One of the reasons the translators usually give for using a substitute instead of God’s name, is that no one knows for sure how to pronounce it. The pronunciation of God’s name has been a controversial matter for some time; scholars have different views of the pronunciation. Most prefer the pronunciation YAHWEH, and indeed, this vocalization has the support of most of the scholars. Others argue for such possibilities as YEHOAH, YAHUWEH or YAHUEH, YAHUWAH or YAHUVAH, YAHVAH, or YAHWAH, etc. As you can see from these various forms of the name, there is disagreement as to whether the third letter of God's name should be represented as a "V" or a "W," and the proper vowels are also in dispute. Bible translator and expert in the Hebrew and Aramaic languages Professor James Tabor notes:
Frankly, much of this confusion results because of a lack of knowledge of basic Hebrew grammar, as well as the history and development of modern Hebrew. However, even among those who do understand the technical problems involved there is often basic disagreement. If one understands that the four Hebrew letters (Yod He Vav He) represent four vowels, rather than four consonants, then the Name is best represented by the four sounds I-A-U-E or ee-ah-oo-eh. If you pronounce these quickly you will get the combined sound in English. This appears to agree with Josephus, with the Greek transliterations. It would be written in English as YAHUEH, not strictly YAHWEH, which is the consonantal form. The problem with this proposal is the question of the meaning. These four sounds appear to mean nothing in Hebrew, and they lose their connection with the verb hayah, "to be," upon which the Divine Name appears to be based. Hebrew names are believed to carry meaning, how much more the case with the very Name of God! The combination YE-HO-AH makes better grammatical sense. In Hebrew "YE" represents the future or imperfect of the verb "to be," "HO" represents the present, while "AH" represents the past. In other words, this form of the Name would have

specific meaning and not be merely a repetition of vowel sounds. Quite literally YEHOAH means "shall/is/was. . ." YAH would then be the contracted, or shortened form, of this full Name, taking the first and last sounds together. 1

In Biblical Hebrew, it is not acceptable for two vowels to stand beside each other,2 therefore the consonantal sound of W has to be pronounced, and YEHOAH becomes YEHOWAH. G.W. Buchanan has the following to say about the vowel points and the number of syllables of the name.
There is absolutely no evidence whatsoever that the Jews during the first or second temple [period] pronounced YHWH as Yahweh. But [the] Samaritans had a pronunciation which was not far from Yahweh. When the element YAH occurs in proper names, it is at the end of the name. Looking at proper names in the Tanach, it seems that the first two syllables of YHWH was YAHO or YEHO. It is true that the Masoretic pointing of YHWH is based on the vowels of a substitute, but we must remember that the real pronunciation of YHWH was lost when the Masoretes did their work. Thus they did not necessarily use vowels which were different from the original pronunciation (which they did not know), but they used the vowels from the substitute word. Their use of the vowels YE:H, or occasionally YE:HO at the beginning does not rule out that YE:HO was used in the original pronunciation. In short: The evidence points to a pronunciation during the second temple [period] which is closer to the three syllabic YAHOWA/YEHOWA than to the two-syllabic YAHWEH. 3

The Vowel Points In Hebrew orthography, niqqud or nikkud is a system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
Restoring Abrahamic Faith, Genesis 2000, Charlotte, NC. 28256. 1993, p. 11 “Should it be regarded as a vowel indicator, it would mean that two vowels would stand next to each other, which is unacceptable in B[iblical H[ebrew].” (Cf. §7.1/2.) Van der Merwe, C., Naudé, J., Kroeze, J., Van der Merwe, C., Naudé, J., & Kroeze, J. (1997). A Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar (electronic ed.) (30). Oak Harbor 3 G. W. Buchanan (Some Unfinished Business With the Dead Sea Scrolls, Revue de Qumran, 13:49-52 (1988)).
2 1

These signs are often referred to as vowel points. Several systems for representing Hebrew vowels were developed in the Early Middle Ages. The most widespread system, and the only one still used to a significant degree today, was created by the Masoretes of Tiberias in the second half of the first millennium in the Land of Israel. Hebrew Text written with niqqud is called ktiv menuqad. Many of the names and places in the Bible that are very familiar to us, are the result of applying these vowel points to the consonantal Hebrew Text. For example, The word “Israel” without vowel points would be spelled (YSR’L). However, the word we know today needs vowels, and when we add the vowel points we get (yi r l). Before vowel points were added to the Hebrew texts of the Bible sometime after the 6th or 7th century C.E., the LXX has also provided an interpretation of the pronunciation of these Hebrew words. In the LXX we find Ισραηλ (Israel) for (YSR’L). Therefore, the vowels found in the LXX predate the vowel points of the Masoretes by hundreds of years. nevertheless, they are not always the same. However, the issue at hand is whether the vowel points that we find associated with the Tetragrammaton are the vowel points of Adonay and Elohim. One of the problems is that the Tetragrammaton is pointed with a number of different vowel points. The prevailing argument is that in the majority of occurrences, YHWH is pointed with the vowels of Adonay. This idea is usually presented as fact with little to no explanation of the data. For example, the fact that there is a difference between the first vowel “a” for Adonay and “e” for Yehowah is rarely explained. If the Tetragrammaton had the exact vowel points of Adonay yn"da] it would appear as o (Yahowah) in the text, but it does not. Before we answer some of these questions, we will first look at the different ways in which the Tetragrammaton is pointed. In the following table, (BHS) stands for Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia and ½ stands for the Ben Hayyim Hebrew texts used in older Bible such as the King James Version.

