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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is with profound gratitude that I express my deep


indebtedness to all departmental heads of BSNL-Jaipur,
without their support and guidance it would not have been
possible for this training to have materialized and taken a
concrete shape.
I owe a personal thanks to my training incharge-
Mr.AJAY BHARADVAJ who extended full support and
cooperation at every stage of my training period.
I am indebted to my parents and friends for their
constant encouragement and helping me in my endeavor.
Last, but not the least, I would like to thank everyone who
has contributed for successful completion of my training.

Hitesh Thakwani

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PREFACE

Organizations are made up of people and function through


people. Without people, organizations cannot exist. The resources of
men, money, material, machinery, and mechanism are connected,
coordinated and utilized through people. It is the effectiveness of
the human system that differentiates successful organizations from
the unsuccessful one. Engineers need to concentrate more on
mechanism and the way in which things have been made.
The need of training arises for doing things yourself,
understanding its way. Practical exposure for doing things makes a
person conversant to the technicalities involved in any job. To
overcome the problem of profit and growth through the soundest
utilization of human capacities effective recruitment and selection
process in first step. If it is not done well no amount of training,
supervision or incentive make for it. In view of such benefits,
imparting of vocational training has been made as an integral part
of any academic structure.
According to Campbell – “Training course are typically
designed for a short term, stated set purpose, such as the operation
of some pieces of machinery which development involves in
broaden education for a long-term purpose”.
“Training is a short term process involving systematic and
organized procedure by which Non managerial personal acquire
technical Knowledge and skill for a definite purpose.”- Lawrence
Steinman’s
The principle followed is to- “Put right man into right place by
careful selection and placement to make sure that he is physically
and mentally fit for the job he is expected to do”.
In B.S.N.L. training is given to engineering aspirant desiring to
secure future in the dynamic world of Telecommunications.
In this regard, I have to undergone my training at “Bharat
Sanchar Nigam Ltd.” JAIPUR Telecom District.

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TABLE OF CONTENT

S.No TOPIC
. PageNo.
1 TRAINING CERTIFICATE

2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 1

3 PREFACE 2

ABOUT B.S.N.L. 4
4
DISTRIBUTION OF TELEPHONE LINES 6

BSNL’S CONTRIBUTION TO DEVELOPMENT OF TELECOMMUNICATION


5 7
THE MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME : MDF 8

6 GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION : GSM 11

7 WIRELESS AND LOCAL LOOP : WLL 16

8 CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS : CDMA 24

9 POWER ROOM 27

10 FUTURE PROSPECTS 28

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ABOUT B.S.N.L.

On October 1st, 2000 the Department of Telecom Operations,


Government of India became a corporation and was christened
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL). Today, BSNL is the No. 1
Telecommunications Company and the largest Public Sector
Undertaking of India with authorized share capital of $ 3600 million
and net worth of $ 13.85 billion. It has a network of over 45 million
lines covering 5000 towns with over 35 million telephone
connections.
With latest digital switching technology like
OCB,EWSD,AXE-10,FETEX,NEC etc. and widespread transmission
network including SDH system up to 2.5 gbps, DWDM system up to
80 gbps, web telephony ,DIAS ,VPN ,Broadband and more than
400,000 data customers , BSNL continues to serve this great
nation .
Its responsibilities include improvement of the already
impeccable quality of telecom services, expansion of telecom
network, introduction of new telecom services in all villages and
instilling confidence among its customers.
BSNL has managed to shoulder these responsibilities
remarkably and deftly. Today with over 45 million line capacity,
99.9% of its exchanges digital, nation wide Network management &
surveillance system (NMSS) to control telecom traffic and over 4,
00,000 route kms. Of OFC network, Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd is a
name to reckon with in the world of connectivity. Along with its vast
customer base, B.S.N.L.’s financial and asset bases too are vast and
strong. Consider the figures, as they speak volumes on BSNL’s
standing:
• The telephone infrastructure alone is worth about Rs.
1,00,000 crore(US $ 21.2 billion)

• Turnover of Rs. 25,000 crore ( US $ 5.2 billion)

• Add to which, BSNL's nationwide coverage and reach,


comprehensive range of telecom services and a penchant for
excellence; and you have the ingredients for restructuring India for
a bright future.

