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Table of Contents

STATISTICAL

ANALYSIS........................................................................................................................................................

... 2

HISTOGRAM OPERATIONS -

STRETCHING....................................................................................................................... 2

HISTOGRAM OPERATIONS -

MAPPING............................................................................................................................. 3

NOISES..............................................................................................................................................................

............................... 3

FILTERS...........................................................................................................................................................

................................ 3

EDGE

DETECTORS:..................................................................................................................................................

.................... 4

GRADIENT...................................................................................................................................................

............................... 4

Roberts:.....................................................................................................................................................

............................. 4

Sobel.........................................................................................................................................................

.............................. 4

Prewitt.......................................................................................................................................................

............................. 5

Laplacian..................................................................................................................................................

............................. 6

Canny........................................................................................................................................................

.............................. 8

IMAGE PREPROCESSING ALGORITHM

PHASES:........................................................................................................... 10

EXAMPLES OF RAFAEL

IMAGES:......................................................................................................................................... 11

BULLET:.......................................................................................................................................................

.............................. 11

PARTICLES:.................................................................................................................................................

............................. 12

DROPS:.........................................................................................................................................................

.............................. 13

There are 3 basic operation that are used as pre-processing:

Statistical analysis

Histogram operations - stretching

If we take an image and count up how many pixels go into each gray level,

putting each one in a separate bin, we have a histogram. In mathematical

terms, the histogram is given by applying the relation

to it, where s is the level for every pixel value r in the original image, T( ) is

the transform function, n sub j is the number of times this level appears in

the image, and n is the total number of pixels in the image. If we plot each of

these bins, we have the graph of the histogram of beach.tiff. Another way to

get the histogram is to use the C code, as following:

char image[rows][cols];

int histogram[256];

int row, col, i;

histogram[j]=0;

for (row = 0; row < rows; row++)

for(col = 0; col < cols; col++)

histogram[(int) image[row][col]++;

Really simple, isn't it? As you can see by the following plot, the picture is

low contrast, as well as being a very dark image.

Now, since this plot gives an estimate of the probability of occurrence of a

certain gray level, we can stretch out the probability and remap the values

for all the pixels in the image to these new values. Essentially, what we are

doing is taking the bins and stretching them out over the entire value range.

Doing this, we get the following graph of the histogram of beach_str.tiff.

Histogram operations - mapping

The histogram of pixel intensities in an image of a natural scene that has

been linearly quantized is usually highly skewed toward darker levels. Detail

is often imperceptible in the darker regions when such an image is viewed

on a conventional display with only 8-bit pixels. Histogram modification can

alleviate this problem by rescaling the original image so that the histogram

of pixel intensities follows some preferred form.

Histogram equalization flattens the output histogram, and may often be

appropriate for astronomical images. Exponential and hyperbolic output

histograms are also sometimes used, so that a final histogram "equalization"

is performed (approximately) by the quasi-logarithmic response of the user's

retina

Noises

1) Salt & paper

2) Gaussian

3) Place dependant intensity shift

4) Speckles

Filters

5) Median

6) Edge-preserving smooth

7) Erode

8) Dilate

9) Intensity normalization

Edge detectors:

Gradient

Roberts:

gradient magnitude:

Using convolution masks, this becomes:

wh

ere Gx and Gy are calculated using the following masks:

As with the previous 2 x 2 gradient operator, the differences are

computed at the interpolated point [i + 1/2, j + 1/2]. The Roberts

operator is an approximation to the continuous gradient at this

interpolated point and not at the point [i, j] as might be expected.

Sobel

point between pixels is to use a 3 x 3 neighborhood for the gradient

calculations. Consider the arrangement of pixels about the pixel [i, j]

shown in the Figure 5.2.2.1 The Sobel operator is the magnitude of

the gradient computed by:

where the partial derivatives are computed by:

with the constant c = 2.

usin g convolution masks:

Note that this operator places an emphasis on pixels that are closer

to the center of the mask. The Sobel operator is one of the most

commonly used edge detectors.

Figure 5.2.2.1: The labeling of neighborhood pixels used to explain

the Sobel and Prewitt operators

Prewitt

The Prewitt operator uses the same equations as the Sobel operator,

except that the constant c = 1. Therefore:

Note that, unlike the Sobel operator, this operator does not place any

emphasis on pixels that are closer to the center of the masks.

Laplacian

The edge points of an image can be detected by finding the zero

crossings of the second derivative of the image intensity. The idea is

illustrated for a 1D signal in Figure 5.3.1. However, calculating

2nd derivative is very sensitive to noise. This noise should be filtered

out before edge detection. To achieve this, “Laplacian of Gaussian” is

used. This method combines Gaussian filtering with the Laplacian for

edge detection.

Figure 5.3.1 1st and 2nd derivative of an edge illustrated in one dimension.

The first graph represents an edge in 1D.

In Laplacian of Gaussian edge detection there are mainly three steps:

· Filtering,

· Enhancement,

· and detection.

