System Concept
A system is a way of thinking about the organization and their problems. It also involves a set of techniques that helps in solving the problems. The term system is derived from the Greek word systema which means an organized relationship among functioning units or components. A system exists because it is designed to achieve one or more objectives.

A system is an orderly grouping of the interdependent components linked together according to a plan to achieve a specific objective. The word component may refer to the physical parts, managerial steps or a subsystem in a multilevel structure. The components may be simple or complex, basic or advanced. Each component is a part of the total system and has to do its share of the work for the system to achieve the intended goal. This orientation requires an orderly grouping of the components for the design of a successful system. The study of the system concept has three basic implications: 1- System must be design to obtain a predetermined objective. 2- Interrelationship and interdependency must exist among the system components. 3- The objective of the organization as a whole must have a higher priority than the objective of its subsystem. Another way to view system is as shown in the figure:

Goal setting is one of the principles which exactly define but the system is supposed to do. System boundary defines the components that make of the system. The set of system component can be changed during the system design. Anything outside the system boundary is known as the system environment. Things outside the system study can affect the system behavior. A system can be made of any number of subsystems. Each subsystem carries out parts of the system function. Subsystems are important because they can help to handle system complexity and thus improve the understanding of the system. Each subsystem carries out some parts of the system objective. Feedback is the identity of monitoring the current output and comparing it to the system goal. Feedback uses variation from a system goal to change system behavior. Monitoring a system checks the e-mail to see if a system is meeting its goal. Any variation from the goal are then feedback into the system and used to adjust it to ensure that it meet its goal. To do this it is necessary to monitor the system to see if it is meeting its goal.

Characteristics of a system
1-Organization: - Organization implies the structure and order. It is an arrangement of components that helps to achieve the objectives. In the design of a business system for

example: - the hierarchical relationship starting with the president on the top and leading downward to the workers represents the organization structure. Such an arrangement portrays a system- subsystem relationship defines the authority structure specifies the formal communication and formalizes the chain of command.

2- Interaction: - Interaction refers to the manner in which each component function with other components of the system. In an organization for example: - purchasing must interact with production, advertising must interact with sale and payroll with personnel. In a computer system a central processing unit must interact with the input device to solve a problem. In turn the main memory holds program and data that the arithmetic unit uses for the computation. The interrelationship between these components enables the computer to perform. 3- Interdependence: - It means that the parts of the organization or computer system depend on one another. They are co-ordinate and linked together according to a plan. One subsystem depends on another subsystem for proper functioning. The output of one subsystem is the required input for another subsystem. This is called interdependence in system’s work.


Each element may be represented by a computer based package and is a part of human resource data base that provides information or unemployment. health and safety. may be viewed as a system that consists of subsystems such as benefits. programmed and tested by the programmer and done by the computer operator.The above figure shows three levels of subsystem. analyzed and designed by the analyst. Each of the top inner circles represents the major subsystem of a production firm. and employment health and safety key. insurance benefits and the like. in turn. In short no sub system can function in isolation because it is dependent on the data (inputs) it receives from the other subsystem to perform its required task. Personal sub system consists of lower level elements that are considered vital in personal operation. A decision to computerize an application is initiated by the user. . The personal sub system.

The last characteristic of a system is central objective. Objective may be real or stated. Although the real objective may be the real objective. .Integration: .Task independence in a computer based sub system 4.Central objective: . 5. It is more than a topic. it is not uncommon for an organization to state one objective and operates to achieve another.Integration is concerned with how a system is tied together. Successful integration will typically produce a good affect and greater total impact than if each component works separately. It means that the parts of the system work together within the system even though each part performs a unique function. It is more than sharing a physical part or location. The important point is that users must know the central objective of a computer application early in the analyses for successful design and conversion.

A system feeds on input to produce output in much the some way that a business brings in human. Output is the outcome of the processing. That is specification of the output that the computer is expected to provide for meeting user’s requirement.Feedback 6. Organization’s environment .Outputs and inputs 2. Whatever the nature of the output (goods.Chapter-2 Elements of a System Elements of a System 1. services. Inputs are the elements (material. information) it must be in line with the expectation of the intended user.Environment 5.Processor 3. resources and info) that enter the system for processing. amount and regularity of the input needed to operate a system analyses the first concern is to determine the user’s requirement of a proposed computer system.Control 4.A major objective of a system is to produce an output that has value to its user. human. It is important to point out that determining the output is a first step in specifying the nature. financial and material resources to produce goods and services. For example: .Boundaries and interface Outputs and Inputs: .

Organization’s environment Processor: . It is the operational component of a system. Output specification determines what and how much input is needed to keep the system in balance. processing and output. It is a decision making subsystem that controls a pattern of activities governing input.The control element guides a subsystem. In system analysis knowing the attitude of the individual who can control the area for which a computer is being considered can make a distance between the success and failure of the installation. Processor may modify the input totally or partially depending on the specification of the output. Thus means that as the output specification changes so does the processing.The processor is an element of a system that involves the actual transformation of the input into the output. handling and outflow of the activities that affect the welfare of the business. In some cases input is also modified to enable the processor to handle the transformation. Control: . In a computer system the operating system and the accompanying software influence the behavior of the system. Management support is required for securing control and supporting the objective of the proposed change. In an organizational context management as a decision making body controls the inflow. .

During analysis the user may be told that the problems in the given application verify his or her initial concern and justify the need for change. It is routine in the system. routine or informational. In system analysis knowledge of a given system is crucial in determining the nature of its interface with other systems for successful design.Physical or abstract 2. Boundaries and interface: .The environment is the ‘supra system’ with which an organization operates.Feedback: . Positive feedback reinforces the performance of the system. Positive feedback generally provides a controller with the information for action. Each system has boundaries that determine its sphere of influence and control.Physical systems are tangible entities. In fact it often determines how a style must function. desks.The physical parts of the computer system are the offices.Open or closed 3. chairs that facilitate operation of the computer. Feedback measures output against a standard in same form of cybernetic processor that includes communication and control.A system should be defined by its boundaries that the limits that identify its components. Types of system Systems have been classified in different ways. Feedback may be positive or negative. Common classifications are following: 1.Control in a dynamic system is achieved by feedback. Environment: . For example: . They may be static or dynamic in operation.“Man made” information system Physical or abstract system: . In system analysis feedback is important in different ways. . Another form of feedback comes after a system is implemented. processes and interrelationship when it interfaces with other system. The user informs the analyst about the performance of the new installation this feedback often results in enhancement to meet the user requirements. They can be seen or counted. It is the source of external elements that influence a system.

