ISALC, Lewis and Clark College -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Obesity: A Hidden Killer Among Us by Anonymous Can you believe that a high

-fat diet is responsible for 300,000 deaths every year? There are other better known threats that have much lower mortality rates. Alcohol kills 100,000 persons, guns 35,000, auto accidents 25,000, drug addiction 20,000 (How high fat diet, 1999)! Those are shocking statistics that give an idea of how dangerous American alimentary habits are. More and more people tend to abuse food, not understanding the severe consequences they surely face if they don't stop swallowing more calories than they actually burn. There are several reasons for what today is considered a real disease. Dr. Jim Johnson, medical editor of the Obesity Study, says that what causes obesity is an interaction between genetic-psycho-socioeconomic and cultural factors. Overeating affects almost 18% of Americans, meaning that 1/5 of the people are obese (Johnson, 1999). It is interesting to explore, not only the terrible and scary consequences of a high-fat diet, but also the reasons that bring so many people to eat a lot more than they need in the first place. It would be easy to blame depression or emotional problems as the main reason for eating too much, but there are deeper factors to take into consideration. Even though it's true that some people try to compensate for sentimental delusions or personal failings with exaggerated amounts of food, it wouldn't be the best idea to advise every obese person with the elementary concept of "eat less and do more physical activity."(Liebman, 1998, p.1). Dr. Walker S. Carlos Poston II, assistant professor in the department of medicine at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, continues saying, " I don't think it's (losing weight) simply a matter of people shutting their mouth." (1998, p. 3). Sometimes there are biological, genetic, or cultural reasons that are hard to eliminate even with great determination in following a diet. In fact, certain people easily see food as a sign of economic welfare. Maybe the memory of the lack of an appropriate diet is too vivid in their mind; therefore, they don't care about being overweight. In Arlington, Va.,, Dr. Denise Bruner thinks that this is the case for many Afro-American women. In fact, some African-American women who have participated in Dr. Bruner's study showed that almost 50% of them, not only are not concerned about their overeating, but also think that some extra pounds are a sign of beauty. Their companions also reinforce this philosophy, in fact, "they do not hesitate to say that they like their women with a little meat on their bones." (Why so many, 1998, p. 2). It is clear at this point that there are several reasons for abusing food. Moreover, Dr. Bruner thinks that one of the explanations that most helps to understand why so many people weigh even 30 pounds more than what is considered normal, is the almost total absence of exercise in their lives. Nowadays it is becoming easier and easier to avoid any kind of physical activity: just think about cars, garage door openers, elevators, cordless