Mission:

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• To provide world class telecom services on demand using
state-of-the-art technology for our valued customers.

Vision-2005:

• That BSNL becomes the largest Telecom Company in south


East Asia with most modern state of art technology offering world –
class service to its customers.

• Give paramount importance to customers care.

• To expand the services of the company in all areas through


franchisees arrangement as well as alternate means.

• To create a focused business orientation by suitably bringing


synergy between the Marketing and Business Development
activities towards meeting customer’s requirement.

• To focus concentration for communication for masses by


expanding the services of PCOs, Internet Dhabas, Sanchar kiosks,
PTIC, MCT etc.

• To expand broad band, leased lines cellular, WLL services


with state-of-the-art technology.

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DISTRIBUTION OF TELEPHONE LINES
When any exchange is establish then there arise a problem,
the problem is that how the connection is establish between the
subscriber and the exchange? This problem can be solved by
distribution of cable / telephone lines.

First of all two exchanges are interconnected through


OFC cables. And second one the cable is distributed to the subscriber
through exchange like this. First of all a cable is start from exchange
and terminated at a box which is called cabinet and the cable through
exchange to cabinet is called primary cable. Now for further
distribution another cable is start form cabinet and terminated at
another box which is called piller. There may be one or more piller
connected through a cabinet depends on the number of subscribers
and area. The line form cabinet to the piller is called secondary cable.
From here the cable is further distributed from piller to D.P.’S
(Distribution Point). The cable from piller to D.P. is called distribution
cable. There may be five, ten or twenty connection in a D.P.
The connection to the subscriber is providing from the D.P.
(distribution point.)

Primary
Sec.
Distribution
Cable Cable
Cable

EXCHANGE CABINATE PILLER DP S

TELEPHONE LINE
DISTRIBUTION

BSNL’S CONTRIBUTION TO
DEVELOPMENT OF TELECOMMUNICATION
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BSNL’s roadmap for providing customers with access to the latest
in telecommunications services without losing sight of universal
service access has been by way of utilizing optimally the existing
infrastructure and accelerating advances in technological component
by innovative absorption. The main achievements are summarized
here:
• Huge monolith state-of-the-art network from Kargil to
Kanyakumari and Lakshadweep to Andman Islands giving it a
national footprint.
• Leader in fixed, cellular and IP networks
• 90% share of the market with~ 40 million fixed customers
connected to 36000 exchanges
• More than 4.3 million cellular customers spread across a 1300
cities/towns
• More than 4 lakh RKM of optic Fiber & 1.6 lakh RKM Digital
Microwave
• An extensive copper access network ready for
Broadband
• Up to 2 Mbps access available to over 30,000 locations
throughout the country
• Intelligent Network with Value added services
• Call centers for customer care
• More than 43 lakh TAX lines
• 7 lakh STD PCO’s
• 460 Satellite Stations
• More than 6 lakh internet subscribers and 2 lakh CLI
Based users
• More than 3500 internet dhabas

M.D.F
THE MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME
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It is a place where both external and internal cables are terminated.
The external individual cable caries conductors from subscribers, who
are necessarily from the same locality and as such entire no., cannot
be in numerical order .On the other hand, the internal cable conductors
come from the apparatus side in the numerical order. This cross
connection between the two cable conductors is done by means of
jumper.
It carries all the protectors used in the exchange. The different
protectors that are used are:-
A) Fuse
B) Heating Coils
C) Lightening Protectors

