 100% 250 250 F mily size Sm ll L rge Yes 65% 65% No 35% 35% Column tot ls 100% 100% Number of respondents 250 250 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ .

8 Do Not Reject H0 Reject H0 Critic l V lue χ2 ¢ ¢ ¢ .4-86 Chi-squ re Distribution Figure 15.

Statisti s Asso iated with Cross-Tabulation Chi-Square 4-87 The hi-square statisti ( χ 2 ) is used to test the statisti al signifi an e of t he observed asso iation in a ross-tabulation. The expe ted frequen y for ea h ell an be al ulated by using a simple formula: nrn fe = n where nr n n = total number in the row = total number in the olumn = total sample size £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ .

50 30 Σ all cells (f o .f e) 2 fe £ £ Then the value of χ 2 is χ2 = al ulated as follows: £ £ £ £ £ .50 30 15 X 15 = 7. are: 15 X 15 = 7.3.50 30 15 X 15 = 7.50 30 15 X 15 = 7. the expe ted frequen ies for the ells going from le ft to right and from top to bottom.Statisti s Asso iated with Cross-Tabulation Chi-Square 4-88 For the data in Table 15.

7.5 7.5)2 + (5 .833 + 0.tatistics Associated with Cross-Tabulation Chi.5)2 + (10 7.5 7.833 = 3.5 =0.833+ 0.5)2 + (10 .333 4-89 £ £ ¡ ¡ .5)2 7. the value of al ulated as: = (5 -7.7.3.833 + 0.5 7.quare χ 2 is For the data in Table 15.

whi h is a kind of average of the two asymmetri values. A val ue of 1 indi ates that the predi tion an be made without error.Statisti s Asso iated with Cross-Tabulation Lambda Coeffi ient 4-90 Asymmetri lambda measures the per entage improvement in predi ting the value of the dependent variable. This happens wh en ea h independent variable ategory is asso iated with a single ategory of th e dependent variable. Lambda als o varies between 0 and 1. given the value of the independent variable. £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ . Asymmetri lambda is omputed for ea h of the variables (t reating it as the dependent variable). A symmetri lambda is also omputed. A value of 0 means no improvement in predi tion. It measures the overall improvement when predi tion is done in both dire tions. The symmetri lambda does n ot make an assumption about whi h variable is dependent.

A Classifi ation of Hypothesis Testing Pro edures for Examining Differen es Fig. 15.9 Hypothesis Tests 4-91 Non-parametri Tests (Nonmetri Tests) One Sample * * * * Chi-Square K-S Runs Bi nomial Two or More Samples Independent Samples * Two-Group t test * Z test Paired Samples * Paired t test Independent Samples * Chi-Square * Mann-Whitney * Median * K-S * * * * Paired Samples Sign Wil oxon M Nemar Chi-Square £ £ £ £ £ £ Parametri Tests (Metri Tests) One Sample * t test * Z test Two or More Samples £ £ £ .

two independent samples. nonparametri tests are available for testing variables from o ne sample. £ £ £ £ £ .4-92 Non-Parametri Tests Nonparametri tests are used when the independent variables are nonmetri . or two related samples. Like parametri tests.

The K-S test is based on the maximum value of the absolute dif feren e between Ai and Oi.Oi £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ . T he K-S ompares the umulative distribution fun tion for a variable with a spe i fied distribution. Ai denotes the umulative relative frequen y for ea h ategor y of the theoreti al (assumed) distribution. 4-93 The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) one-sample test is one su h goodness-of-fit test. and Oi the omparable value of the sample frequen y. or Poisson distribution. The test statisti is K = Max A i . su h as the normal.Non-Parametri Tests One Sample Sometimes the resear her wants to test whether the observations for a parti ular variable ould reasonably have ome from a parti ular distribution. uniform.

4-94 The hi-square test an also be performed on a single variable from one sample. In this ontext. the hi-square serves as a goodness-of-fit test. This test is ondu ted by determining whether the order or sequen e in whi h observations are obtained is random. £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Non-Parametri One Sample Tests £ £ £ . It tests the goodness of fit of the observed number of observations in ea h ategory to the number expe ted under a spe ified binomial distribution. The binomial test is also a goodness-of-fit test for di hotomous variab les. The runs test is a test of randomness for the di hotomous variables.

the distribution of s ores from the two groups in the rank list should b e random. £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Non-Parametri Tests £ £ £ . This z an be orre ted for ties within ranks. For samples of less than 30. the exa t signifi an e level for U is omputed. the two samples are ombined and the ases are ranked in order of in reasing siz e. If the samples are from the same popu lation. The test statisti . pointing to the inequality of the two groups. U is transformed into a norma lly distributed z statisti . For larger samples. An extreme value of U would indi ate a nonrandom pattern. U. and the variable is measured on an ordinal s ale. In the Mann-Whitney U test. the Mann-Whitney U test an be used. is omputed as the number of times a s ore from sample or group 1 pre edes a s ore from group 2.4-95 Two Independent Samples When the differen e in the lo ation of two populations is to be ompared based o n observations from two independent samples.