Since obesity affects people in their early childhood. Dr. lack of physical activity. Moreover. Americans spend 33 billion dollars every year in fitness centers and on fitness supplies (1999) still the result is that only 25% of Americans do regular exercise (Why so many. it is becoming more difficult for people to resist the temptation of not considering a better deal buying a super-value meal.1998. Thanks to the development of so many fast foods and the strong competition for bigger portions among restaurants. according to Dr. Moreover." (1998.7). Even though.3). Taking a look at the available statistics on the effects of obesity should be enough to let us think more about our exercising and eating habits. p. not. Nowadays obesity is a very serious disease that affects 1/5 of the U. Brownell continues saying. "Most Americans who have chronic health problems. It is also responsible of several other health hazards like heart diseases. The real problem is that the seriousness of obesity is underestimated and not sufficiently seen as a threat to our health. and many more (1998). like often happens. Most of the doctors seem to be agreeing with the concept that people don't really understand how their bad culinary habits seriously threat their lives. 1998). it is interesting to know that they experience not only health problems.3). Dietz says "children ranging in age from 6 to 10 years already associate obesity with a variety of negative characteristic such as laziness and sloppiness. p. chief of the Framingham Heart Study. One could claim that they both encourage children to adopt habits that could be bad for their health. Psychological stress. even when they decide to lose weight they usually do it for vanity reasons without thinking that "being overweight should be a health problem first and an aesthetic problem second" (Why so many. 1998.2) and they have easy access to high-fat food "low in cost. p."(1998. On the other hand. as a beauty . all together are a lethal combination that brings many people to overeat." (Liebman. and the study's author William H. It would be helpful to keep in mind what William Castelli. Dr. high blood pressure. this statistic will soon increase if we don't pay enough attention to its causes.S. Therefore. heavily promoted and good tasting. population.2). but also psychological repercussions. in an interview for the Center for Science in the Public Interest. research shows that obesity should be considered as a serious health issue. strokes. this junk food is available everywhere. A recent study published in Pediatrics concluded that obese children suffer discrimination in their early childhood. and easy access to food." (1998. would not have them if they ate a low-fat diet. computers. Those children become an easy cruel jokes target." (1999. Obesity is the cause of almost as many deaths as smoking. Tim Johnson. p. p. recently said. Kelly Brownell says that the main motive for the spread of this plague of obesity is that "Americans are exposed to a toxic food environment. "I have asked myself whether Joe Camel is different than Ronald McDonald.phones. and cancer. systematically bombing ingenuous consumers. It is clear that people who overeat have a low life expectancy.2). The result is that they will tend to isolate themselves or they will find younger playmates (1998). diabetes. Moreover. Too serious are the effects that we may face if we don't change our daily approach to life. p.

problem. We should be worried about our size not for pure vanity. 1999 from Infotrac. The pressure to eat: why we're getting fatter. W. (1998). Liebman. Retrieved October 26. Obesity Study. 1999 from Infotrac. 1999 from Infotrac. Pediatrics. October 27 7:15 AM). (1999). Retrieved October 26. How high-fat diets cause obesity and other serious health hazards. References Dietz.html Johnson. Retrieved October 26. 54-56. Retrieved October 26. Return to Cause/Effect Page Return to ESL 471 homepage. 101 (3). Created by: krauss@lclark. ABC News. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Click here to meet Sharon! Click here to see the writing assignment.obesity. 3-5. H. 25 (6). Health consequence of obesity in youth: childhood predictors of adult disease. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Return to top. (1998). Why so many Americans are overweight. Jet. 94 (4). T. B. (1999. but essentially for our physical well being. Nutrition Action Healthletter. (1998).edu Updated: 11/14/99 . 1999 from the World Wide Web at http://www.

I immediately woke and saw headlights directly in front of us. The Metaphysical Factor: There is ample evidence that the physical state of existence is not the sum total of all realities. Highly intelligent people are often the targets of abuse which causes them to disfunction unless compensated for in counteractive ways. Whilst a teenager travelling home from a rock concert late at night on a country road. Blaming fast food outlets and legislating warning labels about fat content may or may not stem the increase of a debilitating condition that leads to . so shouting "Left. The Time Factor: An event in the past may have an effect in the future. 2. 3. This means that although someone is born with certain genetic traits and abilities. types of environment and availability of opportunities can enhance or restrict their performance in all or any area of life. The Human Factor: Human behaviour is influenced by nurture and nature. asleep as a back seat passenger in a car whose driver and other passengers had also fallen asleep.What are some topic ideas for a cause and effect essay? Topic Ideas for An Essay on Cause And Effect: 1. I reached over to the steering wheel and turned our vehicle out of the path of a large truck and trailer unit which just missed us as it roared past. Stereotypes and the Effects of Obesity As more and more Americans are joining the ranks of the "fat people. That effect may itself be the cause of other events. I suddenly had a vivid dream of a luminous angel urgently informing me that if I didn't wake up and steer our vehicle to the left it would crash into an oncoming truck." medical scientists and sociologists are collaborating to find the causes and stop the trend. Without delving into the misguided practices of fake psychics and mystical fanatics it is possible to identify spiritual forces as being the cause of somethings and to evaluate the effects produced. The classic example is the butterfly in the Amazon fluttering its wings and causing an alteration to the flow and intensity of air currents which over time results in a hurricane devastating a Pacific Island group. I am thankful to God and my guardian angel for being the intervening cause which produced the averting effect. Left". Obesity is on the rise.