An open system has many interfaces with its environment. In contrast a computer system is a dynamic system. A dynamic model approximates the type or organization or application that analyst deals with. Data. A model is a representation of a real or planned system.Dynamic system model: . .This classification of system is based on their degree of independence. When functioning properly an open system reaches a steady state or equilibrium. 3. An information system falls into this category since it must adapt to the changing demand of the user.Open systems are self adjusting and self regulating. 4. In contrast a closed system is isolated from environmental influence.Business organizations are dynamic system. In a retail firm for example: . Abstract systems are conceptual or non physical entities. computers and applications are invariably open.Input from outside: . This response wills the firm it’s the steady state. Open or closed system: . energy and information that hold the system together. It permits interaction across its boundary. The major models are: 1. programs. They may be as straightforward as formulae of relationship among sets of variable or models.They are static. the abstract conceptualization of physical situation.A flow system model shows the flow of the material. An increase in the cost of the goods forces a comparable increase in prices or decrease in operating cost. Important Characteristics of Open System 1.A steady state exist when goods are purchased and sold without being either out of the stock or overstock. output and application changes as a user demand or the priority of the information changes.This type of model exhibits one pair of relationship such as activity time or cost quantity.Static system model: . In system analysis organizations. Dynamic systems influenced by their environment.A schematic model is a two dimensional chart depicting system language. In reality a completely closed system is rare. 2. It receives input from and delivers output to the outside.Schematic model: .Flow system model: .

communication and workflow. Information is formally disseminated in instructions. 5. The major information systems are formal.A formal information system is based on the organization represented by the organization chart. Understanding system characteristics help analyst to identify their role and relate their activities to the attainment of the firm’s objective. Man Made Information System: . . This structure also allows feedback up the chain command for follow up. control and performance. It is concerned with the pattern of authority. rules and regulations and transmitted to lower level management for implementation.Formal Information System: .Process. output and cycles: .Differentiation: . The chart is the map of position and their authority relationship indicated by boxes and connected by straight lines.All dynamic systems tens to run down over time result in entropy or loss of energy. Open system resist entropy by seeking new inputs or modifying the processes to return to a steady state. 4. 1. The output represents employee performance. 3. informal and computer based. It provides instruction commands and feedback. An information system may be defined as a set of devices processors and operating system designed around user based criteria to produce information and communicate it to the user for planning.Open systems have a tendency towards and increasing specialization of functions and a greater differentiation of their components. Policies are translated into directives. Policies are generalization that specifies what an organization out to do.Open system produce useful output and operate in cycles and following a continuous flow path. In business roles of peoples and machines tens towards greater specialization and greater interaction.Entropy: .Equifinality: . It determines a nature of the relationship among decision makers. In more systems there is more stress on goals than on paths to reach the goals.2.An information system is the basis for the interaction between the user and the analyst.The term implies that goals are achieved through differing course of action and a variety of paths. memos or reports from tap management to the intended user in the organization.

The second level of information is Monitorial Information.DSS (decision support system).Categories of Information: . It is of direct use to middle management and department head for implementation and control. For example: . overdue purchased orders and current stock available for sale. which relates to long range planning policies that are of direct interest to upper management. The first level is Strategic Information.There are three categories of information related to manage a level the decision manager make. Information such as population growth tens in financial investment and human resource changes would be off interest to top company official who are responsible for developing policies and determining long range goals. For ex: . This information is of use in short and intermediate range. The third information level is Operational Information which is short term. For example: . It is maintained with the aid of MIS (management information system).daily employee absence sheet. Operational information is established by DPS (data processing system). . daily information used operate department on enforce the day to day rules and regulations of the business operation.sales analysis cash flow projection and annual financial statement.

A third class of the information system realize on the computer for handling the business applications.A not redundant correction of interrelated data icons that can be processed through application. Management information must be available early enough to affect a decision. Knowledge about the inner working of the employee based system is useful during the exploratory face of the analysis. The level of the manager in the organization is also a factor in determining the kind of information needed to solve a problem. A key element of MIS is the database. MIS is a person machine system and a highly integrated grouping of information processing function designed to provide management with a comprehensive picture of specific information of specific operations. a proper interface with the informal communication channels could mean the difference the between the success and the failure of the system. For whom the long range objectives are the primary concerns requires summarized information from a variety of sources to attain goals. It is actually a combination of the information systems. MIS has been successful in meeting these information criteria quickly and responsibly.2. In either case management action is based on information that is accurate.Computer Based Information System: . complete.  Management Information System (M I S): . Lower level management needs detailed internal information to make day to day relatively structured controlled decisions higher level management. programs and available to . Employee co-operation and participation are crucial in training users.Informal information system is an employee based system designed to meet personal and vocational needs and to help solve work related problems. Operationally MIS should provide for file definition file management and updating transaction and enquiry processing and one or more databases linked to an organizational database. Since computer can’t provide reliable information without user staff support.Informal Information System: . It is a useful system because it works within the frame work of the business and its stated policies. concise and timely. 3.The computer has a significant impact on the technique used by management to operate the business.

System. machine and decision involvement.Requires computer added decision situation enough structure to permit computer support. Middle and top management use MIS for preparing forecasts. It assists management in making decisions. special request for analysis.Combines the integrated nature of problem solving suggesting a combine ‘man’ .Infesises decision making in problem situation. The support staff finds MIS useful for the special analysis of information and reports to help management in planning and control. Sharing common data means that many programs can use the same files or records. long range plans and periodic reports.many users. Decision Support System: . . Support. Decision support system stands for – Decision. The primary users of MIS are middle and top management.MIS provides limited support to top level management for decision making. Operational managers use MIS primarily for short range planning and periodic and exception reports. DSS advances the capabilities of MIS. Information is accessed through a database management system (DBMS). operational managers and support staff.

accounting and statistical models and interactive query capabilities. model beginning with intelligence and moving forward decision and choice. . The design face of decision making focuses on the evaluation of decision alternative. The outputs of the model are the basic for the choice face of decision making. It requires a closer look at the problem and thorough evaluations of a variable and their relationship.DSS results from adding external data sources. Harvard Simon described decision making as a three phase continuous process. The outone is a system designed to serve all levels of management and top level managements in particular with “what if” unstructured problem situation. The process is invoked by the recognition of a problem. A DSS can provide intelligence through retrieval and statistical packages. During the space computer based records or models may be used for decision design. The resulting decision is then directed at solving problems. The intelligence face of decision making involves the awareness of a problem.

