1.Introduction 2.Security and authentication 3.Methods of verification a.Psychological verification i. Finger Print. ii. Hand Print. iii. Face Measurement. iv. Retinal Scanning. v. DNA Analysis. b.Behavioral verification i. Typing. ii. Signature. iii. Voice. 4.Identification. 5.Verification. 6.Advantages 7.Limitations 8.Conclusion. 9.References



Biometrics is an advanced technology for superb security and authentication .The very term "biometric” it represent that "bio" means related to the biological study and "metric " means something, which is related to measurement. In network environment security is a crucial factor. Provide security to pages in the network is to difficulty. Password is not a good measurement for security. Good security mechanism is necessary on the Internet. Security in different levels applies to various documents. Security is depends how security assign to documents. Security depends on following categories. 1. 2. 3. 4. Confidential Secret Non-secret Public

Confidential pages over the network provide full security. No way to tamper data in the page by third party. In this case biometrics are more useful and no way to disturb the page contents. First of all store all data about biometrics in database after that tally with this data. If tally satisfies with backend then provide access to the user. Collecting information is too difficult and store in database also need more space. There are two security methodologies in Biometrics, they are 1. Token-based security: It relies on the user’s special item -token like card-id. 2. Secret based security: It relies on an individual secret id number like password.

Neither of the two can accurately determine whether the password that posses a token nor knows some secret information of the individual it represents. Tokens can be stolen and information can be guessed or fraudulently obtained.Biometric is a technology where the password for entry is you, which identifies your psychological and behavioral characteristics.

Security and Authentication
Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) supports a limited form of security for the Microsoft® Windows® 98 platform that involves validating a user's logon for the local machine and for remote access. A validated user is granted access to the entire Common Information Model (CIM) schema. WBEM does not secure system resources, such as individual classes, instances, and namespaces. Security is limited because Windows 98 is not a secure operating system and does not support file system or registry security. All security-related information is represented by instances of WBEM system classes located in the Root\Security namespace. These classes and instances can only appear in the Root\Security namespace and must remain there permanently. The WBEM Administrator application can be used to set permissions for WBEM users. It is similar to the User Manager application supplied with Microsoft® Windows NT®. In WBEM, all security accounts are referred to as subjects. There are two types of subjects: user and group. Users are represented by instances of the NTLMUser system class, which describes individual users. Groups are represented by instances of the NTLMGroup system class, which describes multiple users. Both the NTLMUser and NTLMGroup classes derive indirectly from the subject system class, an abstract class that is not intended to be used for instantiation. More directly, NTLMUser derives from the generic User class and NTLMGroup derives from the generic Group class. Permissions: Microsoft SQL Server uses permissions to enforce database security. The SQL Server permissions system specifies which users are authorized to use which Transact-SQL statements, views, and stored procedures. The

ability to assign permissions is determined by each user's status (as SA, database owner, or database object owner). Permissions are set on database users or groups, not on login IDs. Permission Hierarchy: SQL Server's permissions system recognizes four types of users: the SA, database owners, database object owners, and other users of the database. The different types of users exist in a hierarchy (explained in the following sections and illustrated below).

System Administrator Database owners Database object owners Database users

Only the SA and database owners can grant statement permissions to other users.

Different Security Mechanisms:
To help you understand the information presented in this chapter, we begin by defining some security-related terms. This brief list of definitions is not intended to serve as a comprehensive SQL Server glossary. It is provided as a quick reference to help you understand some of the security elements discussed throughout this chapter. You may find it useful to refer back to this list of security definitions as you read through this chapter and through Chapter 9, "Managing Security." alias An alias is a database username that is shared by several login IDs. A database alias allows you to treat more than one person as the same user inside a database, giving all of them the same permissions. Any username in a database can also serve as an alias. Aliases are often used so that several users can assume the role of

database owner.

Database object owner Database objects are tables, indexes, views, defaults, triggers, rules, and procedures. The user who creates a database object is the database object owner and is automatically granted all permissions on it. The database object owner can grant permission to other users to use that object. Database object ownership cannot be transferred. database owner The database owner (DBO) is the creator of a database. There is only one DBO. The DBO has full privileges inside the database that he or she owns, and determines the access and capabilities provided to other users. In his or her own database, the user is recognized as DBO; in other databases, the database owner is known by his or her database username. DBO status can be reassigned to a different user. Only one login ID can be DBO, although other login IDs can be aliased to DBO. domain In Windows NT security, a domain is a collection of computers that are grouped for viewing and administrative purposes, and that share a common security database. group In SQL Server, a database group is a collection of database users. The users receive the database permissions granted to the group. Using groups simplifies management of a large number of database users, because groups provide a convenient way to grant and revoke permissions to more than one user at the same time. In Windows NT, a group is a collection of Windows NT users. The users received the Windows NT rights and permissions granted to the group. Groups provide a convenient way to manage the capabilities of a large number of users with similar needs, within the security scope of a domain or a computer. integrated security Integrated security allows a SQL Server to use Windows NT authentication mechanisms to validate logins for all connections. Only