M.D.F is the most suitable place for testing purpose. Both the
internal and the external cables are available at this frame and both
external lines and internal wiring or equipment can be tested for this
purpose.
The fuse prevents heavy current from flowing into the apparatus
and them from being damaged. These fuses are generally tested i.e.
rated for 1A or 3A and are of cartage of flat types.
It diffuses to some faults in the circuits an appropriate amount
of current flows through the exchange; it may not flow out the fuses if
its value is not sufficiently high, but much heat will be produced and
there is a risk of firing taking place inside the exchange from such
risks, heat coils are used. These are generally rated at 3A for 3
minutes.
Lightening protectors are used to save the equipments
from high voltage that is induced in the lines due to lightening
discharge. These consist of two carbon blocks with some insulating
block or mica sheet with holes between them. When the line voltage is
high, the insulation breaks through and earths the lines and thus saves
equipment from being damaged. They are generally rated at 500-600
volts.

The M.D.F. carries horizontal arms at the end of which fuse strips
carrying fuses are fitted and external cables are terminate on these
fuse are terminated on these fuse strips . At other end of the cross
arms there are fitted between the u spring in such a way that when
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either heat coil blows the line are automatically earthed internal cables
are connected from the strips carrying protectors and the cross
connection are done between the strips by means of a jumper wire for
the reasons mentioned above.

The protectors are fitted on 4springs in such a way that when


attesting plug is inserted the external lines and internal lines
disconnected and separated out at this point and so both can be tested
separately from these points.

When the testing plug is inserted between pair of spring


contacts. Their contacts are broken of the spring, thus external lines
are connected to the other sides of plug and the internal lines to its
inner sides.

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U

MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME (MDF) ASSEMBLY FOR MAX

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G.S.M.
THE GLOBAL SYSTEM OF MOBILE
COMMUNICATION
The GSM Signaling Platform provides SS7 signal processing
and subscriber identification translation that enables larger GSM
carriers to offer wholesale roaming services to smaller or emerging
GSM carriers who may otherwise not be able to offer extensive
roaming coverage. Large carriers can also take advantage of this
platform to provide similar roaming capabilities to affiliate
companies in different global markets.

Subscribers in a GSM network have an International Mobile


Subscriber Identity (IMSI) that identifies them in their carrier's
network. For subscribers to roam outside of their home network,
their carrier must negotiate roaming agreements with other network
operators so the visited network recognizes the subscriber's IMSI
and allows roaming to proceed. Negotiating and administering these
agreements can be time consuming, and there may be a limit on
how many roaming agreements a visiting carrier may choose to
support. As a result, emerging or smaller carriers can have difficulty
offering extensive GSM roaming coverage.

The larger carrier or broker provides the smaller carrier with


a second range of subscriber IMSIs. The larger carrier’s IMSI (the
second) is stored in the subscribers mobile phone along with the
original IMSI that is provided by the smaller carrier. When the
subscriber roams into another network, the larger carrier’s IMSI is
activated because the smeller’s IMSI is not recognized. This second
IMSI now identifies the roaming customer as the larger carrier’s
subscriber. This results in the IMSI query being sent to the GSM
Signaling platform (located in the larger carrier’s network) where it
is translated (mapped) to the smaller carrier’s IMSI, then sent to be
validated by the small

Carrier’s HLR. The translation application is referred to as Dual


International Mobile Subscriber Identity (DIMSI) Mapping.

The GSM Signaling Platform enables a larger GSM carrier to


offer roaming capabilities to smaller carriers or divisions within their
own company by acting as a broker. The broker carrier or parent
company utilizes the GSM Signaling Platform in conjunction with

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their existing roaming agreements and network infrastructure and
then establishes a billing mechanism (transaction or usage-based)
to charge the smaller carrier-customer, if necessary.

The GSM Signaling Platform provides the critical interface to


carrier SS7 networks to ensure secure validation message
processing

Cellular is one of the fastest growing and most demanding


telecommunications applications. And the continuous advancement
in this technology has provided many options to a consumer. .