Those pencil-thin models on the runways aren't smiling. Blame it on Rudolph and his buddies. Obesity is a Vicious Circle Fat people don't need to be reminded that they have a problem. People's Attitudes About Fat When we were kids. Blame it on Mrs. Overweight people are rarely happy about their obesity. he'd be getting a good workout and burning those stubborn calories. remember that leaping out of bed to go running isn't likely when you're 50 pounds or more overweight. Fat people also have a sluggish metabolism that stores fat on purpose. Weight loss is a challenge that goes beyond merely warning people about the fat content of a cheeseburger and fries. Some people gain weight when they quit smoking.hypertension. ho. We have mirrors and bathroom scales like other people do. genetic causes. hormonal issues and lifestyle factors. the big fat man in the red suit has proportions that would deem him "a heart attack waiting to happen. In today's terms." Ho. think again. Some people have been fat all their lives. storing fat for those long periods of starvation. osteoarthritis. Claus. cultural effects. Some women in their fifties and sixties have a thyroid problem that slows their metabolic rate and causes the fat to pile on. depression. we didn't think of Santa Claus as a man with a problem. And if you think that the fat and jolly stereotype has disappeared in favor of the thin and beautiful as the happiest people in the land. She probably isn't feeding him a balanced diet. If Santa were out walking off the fat instead of sitting on his ample backside in the sleigh. heart disease and other serious health threats. Causes of Obesity Not all people who are overweight have exactly the same problem. ho. Modern science has only begun to understand the complex interrelationship among the factors that contribute to obesity in some people: high fat diets. And finally. They just have a different type of food disorder. Other people gain extra fat pounds from a sedentary job or lifestyle. Humans have dieted for thousands of years and our bodies have become efficient machines. blame it on Santa Sr. They have yet to identify simple ways to help people break out of the vicious circle of weight gain and poor selfesteem. and his wife: they're the people who probably gave poor Santa all those fat genes. All you thin people take note: when you tell obese people that both diet and exercise are all that's needed for weight loss. .

and social isolation. obesity has become an issue among young children and adolescents. Written in 2008. Adults must take the time to be good examples in their children's lives. Cultural values such as freedom of choice and consumerist hyper-individualism may serve their purposes in some facets of contemporary society. These are some of the effects of obesity: poor health. but they will not necessarily prevent children from becoming . some teens deal with their anguish by committing suicide. A variety of cultural factors influence young people's eating and exercise habits. children from minority groups are frequently raised in circumstances of poverty where parents are not always present. More than ever. people now tend to assume that obese people gorge on pizza. play physically. From the Paper: "Childhood obesity is an increasing problem in the United States. Commercials encourage children to be impulse buyers who prefer sweet and satisfying foods to those that are wholesome and nutritious. the habits themselves must be good. and the "fat people" label assumes that overweight people are gluttons who have become fat because they are too lazy to exercise. 2. 4 sources. self-loathing. The eating and exercise habits that are inculcated during childhood can have long lasting repercussions throughout adulthood. The paper looks at the culture of food that surrounds children in today's America and the important role that food plays in the growth and acculturation of young children. Families that eat together are also families teach young people how." Obesity affects more than health. and in other ways learn good habits that will serve them well as adults. In the multicultural atmosphere of modern day America. More stereotypes flourish: "fat people raise fat kids" and "fat kids become fat adults. There are many other effects—and being fat and jolly isn't one of them. guilt. and television and other media take the place of strong role models. It discusses a variety of the cultural factors that influence young people's eating and exercise habits. APA. and when to eat. Others grow up to join the ranks of people who fight fat all their lives. Parents who spend time with their children are also more likely to see that their children get some exercise. covering: Cause and Effect Essay # 105366 :: Childhood Obesity in the United States Buy and instantly download this paper now An analysis of the factors that are influencing the increase in childhood obesity in the United States. embarrassment. $ 67. what.95 Paper Summary: This paper discusses the increasing problem of obesity in the United States. The cycle of shame and weight gain begins early as peers taunt the "fat kid" in the class. cheeseburgers and ice cream and they deserve to be fat. They are among the topics that will be discussed on this site. While being fat was once seen as a sign of wealth and comfort. low energy. Sadly. Television advertising is a prime culprit in shaping children's eating habits in less than desirable ways.156 words. For these repercussions to be good. This section is divided into multiple articles. and to consider what it is that children should learn. particularly among children.Effects of Obesity Our culture tends to label people. Television advertisements encourage snacking and both discourage and take away from formal mealtime settings.