trusted (multi-protocol or named pipes) connections are allowed. login ID A login ID is a name by which a user is known to SQL Server. Login IDs are also referred to as logins. To log in to a SQL Server that is running standard security, a user must provide a valid login ID and password. login security mode The login security mode determines the manner in which a SQL Server validates a login request. There are three types of login security: integrated, standard, and mixed. mixed security Mixed security allows login requests to be validated using either integrated or standard security. Trusted connections (as used by integrated security) and nontrusted connections (as used by standard security) can be established. object permissions Object permissions regulate the use of certain statements on certain database objects. They are granted and revoked by the owner of the object. permissions Microsoft SQL Server uses permissions to enforce database security. The SQL Server permissions system specifies which users are authorized to use which Transact-SQL statements, views, and stored procedures. The ability to assign permissions is determined by each user's status (as SA, database owner, or database object owner). There are two types: object permissions and statement permissions. standard security Standard security uses SQL Server's own login validation process for all connections. To log in to a SQL Server, each user must provide a valid login ID and password.



statement permissions Statement permissions provide the privilege to issue certain TransactSQL statements. Statement permissions are not object-specific. They can be granted only by the SA or the database owner. Statement permissions apply to these statements: CREATE DATABASE, CREATE DEFAULT, CREATE PROCEDURE, CREATE RULE, CREATE TABLE, CREATE VIEW, DUMP DATABASE, and DUMP TRANSACTION. Statement permissions are also called command permissions. system administrator The system administrator (SA) is the person responsible for the administrative and operational functions that are independent of any particular application, and is likely to be a person with a comprehensive overview of SQL Server and all its applications. Administering SQL Server typically includes such tasks as installing SQL Server; configuring servers and clients; managing and monitoring the use of disk space, memory, and connections; creating devices and databases; authorizing SQL Server users and granting them permissions; transferring data in and out of SQL Server databases; backing up and restoring databases; implementing and maintaining replication; scheduling unattended operations; monitoring and tuning SQL Server performance; and diagnosing system problems. The system administrator may also advise application designers about the data that already exists on SQL Server, make recommendations about standardizing data definitions across applications, and so on. The system administrator operates outside the protection system, which means that SQL Server does no permission checking for the system administrator. The system administrator is also treated as the owner of whatever database he or she is using. Anyone who knows the SA password can log in and act as system administrator (unless the server is running in Integrated login security mode).



trusted connections Integrated security requires network protocols that support authenticated connections between clients and servers. These are referred to as trusted connections. The multi-protocol and named pipe protocols provide trusted connections. Note that nontrusted connections (connections over other network protocols that do not support authenticated connections) must be handled by using SQL Server standard security. username In SQL Server, a database username is a name assigned to a login ID for the purpose of allowing a user to have access to a database. The abilities a user has within a database depend on the permissions granted to the username (and to any groups the username is a member of). In Windows NT, a username is the name by which the user is known to the domain, or to an individual Windows NT computer. A user logs on to a domain or computer by providing a valid username and password. The abilities of the user depend on the Windows NT rights and permissions granted to that username and to any Windows NT groups the username is a member of.



Method of Verification
1.PSYCHOLOGICAL VERIFICATION Psychological Verification involves in the verification of the organs of the human being, which will have unique identification and does not match with others. There are five types of verifications. These are: I. II. III. IV. V.

Fingerprint. Handprint. Face measurement. Retinal scans. DNA analysis. Finger print: It involves the user placing his finger over a glassplate, which resides over a high-resolution camera, which uses optical or electromagnetic means to take its snapshot. The software analysis your finger for pattern such as loops, worls and arches.