It produ es a table of frequen y ounts . varian e. stan dard deviation. £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ . minimum. median. either for all of the ases or separately for groups of ases.4-96 SPSS Windows The main program in SPSS is FREQUENCIES. per entages. The E XPLORE pro edure produ es summary statisti s and graphi al displays. the DESCRIPTIVES pro edure an be used. Mean. It gi ves all of the asso iated statisti s. If the data are interval s aled and only t he summary statisti s are desired. and range are some of the statisti s that an be al ulated. maximum. and umulative per entages for the values of ea h variable.

lassifi ation tables and provide ell ounts. row and olumn per entages. This program will display the ross. the hi-square test for signifi an e. To sele t these pro edures li k: Analyz e>Des riptive Statisti s>Crosstabs £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ . and all the measures of the strength of th e asso iation that have been dis ussed.4-97 SPSS Windows To sele t these pro edures li k: Analyze>Des riptive Statisti s>Frequen ies Ana lyze>Des riptive Statisti s>Des riptives Analyze>Des riptive Statisti s>Explore The major ross-tabulation program is CROSSTABS.

To sele t these pro edures using SPSS for Windows li k: Analyze>Compare Means>Means … Analyze>Compare Means>One-Sample T Test … Analyze>Comp are Means>IndependentSamples T Test … Analyze>Compare Means>Paired-Samples T Test … £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ .4-98 SPSS Windows The major program for ondu ting parametri tests in SPSS is COMPARE MEANS. This program an be used to ondu t t tests on one sample or independent or paired s amples.

4-99 SPSS Windows The nonparametri tests dis ussed in this hapter an be ondu ted using NONPARA METRIC TESTS. To sele t these pro edures using SPSS for Windows li k: Analyze>Nonparametri Tests>Chi-Square … Analyze>Nonparametri Tests>Binomial … Anal yze>Nonparametri Tests>Runs … Analyze>Nonparametri Tests>1-Sample K-S … Analyze>No nparametri Tests>2 Independent Samples … Analyze>Nonparametri Tests>2 Related Sa mples …

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4-100 Produ t Moment Correlation The produ t moment orrelation, r, summarizes the strength of asso iation betwee n two metri (interval or ratio s aled) variables, say X and Y. It is an index u sed to determine whether a linear or straight-line relationship exists between X and Y. As it was originally proposed by Karl Pearson, it is also known as the P earson orrelation oeffi ient. It is also referred to as simple orrelation, bi variate orrelation, or merely the orrelation oeffi ient.

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4-101 Produ t Moment Correlation r varies between -1.0 and +1.0. The orrelation oeffi ient between two variables will be the same regardless of their underlying units of measurement.

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S attergram. Standard error. A s atter diagram.Statisti s Asso iated with Bivariate Regression Analysis Regression oeffi ient. is the standard deviation of th e a tual Y values from the predi ted Y values. The estimated parameter b is usually referred to as the nonstandardized regression oeffi ient. is a plot of the values of two variables for all the ases or observatio ns. is alled the standard error. SEb. This statisti . or s att ergram. 4-102 Standard error of estimate. SEE. The standard devi ation of b. £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ .

A t statistic with n . this is the slope obtained by the regression of Y on X when the data are s tandardized.2 degrees of £ £ £ £ £ £ ¤ ¤ £ £ . Σe 2 j . Sum of squared errors. freedom can be used to test the nu ll hypothesis that no linear relationship exists between X and Y. where t = SE 4-103 t statistic. Also termed the beta oeffi ient or beta we ight. whi h is a measure of total error. or H0: β 1 = 0. The distan es of all the points from the reg ression line are squared and added together to arrive at the sum of squared erro rs.Statisti s Asso iated with Bivariate Regression Analysis Standardized regression oeffi ient.

the least-squares procedure minimizes the sum of squared errors. or scattergram. is a plot of the values of two varia les for all the cases or o servations. Σe 2 j . The most commonly used technique for fitting a st raight line to a scattergram is the least-squares procedure. 4-104 ¤ ¤ . In fitting the line .Conducting Bivariate Regression Analysis Plot the Scatter Diagram A scatter diagram.

17.2 Plot the catter Diagram Formulate the General Model Estimate the Para meters Estimate tandardized Regression Coefficients Test for ignificance Deter mine the trength and ignificance of Association Check Prediction Accuracy Exam ine the Residuals Cross-Validate the Model ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ .4-105 Conducting Bivariate Regression Analysis Fig.