Hebrew Transliteration BHS ½ Reference YeHWaH YeHWiH YeHoWaH YeHoWiH YeHWiH YeHoWiH 5658 271 44 31 2 1 6007 305 6823 6518 Judges 16:28 Ezekiel 24:24 Genesis 3:14 1 Kings 2:26 Genesis 15:2 Judges 16:28 The following are the remaining 820 forms from BHS WaYHWaH WaYHoWaH LaYHWaH LaYHoWaH LaYeHWaH BaYHWaH BaYHWaH BaYHoWaH MeYHWaH MeYeHWaH KaYHWaH UMeYeHWaH HaYHWaH 99 1 572 4 1 92 12 1 4 20 4 4 1 Genesis 13:14 Genesis 18:17 Genesis 4:3 Leviticus 23:34 Deut. 32:6 Genesis 15:6 Numbers 21:7 Jeremiah 3:23 1 Kings 21:3 Genesis 18:14 Exodus 8:10 Proverbs 16:1 Jeremiah 8:19 .

kethibh. In such situations. kethiv. ("[what is] written"). . refer to a small number of differences between what is written in the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible. There is only one occurrence where the Name has a hataf patach under the yod in the compound form in Psalm 144:15 ( ).SeYaHWaH UBaYHWaH WeLaYHWaH 1 2 2 Psalms 144:15 Psalms 26:1 Proverbs 21:31 As you can see. How can this proposal be maintained when only one out of the three vowels of Adonay are used in the Leningrad Codex? Nehemia Gordon agrees that there are discrepancies here. but it is still not the exact vowels of Adonay since the holam is missing. while the Ketiv indicates their original written form. kethib. the Leningrad Codex deviates even more then the Ben Hayyim text.4 the word which is read differently than the way it is written is marked by a circle in the biblical manuscripts. The circle refers the reader to a marginal note that says "read it such and such". The first is that in all the other instances of Qere-Ketiv. as inherited from tradition. as preserved by scribal tradition. ("[what is] read") and ketiv. the kamatz. by not using the holam in the majority of occurrences. or ketib. the Qere is the technical orthographic device used to indicate the pronunciation of the words in the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh). Actually. There are two problems with this scholarly consensus. The argument concerning the name is that YHVH has the consonants of the name but the vowels of Adonai and this is presented as fact in every introduction to Biblical Hebrew and every scholarly discussion of the name. That leaves the Leningrad Codex with only one matching vowel from Adonay. So in the instance of the name we would expect there to be a circle over the word YHVH with a marginal note instructing us "read it Adonai" But no such note exists! YHVH appears 6828 times in the Hebrew text of Scripture but it is never identified as a Qere-Ketiv by either a scribal circle or a 4 Qere and Ketiv. the Tetragrammaton is never pointed with the exact vowels of Adonay. from the Aramaic qere or q're. and what is read.

However. the Ketiv.marginal note. But the vowels of YHVH are clearly different from the vowels of Adonai! YHVH is written YeHVaH but with the vowels of Adonai it should have been Yahovah. in the later Ben Hayyim texts which the Old Testament portion of the KJV and other reformation Bibles are based on. 5 The following example shows how the vowel points differ between the Tetragrammaton and Adonay. They claim that when a word is always read differently than the way it is written the scribal note is omitted.kamats). Now in every other instance of Qere-Ketiv. 6500 times). Now it is true that in such instances that the scribal note is sometimes left out.kamats). In contrast. while the Qere itself is written without vowels in the margin of the biblical manuscript. 5 The Pronunciation of the Name by Nehemia Gordon . Yet nowhere in Scripture is there an instance of Qere Perpetuum in which the word written one way but read another way always lacks a scribal note.cholam . the name YHVH is written with the vowels e---A (sheva . not once in the 6828 times the word appears. In response to this scholars insist that YHVH is a so-called Qere Perpetuum. The English transliteration of YeHoWaH is preserved only 44 times in the Leningrad Codex of 1008-1010 C. they are not the same spelling. If we were to apply the Qere Perpetuum rule to YHVH it would be unique in this class of Qere-Ketiv since it never has a scribal note saying "read it Adonai".no vowel . YHWH is pointed as YeHoWaH in the majority of cases that it appears in the Hebrew text (approx. The second problem with the claim that YHVH has the vowels of Adonai is quite simply that it does not! The vowels of Adonai are A-O-A (hataf patach . Most occurrences in the Leningrad Codex are pointed as YeHWaH.E. But in the other instances of Qere Perpetuum the scribal note appears sometimes and is omitted other times for brevity. Do not confuse this spelling with the name Yahweh. has precisely the vowels of the Qere. written in the body of Scripture.

Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems. 7 Van der Merwe.. uses hataf-patach (a) because of the glottal nature of aleph. & Kroeze. J. It is also noteworthy that most 6 This chart is using the full pointed Tetragrammaton of YeHoWaH..VOWEL POINT COMPARISON6 Y e H o W a H Yod Simple Sheva Heh Holem Waw Kamatz Heh ` a D o N a Y Aleph Hatef Patach Daleth Holem Nun Kamatz Yod Notice that the first vowel in each word is different.) (31). Naudé. as found in the Ben Hayyim text. C. it uses the vowel sheva (e) required by phonetic rules. Since yod is not a glottal consonant. .2/4(i) that a deviation from the customary change is predictable with the gutturals ( . but recognized visually to prevent its pronunciation? If applying the vowels of Adonay to YHWH is intended to get the readers attention visually. It was stated in §4. B19A pointing of YeHWaH deviates even farther. and ). Kroeze. would have been more effective for a visual sign. (1997). J. One of the characteristics of the gutturals is that they may not be vocalized with the audible šewâ... J. C. .7 It seems odd that the Masoretes would be concerned about applying proper phonetic rules to a word that was not to be pronounced. This difference is usually explained by the rules of Hebrew morphology and phonetics.. Van der Merwe. Inc. A Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar (electronic ed. It is said that the Hebrew word Adonay. then it seems that leaving the original hataf-patach where it allegedly did not belong. Instead of the audible šewa the gutturals are vocalized with ā ēp vowels. Naudé. J.

Includes index. Therefore. There are three other vowel-sounds which are at a midway point between the sheva and the short vowels a. D. It would appear as if there is no problem in placing a compound sheva under the yod in YHWH. They are represented by a combination of the sign for sheva and the signs for these short vowels. it would be the missing vowel that the reader recognized as the visual clue to use an alternate word.8 Interestingly. either Adonay or 8 Martin. (27th ed. Davidson's introductory Hebrew grammar.E. the two vowels have different pronunciations according to Hebrew grammar. Clearly YeHWaH does not have the vowels of Adonay. Therefore. while the Masoretes placed the vowel hatefsegol under the yod of YHWH only 3 times in the Leningrad Codex. . A fundamental rule of the Hebrew language is that a consonant in the middle of a word must be followed by either a vowel or a silent sheva.Hebrew names that begin with YH ( ) also use a sheva under the Yod. London: T&T Clark. When YHWH stood alone. So why is this vowel missing? Perhaps this omission was intended to signify to a Hebrew reader that when he came across a word with missing vowels. but to use a substitute word such as Adonay or Elohim. The actual pointing of the name YHWH in the Leningrad manuscript is YeHWaH in the majority of cases. the Masoretes placed the vowel hatef-segol under the yod of YHWH 305 times. that this was a word that was not to be read. J.) (18). if the Masoretes had wanted to do so. It is possible that the scribes omitted the vowel in the first he of YeHWaH to prevent the readers from reading the name out loud. in the Ben Hayyim Hebrew text of 1525 C. e and o. But are these the actual vowels of the divine name? The first thing we notice about the vowels of YeHWaH is that the vowel following the first he is missing. This means that by the rules of the Hebrew language the first he in YHWH must have some vowel. which seems unnecessary for a word that was never to be vocalized.. not only did the Masoretes employ proper vocalization rules. (1993).