By definition. the daily convenience of the American lifestyle causes this condition because of the affect that fast food has on the body. Although the United States has the largest obese population in the world.obese. They must help their children understand these lessons and so live better and happier lives. a person is obese when their body has enormous proportions of fat. Age is not a factor either. It is recommended to consume these foods in certain portions but with the fast pace life that most of America leads eating according the food pyramid is easier said than done. we were taught the four basic food groups: fruit. When it comes to food. overweight. because of technology and other outside factors. fruits. child obesity has increased at alarming rates. nutrition.blogspot. The new food groups are grains. Parents and guardians must learn to consider the food choices and food lessons that affect their children. stroke and cardiovascular diseases.html Thursday. whole grains. Obesity has no preference when it comes to color or gender. As children. high blood pressure. vegetables. milk and meat & beans. With the high pace lives that . Obesity has continued to plaque the United States year after year. habits --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- http://bhayes1220. October 18. oils. the lack of physical activity and the lack of knowledge concerning a healthy way of life.Obesity The numbers do not lie. according to the National Institute of Diabetes 68% of America is either overweight or ause-and-effect-obesity. 2007 Cause and Effect 1st Draft. Obesity increases a person’s risk for diabetes. The United States Department of Agriculture as implemented a food pyramid. free of the problems of childhood obesity." Tags: food. concentrated mainly around the abdomen. and vegetables. convenience is not always a benefit but a hindrance to your body. Legumes.

to writing letters. which includes a cheeseburger. Not only can physical activity help to decrease the number of obese Americans. Child obesity rates have increased year after year because children no longer go outside to play after school. jumping. Physical activity can reduce excess body fat caused by overeating. from cheeseburgers to salads. that is nearly ½ their daily intake. dinner or any snacking that has been done. that is more than ¾ their caloric intake for the day and for a man it’s more than ½ their caloric intake. the body only needs the recommend about of calories. their daily caloric intake is 1800 calories. instead they stay inside and play Xbox or Play Station for hours. video games and other electronic devices have replace imagination and outside activity for both adults and children. Technology has affected adult activity levels as well. online gaming and surfing the internet as taken the places of interaction with their children. Families no longer go to parks and play. cooking duties have been relinquish to line cooks at restaurants like McDonalds. just the basic knowledge about a healthy lifestyle is just as beneficial. reducing the chances of obesity. they stay inside and remain inactive. and Carl’s Jr. From grocery shopping. most people find them intimidating. running. social chat rooms. Technology has changed the way the world operates. large fries and a large Coke-a-cola the amount of calories consumed would total 1350 calories. Feed a child a cheeseburger Happy meal from McDonalds and they have consumed 710 calories in one meal. It is recommended that a person take part in at least 30 minutes of physical activity every day to remain healthy. The daily recommend caloric intake for an adult is about 1940 calories for a women and 2550 calories for a man (plus or minus 200 depending on activity level) depending on your resource. All of which offer a large variety of foods. which can lead to obesity. The pictures of the perfect models. Although there are hundreds maybe even thousands of informative books. This activity can include walking. but a person’s activity level plays just as big a role in this epidemic. For children ages 4 to 6. If a person were to have a cheeseburger meal at Hardees for lunch. The process of burning these calories is very complicated. That does not include breakfast. magazines and web sites about healthy eating and exercise. Remember the body processes what it need the rest is stored as fat. Hardees. To sum the process up. the excess is stored as fat. Children fare no better then their parents when it comes to fast food. With the invention of the Internet. The reduction of excess body fat increases the chance of a longer healthier life. anything a person desires is just a click away.Americans lead. . Television. For women. if a person has a computer it can be done. The nutritional value of fast food may contribute to obesity. anything that increases your heart rate. or they sit and watch television shows such as Sponge Bob.