Gaussian filter is used for smoothing and the second derivative of

which is used for the enhancement step. The detection criterion is the

presence of a zero crossing in the second derivative with the

corresponding large peak in the first derivative.

In this approach, firstly noise is reduced by convoluting the image

with a Gaussian filter. Isolated noise points and small structures are

filtered out. With smoothing; however; edges are spread. Those

pixels, that have locally maximum gradient, are considered as edges

by the edge detector in which zero crossings of the second derivative

are used. To avoid detection of insignificant edges, only the zero

crossings whose corresponding first derivative is above some

threshold, are selected as edge point. The edge direction is obtained

using the direction in which zero crossing occurs.

The output of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) operator; h(x,y); is

obtained by the convolution operation:

where

In the LoG there are two methods which are mathematically

equivalent:

· Convolve the image with a gaussian smoothing filter and compute

the Laplacian of the result,

· Convolve the image with the linear filter that is the Laplacian of the

Gaussian filter.

This is also the case in the LoG. Smoothing (filtering) is performed

with a Gaussian filter, enhancement is done by transforming edges

into zero crossings and detection is done by detecting the zero

crossings.

Canny

The Canny Edge Detection Algorithm has the following steps:

· Smooth the image with a Gaussian filter,

· Compute the gradient magnitude and orientation using finite-

difference approximations for the partial derivatives,

· Apply nonmaxima suppression to the gradient magnitude,

· Use the double thresholding algorithm to detect and link edges.

Canny edge detector approximates the operator that optimizes the

product of signal-to-noise ratio and localization. It is generally the first

derivative of a Gaussian.

Smoothing:

Let denote th e image; be a Gaussian smoothing filter

where is the spread of the Gaussian and controls the degree of

smoothing. The result of convolution of with gives an

array of smoothed data as:

Gradient Calculation:

Firstly, the gradient of the smoothed array is used to produce

the x and y partial derivatives and respectively as:

The x and y partial derivatives are computed with averaging the finite

differences over the 2x2 square. From the standard formulas for

rectangular-to-polar conversion, the magnitude and orientation of the

gradient can be computed as:

Here the arctan(x,y) function takes two arguments and generates an

angle.

Nonmaxima Suppression:

Given the being the magnitude image array one can apply the

thresholding operation in the gradient-based method and end up with

ridges of edge pixel. But canny has a more sophisticated approach to

the problem. In this approach an edge point is defined to be a point

whose strength is locally maximum in the direction of the gradient.

This is a stronger constraint to satisfy and is used to thin the ridges

found by thresholding. This process, which results in one pixel wide

ridges, is called “Nonmaxima Suppression”.

After nonmaxima suppression one ends up with an image which is

zero everywhere except the local maxima points. At the local maxima

points the value of is preserved.

Thresholding:

In spite of the smoothing performed as the first step in edge

detection, the nonmaxima suppressed magnitude imagewill contain

many false edge fragments caused by noise and fine texture. The

contrast of the false edge fragments is small.

These false edge fragments in the nonmaxima-suppressed gradient

magnitude should be reduced. One typical procedure is to apply a

threshold to . All values below the threshold are set to zero. After the

application of threshold to the nonmaxima-suppressed magnitude, an

array E(i,j) containing the edges detected in the image is obtained.

However; in this method applying the proper threshold value is

difficult and involves trial and error. Because of this difficulty, in the

array E(i,j) there may still be some false edges if the threshold is too

low or some edges may be missing if the threshold is too high. A

more effective thresholding scheme uses two thresholds.

To overcome the problem, two threshold values, and are applied

to . Here . With these threshold values, two thresholded

edge images and are produced. The image has gaps

in the contours but contains fewer false edges. With the double

thresholding algorithm the edges in are linked into contours. When

it reaches the end of a contour, algorithm looks in at the locations

of the 8-neighbours for edges that can be linked to the contour. This

algorithm continues until the gap has been bridged to an edge in .

The algorithm performs edge linking as a by-product of thresholding

and resolves some of the problems with choosing a threshold.

median-filter.

2. In case of for Gausian noise, if exist apply the Edge-

preserving smooth (mean filter).

3. In case of for speckles, if exists apply a combination of Erode

Delate and Median filters.

4. Assuming that the level of noise in the image is significantly

reduced, test if the input image intensity histogram bounded

above and below within a partial range of the complete 255 gray

level space. If so apply histogram stretching on 10% threshold

from the maximum peak, on the initial gray-level range (light -

weighted stretching) - see example.

5. Test if the result image has more contours pixels then the

previous one. If so it's considered "better". Go to step 1 until the

result image is not better then the original one.

6. According to the nature of the image apply the proper edge

detector.

Bullet:

(1) Is the original image, (2) is the same image after edge-preserving smoothing filter, (3) is the previous

image after histogram adjustments.

Particles:

1 2 3

(1) Is the original image, (2) is the same image under histogram adjustments, (3) is the previous image after

median filter.(4) is the previous image after a gradient edge detector

Drops:

Is the original image, (2) is the same image under histogram adjustments, (3) is the previous image after

median filter.(4) is the previous image after a second histogram adjustments.

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