they further rejected the entire Old Testament. except for the Pentateuch or Torah. G. W. Buchanan points out that there was only one group in antiquity to pronounce the divine name similar to the form. heading Tetragrammaton. Obviously the divine name does not necessarily need to follow the vowel points of standard biblical names.9 Two or Three Syllables The original form of the divine name was almost certainly three syllables. "Yahweh. the sheva and kamatz found in YHWH do follow the standard vocalization in nearly all names that begin with YH ( ) and names that end in H ( ). since reading it Adonay would result in reading Adonay twice in a row. but Elohim by inserting the "i" (chiriq) in Yehwih. This would imply that the Masoretic scribes knew the name to be Yehowah and concealed its pronunciation by omitting the "o" in the majority of cases in the Leningrad codex.c. It appears that the missing vowel was "o" (holam). . 2002. But what is the missing middle vowel in Yehwah? It appears that the scribes actually forgot to omit the vowel on the H in a number of instances." Moreover. “The members of the Babylonian academy probably knew the pronunciation as late as 1000 C. 138 et seq. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia. not two. E. We should keep in mind that the Samaritans not only rejected Jesus Christ. Indeed. producing such readings as (Yehowah) 44 times and (Yehowih) 31 times. however. the Samaritan religion not only 9 Jewish Encyclopedia.E. Antiochene theologian) claimed that the Samaritans pronounced the divine name as IABE. the pronunciation of the name was most likely still known during the production of the Leningrad Codex. l.Elohim could be used. Therefore. pp. and nearly all names ending in H ( ) have a kamatz on the second last consonant.” (Blau. 132 et seq. YHWH is pointed with the vowels YeHWiH to inform the reader not to use Adonay here.. since 29 out of the 31 names that begin with YH ( ) also use a sheva under the Yod. are the vowels we find in YeHWaH correct? It seems likely. but when it is juxtaposed to the word Adonay.). this is only because Theodoret (fifth-century C.

argued that the Tetragrammaton had the same consonants as the verb "to be.rejected Joshua through Malachi from the Tanach. but on-going state. signifying 'causing' or 'causing to be." However. Only from Theodoret's 10 Search for the Sacred Name by Firpo W.always forward-moving." and he produces examples from Exodus 15 with "Yahweh" and "YEHOWAH" in the same sentences.' 'HE CAUSES TO BECOME. whose lead Theodoret followed. Carr further explains: …God not only states his name. not finished in action or intent or purpose or accomplishment -." Clement of Alexandria. This is my name forever. their religion remained rooted in pagan syncretism. However. 10 Buchanan says." so it therefore meant "the One who caused things to be. and some other reasons. not meaning defective state. "Jehovah the God of your forefathers has sent me to you. and this is my memorial unto all generations. 42 . whose middle syllable was ho or hu. "All other examples [from antiquity] maintain the middle vowel." Buchanan concludes by saying: The accumulated data points heavily in the direction of a three syllabic word. The first two syllables were Yahu or Yaho that were sometimes abbreviated to Yo." while those with "Yahweh" "sound rough and unrythmical. For poetry. p. Those with "YEHOWAH" sound "smooth and poetic. Carr. but interprets its meaning: 'I AM THAT I AM. the name Yah was also used. he nonetheless spelled the Tetragrammaton in Greek employing the central vowel that has been omitted when determining that the proper name was ‘Yahweh’!” Buchanan also points out that "the name 'Yahweh' does not even sound Semitic. he did not pronounce the word according to any form of that verb. Buchanan states.' "I SHALL PROVE TO BE WHAT I SHALL PROVE TO BE. in the causative form. Firpo W. liturgy.' It is self-evidently in the imperfect state.' 'Tell the sons of Israel." The Name is unmistakably a verb form. “While Clement did not have access to the Dead Sea Scrolls or the Aramaic Papyri.

believes that the form "Yahweh" is an "incorrect hybrid form with an early w and a late -eh. in "The Pronunciation of the Tetragram" in The Law and the Prophets: Old Testament Studies Prepared in Honor of Oswald Thompson Allis." as [in] the Tetragrammaton itself and hence in a pause at the reading of the first part of the name it sounded as if the reader was pronouncing the Ineffable Name. we already have most of the name (YEHO) with only three letters to identify. The next letter "W" is the "W" in YHWH. p. 11 Laird Harris. Moreover. This is the shortest contracted form of the Holy name and is set forth in the Bible as the complete holy name.12 He then goes on to admit that the Hebrew names with Divine meaning were deliberately shortened so as not to pronounce the Divine name. and the last two letters (AH) join with Y to make the name YAH. YEHOWAH has seven letters in it. making the word pronounced YAH. So we have YE-HO-WAH. a form accidently similar but remarkably like the hybrid form JEHOVAH!" Christian Ginsburg wrote in the 19th century that: There are. the two center consonants (hay and vav) and the vowels (sheva and holem) are dropped.Greek spelling of the Samaritan use of the term is there any basis for the pronunciation 'Yahweh' or 'Jahveh.' This is hardly enough to overpower all of the other exhibits. 419 Introduction To the Massoretico-Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible. If we go by what Ginsburg mentions above. these letters which begin the names in question are actually pointed "JEHO. The Some Unfinished Business With the Dead Sea Scrolls. 369 12 11 . p. a number of compound names in the Bible into the composition of which three out of the four letters of the Incommunicable Name have entered. however. which commonly occurs in the Bible." and that if the divine name were a noun form it "would have ended up as JAHOWEH." Harris himself believes (see page 224) that "the syllable division ya ho wi hu is the most likely. What Judean Names Tell Us Following the principle of contracting words in the Hebrew language.