Principles of fingerprint biometrics: Human fingerprints are unique to each person and can be regarded as a sort of signature, certifying the person's identity. Because no two fingerprints are exactly alike, the process of identifying a fingerprint involves comparing the

ridges and impressions on one fingerprint to those of another. A fingerprint is made of a a number of ridges and valleys on the surface of the finger. Ridges are the upper skin layer segments of the finger and valleys are the lower segments. The ridges form so-called minutia points: ridge endings (where a ridge end) and ridge bifurcations (where a ridge splits in two). Many types of minutiae exist, including dots (very small ridges), islands (ridges slightly longer than dots, occupying a middle space between two temporarily divergent ridges), ponds or lakes (empty spaces between two temporarily divergent ridges), spurs (a notch protruding from a ridge), bridges (small ridges joining two longer adjacent ridges), and crossovers (two ridges which cross each other). The uniqueness of a fingerprint can be determined by the pattern of ridges and furrows as well as the minutiae points. There are five basic fingerprint patterns: arch, tented arch, left loop, right loop and whorl. Loops make up 60% of all fingerprints, whorls account for 30%, and arches for 10%. Fingerprints are usually considered to be unique, with no two fingers having the exact same dermal ridge characteristics. system working: The main technologies used to capture the fingerprint image with sufficient detail are optical, silicon, and ultrasound. There are two main algorithm families to recognize fingerprints:


Minutia matching compares specific details within the fingerprint ridges. At registration (also called enrollment), the minutia points are located, together with their relative positions to each other and their directions. At the matching stage, the fingerprint image is processed to extract its minutia points, which are then compared with the registered template.

2. Pattern matching compares the overall characteristics of the
fingerprints, not only individual points. Fingerprint characteristics can include sub-areas of certain interest including ridge thickness,

curvature, or density. During enrollment, small sections of the fingerprint and their relative distances are extracted from the fingerprint. Areas of interest are the area around a minutia point, areas with low curvature radius, and areas with unusual combinations of ridges.

Advantages: a. This technology is neither too expensive nor does it require extensive user training. b. It also simple to implement. c. Finger print system has FAR<0.5% d. It is oldest known technique that is still used in criminal records and forensic. Imagine the number if unique finger prints that might need to be stored and then accessed in a database. This necessities the use of easier indexing and matching.In US super market, customers give their credit card information and other personal details to store and tie it with their fingerprint data. The next time, he can pay for purchases without a fingerprint. Disadvantages: 1.Any injures of fingers effect more. II. Hand print: It compares a 3D image of the users hand to that present in the system

database. It is somewhat similar to finger print verification. Currently, hand geometry is employed at over 8,000 locations, including the Colombian legislature, San Francisco international airport, day care centers, welfare agencies, hospitals and immigration facilities. The advantages of a palm print are similar to the benefits of a fingerprint in terms of reliability, although palm print readers take up more space. The most successful device, the handkey, looks at both the top and side views of the hand using a built-in video camera and compression algorithms. Devices that look at other hand features are also under development by several companies, including biomet partners, palmetrics, and btg


a. Accuracy is better than fingerprint. b. Cheap and easy to deploy. Disadvantage: a. Complex in usage. b. Implementation is expensive. c. Any damages to hand effect more. III. Face measurement: Measuring this is as simple as taking a picture and analyzing the image from a security video capture. This technique enables the computer to use your face as your password and matching these to an existing database. it's referring to the most obvious human identifier which is - the face. The face is the most visible part of human anatomy and serves as the first distinguishing factor of a human being. It helps a person to distinguish an individual from the other. Each individual has his own uniqueness and this could be one of the most transparent and unique feature of a human being. A practical application of knowledge is then used together with this process of identifying individuals. Related systems are developed as application of the face recognition concept. How does these system work? Developers came up with the design that is capable of extracting and picking up faces from the crowd and have it compared to an image source - database. The software has the ability to know how the basic human face looks like in order for it to work accordingly. Thus, developers designed these programs (by storing commands) to pinpoint a face and measure its features. There are different methods of facial recognition which involve a series of steps that serve to capturing, analyzing and comparing a face to a database of stored images. Some related software was designed to recognize similarities through pattern recognition. Pattern recognition is often used under the names of diagnosis and clarifications. Each of this software varies on how it is designed to work yet the function and concept is still the same that is - identifying on facial landmarks. Because of these, facial recognition is hard to fool since it compares specific proportions and angles of the defined facial features.



Advantage: a. Most continents at public places. b. Less expensive. Disadvantage: a. Inaccurate is affected by changes in lighting, age, and movement, glass. b. Face creams also effect the measurements. IV. Retinal scans: It involves imaging of the blood vessels in the retina of the eye when infrared light of a certain frequency and wavelength is incident upon it.this energy is absorbed by the blood vessels is different in different individuals. The retinal iris patterns are unique to individuals than any biometric yet devised.