health care cost will increase to an uncontrollable amount. Problem 1: Diagnosing Causes For Sudden Rise in Obesity Levels Any explanation of the root causes of the current obesity epidemic must account for its sudden appearance.6 million have a BMI of 35-40. This also increase a person chances of becoming obese because. But the relative effect of these causes on the development of obesity. The lifestyles of Americans have contributed to the alarming numbers of obese people in the Unites States. Six million American adults are now morbidly obese (BMI 40+). note that obesity. almost twice as high as 1980 severe obesity rates. while another 9. Also. the fact that obesity has increased so much in the last few decades appears to discount genetics as a major main cause. The percentage of overweight children 6-11 has nearly doubled since the early 1980's.a disease of excess body fat characterised by a body mass index of 30+ . Problem 2: Separating Genetic Causes From Environmental Causes Obesity tends to run in families. Thus genetic causes are unlikely to be significant.include a range of well-documented genetic and environmental factors. Before examining possible causes. Because while a predisposition to obesity can be inherited. The information that is available on healthy lifestyles is complicated and plentiful but is necessary to maintain a healthy life and reduce obesity in America. NHANES III data estimates). (Source: US Census 2000. the fact that each succeeding generation is heavier than the last indicates that changes in our environment are playing the key role.the complicated formulas used and the acrobatic exercise moves needed to stay healthy can leave a person feeling less then capable of what they read. The lack of knowledge pertaining to the affects of fast food especially severe clinical obesity like morbid or malignant obesity. The want for convenience has caused a decline in the activity levels of parents and children alike. Yet families also share common dietary. http://www. If Americas do not find a way to control their lifestyles. the specifics of physical activity and an overall knowledge of a healthy lifestyle all contribute the obesity epidemic. suggesting a genetic link.annecollins.htm General Causes of Modern Obesity Thr risk factors and contributory causes of obesity . physical exercise. carries greater risks of morbidity and premature mortality than simple overweight. attitude and lifestyle habits that may also . remains unclear.