The complete word study dictionary : Old Testament (421). and the second kind ends with the short form -YAH or -YAHU (Yahu is contraction of the expression Yah hu' . and this indicates a vowel "a" in it. c2002). or contracting words. TN: AMG Publishers. There are mainly two kinds of theophoric names in the Bible. (2003. and is pronounced precisely as it is in Hebrew in the great inspired praise. and rejoice before Him" (Psalm 68:4. One kind begins with the three first consonants of the Tetragrammaton. extol him who rides on the clouds. is spoken in almost every language known to man. depending on which of the H's is taken from the Tetragrammaton. . Hay and vav are versatile letters and as such are dropped as necessary for combining. SN 3059 3060 3075 3076 3077 BHS13 Trans. Chattanooga. the result is either Y-aHW-H or Y-H-W-aH. NKJV). "Sing to God.Hebrew letters. This term is inaccurately translated "Praise ye the LORD" by the English translators. by His name YAH.which means "Yah himself"). Can we tell which of these it actually is? The Israelites used to combine names with an abbreviation of God's name when they named their children. These names are called theophoric names and they have been preserved along with their vowel pointing. YHV-. Halleluyah. W. LXX yehô yehô š yehôz z Ιωαχας Ιωας Ιωζαβαδ Ιωαναν Ιωδαε yehô n n yehôy 13 Baker. sing praises to His name. This contracted form of the divine name. Therefore. (See Psalm 146 through 150) YAH is written with the consonants YH in Hebrew and with the vowel point "a" between these two consonants. The vowel and the consonants are taken from the Tetragrammaton. YAH.

Why are the first two vowels in all 19 names and the first two vowels in YeHoWaH the same? Either these names have incorrect vowel points also. Based on the information from the above list of names. etc. Yonathan. and this resulted in Yoiakim. Carr says the following on the subject: . or YeHoWaH has the correct ones. there appears to be an inconsistency with the prevailing view. The last vowel “a” Kamatz also appears to be correct based on the fact that names ending in H appear to almost always have kamatz on the consonant before H. These names were sometimes shortened to create new names. If these names are prefixed with a contracted form of the divine name and the vowels of YHWH are from Adonay. Firpo W.3078 3079 3080 3082 3083 3084 3085 3086 3087 3088 3089 3090 3091 3092 yehôy iyn yehôy qiym yehôy riy yehôn yehôn n Ιωακι Ιωακι Ιωαρι Ιωναδαβ Ιωναθαν Ιωσηφ Ιωιαδα Ιωαδιν Ιωσεδεκ Ιωρα Ιωσαβεε Ιωσαβεθ ησουν Ιωσαφατ yehôs p yehô add h yehô add n yehô q yehôr m yehôše a yehôša a yehôšûa yehôš p These are the 19 theophoric names that begin with the three first consonants of the Tetragrammaton.

That analyzing the overwhelming. Zedeciah. For example. Hode-vah. Scholar Technological Institute. I took the computer and devised a reverse Hebrew-English dictionary. Elijah. page 174 . YAH. consistent majority of vowel points the pronunciation was indicated as Yehovah.There are nineteen names in the Bible that begin with 'Yeho-' or 'Jeho-'. So in starting out at the end and spelling backwards to the beginning. if there are Bible names beginning with the first two syllables of the Divine Name. making a third syllable? 14 Examples of theophoric names that end with the short form YAH are as follows: Isaiah. . Jeconiah. Jeremiah. what would the computer come up with? 14 Search for the Sacred Name. WH? Or is there a vowel between the W and the H. CA 1993. It was. . instructed to search out all words containing a 'w' at the end with an 'h' as its next consonant. and Pu-vah are a few I encountered. Ch-vah. . The evidence must appear from resolving the spelling of the last syllable.' Well. spelled differently). what about names ending with the last syllable of the Name? By use of concordances I came up with many besides the Sacred Name. the '-wah. It is whether the Divine Name contains but two syllables or three that controversy is stirred. it was used to name many of the prophets and kings of Israel. Iv-vah. Does the Name end in two consonants. (The iah and jah are simply the Holy name. in other words. and I had come up with 19. and there appears to be little argument over the 'e' and 'o' vowels used here. What is significant about these names? To find out I tried what no one apparently had tried before. From the time King David popularized this contracted form of the Holy name YEHOWAH. I set the computer up to spell names backwards. the names Al-vah. Hawthorne. Zephaniah. Carr goes on to explain how he resolved the issue of whether there should be a vowel between the W and the H to make a third syllable. Zachariah. to name just a few. or Yehowah.

Yehonathan) and in the shortened form (Yonathan). cannot have the vowel "o". If 'Yeho-' makes up the first two syllables of God's Name. Since theophoric names don't indicate a vowel "a" in the first half of the Tetragrammaton.First of all. and this is indicated by placing a dot above the consonant W. therefore. When we combine these two pieces of information. Yahve. This indicates to us that the name most likely does not have two syllables. The result. we see that all the names are vocalized YeHo-. 175-176 . The names ending in iah or jah prove this. the consonantal sound is not pronounced when it represents a vowel (an exception to this is if this results in two vowels standing beside each other − which is NOT grammatically correct). stuck together with no vowel in between. this means that the -aH in the short form Yah (iah or jah. For example. which has only two syllables. is Ye-H-oW-aH. The '-vah' was as consistent at the end of human or place names as the 'Yeho' was at the beginning of human or place names. Therefore. the consonantal sound of “W” has to be pronounced. then '-WAH' makes up the last syllable of god's name. vh. theophoric names indicate that the Tetragrammaton is to be vocalized Ye-H-oW-aH.e. One thing that is common in all the names that begin with the first consonants of the divine name is that the vowel "o" is included − both in the primary form (i. 15 Search for the Sacred Name by Firpo W. what it did not come up with: it did not come up with a single word ending with the two final consonants. 15 When we compare the names that begin with the first three consonants of the Tetragrammaton (YHW). pps. Usually. In Hebrew the consonant W may be used to represent the vowel sound o ("o" as in hole). it gives us the following result − YeH-o-aH. Carr. Since two vowels cannot stand next to each other. What it did come up with was this: In every instance of the many root words in Hebrew that end with the consonants WH there was an 'A' between them. as noted above) has to be in the last part of the Tetragrammaton.