. the coefficient a represents the intercept. . + β k Xk + e which is estimated y the following equation: ¤ Y = a + 1X1 + 2X2 + 3X3+ . ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ 's are now the p . . + kXk As efore. . ut the artial regression coefficients.4-106 Multiple Regression The general form of the multiple regression model is as follows: Y = β 0 + β 1 X1 + β 2 X2 + β 3 X3+ .

4-107 Multicollinearity Multicollinearity arises when intercorrelations among the predictors are very hi gh. Multicollinearity can result in several pro lems, including: The partial reg ression coefficients may not e estimated precisely. The standard errors are lik ely to e high. The magnitudes as well as the signs of the partial regression co efficients may change from sample to sample. It ecomes difficult to assess the relative importance of the independent varia les in explaining the variation in the dependent varia le. Predictor varia les may e incorrectly included or remov ed in stepwise regression.

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4-108 SPSS Windows The CORRELATE program computes Pearson product moment correlations and partial c orrelations with significance levels. Univariate statistics, covariance, and cro ss-product deviations may also e requested. Significance levels are included in the output. To select these procedures using SPSS for Windows click: Analyze>Co rrelate>Bivariate … Analyze>Correlate>Partial … Scatterplots can e o tained y clic king: Graphs>Scatter …>Simple>Define REGRESSION calculates ivariate and multiple regression equations, associated statistics, and plots. It allows for an easy ex amination of residuals. This procedure can e run y clicking: Analyze>Regressio n Linear …

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Similarities and Differences etween ANOVA, Regression, and Discriminant Analysi s Ta le 18.1 ANOVA Similarities Num er of dependent varia les Num er of independent varia les Differences Nature of the dependent varia les Nature of the independent varia l es One REGRESSION One DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS One 4-109 Multiple Multiple Multiple Metric Categorical Metric Metric Categorical Metric

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Classification of cases to one of the groups ased on the values of the predic tor varia les. or linear com inations of the predictor or ind ependent varia les. Examination of whether significant diff erences exist among the groups. which will est discriminate etween the categories of the c riterion or dependent varia le (groups). Determinati on of which predictor varia les contri ute to most of the intergroup differences . Evaluation of the accuracy of classification.4-110 Discriminant Analysis Discriminant analysis is a technique for analyzing data when the criterion or de pendent varia le is categorical and the predictor or independent varia les are i nterval in nature. ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ . The o jectives of discriminant analysis are as follows: Devel opment of discriminant functions. in terms of the predictor varia les.

as there is one for each group. Sometimes also called confusi on or prediction matrix. the classification matrix contains the num er of correc tly classified and misclassified cases. Centroid. There are as many centroids as there are groups. The means for a group on all the functio ns are the group centroids. Canonical correlation measures the extent of association etween the discriminant scores and the groups.4-111 Statistics Associated with Discriminant Analysis Canonical correlation. Classification matrix. ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ . The centroid is the mean values for the discr iminant scores for a particular group. It is a measure of association etween the single discriminant function and the set of dummy varia les that defi ne the group mem ership.

4-112 Statistics Associated with Discriminant Analysis Discriminant function coefficients. The unstandardized coefficients are multiplied y the values of the varia les. when the varia les are in the orig inal units of measurement. Discriminant scores. ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ . the Eigenvalue is the ratio of etween-group to withingro up sums of squares. Large Eigenvalues imply superior functions. The discriminant function coefficients (unst andardized) are the multipliers of varia les. Eigenvalue. These products are summed and add ed to the constant term to o tain the discriminant scores. For each discriminant function.

1 Formulate the Pro lem Estimate the Discriminant Function Coefficients Determine the Significance of the Discriminant Function Interpret the Results Assess Validity of Discriminant Analysis ¤ . 18.4-113 Conducting Discriminant Analysis Fig.

To select this procedure using SPSS for Windows click: Analyze>Classify>Disc riminant … ¤ .4-114 SPSS Windows The DISCRIMINANT program performs oth twogroup and multiple discriminant analys is.

set of uncorrelated varia les to replace the original set of corr elated varia les in su sequent multivariate analysis (regression or discriminant analysis). To identify a new. To identify a smaller set of salient varia les from a larger set for use in su sequent multivariate analysis. Factor analysis is an interdependence tech nique in that an entire set of interdependent relationships is examined without making the distinction etween dependent and independent varia les. o r factors. that explain the correlations among a set of varia les. smaller.4-115 Factor Analysis Factor analysis is a general name denoting a class of procedures primarily used for data reduction and summarization. Factor analy sis is used in the following circumstances: To identify underlying dimensions. ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ .

so that the second factor accounts for most of the resi dual variance. Then a second set of weights can e selected. ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ . su ject to eing uncorrelated with the first factor. This same pr inciple could e applied to selecting additional weights for the additional fact ors.4-116 Factor Analysis Model It is possi le to select weights or factor score coefficients so that the first factor explains the largest portion of the total variance.