Marion Nestle. In addition. and cause excessive fat storage. Environmental Causes of Obesity In view of the sudden rise in weight levels . so we are unable to say exactly what effect lack of exercise has on obesity. type 2 diabetes as well as obesity. According to Dr.environmental factors must be the prime cause of modern obesity. Increases in consumption of calorie-dense foods. as evidenced by the growth of fast-food chains and higher soft drink consumption. data on correlation between BMI and exercise frequency is almost nonexistent. please see: Body Fat/Adipose Tissue Why We Gain Fat Eating Too Many High-Fat or Refined Sugary Foods The type of food eaten may also play an important role in the rise of obesity. Researchers continue to discover more metabolic and digestive disorders resulting from overconsumption of trans-fats and refined white flour carbohydrates. only 20 percent of the population are frequent exercisers. among adults there has been a per capita decline of 15 percent in frequent exercise activity (100+ days per year in any one activity). Incidence of these "modern" diseases is increasing worldwide. That’s about 10 pounds in a year. Over two decades this energy surplus causes a weight gain of 200 pounds! Assessing the contribution of lack of exercise to obesity is hampered by lack of research. protein or carbohydrate . Professor and Chair of the Department of Nutrition and Food Studies at New York University. we gain about 1 pound in a month.which is a worldwide trend as reflected in the new word "globesity" .A Possible Root Cause People who eat more calories need to burn more calories.from dietary fat. Separating these from purely genetic factors is not an easy statistical or diagnostic task. However. otherwise their calorie surplus is stored as fat. the plunge is 41 percent.are stored as body fat. only a small minority of children (1 in 5) regularly participate in after-school sports or extra-curricular physical activity.A Possible Root Cause Eating too many calories for our enery needs must be a major candidate for the main cause of the modern obesity epidemic. 500 calories more than 30 years ago — but at much lower per-calorie costs.contribute to obesity. These eating patterns are known to interfere with food and energy metabolism in the body. What we do know is that severe clinical obesity leads to serious mobility problems . Reduced Energy Expenditure . According to existing surveys. combined with low fiber intake. Among teenagers and adolescents aged 12-17.800 calories of food a day for every American. US agribusiness now produces 3. also point to a higher energy-intake. Associated health disorders include insulin resistance. Since 1990. Overconsumption . if we eat 100 more food calories a day than we burn. For example. NOTE: For an explanation of how surplus calories .

In addition. hormones. suggesting a possible inborn drive to conserve energy. such as metabolic rate. Thus family diet and lifestyle are important contributory causes to modern child obesity. especially at a time of rising affluence. eating and exercise. the fact that obesity has increased so much in the last few decades appears to discount genetics as the main cause. We can't change our genes over 30 years.caused by respiratory and musculoskeletal disorders. some studies of adopted children indicate that adopted children tend to develop weight problems similar to their biological. However. the influence of genetics on modern levels of obesity is insignificant: "Nothing genetic explains the rise in obesity. professor of clinical biochemistry and medicine at Cambridge University. is typically diminished. parents. Since obese children and adolescents frequently grow up to become obese adults. Family Influence . especially those suffering from morbid obesity. Also.A Major Contributory Cause to Obesity Parental behavioral patterns concerning shopping. rather than adoptive. it's clear that family influence also extends to adult obesity. which can lead to weight problems in adulthood. All of this suggests that a predisposition to obesity can be inherited. Genetic Causes of Modern Obesity Genes affect a number of weight-related processes in the body. cooking. Thus the fitness capacity of obese individuals. fat-storage. blood glucose metabolism." . Research has also shown that normal-weight children of obese parents may have a lower metabolic rate than normal-weight children of non-obese parents. According to Stephen O'Rahilly. have an important influence on a child's energy balance and ultimately their weight. to name but a few. infants born to overweight mothers have been found to be less active and to gain more weight by the age of three months when compared with infants of normal weight mothers.

or illnesses such as depression or chronic pain can lead to overeating. cut activity out of our lives. you probably will too. Repeated failure at dieting also can affect your selfesteem and make it even harder to lose weight. Trauma.3 Your family's and friends' lifestyles can also affect your weight. loss of a parent during childhood. your race. Overeating is easy in our culture today. Alcohol. Some medical conditions and medicines may also cause weight gain. you are 3 times as likely to be obese as someone with parents of healthy weight. Use this interactive tool to find out how many calories you burn with typical daily activities and exercise: Interactive Tool: Calories Burned Other things can affect our weight. you may not be either. Food is also a focal point of social activity. Emotional stress. Even making small changes-like walking your dog-can make a difference. Emotional concerns. eat at irregular times. or to dampen negative emotions. Walking the dog for 30 minutes burns 125 calories. work events. Medicines or medical conditions. Alcohol (beer and mixed drinks) is very high in calories. Letting the dog out the door burns 2 calories. Being overweight or obese may lower your self-esteem and lead to eating as a way to comfort yourself.http://www. If your family or friends eat a lot of high-fat or snack foods. anxiety. and skip meals. Washing and waxing it yourself burns 300. Examples include having Cushing's syndrome or hypothyroidism or taking certain antidepressants or corticosteroids. or marital or family problems. the type of work you do. including your family history. physical. or emotional abuse. If one of your parents is obese. and your environment. can contribute to overeating. cars. people are less active than ever. including: • • • • • Low self-esteem. Also. to avoid dealing with unpleasant tasks or situations. and holidays are usually centered around food.webmd. such as elevators. such as childhood sexual. And many of the conveniences we use. Gatherings of family and friends. Taking the car to a car wash uses 18 calories. Some people hate to exercise and others may not have the time. such as family history or genetics. and the remote control for the television. . Other things influence your weight and whether you are physically active. And eating can be a comfort when you are depressed or stressed. But obesity is influenced by many other factors.Cause Obesity is a complex disease for which no single cause or cure exists. Portions at fast-food and other restaurants are "supersized" to the point that one meal can provide an entire day's worth of calories. Distressing events. And if they are not physically active. Obesity . You gain weight when you take in more calories than you burn off. Some people eat to calm themselves.