so nothing can be added to it to make it any more complete. Notes Richard Davis: The fully expanded form. etc. about which there was another golden crown. or the expanded form. was used to describe a function such as Yehovah-Nissi (YEHOWAH (is) my banner).Since the name." 16 The Great Holy Name. is the beginning and the ending − the first and the last letters − of the Holy Name (YEHOWAH). chapter 5 − which is a description of the Temple in Jerusalem − he wrote the following: "A mitre also of fine linen encompassed his head. The Evidence of Josephus The 1st century Judean historian. Yehovah-Tsidkenu (YEHOWAH (is) our righteousness). However. it seems quite clear that the correct pronunciation of the divine name represented by the Tetragrammaton. As noted above. Flavius Josephus. because they are fearful of misusing the divine name. Either the shortest form. this short form of the Name was used many times as a suffix to a verb to name special people such as prophets. YEHOWAH. but he didn't want to reveal it. and not "Yahweh" that so many today amongst the "Holy Names" sects insist upon using. also. YEHOWAH. 16 Judging by the available evidence at hand. kings and priests. he gave us some clues in his work The Wars of the Jews. "The Name" − just as many Orthodox and Conservative Jews do. YHWH. has now even discarded the name "Yahweh. Yehovah-Shalom (YEHOWAH (is) peace). knew well how the divine name was to be pronounced (this can be seen in his work Antiquities of the Jews)." meaning. today. in Texas. it is complete. YAH. is recognized as the complete holy name. page 6 . which was tied by a blue ribbon. is simply YEHOWAH. One such sect. in which was engraven the sacred name [of God]: it consists of four vowels. YAH." and instead simply refers to God as "Ha Shem. In volume 5.

So what. matres lectionis ("mothers of reading"). But. with an “h” sound. their consonantal sound was usually not pronounced. V was equivalent to O (o as in hole) or U (oo as in mood). Let's use the name YHWDH. do not even bother to probe any deeper but claim that Josephus was presumably thinking of the Greek vowels IAUE. There were four consonants that could indicate a vowel − 'aleph." The letters Y. did Josephus mean? Before the Hebrew vowel pointing was invented. These letters are called "vowel letters" or. Originally this letter doubled as a consonant. So how will the Name sound if we switch the letters with the vowels of matres lectionis? Findings at Qumran in Israel show us that in the first century the letter Y was often used as the vowel sound I (ee as in seek). and H at the end of a word was pronounced A (a as in father). something that is not allowed in Hebrew grammar. This is why Josephus could call the letters YHVH "vowels. these "secret letters" − that were undoubtedly the Tetragrammaton − were written in Paleo-Hebrew and NOT Greek − something Josephus knew. influenced by the erroneous form Yahweh.Since there were no vowels in the Hebrew alphabet at this time. let us try this manner of reading with a name we already know the pronunciation of. which is written almost the same way as the divine name. When the Greeks adopted this letter it became the “epsilon” with an “eh” sound. This is in agreement with the . or as the vowel sound “eh”. If we write the vowels as they are to be pronounced. With this in mind. and the letter hay (he') if it is the last letter of a word. in contradiction to this. the Judeans used some of their consonants as vowels. When these letters were used as vowels. to indicate vowel sounds. then. in Latin. In a Hebrew text that has vowel points there are rules of grammar that do not allow a yod that begins a Hebrew word to be used as a vowel letter − but Josephus' teaching that the Name "consists of four vowels" was valid for a time before Hebrew text had vowel points. H and V were regarded as vowels. vav. yod. what did Josephus mean by this? Some people. unless this results in two vowels standing next to each other. Y-HW-D-H turns into I-H-U-D-A.

E. and we get the pronunciation YeHuWaH. In the Amun- . If we. Y-H-W-H turns into I-H-U-A or closer to "Yehowah" and further away from "Yahweh. we see that YHWH has pretty much the same pronunciation as YHWDH (YeHuDaH). we get the pronunciation IHOA or IHUA. Hebrew Transliteration Phonetic Transliteration Phonetic Pronunciation Pron. again with a missing vowel in the middle. The form "Yahweh" doesn't explain the vowel "o". Incidentally. when we take the D from YHWDH hd"Why> we get YeHuaH. Now if we convert the shuruq vowel back to a consonant. YHWH. were to remove the D. This plainly shows us that the form "Yahveh/Yahweh" cannot even be close to the original form! The Egyptian Evidence The oldest archaeological testimony where you can see the divine name is from about the 14th century B. the exact pointing of the Tetragrammaton as found in the Leningrad Codex over 5600 times.C. using vowel points Agnlisized Pronunciation hd"Why> YHWDH IHUDA ee-eh-uw-d-ah YeHuDaH Jehudah hw"hoy> YHWH IHOA ee-eh-ow-ah YeHoWaH Jehovah When we read the vowel letters. we would get YeHuaH. The consonantal sound of W shall therefore also be pronounced. as an experiment." (The fact that the divine name is written without a mappiq shows that the last H should be pronounced A). If we choose to read matres lectionis as Josephus did. we can do it the I-H-O-A. since in written Hebrew there is an invariable rule that two vowels can't stand next to each other. Although. This brings us When we use this manner of reading with the divine name same way. we get YeHWaH. the difference being that the letter D is not in it. But. there has to be a consonant between u and a.pronunciation we already know − "YeHuDaH" (the English "Judah").

. Gertoux points to the Merneptah stele.C. Transcription of the hieroglyph: t3 i3-sw-w-y-h-w3-w (Shneider's transcription) ta sha-su-w-y-eh-ua-w (conventional vocalization) The text is easy to decipher. it sounds "ta' sha'suw yehua'w".temple in Soleb (Sudan) can be found sculptures from the time of Amenhotep III. On one sculpture is an Egyptian hieroglyph with the divine name. but for foreign words (like Yhw3). Egyptians used a form of matres lectionis. for example in Genesis 47:11 we read about "the land of Rameses. where the name "Israel" is transcribed in .C. w = u. In this system the vowel letters were like this: 3 = a." It was common practice to name lands after the names of the gods. dated 13th century B. These sculptures date from circa 1382-1344 B. which means in English "land of the Bedouins those of Yehua. y = i." We know little about the vowels of ancient Egyptian words. Mr. this being the oldest archaeological occurrence of the divine name.