For example: .Chapter-3 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE Introduction To understand system development we need to recognize that a candidate system has a life cycle just like a living system or a new product. Customers complain about the delivery of the orders may prompt and investigation of the delivery . The analyst must progress from one stage to another unemployment. Environment based ideas originate from customers. The basis for a candidate system is recognition of the need for improving an information system or a procedure.The idea for change originates in the environment or from within the firm. For example: . System analysis and design are keyed to the system life cycle.what is the problem? One must know what the problem is before it can be solved.Impetus for System Change: . 2. regulations may make it necessary to change the reporting processor format and contents of various reports as well as file structure. answering key question and achieving results in each stage.Recognition of Need: .a supervisor may want to investigate the system flow in purchasing or a bank president has been getting complains about the long lines in the drive in. The stages are shown in figure. vendors. Recognition of need (initial investigation) -> feasibility studies-> analysis-> design-> program construction and testing-> implementation-> post maintenance implementation and 1. competitions. this need leads to a preliminary survey or an initial investigation to determine whether an alternative system can solve the problem. government sources and the like.

schedule. the survey is expended to a more detailed feasibility is a test of a system proposal according to its work ability. During the study. impact on the organization. When investigated each of these ideas lead to a problem definition as a first step on the system life cycle process.Depending on the results of the initial investigation. ability to meet user needs and affective use of resources. the problem definition is crystallized and aspects of the problem to be included in the system are . Major Components of Change 3. the objective of the feasibility study is not to solve the problem but to acquire a sense of its scope.Feasibility Studies: . the experience of truck drivers or the volume of orders to be delivered.

This is a crucial decision point in the life cycle. decision points and transaction ended by the present system. A key question iswhat must be done to solve the problem? One aspect of the analysis is defining the boundaries of the system and determining whether or not a candidate system should consider other related system. . The interview is a commonly used tool in analysis.Analysis is the detailed study of the various operations performed by the system and their relationships within an outside of the system. including personal assignments. It is ideal for the user who requires quick access to the results of the analysis of the system under study. The result of the feasibility study is a formal proposal.specific recommendation regarding the candidate system. It consists of the following:  Statement of the Problem: . it becomes a formal agreement that paves the way for actual design and implementation.determined. 4. Consequently. This is simply a report – a formal document detailing the nature and scope of the proposed solution. The proposal summarizes what is known and what is going to be done. onside observations and questionnaires are examples.  Summary of Finding and Recommendation: .  Recommendation and Conclusion: . cost and benefits are estimated with greater accuracy at this outline of the methods and procedures undertaken by existing system followed by coverage of the objectives and procedures of the candidate system.a list of the major findings and recommendations of the study. project schedule and target dates. Training experience and commonsense are required for collection of the information needed to do the analysis. During analysis data are collected on the available files. It requires special scales and sensitivity to the subjects being interviewed.Analysis: .a carefully worded statement of the problem that led to analysis.  Details of Finding: . After the proposal is received by management. cost. interviews. The tools used in analysis are data flow diagrams.

Samples of the output (& input) are also presented.Design: . 5. The first step is to determine how the output is to be produced and in what format. including a list of the program needed to meet the system objectives and complete documentation. It refers to the technical specification that will be applied in implementing the candidate system. It includes the construction of program and program testing. The term design describes a final system and the process by which it is developed. Thus in system design we move from the logical to the physical aspects of the life cycle. The key question here is how the problem be solved. Finally details related to justification of the system and an estimate of the impact of the candidate system on the user and the . The next step is to decide how the problem might be solved. The operational processing faces are handled through program construction and testing.The most creative and challenging face of the system life cycle is system design. the analyst has a form understanding of what is to be done.Once analysis is completed. The second is that the input data and master files (database) have to be designed to meet the requirements of the proposed output.

Implementation Face: -The implementation face is less creative than system design. When the candidate system is linked to terminals or remote sides. Otherwise a diagnostic processor is used to locate and correct errors in the program. The importance of maintenance is to continue to bring the new system to standards. followed by the user depending on the nature of the system extensive user training may be required. update and retrieve data from new lines.organization are documented and evaluated by management as a step toward implementation. System testing checks the readiness and accuracy of system to access. facilities and their estimated cost must also be available. 7. test data are read into the computer and process against the files proved by testing. Like any system. User priority is changes in organizational requirement or environmental factor also call for system enhancements. hardware. report layout and a workable plan for implementing the candidate system. It is primarily concerned with user training side presentation and file conversion. . 6. there is an edging process that requires periodic maintenance of hardware and software. record layouts. evaluation and maintenance begin.Post Implementation and Maintenance: -After the implementation face is completed and the user staff is adjusted to the change created by the candidate system. the telecommunication network can test of the network along with the system are also included under implementation. If the new information is inconsistent with the design specifications then changes have to be made. The final report prior to the implementation face includes procedure flow chart. money. Information on personal. Once the program become available. During the final testing. user acceptance is tested. At this point projected cost must be close to actual cost of implementation. Hardware also requires periodic maintenance to keep in tune with design specification. If successful the program is run with the ‘live’ data.