During the 80s, when the cellular system was introduced,


each nation had its own system. As a result, a couple of problems
arose. Firstly, the equipment was limited to operate only within the
boundaries of a country and secondly, the market for mobile
equipment was also limited. In order to overcome these problems,
the conference of European Posts and Telecommunications (CEPT)
formed the Group Special Mobile (GSM) to create a common
European mobile telephone standard.

The GSM later came to be known as Global Service for


Mobile communications (GSM).At the end of 1997, GSM was made
available in more than 100 countries. Today it has become the
global standard in Europe and Asia.

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Basic Block Diagram of G

Local Exchange

BTS BSC MSC

Network Management

BTS - Base Tran receive station

MSC - Mobile switch center

HLR - Home location registers

VLR - Visitor location registers

EIR -Equipment identity registers

BSC -Base station Controller

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Inter-Exchange
Junction
Subscriber
Line
)

BSC BTS

MS

Telephone
Mobile Switching
Exchange
Centre (MSC)

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COMMUNICATION MOBILE

G.S.M. operates in 900-MHz – 1800MHz. If one has to connect


to the specific service provider in different countries, GSM-users
simply need to switch Subscriber Identification Module (SIM) cards.
As per GSM technology, a mobile unit logs on to the network after
being switched on. The mobile unit tries to contact a nearby BTS,
which then transmits all the frequencies of the neighboring BTS’ to
the mobile unit, which identifies the frequency on which the
reception is the best and passes on the information to the BTS.

The BTS then transmits the information to the BSC which has
the deciding power as to which BTS should the mobile unit be
assigned.

Differences between GSM & CDMA

While TDMA and FDMA are the types of multiplexing in GSM,


CDMA works on spread spectrum. However the bandwidth available
is same for both the technologies, which is 800, 1800 and 1900
MHz.

While GSM cannot add more than a fixed number of


subscribers in a cell, the capacity of the system is not rigid in CDMA.
The biggest advantage with GSM is its widespread network in

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Europe and Asia, whereas CDMA is predominant in US and South
Korea. The user of GSM is enabled an easy international roaming. As
far as SMS, gaming and internet is concerned, both GSM and CDMA
score an equal point.

GSM has already set a standard in India. Being a patented


technology, all CDMA equipments and handsets require a royalty to
be paid

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W.L.L.
(WIRELESS IN LOCAL LOOP)

Why Digital Wireless Communication?


• Increased Spectrum Utilization.
• Robust Radio Access.
• Matured Digital Signal Processing.
• High Integration on VLSI.
• High reliability and precision.
• Compatibility with Data Communication and Digital Networking.
• Reduced Cell Equipment Size and Cost.

Introduction to WLL
Definition:
A local telephone system without wire line connected. Fixed
radio communication system.

What is WLL?
• WLL is sometimes called fixed cellular.
• WLL system can be treated as wire line loop without wire line
connected.
• WLL is normally used for Rural or unpopulated.
• WLL can be quick solutions for developing telephones infrastructure.

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Local Exchange

BTS BSC BTS

Mobile BTS

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF WLL

BSC- Base station controller

BTS- Base Tran receive station

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19
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Why to use WLL?
• Eliminates many problems and reduces cost inherent to wire line
loop system in certain areas.
• Decreases the time to deploy a network.
• Mobility and Flexibility

Advantages of WLL:
• Advantage over wire line:
• Ease of installation and deployment and lower cost.
• Ease of operation, administration and maintenance.
• Advantage over mobile:
• Bigger coverage area.
• Improved signal and reduced interference.
• Higher capacity.
• Fixed to Fixed propagation.
• Frequency reuse reduced.
WLL Attributes:
• Range can be 62 Km (best propagation condition)
• Based on free space loss.
• Based on high gain antenna.
• Based on spread spectrum waveform.
• The capacity is higher than that of mobile radio.