17 Jean Leclant. This means that the name is to be pronounced as it is written." (The Biblical Background). YHWH. Who is. Expounds Gilles C. From The Catena on the Pentateuch.D. Le "Tetragramme" a l'epoque d'Amenophis III. in Near Eastern Studies dedicated to H. which was in agreement with the beginning of all the theophoric names.hieroglyphs Yysri3l as "Yisrial.H. by which alone they who had access to the Holy of Holies [in the Temple in Jerusalem] were protected. Writes Professor Jean Leclant. Nullens. is pronounced JEHOVAH (Iehovah). Lee. In this way the Tetragrammaton became Ye-Ho-Vah and later on. Volume 29. pages 215-219. p..H. Number 3.I.." He adds: "The name of God appears here in the first place as the name of a place. states: "The tetragrammaton. Jehovah." 1842) − "Yehova. Prince Takahito Mikasa on the Occasion of His Seventy-Fifth Birthday. in Western languages." Won W." In a footnote he explains that place-names often are derived from the names of gods. . is therefore read I-eH-U-A (Iehoua). "That mystic name which is called the Tetragrammaton. 146). 17 What the Experts Say Writes Paul Drach in De l'harmonie entre l'eglise et la synagogue ("Of the Harmony Between the Church and the Synagogue. was the authentic pronunciation. and Who shall be" (Nicetas. "The Jewish scholars known as Masoretes introduced a system of vowels and accents. or according to its letters" (Religious Studies Review. Bishop of Heraclea. "It is evident that the name on the name-ring in Soleb that we discuss corresponds to the 'tetragram' of the god of the Bible YHWH. the equivalent of "YeHoWah" in Masoretic punctuation. 1991.. . July 2003. 2nd Century A. page 285)." Gertoux draws the valid conclusion that Yhw3 can technically be read as YEHUA'. which means. published in Latin by Francis Zephyrus.. professor at Calvin College. Wiesbaden .

On the other hand one can note that there is NO Jewish translation of the Bible with Yahweh" (Hebrew scholar and specialist of the Tetragram. March/April 1995 . "The form Yahweh is thus an incorrect hybrid with an early 'w' and a late 'eh'. 18 Notice what the Encyclopedia Britannica (1943) has to say: 18 Biblical Archaeology Review. Golschmidt Latin Latin French English English German 1579 1670 1836 1936 1910 1921 Notes George Wesley Buchanan: When the Tetragrammaton was pronounced in one syllable it was "Yah" or "Yo." When it was pronounced in three syllables it would have been "Yahowah" or "Yahoowah. president of the Association Biblique de Recherche d'Anciens Manuscripts). Fisher and Sloat. It is a strange combination of old and late elements. including the final aspirant." If it was ever abbreviated to two syllables it would have been "Yaho. state. editors of The Law and the Prophets. TABLE SHOWING SOME OF THESE JEWISH TRANSLATIONS: NAME OF VERSION (JEWISH) TONGUE PUBLISHED IN: DIVINE NAME RENDERED JEHOVA JEHOVA IEHOVAH JEHOVAH JEHOVAH YEHOVAH Immanuel Tremellius Baruch Spinoza Samuel Cahen Alexander Harkavy Joseph Magil Rabbi L." but even this spelling may have been pronounced with three syllables. because Hebrew had no vowel points in Biblical times." The Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament has this to say: "Actually." Gerard Gertoux makes this observation − "Non-superstitious Jewish translators always favoured the name Jehovah in their translations of the Bible. there is a problem with the pronunciation Yahweh.Skilton.

either by adding a questionable ending -ay become -eh (Grimme) or an -h like the Arabic vocative -ah (Lukyn Williams and Burkitt) or else by assimilation to yihyeh. although on this theory it would be merely a prefix. The first book printed in the American colonies was a collection of psalms in verse form known as The Bay Psalm Book.. It has.its Story).D. He even writes: "The name Yahweh (which is barbarism) has only been created to battle with the true name Jehovah" (The Name of God. In it "the Name appears more than 200 times. therefore.H. Search for the Sacred Name. Professor Gerard Gertoux refers in his book to what Maimonides (a Jewish scholar and famous Talmudist of the 12th century A.It was formerly held that Yah and similar forms were abbreviations of Yahweh. 97-98). pps. Dr. Max Reisel writes that "vocalization of the Tetragrammaton must originally have been YeHuaH or YaHuaH" (The Mysterious Name of Y. The arguments. been suggested." He then displays a long study in the pronunciation of names. not Yahweh. where it is spelled Jehovah" (Firpo W. (3) it is priori improbable that a name held so sacred as Yahweh would be commonly abbreviated. however.. In this remarkable book the Sacred Name is spelled 'Iehovah' in ALL instances save one. was the extra-biblical form. as well as proper names.) has written.. show that Yh or Yhw. page 996). that Yahweh comes from an original Yahw. and says: "This name YHWH is read without difficulty because it is pronounced as it is written. (4) no other Semitic race ever shortened the names of its gods. against this view are overwhelming: (1) the short forms show that ya was the essential syllable. Carr. afterwards vocalized Yahu. or according to its letters as the Talmud says. "he is" (van Hoonacker) (Volume 12. and draws the conclusion that the divine name is pronounced "I-Eh-oU-Ah". Page 74). . as Greek speculation shows.W. while appearing only once in the King James Version (Psalm 83:18).H. (2) the inscriptions and papyri. (5) the endeavor to assign an abstract meaning to a divine name bears the impress of a later period of theological reflection.

It is. and He put in man the desire to identify people and things by means of names. reflected in such compounds. or the shortened form YESHUA. Jehoiakim). God's name represents who and what he is – not a magical "potion" to perform magical "tricks. The form Yahshua is impossible in Hebrew and ignores completely the second syllable.It is important to understand this point of truth: It is not wrong for us to use the name of God. A "name" expresses the character. and use them. represented by the letter "vav. YEHO." This [YESHUA] is a very common name in Hebrew. are common in many Biblical names (Jehoshaphat. James Tabor Comments: The Hebrew name for Jesus is YEHOSHUA. and there is no doubt about how to write or pronounce it whatsoever. while the letters of the Sacred Name. The name is no mere label." or to no good use or purpose (Exodus 20:7). we should not abuse this knowledge. 1. and intrinsic nature of a person or individual. God's Name tell us just who and what He is. The Vav must have its . Names are important in God's eyes. YAH in Hebrew is Yod He. The Name of the Messiah Dr. NOT Yahshua. therefore. Would it be consistent for the Creator of all things to leave Himself nameless? However. These three letters or syllables in Hebrew simply cannot be represented by YAH. as so many mistakenly think. or begin to take God's name for granted. I have several Jewish friends with this name. qualities." Notes The Illustrated Bible Dictionary: "A study of the word 'name' in the O[ld] T[estament] reveals how much it means in Hebrew. p. It is built from the Divine Name YEHOAH. The first two syllables. Nor should we use it "in vain. and define for us His very character and nature. but is significant of the real personality of him to whom it belongs" (Vol. are Yod He Vav. very important that we should know them. 572).