fact finding and presentation of results. It may undergo seven modifications before it becomes a written commitment. 6. title. 10. 9.Date request for submission. 2. . 3. improve or modifying an existing system or viewed a new one. project proposal. department. The objective is to determine whether the request is valid and feasible before the recommendation is reached to do nothing. The initial investigation is one way of handling this. Once the request is approved the following activities are carried out background investigation.Nature of work requested (problem definition).The user request identifies the need for change and authorizes the initial investigation.Date job should be completed. 5.User assign title of work requested.Job objective – purpose of job requested. weekly inputs outputs) of proposed changes. Frequency (daily. This is a user’s request to change.Chapter-4 DETAILED SYSTEM ANALYSIS Primary Investigation Phase The first step in the system development life cycle is the identification of a need. improve or enhance an existing system because there is likely to be a stream of such request standard procedures must be established to deal with them.Requester’s signature. title. 4. department.Expected benefits to be derived from proposed changes. 7. To user’s request form specifies the new one:1. 8.Signature. phone number. phone number of person approving the request.Input output description quantity (number of copies or pages).

it is a technique used for generating new ideas and obtaining general information requirements.The success of system depends on large end of how accurately a problem is defined.Questions may be open ended or closed.Prototyping Asking: . It simply asks the user what information is correctly received and what other information is required. There are three key asking methods: 1.Asking 2. . It assumes a stable system where users are well informed and can overcome basils defining their problems. complete and accurate information requirements are essential in building computer based information system. 3.Need’s Identification: .Brainstorming: . thoroughly investigated properly carried out through the choice of solution. The analyst examines all reports. User need identification and analysis are concerned with what the user need.Getting information from the existing information system 3. It is used when the feelings or ideas are important.Group consensus: . 2. It realized heavily on the user to articulate information needs. It is used when factual responses are known. examined and determines unfulfilled information needs by interviewing the user. Getting information from the existing information system: . discusses with the user each piece of information. In contrast a closed question request one answer from a specific set of responses. Shared.This strategy obtains information with users by simply asking them about the requirements. An open ended question allows respondent to formulate to response. There are three key strategies or general approaches for determining information regarding the user’s requirements: 1.ask participants for their expectations regarding specific variables. The user or the analyst may identify the need for the candidate or for an enhancement in the existing system. The analyst is primarily involved in improving the existing flow of data to the user.Determining information from an existing application has been called the data analysis approach.

Interviews 4. The tools used in data collection are 1. In essence. Day-to-day problems may have forced . prototyping is suitable in environment where it is difficult to formulate a concrete model for defining information requirements and where the need of the user are evolving. definition and project initiation: . and cost. Therefore the iterative discovery approach captures an initial set of information requirements and builds a system to meet these requirements. manuals etc.Prototyping: . input. Included in procedures manuals are the requirement of the system which helps in determining to what extend they are met by the present system.Background reading  Review of written document: . In this case. The problem must be slotted clearly. understood and agreed upon by the user and the analyst. most manuals are not up-to-date or may not be readable. information requirements are discovered by using the system.Onside observation 3. all documentation on data carriers (forms. The reason could be the lack of an existing model on which to base requirement or a difficulty in visualizing candidate system. Unfortunately.The first step in an initial investigation is to define the problem that let to the user request. As users gain experience in its use.When available. Problem.Questionnaires 5.Review of written document 2. they request additional requirements or modifications in the system. Facts Gathering and Its Techniques After performing the primary investigation the analyst begins to collect data on the existing system output. emphasis should be on the logical requirement what must be the results of the problems rather than the physical requirements. reports. the user needs to anchor on real life systems from which adjustment can be made. records.The third strategy for determining user information requirement is used when the user can’t establish information needs accurately before the information system is built. It must state the objectives the user is trying to achieve and the results the user wants to see.) is organized and evaluated.

Regarding existing forms. As an observer the analyst follows a set of rules. Validity means that the questions asked are so worded as to provide the intended information. as long as the outcome is satisfactory. doesn’t argue with the user staff and doesn’t show undue friendliness towards one but not others.changes. is less effective learning about people’s perception. So the reliability and the validity on the data gathered on the design of the interview or questionnaires and the manner in which each instrument is administered. the location and the movement of people and the workflow. One purpose of onside observation is to get as close as the real system being studied. In either method heavy reliance is placed on the interviewee’s reports and for information about the job. what changes to be made and how they are to be read. Onside observation is the most difficult fact finding technique. the analyst need to find out how they are filled out. how they are to the user. While making observation he/she is more likely to listen then talk and to listen with interest when information is passed on. The interviewer is also in a natural position to observe the subjects and the situations to . In an interview since the analyst (interviewer) and the person interviewed meet face to face. however. which are not reflected in the manual.Another fact finding method used by the analyst is the onside observation or direct observation. Is requires entry into the user’s area and can cause adverse reaction why the user’s staff if not handled properly. there is an opportunity for greater flexibility in getting information. The quality of response is judged in the terms of its reliability and validity. He/she avoids giving advice doesn’t pass morel judgment on what is observed. The alternative is the personal interview and the questionnaire. Further more people have a tendency to ignore procedures and find shortcuts.Onside observation is directed toward describing and understanding events and behavior as they occur. feelings and motivations. the present system or experience. This method is. Reliability means that the information gathered is dependable enough to be used for making decisions about the system being studied. The analyst observes the physical layout of the current system.  Interviews and questionnaires: . The analyst’s role is that of an information seeker.  Onside observation: .

In contrast the information obtained through a questionnaire is limited to the written response of the subject to predefine question. Many tools are used for data organization and analysis. Therefore the analyst should prepare an organization chart with a list of the function and the people who perform them. Information Gathering: - . he/she would have a better feel for the work environment in which safe deposit operates the kinds of customers involved and the procedures employees following conducting business in safe deposit. These tools are input/ output analysis. frequency and level of interaction between the safe deposit and these departments. Flow charts and dataflow diagrams are excellent tools for input/output analysis.Once the project is initiated. they must be organized and evaluated and conclusion drawn for preparing a report to the user for the final review and approval. there relationship and accounting in customer service and nature. who reports to safe deposit area. who runs it.This is a working tool and an excellent way to keep track of the data collected for a system. Input/output analysis identifies elements that are related to the input and output of a given system. decision tables and structured charts. As a documented tool. Structured Chart: . the analyst begins to learn about the setting.  Background Reading: . The existing system and the physical processes related to the revised system. In doing so. Fact Analysis Phase As data are collected. When completed they are an easy to follow communication device between the technical and non-technical personnel. They are verbally oriented to managers. Decision table describes the data flow within a system that is generally used as a supplement when complex decision logic can’t be represented clearly in a flow chart. easy to learn and update and continue to function once the logic is developed. For ex: .which they are responding. they can provide a simpler form of data analysis than the flow is important to understand the structure of bank.