1 Pro lem formulation Construction of the Correlation Matrix Method of Fa ctor Analysis Determination of Num er of Factors Rotation of Factors Interpretat ion of Factors Calculation of Factor Scores Determination of Model Fit Selection of Surrogate Varia les ¤ ¤ ¤ .4-117 Conducting Factor Analysis Fig 19.

¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ . only factors with a variance greater than 1. due to standardization. each varia le has a variance of 1. An Eigenvalue represents the amount of varian ce associated with the factor.0 are included. Factors with variance less than 1.0 are no etter than a singl e varia le. the researcher knows how many factors to expect and thus can sp ecify the num er of factors to e extracted eforehand.0 are retained. since.0.Conducting Factor Analysis 4-118 Determine the Num er of Factors A Priori Determination. ecause of prior knowledge. Sometimes. Hence. In this approach. Determination Based on Eigenvalues. this approach will result in a conse rvative num er of factors. If the num er of varia les is less than 20. only factors with Eigenval ues greater than 1.

4-119 SPSS Windows To select this procedures using SPSS for Windows click: Analyze>Data Reduction>F actor … .

Groups or clusters are suggested y the data. in cluster analysis there is no a priori information a out the group or cluster mem ership for any of the o jects. or numerical taxonomy. discriminant analysis requires prior knowledge of the cluster or group mem ership for each o ject or case included. In contrast. ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ . O jects in each cluster tend to e similar to each other and dissimilar to o jects in the other clusters.4-120 Cluster Analysis Cluster analysis is a class of techniques used to classify o jects or cases into relatively homogeneous groups called clusters. not defined a priori. How ever. to develop the classification rule. Both c luster analysis and discriminant analysis are concerned with classification. Cluste r analysis is also called classification analysis.

4-121 An Ideal Clustering Situation Fig.1 Varia le 1 Varia le 2 ¤ ¤ . 20.

4-122 Conducting Cluster Analysis Fig.3 Formulate the Pro lem Select a Distance Measure Select a Clustering Pr ocedure Decide on the Num er of Clusters Interpret and Profile Clusters Assess t he Validity of Clustering ¤ ¤ . 20.

4-123 A Classification of Clustering Procedures Fig. 20.4 Hierarchical Agglomerative Divisive Sequential Threshold Linkage Metho ds Variance Methods Ward’s Method Single Complete Average Parallel Threshold Centr oid Methods Optimizing Partitioning Clustering Pro edures Nonhierar hi al £ £ £ .

Divisive lustering star ts with all the obje ts grouped in a single luster. Clusters are divided or spl it until ea h obje t is in a separate luster. This pro ess is onti nued until all obje ts are members of a single luster. They onsist of linkage methods. Hierar hi al methods an be agglomerative or divisive. and entroid methods. £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ .Condu ting Cluster Analysis 4-124 Sele t a Clustering Pro edure – Hierar hi al Hierar hi al lustering is hara terized by the development of a hierar hy or tr ee-like stru ture. Agglom erative lustering starts with ea h obje t in a separate luster. Agglomerative methods are ommonl y used in marketing resear h. Clusters are f ormed by grouping obje ts into bigger and bigger lusters. error sums of squ ares or varian e methods.

5).5). The omplete linkage method is simil ar to single linkage. the distan e between two lusters is al ulated as the distan e between their two furthest points. the distan e between two lusters is defined as the average of the distan es between all pairs of obje ts. where one member of the pair is from ea h of the lusters (Figure 20. in this method. the distan e between two lusters is the distan e between their two losest points (see Figure 20. The average lin kage method works similarly. or the nearest neighbor rule. At every stage.Condu ting Cluster Analysis 4-125 Sele t a Clustering Pro edure – Linkage Method The single linkage method is based on minimum distan e. £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ . In omplete linkage. However. ex ept that it is based on the maximum distan e or the fur thest neighbor approa h.

20.5 Single Linkage Minimum Distan e Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Complete Linkage Maximum Distan e Cluster 1 Average Linkage Cluster 2 Average Distan e Cluster 1 Cluster 2 £ £ £ .4-126 Linkage Methods of Clustering Fig.

6 Ward’s Pro edure Centroid Method £ . 20.4-127 Other Agglomerative Clustering Methods Fig.

4-128 £ SPSS Windows To sele t this pro edures using SPSS for Windows li k: Analyze>Classify>Hierar hi al Cluster … Analyze>Classify>K-Means Cluster … £ £ £ £ £ .

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