19 Writes Richard Davis in The Great Holy Name: The Holy Name. son of Nun in Numbers 13:16. Yehoshua is the Hebrew name that Moses gave to his assistant Oshea (same as Hoshea). Hoshea. Hebrew Dictionary Numbers 3091. Yehovah. Yehovahshua. we have Yeshua). and gave it to the man who was to be his successor. Yehoshua. And the evidence of Hebrews 4:8 shows it to be the same word written as Jesus throughout the New Testament. some omit the e and use an apostrophe. and write the name Y'shua." Yasha was then changed from active to passive by adding a vowel sheruq. (The combining function also removed the y (or yod) and its supporting vowel from the word Yasha. p. leaving Yehoshua. which interpreted is "saved by Yehovah. Y'shua) of Restoring Abrahamic Faith.) Thus. 20 The next contraction is Yehovahshua.common vowel sound in this form. These are the forms used by most Jewish people who have come to know their Messiah." but not necessarily from GOD. 12 ftn. Genesis 2000. as explained earlier). was already named "Deliverer. (Removing the h. Note Strong's Concordance. NC 28256. and who was to lead Israel into the promised land. (Remember there is no j in the Hebrew language. it cannot be silent or ignored. And it is the same Hebrew word translated Joshua every other place in the Old Testament. which means "to make safe. and its supporting vowel o. Moses pre-empted the name of Yehovah's [first-born] son. Yehoshua. It is spelled Jehoshua in the King James Version there in Numbers 13:16. Charlotte. (a vav with a dot in the center with vowel sound of oo as in pool) between the second and third root letters. was combined with the Hebrew root word Yasha. 3068 and 3467 20 19 . and realize that the Greek Iesous Christos written in English as Jesus Christ is merely a renaming of Yehoshua (Yeshua. One more contraction is made to this name. son of Nun. Since the sheva under the yod is pronounced with a very short sound.

we will see how the LXX transliterated theophoric names that begin with Yeho. αβαι (Iabai). Irenaeus reports that the Gnostics formed a compound αωθ (Iaoth) with the last syllable of Sabaoth. Also. he also reports that the Samaritans say αβέ (Iabe). whom the record shows to be the [first-born] Son of the living God" (pages 9-10). who was born in Palestine and spent a considerable part of his life there. Origen uses Iao. c.Nazareth. We will conduct an experiment to try to reconstruct the Greek form of the name from the LXX. First. we will attempt to find the proper letters for YHWH. YEHOSHUA This being the case. Diodorus Siculus is said to have used the form α (Iao). He also reports that the Valentinian heretics use α (Iao). the LXX is our best choice for reconstructing the name as it was translated by Jews and they would have been more familiar with the Hebrew language and the names in their biblical texts. The following are some of the Hebrew theophoric names along with their Hebrew transliteration and the Greek transliteration found in the LXX. It is hard to tell if any of these forms represent a true pronunciation of the divine name from the Hebrew Scriptures. SN in the first column refers to Strong’s Number for the Hebrew word. 404). ευώ (Ieuo). it clearly shows that YAHWEH (or any of its variations) could not be the correct pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton! The Greek Form of the Name There have been a number of Greek forms used in ancient times. gives Ia and Iabe (one codex Iaue). Epiphanius (d. . Theodoret (d. By using transliterated names from the LXX. Porphyry. the fact that the Messiah's name is derived from the divine name YEHOVAH. 457) writes άω (Iao). Clement of Alexandria writes αο (Iaou).

Chattanooga. Using this method. The complete word study dictionary : Old Testament (421). LXX y hô y hô š yehôz e z Ιωαχας Ιωας Ιωζαβαδ Ιωαναν Ιωδαε Ιωακι Ιωακι Ιωαρι Ιωαχαλ Ιωναδαβ y hô n n yehôy y hôy iyn yehôy qiym y hôy riy yehû al y hôn yehôn e e e e e n Ιωναθαν Ιωσηφ Ιωιαδα Ιωαδιν Ιωσεδεκ Ιωρα Ιωσαβεε Ιωσαβεθ Ιωσαφατ y hôs p yehô add h y hô add n yehô e e q y hôr m yehôše a y hôša a y hôš p e e The LXX has transliterated (YeHo) as Ιω in every name listed above. . W. It appears that the LXX has dropped the (eH) of YeHo and transliterated only the Y and the W of YHW. 21 Baker.SN 3059 3060 3075 3076 3077 3078 3079 3080 3081 3082 3083 3084 3085 3086 3087 3088 3089 3090 3092 BHS21 e Trans. these are the letters that the LXX has provided for the divine name. c2002). TN: AMG Publishers. (2003.

the two Greek letters ου are the transliteration of the single Hebrew letter W. LXX yehû y hû ay y hû e e e Ιουδα Ιουδαίους Ιουδας Ιουδα Ιουδιν Ιουδιν h yehû iy y hû iy yehû iy Again we see the same situation. Y Ι H − W ου H − NAMES THAT END IN YAH AND YAHU. Therefore. this is a diphthong. LXX iyy h niyy hû niyyah azy h Abia Adwniou Adwniaj Ocoziaj Hliou Hlian liyy hû liyy h . acting as a single unit. A diphthong is two vowels which combine to produce a single distinct sound. Note that it is not two different Hebrew letters that are being transliterated as ου. SN 3061 3062 3063 3064 3065 3067 BHS Trans. the (eH) of YeHu has been omitted and only the Y and W have been transliterated as ιου in Greek. SN 29 138 138 274 452 452 a a a BHS a Trans.Y Ι H − W ω H − NAMES THAT BEGIN WITH YEHU.

As stated earlier in this chapter. Y Ι H − W − H α The fact that the final H is represented by and A. then the form Ια is a contraction of the complete divine name.3470 3414 3414 5818 5818 yeša y hû yirmey hû yirm y h uzziyy hû uzziyy h e Hsaiou Ieremiou Iermia Oziou Ozia YaHu at the end of a name is treated just like YeHu at the beginning of a name. Y ι H − W ου H − Names ending in YaH. LXX yirm y h uzziyy h a e e Iermia Ozia iyy h Abia Ιωιαδα y hô add h If this is true. and nothing can be added. the name YaH appears to be formed from the first and last letters of the divine name YH. is also supported by many Hebrew names ending in H that are transliterated into Greek as an A. Then what about forms . therefore the transliteration of Ια represents the first and last letter. are transliterated as ια. BHS Trans. The (aH) is omitted from YaHu and only the Y and W are transliterated from YHWH.