        Policies Goal Objectives Organization structure User staff to info. 1. gathering The organization Auth. This means that information gathering is neither easy nor routine. a firm is organized top meet these goals. training are required. relationship job functions Info. requires persons with sensitivity. goals. . the first requirement is to figure out and what information to gather. goals.Information gathering is an art and a science. Company policies are guidelines that determine the conduct of business. experience. objectives and structures are important elements for analysis. the approach and manner. Policies. requirement interpersonal relationship The work itself work flow Method & procedures Work schedules Information about the firm/organization Information about the organization policies. After policies and goals are set. A statement of goals describes management and commitment to objectives and direction system development will follow. Much preparation. objectives and structure explains the kind of environment that promotes (or hinders) the introduction of computer based system.What kind of information do we need? Before one determines where to go for the information or what tools to use. Policies are translated into rules and procedures for achieving the goals. Additionally the methodology and the tools for information gathering require training and experience that the analyst is expected to have. in which information is gathered. commonsense and knowledge of what and when to gather and what channels to use in securing information.

In contrast the system flow chart describes the physical system.personal or written documents from within the organization and from the organization environment. .To collect information about the procedure taking place in an organization. A data flow diagram represents the information generated at each processing points in a system and the direction it takes from the source to the destination.Professional staff Information gathering tools:Interviewing: . there job functions and information requirements. the relationship of their jobs to the existing system and the interpersonal network that holds the user group together.Interviews are the formal meetings where the analyst can collect information about the working of the present system and the requirement of any planned replacement.Vendors 2.Financial 2. The primary internal journals are:– 1. The primary external sources are: 1. This can be shown by a data flow diagram or a system flowchart. It can be used for a variety of different purposes as:1.Government document 3. Where does information originated: Information is gathered from two principle sources.Newspapers and professional journals.Personal staff 3. The information available from charts explains the procedure used for performing task and one should use. Information about the work flow: Work flow focuses on what happens to the data to various points to a system. Information of this kind highlights the organization chart and establishes a basis for determining the importance of the existing system for the organization.Information about the user staff: Another kind of information for analysis is knowledge about the people to run the present system.

distance or cost) to interview persons involved in a system. Questionnaires: .2. The questionnaire . 4.The time and the venue of the interview 3. The drawback is the long preparation time that it takes. Planning and interview:-the three crucial aspects of the interview need to be plan by the analyst.In situation when it is not possible for the analyst (because of time. Disadvantages:There is one drawback which people from opting to this method of collecting information. 2.It is an affective technique for getting information about complex subjects and for sensing the feelings underline opinions. 3. 3. The analyst should also specify by the subject first selected and assure that the information collected during interview will be treated as confidential. These aspects are:1.The flexibility of interview makes it a superior technique for enquiring into areas which are difficult to be explored using any other technique. Advantages: 1. Concluding the interview: .It is important to stick to the agreed time and conclude the interview with a summary of the main discussion point. This method requires more time and money for its conduction.To verify the analyst understanding of system operations with users of all levels.To build confidence in the design of a new information.The object of the interview 2.To confirm aspects of a purposed system design.The authorization for the interview Conducting the interview:The analyst should start the interview by giving a clear explanation of the purpose of the interview.Generally people prefer being interviewed rather than filling up lengthy questionnaires. 4.It provides a better opportunity then the questionnaires to evaluate the validity of the information collected. The interviewer can not only observe what subjects but also study their body language and expression.

all subjects are asked the identical questions in a set order. They are self and reveling and personal rather than general or superficial. Another disadvantage is that many people are not good at writing. This is done to ensure that all subjects are answering identical questions which include the reliability of the responses.It is easier to administer as compared to the interview as economical. This is best achieved when the subject are willing to share and have no feeling of disapproval. 1.the unstructured interview allows respondents to answer questions at will in their own words.A wide geographical area can be covered and a large number of people can be contacted using this method. The responses are uninhibited rather than this. 3.The respondents feel free to express themselves in questionnaires then in an interview. this approach is more time consuming. 2.With questionnaire the respondent does not feel pressure of answering the question there and then.Structured approach: .is considered as a tool for gathering required information. 4. The analyst assumes the role of an interviewer who encourages the respondent to speak without any hesitation and helps them to express their feelings and opinion. 2. They get enough time to think about the question and the response. A questionnaire offers the following advantages: 1. .The logical order of the question and the standardized instruction for giving answers ensure uniformity of questions.Unstructured approach: . But questionnaires have the following disadvantage: The major disadvantage is a low percentage of return. 5. However. Types of interviews and questionnaires:Interviews can be highly unstructured where neither the questions nor the respective responses are specified in advance and highly unstructured in which the questions and responses are predefined.

3. . An open ended question is one which does not need a specific response while a closed ended question is one in which the responses are given as a set of options.Structured interviews and questionnaires may have questions of either closed or open ended type.

Data source or sink Data flow diagram: .Differentiate between logical and physical system. structured English decision trees and objective is to build a new document called system specification. 2.Flow of data 2.Chapter-5 STRUCTURED SYSTEM ANALYSIS Structured analysis is a set of techniques and graphical tools that allow the analyst to develop a new kind of system specification that are easily understandable to the user.Use graphics wherever possible to help communicate pattern with the user.Data process 3. The traditional approach focuses on the cost benefits and feasibility analysis. hardware and software selection and personal consideration. 3.Data flow diagrams: A dataflow diagram depends on the four things: 1. The new goals specify the following: 1. project management.Data stores 4. Tools for Structured System Analysis: 1.Build a logical system model to familiarize the user with system characteristic and interrelationship before implementation. The structured tool focuses on the tools: essentially the dataflow diagrams. In contrast. structured analysis considers new goals and structured tools for analysis. data dictionary.