http://www. Obesity can cause problems with many organs in the body — view this animation to discover why obesity is bad for your health. 1) Brain Being obese can increase your risk of stroke. 2) Airway Obesity is strongly linked to obstructive sleep apnoea.7 x 1. Obstructive sleep apnoea is more likely in obese people than in other people because of fat deposited in the neck area. This encourages fatty deposits to build up in the walls of arteries (atherosclerosis). In obesity.7) = 24. the arteries in the brain can become narrowed by fatty deposits (atherosclerosis). but research shows that asthma symptoms improve in obese people who lose weight. If atherosclerosis narrows the arteries supplying the heart. A BMI greater than 25 kg/m2 indicates that you are overweight. angina (chest pain) or heart attack can occur. 5) Arteries .7 m tall. The association between asthma and obesity is unclear.2 kg/m2. 4) Lungs Obesity makes it hard to breathe easily — it reduces lung function and weakens the muscles that help us breathe. Doctors use the body mass index (BMI) to determine whether a person’s weight is in the healthy range. Obesity in childhood sets the scene for heart and blood vessel disease in adulthood. 3) Heart Obese people often have abnormal levels of cholesterol and other blood fats. blocking the supply of blood to the brain and causing a stroke.mydr. if you weigh 70 kg and you are 1. This situation is known as coronary heart disease. while a BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 indicates that you are obese. Obesity is also associated with high blood pressure. Approximately 60–70 per cent of people with obstructive sleep apnoea are obese. a condition in which the airway partially collapses during sleep. Researchers are increasingly recognising the links between obesity and chronic (long-term) breathing difficulties. Blood clots may then form. another factor that increases the risk of Animation: effects of obesity Obesity (excess body fat) is an increasingly important issue in For example. To calculate your BMI. The good news is that weight loss can improve obstructive sleep apnoea. your BMI is (70 / 1. divide your weight in kilograms by your height in metres squared.