Services:
• Voice.
• Data services.
• Customer services.
• Mobility.

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Subsystems of WLL
• Base Station Controller (B.S.C.)
It is situated between the P.S.T.N.-L.E. & B.T.S. It has BTS
status management function .Its major functions are:
• Call processing
• transport service management
• voice coding
• optimal voice selection
• provision of supplementary services
• message distribution function
• call resource management
• P.S.T.N. interface
• operation and maintenance function

Specifications of B.S.C.
• No. of subscribers:-9950
• No. of channels: - 1024
• Ports to B.T.S. 48 E1 to P.S.T.N. 32E1
• Power supply -48V D.C.
• Normal working temperature:-25 C
• Interface between B.S.C. and P.S.T.N. is given
by the
V5.2 Protocol. It consists of three layers:-
• Physical Layer
• Data Link Layer
• Network Layer

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• Base Transceiver Station (B.T.S.)
It interfaces with the subscriber side in the wireless mode and
the B.S.C. via E1. It carries out the channel management & power
control function between the wireless interface sections. Functions
provided by the B.T.S. are:-
• Call processing function
• Wireless resource management function
• Software downloading
• Operation & maintenance function
• Fault management
• Testing function
• Overload control function
• Statistics & management function
Specifications of B.T.S. are:-
• Operation Band 1800 MHz-1900 MHz
• Voltage supply input 48V but the voltage is step down
to 24V by a D.C. - D.C. Converter.
• It has +-10 % overloading capacity
• Connections in B.T.S. are 4000 +-10% (urban)
1000 +-10% (rural)

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• Base Station Manager (B.S.M.)
It is the heart of the W.L.L. system. Database is managed here.
Functions performed by the B.S.M. are:-
• Configuration management
• Performance management
• Fault management
• Security management
• Software downloading
• Operator interface function

Specifications of B.S.M. are:-


• Product Name: - SUN ULTRA – 5
• CPU – 270MHz Freq ULTRA SPARC – 3
• Main memory: - 256 MB
• GUI: - X-Win Motif 2.x
• Operating System: - Solaris V2.x
• Hard Disk: - 4.2 GB

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C.D.M.A.
CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS

Code Division Multiple Access is a system that enables


many users to share the same frequency band at the same time.
CDMA is a spread spectrum technology whereby multiple
users share the same time and frequency allocation in a given band.
Each speech signal is modulated (spread) across an entire band. The
respective receiver demodulates and interprets the signal using
relevant code that is embedded in the signal. The final signal contains
only the relevant conversation.
The CDMA based mobile technology was introduced in
India to provide WLL services as the GSM was the choice for full
mobility. CDMA based WLL operators were given license of operation
as fixed line operators. As CDMA can very well connect large
geographical area, WLL operators were given the rights to provide
"limited mobility" whereby a WLL operator could allow network
coverage to the boundary of a Short Distance Charging Area (SDCA).

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Some concepts in CDMA

• Spread Spectrum Modulation:


Narrow band information is transmitted over a wide band
RF channel

• Frequency Reuse:
Multiple users (in adjacent cells) operate on the same
frequency

• Code Division Access:


Each user and base station is associated with a unique
code rather than a frequency or time slot

• Coherent Reception:
Mobile units coherently combine multipath components
and signals from multiple base stations

• Dynamic Power Control:


Forward and reverse link transmit power is controlled to
the minimum require to reduce interference and achieve a
given capacity

• Variable Rate Speech Encoding:


Voice is encoded at a slower rates based on when the
user is not speaking in order to minimize transmitted
power and system interference

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Advantages of CDMA

• Frequency Re-use
 Inherent N=1 frequency reuse pattern results in
achieving high capacity

• Coherent Signal Reception


 Ability to coherently combine signals from
multiple
sources.
 Employs a RAKE receiver, which combines
signals
arriving at a given location, with different time
delays,
thus taking advantage of multipath.
 Improves cell boundary performance and
minimized dropped calls.