The basic symbol used is a circle or bubble and is called ‘transform’ since it identifies a function that transform data. The dataflow diagram depicts the passage of data through a system by using four basic symbols. Dataflow diagram depicts the passage of data to a system. Here the application form passes from the student (source) to a process which checks the student details. 4. An arrowed line shows the flow with the arrow head indicating the direction of flow. It is also known as a bubble chart and aims at refining system requirements and identifying major transformations that will become programs in system design.Data source or sink 1. . It is a pipeline through which the data flows. The data may from a source to the process or to end from a data store or process. Dataflow diagram is the diagrammatic representation of a system which provides a more complete clear and global understanding of the system under investigation.Data flows 2. Dataflow: . Though it is essential to name the data flows but data flows moving in and out of the stores do not require names.An arrow identifies data flow (data in motion).Data process 3.A rectangular box defines a source (or originator) or destination (sink) of a system data.A dataflow is a root which enables packets of data to travel from one point to another.An open rectangle is a data store (data addressed or a temporary repository of data). 2.Data stores 4. The names given to the data flow must clearly describe them. These are: 1. 3.A circle or a bubble represents a process that transforms incoming dataflow into outgoing data flow. The store names describe them. Dataflow diagrams are used to emphasize the logical flow of data with the system.Dataflow diagramming is one of the structured analysis techniques.

Here the process check details need access to data which allows checking.Process: . . The arrow used in single headed and points toward the process. A square defines a source or a sink which is build as the external to the system under investigation.These represent transformation. The data icons require to properly carryout this process must be available in the store status details. Process name must give an idea of what happens to the data as it passes through the process. If the contents of the store are need as well as modified by the process. then the diagram uses a dot head arrow. A store may be used in the checking of data. Data Stores: . It only uses the data available. A valid registration form and a flow which indicates that the form requires further clarification (query). Stores should also be assigned proper descriptive name.Data store is a depository of data which is represented by an open rectangle.A source or a sink is a person or part of an organization which feeds or receives the data from the system but is considered to be outside the context of the data flow model. changing incoming data flows into outgoing dataflow. This indicates that the process does not alter the contents of the store. Data sources or sink: . Here the incoming flow (application form) to the process check details is transformed into two outgoing flows.

a context diagram is shown above.Physical DFDs 2. . 1. The final detail of the book ordering system provides four detailed sub-processors:- Types of DFDs:1. the data store and the data flow.Physical DFDs: . The next step of the analysis is to examine the context diagrams for the processors which are depicted by the single process. the internal and external entity. It gives an overview of an organization system that depicts the system boundaries. Physical DFDs depict the flow of data and work through a system.Logical DFDs Both types of DFDs support the top down approach for the system analysis.Developing DFDs Context diagram of a book ordering system for a book store The highest level view of a system. external entities and the system. The four symbols that can appear in the DFDs are the process. They are useful for documenting the existing system to ensure that the analyst understand it properly.Physical DFDs are implementation dependent.

document. The two main components of the decision trees are: 1. It is easier for the analyst to start by depicting the interaction between the physical components.Actions which are represents by ovals. with a root on the left hand side and branches representing each decision. storage location or people in the system.Logical DFDs: .Decision points which are represented by nodes. The right side of the tree lists the action to be taken depending on the sequence of conditions that is followed. Decision trees: .It is a graphical technique that shows a decision situation as a linked series of nodes and branches. form and equipmentthen to understand the policies that are used to manage the applications. It eliminates the specification on the physical characteristic listed in the physical DFDs. The nodes of the tree thus represent conditions and indicate that a determination must be node about which condition exist before next path can be chosen.people. Progression from left to right along the particular branch is the result making a series of decisions. 2. Developing a decision tree is beneficial to analyst as the need to describe condition and action compels the analyst to formally identify the actual decision that must be taken. The particular branch to be followed depends on the prevalent conditions and decision to be made. The root of the tree. It is read from left to right and the actions to be undertaken are recorded down the right hand side of the diagram. Following each decision point is the next set of decision to be considered.These diagrams facilitate the analyst in sketching a comprehensive and complete picture of the current system. . 2. A decision tree is a diagram that resembles a tree.independent view of a system. on the left of the diagram is starting point of the decision sequence. concentrating on the flow of data between processors without giving any consideration to the specific devices. Physical DFDs are useful for communicating with users and provides a way to validate the user’s current view of the system.A logical DFD is a tool for drawing a model of an information system’s processing requirement. It is an implementation.

Record all possible actions in the action stub. A decision table is divided into four sections:1. credit analysis and transportation control and routing. The sequence will be as they occur A1: priority treatment A2: normal treatment . included in a decision table.Stub 2. Condition entries provide all possible permutations of yes or no responses related to the condition statement. Action stub list the possible actions which can occur as a result of different condition combinations. sales analysis.Entries 3.This is useful for representing the conditional logic of processes where different actions are to be taken depending upon the occurrence of a particular combination of conditions. states what procedure is to follow when certain condition exist.Action entries The condition stub identifies total set of relevant test or condition.Identify all condition and write them down in the condition stub with the most critical one first. These conditions require yes or no answers.Action stub 4. Decision rules. Combination of these conditions are then identified and expressed as rules or conditions entries. This method has been used in analysis of business functions such as investing control. C1: good payment history C2: order value>5000 C3: association>10 years 2. Preparation of a limited entry decision table: 1. A decision table appears as a matrix of rows and columns that shows conditions and corresponding actions. Action entries show what specific action in the set to take when selected or group of conditions are true.Decision table: .

Condition stub C1: good pay history C2: order value> 5000 C3: association>10 years A1: priority treatment A2: normal treatment Condition entry Y Y Y Y N N N N Y Y N N Y Y N N .. In the limited entry table there should be 2c rules in total.3.The number of rules in a limited entry table can be calculated by using the formula 2 c. the action remains the same. since each condition entry can be Y or N. 4.Y N Y N . This happens when two or more rules exist with different combination of conditions leading to some action.* * * * * * * * . In our example three conditions produce 23 rules. A consolidation is indicated by a broken line which states that whether yes or no.Check the table for completeness by counting the rules. where c is the number of rules given in the condition stub. Decision table with consolidation: The last step involves checking the table for redundancy. In such situation the rules where possible combinations should be consolidated.Make the action entries: Condition stub C1: good pay history C2: order value> 5000 C3: association>10 years A1: priority treatment A2: normal treatment Condition entry Y Y Y Y N N N N Y Y N N Y Y N N Y N Y N Y N Y N * * * * * * * 5.