the greater your risk. 11) Immune system Carrying too much weight can be bad for your immune system. women with breast cancer who are overweight are less likely to survive the cancer than those with a lower BMI. 10) Oesophagus and stomach Obesity is strongly linked to cancer of the oesophagus — the higher your body mass index (BMI).3 kg a week) is also a risk factor for gallstones. It’s best to get down to a body mass index (BMI) of less than 25. obese women are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer than women with a body mass index (BMI) in the healthy range. Obesity is also associated with an increased risk of infections following wounds and burns. rapid weight loss (more than about 1. Gallstones affect one in 3 obese people compared to one in 10 people with a body mass index (BMI) in the healthy range. Weight gain after menopause seems to be especially important when it comes to increasing breast cancer risk. 9) Gallbladder Gallstones are more common in overweight and obese people than in people of normal weight — this is related to abnormal cholesterol levels. Most research has shown that obese people can reduce their blood pressure by losing weight. reducing your resistance to infections. However. even before menopause. 12) Kidneys . However. 8) Liver Alcohol-related liver disease — including cirrhosis and hepatitis — is more common in people carrying excess weight than those who are not. is 4 times more common in people who are obese than in people who are not. tingling or numbness of the fingers and a weak grip). a range of conditions in which fat accumulates in the liver. so more gradual weight loss is recommended. blood pressure tends to rise. but losing even approximately 5 kg can reduce your blood pressure enough to lower the risk of dying from stroke or heart disease. Obesity is also a risk factor for breast cancer in men. may not work properly in people who are obese. Obesity also increases the risk of fatty liver disease. Scavenger cells.High blood pressure is another disease related to obesity — as weight increases. 7) Breasts After menopause. but it increases the risk of heart attack and stroke. Obese people are also more likely than non-obese people to develop cancer of the top part of the stomach (gastric cardia). 6) Wrist Carpal tunnel syndrome (compression of a nerve in the wrist area causing pain. High blood pressure may not cause any symptoms itself. which destroy invading microbes.

but also of the hip. Obesity is also linked to an increased Caesarean section rate and greater blood loss during birth. When it comes to giving birth. obesity increases the risk of stress incontinence (leakage of urine when you laugh. If you have knee osteoarthritis and you are obese. . induced labour or longer labour. This may be because obesity forces the kidneys to work harder. 14) Colon and rectum Cancer of the colon or rectum (bowel cancer) is more common in obese people than in people with a body mass index (BMI) within the healthy range. with diabetes medicines being less effective in obese people than in people whose weight is in the healthy range. Large waist size (abdominal obesity) seems to be especially important when it comes to developing bowel cancer. Obese people. 17) Bladder Among women.5 kg or more should improve your symptoms. the greater the risk of kidney failure. a condition where the body doesn’t respond properly to the hormone insulin. 15) Reproductive system: uterus (womb) Women who are severely obese are 3 times more likely to have menstrual problems than women who are a healthy weight. exercise or lift something heavy) and urge incontinence (a sudden strong urge to urinate. Ninety per cent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. and it increases the risk of complications after labour.Research suggests that obesity increases the risk of kidney failure — the higher the body mass index (BMI). pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes. sneeze. hand and lower back. For women. Being obese also makes diabetes hard to control. obese women seem to be more likely than women of normal weight to have an overdue birth. losing 4. Obese women also have a 3–4 times higher risk of cancer of the endometrium (lining of the womb) than women with a body mass index (BMI) in the healthy range. especially of the knee. 18) Knee Obese people are more likely than people with a body mass index (BMI) in the healthy range to have osteoarthritis. The good news for people who are obese and have type 2 diabetes: lose as little as 5 per cent of your body weight and your blood sugar levels should become more manageable. cough. especially women. are also more likely than other people to develop cancer of the kidney (renal cell cancer). 13) Pancreas Obesity is the strongest environmental risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Obesity also increases the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. being obese before getting pregnant increases the risk of pregnancy complications like high blood pressure. followed by leakage of urine). 16) Reproductive system: fertility and pregnancy Obesity reduces fertility in both men and women. Women who are obese and also have diabetes have an even greater risk of endometrial cancer.

which causes heel pain in children during the early part of puberty. This process. This means that blood may pool in the legs. is more common in obese children than in other children. Obesity increases the risk of gout. causing swelling and pain with redness. a blood clot can break off and lodge in the blood vessels in the lung. called pulmonary embolism. a condition in which blood clots in the deep veins. thickening and ulceration of the skin. 20) Feet Sever’s disease. Carrying too much weight also increases the risk of chronic venous insufficiency — in this condition there is not enough blood flow through the veins back to the heart. The big toe is a common site for gout. a condition where uric acid is deposited in the joints. can be fatal. In people with DVT. . but other joints throughout the body can also be affected.19) Veins Obesity increases the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). often in the legs.