" American Libraries. Greek Jews cannot articulate the “heh” or “ et. but with a missing letter. to this day. thus. already a biblical theophoric prefix or suffix that appeared throughout the Hellenic world. Y. i. J.. N. If the LXX translators had transliterated the divine name based on the way they transliterated other names. we can not be sure the α sound is an accurate phonetic transliteration. A. The encyclopedia of Judaism. Outstanding Reference Sources. W. J.e. we should have found forms such as Ιωα or Ιουα.” 22 What we observe so far is that the first letter Y in YHWH is always transliterated as Ι in Greek. The use of IAO as a Greek transliteration of YHO. Hebrew Trans.such as Ιαω? This may either be a sort of compound name with Ια + part of another name.." (4:1765). especially theophoric names. soon became part of the syncretistic world of magic among the polytheists along with its cognates IAO SABAOTH. & Museum of Jewish Heritage (New York. Ιαωθ from Ιασαβαωθ or it may ωθ. Green. Greek Y ho Yehu Yahu Yah YHWH YHWH e Ι−ω− Ι−ου− Ι−ου− Ι−−α Ι−ωα Ι−ουα Neusner. S. May 2001.. "Published in collaboration with the Museum of Jewish Heritage. etc. ωθ simply be a transliteration of the first 3 letters of the divine name YHW where an α has been used for the H. 22 .. The second letter H seems to be omitted in theophoric names. Combining this information we get Ι−ωα or Ι−ουα for a Greek transliteration of YHWH. (2000). Avery-Peck. The W is either transliterated as ω in YeHo or ου in YaHu. Neusner. It is reflective of the Greek inability to aspirate and. And the final H is transliterated as an α. J. Since the H in Hebrew is usually omitted in Greek names. New York.

23 In tracing the history of the Greek alphabet. there were no rough breathings. however. and they dropped the H from the name and called it 'eta. This Greek letter which was transmitted to Italy. meaning. Those dialects had dropped the h sound early. which is the letter used in the divine name. is pronounced “ho. a phonetic transliteration. will use different Greek letters then a corresponding letter for letter transliteration. a brief history of the h sound in Greek will help explain its lack of use in the LXX. Heth for the h sound. Apparently there were issues with transliterating the Hebrew H in the middle of a word. were psilotic. a corresponding letter for letter transliteration of the divine name into Greek would be ΙΕΥΕ or Ιευε. the breathing is placed over the second vowel. Bellingham. The dialects of Ionia (south-eastern Asia Minor) and Crete. there were no H’s. H. and what we are discussing here. we find that the Greek letter ε comes from the Hebrew letter (he). However.It appears that we have a corresponding letter in Greek for each letter of the divine name except for the second letter H. V. WA. P. V. If the word begins with a diphthong. The rough breathing (turned like the opening comma in inverted commas) is sounded like our letter h.” is pronounced “ha. H. It will be noticed that there is no sign for the letter h in the Greek alphabet. Heta eventually became the long vowel e. Therefore. (2003). Therefore. The Greeks originally borrowed this letter to represent the h sound in the Greek language. ρ at the beginning of a word generally has a rough breathing.” The smooth breathing indicates that the vowel is to be sounded without the rough h sound. which is what forms like Ιαω are. This is true because the Greek language does not have a letter that corresponds to the letter h. and not over the first—ο τος not υτος. & Nunn. The Phoenician alphabet used the letter. they called it Heta. Which means everything in those dialects was psili (smooth breathing). one of which is written over every vowel or diphthong that begins a word. P. and eventually gave rise to Latin H. . The elements of New Testament Greek (5). The want of such a sign is made up by the marks called breathings.. 23 Nunn.

they used a diacritic symbol derived from this half-H shape to signal the presence of h. the typical transliteration method of the LXX for the Hebrew name does not even come close to Ihsou/j All (YeHo) are transliterated in other names in M that begin with the LXX as Ιω Therefore a strict transliteration of . One of them was a tack-like shape . the breathing ended up restricted to the beginnings of words. When Greek orthography was codified by grammarians in the Hellenistic era. in the . Therefore. However. since the h sound in Greek was transferred over time from an actual Greek letter to a diacritic mark used only at the beginning of words. Because of the nature of Classical Greek phonology. and added as its counterpart a reverse-shaped diacritic to denote absence of h. though occasionally Heta did appear elsewhere in a word. This oversight of the Greek language may have given the translators of the LXX a method to prevent the true pronunciation of the first part of the divine name included within theophoric names. appears to be the only theophoric name that begins with the letters Ιη instead of Ιω Given that the name Jesus is usually associated with the name Joshua. in dialects that still preserved the sound h. . employed various glyph shapes for consonantal Heta side by side with the new vocalic Eta for some time. there is one theophoric name that does not follow the usual transliteration method. These symbols were the origin of the rough breathing and smooth breathing diacritics that became part of classical Greek orthography. Therefore. looking like the left half of an H. many that could only read the Greek of the LXX would only know names such as Ιωαναν (Ioanan). . This system was first used in the southern Italian colonies of Heracleia and Tarentum. and not the true theophoric name yehohanan which contains the first part of the divine name. The name Ihsou/j used for Joshua in the LXX and Jesus in the NT. there was no corresponding phonetic sound for the H in the middle of theophoric names.Other regional variants of the Greek alphabet (epichoric alphabets).

then the divine name may be phonetically transliterated into Greek as Ιηωα or Ιηουα. Yehoshua is transliterated as Ihsou/j Since this is a theophoric name. Transliteration Paleo-Hebrew 4Q LXXLevb Latin Writings ee eh oo ah I H U A y h o h Y H W H Y e Y e Ι α ω Ι η ου α I eh ou a H H eh ov ah W a o W H H a English . it is J . Greek Reconstruction Leningrad Codex Ben Hayyim text Phonetic Trans. The sounds would be something like ee-eh-ow-ah or ee-eh-oo-ah. the η must represent the eH in YeHo. but with an h or eh sound for η. LXX should have been something like Ιωσους Although. If this is correct. Y Ι H η W − H − . Square-Hebrew Phonetic Pron.not. and it does not use ω or ου for the W.

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