ELSE (order is less than 6 copies per book title). Structured English specification still requires analyst to identify the conditions that occur and alternative actions to be taken. COMPUTE DISCOUNT Add up the number of copies per book title IF: order is from bookstore. Entire process can be stated quickly in English like statements.IF order is for 50 or more copies per book title. No special symbols or formats are used. THEN: discount is 10%. It tries to express the verbal statement in the more logical form. ELSE (order is from library or from individuals) SO.) SO: no discount is allowed. AND IF order is of six copies or more per book title THEN: discount is 25%.Decision trees with four consolidation Structured English: . The structured English uses natural language along with the idea of logic and block structuring used in a computer language. THEN: discount is 15%. ELSE IF order is for 20 to 49 copies per book title. THEN: discount is 5%. It is based on the principle of the structured programming. ELSE IF order is 6 to 9 copies per title. It is created by the merging of the English language with the syntax of the structured programming. Structured English uses standard narrative constructs that permit certain degree of user is a tool for sharpening the narrative for described processing logic and procedures. . ELSE (order is for less than six copies per book title. THEN: discount is not allowed.

a short description of what the data elements represent.To document the features of the system. 1.Description: . 2.Length: . In the data dictionary you will find the following elements. The data dictionary entry for the data elements consists of the following items: 1.To manage the details in the large system. In other words it is simply a record of data about data.Data stores 3. Data elements are grouped together to make up a data structure. 3.Name: . 2.Aliases: .this is the item of data which can’t be decomposed further. Data elements: .size of the element. 5.a repository. For ex: . 4. A properly developed data dictionary provides answers to questions like how many characters are in the data icon. 4.invoice number. by what other name it is referenced etc. 3.To find errors and omissions in the system.To facilitate analysis of details in order to evaluate characteristics and determine where system changes should be made.Data flows 2. data dictionary is developed during data flow analysis and helps the analyst involved in determining system requirements.Data dictionary: A data dictionary is a catalog. Components of a data dictionary: The dictionary contains two types of descriptions for the data flowing through the systemdata elements and data systems. In other words data elements are the fundamental building blocks of the system. The reason why analyst use data dictionary mare as follows: 1.a meaningful unique name. .of the elements in the system.Processes The data dictionary stored details and descriptions of these details. invoice data etc.To communicate a common meaning for all system elements.additional names for the data elements.

color Type. For ex: . The information system design objectives are as follows: 1.character Length: .may take one of the following values: Red. orange. Data values: . The process and stages of system design The process of design: .color Description: .Ensure that user requirements are met 3. yellow.15.Logical design 2. blue.This is the color of the part of the machinery and is ordered time to time from the local is the list of possible values for the data part .Support business activities 2.Values: . Alias: . There are two levels of system design as follows: 1. It is in the design phase that the user requirements finalized in the analysis space are translated into practical based of achieving them.the design phase focuses on the detailed implementation of the system recommended in the feasibility studies.Physical design .Confirm to design standard The main objective of the system design is to deliver the requirements as specified in the requirement specification document.Provide ease of use 4. The design phase is a transition from a user oriented document to a document oriented to the programmers or database personnel.P_color.Provide software specification 6. Emphasis is on translating performance specification into design specification. Logical and physical system design: – Information system provides solution to a business problem.Specify the logical design elements 5.

the information plan review. Logical design results in the blueprint of the new system.decision trees . So the part of the design process that is independent of any specific hardware or soft ware platform is referred to as logical design. displays). outputs (reports. which in turn are collection of fields of information about a particular flow diagrams 3.In a logical design. dialogue boxes). volume. It describes the input (forms.Preparing input specifications that are establishing the format contents and frequency of reports. which satisfies the system’s objectives are produced by the designer. After finding out the user’s requirement a system designer works to identifies data requirements. control specifications. cost target dates and system constraints. 6. frequency etc. databases (data stores).Reviewing the current physical system. A file is a collection of identical records. this step involves data flow analysis and processing logic analysis.Logical design: . The next step involves establishing the processing logic to generate the desired outputs from the available inputs.Reviewing benefits.decision table 4. security. dictionary 2. 5. a specification of the principal features of the new system. The structured system design tools that can be used to provide a logical representation of data flow analysis and data processing analysis in a computer based information system are 1. Data flow analysis facilitates in arriving at a logical organization of data into computer files. When analyst develops the logical system design.Preparing edit. The various functions that are performed in the logical design phase include 1. Its data flows. procedures (data flows) . including terminal specification and location. 3.structured English 5.Specifying the implementation and plans. file a format that meets the user’s requirements.Preparing a logical design walkthrough. he specifies the user’s need at a level of detail that defines the information flow into and out of the system and the required data resources. 4. This entails specifying the rules for editing backup procedures and the controls that ensures processing and file integrating. 2.

and conversion date and system constraints. In other words it produces the program specifications. . physical file or database definition and user interface.    Maintaining input or output media Developing the database and indicating the backup procedures.Devising a test and implementation plan and specifying any new hardware amnd software. 1. cost. generates the outputs and maintains an updated database at all times. Designing physical information flow through the system and a physical design walkthrough. 2. performs the necessary operations through the existing file or database.It starts with the logical design.Updating benefits. The programmer writes the necessary program or modifies the software package that accepts input from the user. Designing the physical system.Physical Design: . Determining training procedures and time tables.Planning system implementation  Developing a conversion schedule and a target date. 3. blue print and generates the working system by defining the design specification and tells programmers what exactly is expected from the candidate system. Developing a physical system design involves the following steps: 1.

Simplify design by segmentation.Representation of logical and physical design Design Methodologies: .It is a data flow based methodology. logical methods must be defined more clearly that needs user requirements. 5. designer and programmer. 6. The approach begins with a system specification that identifies inputs.Improve productivity of analyst and programmers. The system specifications then are used as the basis for the graphic . Structured Design: . 4. outputs and describes the functional aspects of the system.Improve communication among the user. analyst. 2.for developing a system.Reduced cost overruns and delays. 3.Improve documentation and subsequent maintenance and enhancement. It has lead to new technologies and methodologies that do the following functions: 1.Standardize the approach to analysis and design.