• User Privacy
 Spread spectrum modulation technique distributes
the user information over an RF bandwidth, much
larger than the information bandwidth. Resulting
power spectral density of the transmitted signal
resembles thermal noise, making the signal very
difficult to be detected by simple receivers
 A unique address code is required to recover user
information.

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POWER ROOM

Introduction
Power room is main heart of Exchange. It is designed to
deliver continuous and filtered power supply for electronic switching
type telephone exchange (E-10-B).
In power room, there are two sections,
• Generator room
• Battery room
In battery room there are 24 cells, each cell provide 2volts.
From these cells we get 48volts. All cells are connected in series.
Here positive terminal is grounded so we get -48volts. The
battery is connected to SMPS (switch mode power supply) and
two generator section in parallel. Capacity of battery set is 1500
Amp/Hour. In full load each cell provide 2volt and in charging
time there are 2.35 volt. Battery charging is done by converter
3phase 440V circuit of SMPS module & input SMPS module in 3 Phase A.C.
supplies.

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF POWER PLANT

EXCHANGE

SMPS O/P
BATTERY
2000AMP. CABINET
TO TELEPHONE LINE
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FUTURE PROSPECTS

BSNL's future plan include a fast expansion program of


increasing the present 34 million lines to twice that number by 2005
and some 120 million lines by 2010.
The shift in demand from voice to data domination, and from
wire line to wireless, has revolutionized the very nature of the
network. BSNL has already set in place several measures that
should enable it to evolve into a fully integrated multi-operator by
2005 and its incumbent status, size, infrastructure and human
resource should certainly, give it a distinct advantage.
Consolidation of the network and maintaining high quality of
service comparable to International standards is the key aim of the
Growth Plan.

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

SCOPE:

• I t is biggest and fund rich organization.


• Optical fiber are spread up to 3 lakhs Kms.
• About 4 lakh employees are working in this
Organization.

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• Growth rate is 40%.

LIMITATIONS:

• It is government sector organization so it cannot make its own


decision.
• It has to maintain a vast rural network on subsidies
Rates which is loss making organization.
• Average age of the employees is very high.
• It has to face competition with all its area from
Private organization

Objective of the plan are:


• The telephone connection shall be provided on demand and it
shall be sustained.
• The Network shall be made fully digital. All the technologically
obsolete analog exchanges will be replaced with digital exchanges.
• To provide digital transmission links up to all SDCA’s.
• Digital connectivity shall be made available to all the
exchanges by 2007.
• Extensive use of Optical fiber System in the local, Junction and
long distance network so as to make available sufficient bandwidth
for the spread of Internet and Information technology.
• ISDN services shall be extended to all the district
headquarters, subject to demand.
• To provide Intelligent Network Services, progressively all over
the country (major cities have already been covered).
• To set up Internet Nodes progressively up to District
headquarters level.
• Upgrading existing STD/ISD PCOs to full fledged Public Tele-
Info Centers (PTIC) for supporting Multi media capability and
Internet Access.
• Replacement of life expired, analogue coaxial and radio
systems.
• Introduction of Wireless technology (Supporting Internet
Access) and optical fiber technology in subscriber loop.
• Introduction of latest telecom services like National directory
enquiry, computerization etc.

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• Cellular Mobile Service 'Cell One' of BSNL was launched on
19th October 2002. The scheme will cover 4 million customers in
two phases. Phase-I will cover about 1.5 million customers covering
about 1000 cities during 2002-03, which will be expanded to 4
million in phase-II.

Projects Recently Implemented or Under


Development

• National Internet Backbone of BSNL


• Voice over IP
• Broadband Services - ADSL & High Speed Internet
• Managed Leased Line Network (MLLN)
• Access Network - LMDS, DLC‘s, RLC etc.
• Internet Exchange Points - IXP & Internet Data Centers
(IDC)
• E-Commerce

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THANK YOU

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