The connection: .representation. A design said to be top down if it consists of a hierarchy of module with each module having a single entry and single exit subroutine. Here module A calls module B and module is a graphic tool for representing hierarchy and it has three elements: 1. . The structured design methodology Process Information: .the document tool for structured design is the hierarchy or structured chart. These are arranged in a hierarchy to depict a module and are organized in a top down manner.Structured design partitions a program into small independent modules.The module: .DFD –of the data flow and processes. 2. It usually means that one module has called another module. using a data dictionary and other structured tools. It is a contiguous set of elements. From the DFD the next step is the definition of the modules and their relationships to one another is a form called a structured chart. Functional decomposition: . Thus structured design is an attempt to reduce complexity and make a problem manageable by subdividing it into smaller segments which is called modularization or is represented by a rectangle with a name. linking two modules.It is represented by a vector.

the instruction in that module are said not be band together very closely. Forms driver methodology.The module’s connection to other module is called coupling and its intermodule strength or cohesion. HIPO and IPO charts: HIPO is the forms driven technique. Likewise module A call C passing P downward and receiving one back. It describes the data input and output from processes and defines the data flow composition. .The couple is represented by an arrow with a circular tail. Module coupling refers to the number of connection between a ‘calling’ and a ‘called’ module and the complexity of these connections there must be at least one connection between a module and a calling module. It represents data items move from one module to another. In this standard forms are used to document the information. 4. Module A calls B.3. As a design aid and implementation technique with the following objectives: 1.Here O.the IPO charts: In structured design a hierarchy chart represents a good program design if it meets the criteria of cohesion and coupling. HIPO captures the essence of top down decomposition. This prompts the analyst to develop input/process/output (IPO) charts for each module in the hierarchy chart. It was developed by IBM. In the evaluation of the program two criteria are considered: 1. In the functional decomposition approach to structured design is partitioned into smaller modules so that each module is small enough to be manageable. Each module’s performs a single function (cohesion) and should be independent of the rest of the program (coupling).Provides a structure by which the function of a system can be understood. passing O downward. If module does more than one discrete task. Each criteria call for more details than are appearing. Modules that perform only one task are said to be more cohesive (and less error prone) than the modules that perform multiple task. P and R are couples. It consists of a hierarchy chart and an associated set of input/process/output charts. Module’s cohesion refers to the relationship among elements within a module.

State the function to be performed by the programmer rather than specifying the program statement to be used to perform the functions 3-Provide the visual description of input to be used and output to be produced for each level of the diagram.. Description:…………. Date:……. . Author: …….Walkthrough may be held at various points in the SDLC.  Detail diagram contains an extended description section that amplifies the process steps and references the code associated with each process step. It is an interchange of ideas among people who review a project presented by its author and agree on the validity of a proposed solution to a problem. 3. program design and production acceptance. the people who will be running the system should be consulted.An activity of all phases of a structural project is the walkthrough. In a design walkthrough the purpose is to anticipate as many problems in the design as possible. Name:……….Structured Walkthrough: .2. The information package format consists of the following:  Visual table of contents shows the structures of the diagram and the relationship of the function in a hierarchical manner. Page:……of…… Diagram ID:………. The objective is to come up with a maintainable design that is flexible and adoptable and meets the organization standard. User Involvement: . In addition to system design they may be held to review the system test plan.  Overview diagram describes the major function and reference the detail diagram needed to expend the functions adequately. System/Program: ……. HIPO makes the transformation of input to output data visible. In each case.

Thus each source document may be evaluated in terms of: 1. Source document may be entered into a system from punch cards. Input design is the process of converting user originated inputs to a computer based format. When we approach input data design we design the source document that capture the data and then select the media used to enter then into the computer. In entering data. appropriate input media are selected for processing. For ex: . A system flow chart specifies master files (database) transaction files and computer programs.source data are captured initially on original paper or a source document.Input data: . Errors entered by the data entry operators can be controlled by input design.  The format in which data fields are entered. Promoting a user’s contribution in the walkthrough and throughput the design phase can be crucial for successful implementation. It also provides the user with a basic understanding of what the candidate system will and will not do.  Field sequence that must match that in the source document. A source document may or may not be retained in the candidate system.The probability of success improves with the user’s interest and involvement in the design of the system. Input data are collected and organized into groups of similar data.Inaccurate input data are the most common cause of errors in data processing. 2.Extend of modification for the candidate system. In the system design phase.Its continue use in the candidate system. Source document: . 1. . sources and destinations. logical and free from errors as possible. data stores. the expended data flow diagram identifies logical data flows.filling out the data field is required through the edited format mm/dd/yy. from disk or even directly through the keyboard. once identified. operators need to know the following:  The allocated space for each field. Input design: .the goal of designing input data is to make data entry as easy. User implementation gives the designer implementation feedback as the design is been completed.

A disk replaces the card and stores up to 325000 character of data.Mark Sensing Reader automatically converts pencil marks in a predetermined location on a card to punch holes on the same card. Each area in the form should be clearly identified and should specify for the user what to write and where to write it. 4.MSR: . CRT screen displays 20.Key-to-diskette: .OCR: . The following media and devices are suitable for this operation: 1. . 5.Cathode Ray Tube screens are used for online data entry. This means that the source document and the card design must be considered simultaneously.OBR: . which code retails items in stores. A source document should be logical and easy to understand. 3.Optical Barcode Reader detects combination of marks that represent data.Punch cards: . 6.CRT: .This is modeled after the keypunch process.These are either 80 or 90 columns wide.Replacement by an alternative source document.MICR: . ink or characters by that configuration (shape) rather than their magnetic pattern. Operators use a key punch to copy data from source documents onto cards.source data are input into the system in a variety of ways.3.equivalent to data stored in 4050 cards like cards data on disk are stored in sequence and in batches.Optical Character Readers are similar to MICR readers except that they recognize pencil. Data must be in sequence and logical cohesion. 2. 7. 40 or 80 characters simultaneously on a television like screens. Input media and devices: . They are often used in remote locations free standing input repletion devices or direct input media to the system. They show as many as 24 lines of data. Data are arranged in a sequential and logical order. The most widely known system is the Universal Product Code (UPC).Magnetic Ink Character Recognizer translates the special fonts printed in magnetic ink into the direct computer input. The approach to source document and disk design to that of a punch card.

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