The retina is an internal part of the eye located at the back of the eye and is get of thin nerve which sense the light coming through a camera, pupil, eye lenses. The pattern of blood vessels which makeup retina are unique to each individual i.e., <1.2 inch. Retina scans require that the person removes their glasses, place their eye close to the scanner, stare at a specific point, and remain still, and focus on a specified location for approximately 10 to 15 seconds while the scan is completed. A retinal scan involves the use of a low-intensity coherent light source, which is projected onto the retina to illuminate the blood vessels which are then photographed and analysed. A coupler is used to read the blood vessel patterns. A retina scan cannot be faked as it is currently impossible to forge a human retina. Furthermore, the retina of a deceased person decays too rapidly to be used to deceive a retinal scan. A retinal scan has an error rate of 1 in 10,000,000, compared to fingerprint identification error being sometimes as high as 1 in 500


Advantage: a. Accurate with no false match in 2 million people. b. It s sophisticated process. Disadvantages: c. Expensive, difficult to deploy and use. d. Focus of light effect measurements. V. DNA Analysis: It involves in checking the DNA pattern of a human used when physical characteristics are unrecognizable. It is used to identify people, who are died, to find out the relationship like identifying Childs natural parents. This is one Biometric that is judicially accepted. No human have identified DNA patterns except in twins. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes containing their DNA blueprint. One member of each chromosomal pair comes from their mother, the other comes from their father. Every cell in a human body contains a copy of this DNA. The large majority of DNA does not differ from person to person, but 0.10 percent of a person's entire genome would be unique to each indiviual. This represents 3 million base pairs of DNA. Genes make up 5 percent of the human genome. The other 95 percent are non-coding sequences, (which used to be called junk DNA). In non-coding regions there are identical repeat sequences of DNA, which can be repeated anywhere from one to 30 times in a row. These regions are called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs). The number of tandem repeats at specific places (called loci) on chromosomes varies between individuals. For any given VNTR loci in an individual's DNA, there will be a certain number of repeats. The higher number of loci are analysed, the smaller the probability to find two unrelated individuals with the same DNA profile. DNA profiling determines the number of VNTR repeats at a number of distinctive loci, and use it to create an individual's DNA profile. The main steps to create a DNA profile are: isolate the DNA (from a sample such as blood, saliva, hair, semen, or tissue), cut the DNA up into shorter fragments containing known VNTR areas, sort the DNA fragments by size, and

compare the DNA fragments in different samples.

Advantages: a. DNA samples can be collected from toothbrush, clothes. Disadvantages: e. DNA testing takes longer time than other methods. f. Twins have same DNA. g. Researchers produce same DNA. 2.BEHAVOURAL VERIFICATION This involves in oral thing done by the individual. There are 3 types of behavioral verifications, 1. Typing 2. Signature 3. Voice 1. Typing: Some systems measure things you do in addition to the things you are, you will notice that your typing has a certain pattern. Some letters follow others in quick succession, while others take longer. Software called Bio password is available for less than $100.It

integrates with Windows 2000.Windows NT.Login to provide this authentication without the need for any additional software. This measure is a behavioral characteristic of a person Each user has a unique way of using the keyboard. For example, each user types a character in a word at a typical speed. These characteristics, when applied to password detection, lead to an enhanced password protection. The use of typing biometrics to password protection offers the following benefits. • A password, which is known to an impostor, doesn’t necessarily imply entry into the system.
• •

A user’s typing biometrics cannot be stolen, lost or rented.

The methodology is software and not hardware driven. Therefore the possibility of integration is very high. Using the concept of typing biometrics, CRCS developed a program called 'Keyboard' to identify the correct user through the analysis of his/her keystroke patterns. The program works in 2 modes - the training mode and the checking mode.

. 2. Signature: Some qualities looked into include acceleration rates, direction, and pressure and stroke length. Here mainly concentrate on pressures. This pressures stored in back end for future significations. system working: Biometric signature recognition systems will measure and analyze the physical activity of signing, such as the stroke order, the pressure applied and the speed. Some systems may also compare visual images of signatures, but the core of a signature biometric system is behavioral, i.e. how it is signed rather than visual, i.e. the image of the signature.


Advantages: a. While it is easy to copy the image of a signature, it is extremely difficult to mimick the behavior of signing b. Low False Acceptance Rates (FAR) c. People are used to sign documents, so signature recognition systems are not perceived to be invasive

Disadvantages: a. The disadvantage with the technology lies in the randomness or the consistency with which a user makes his signature. If pressures are not tally with stored pressure in the database. 3. Voice: It involves in the recognition of the voice of the individual. The allure of talking to your computer. Everyone who has watched StarTrec (Next Generation) has whitened Picard ordering tea from the computer -- “Computer.. Tea.. Earl Gray.. Hot..”. Imagine drawing in CADD by saying “line from end of.. (pick) to middle of (pick). Sounds a bit too far out in space to be real? Well the “far out” is closer than you might think. IN3 software by Command Corp. Inc allows the AutoCAD users to define 20 voice commands (demo version). Before a command can be recognized, a corresponding voice template must first be created. Voice Recognition Biometrics, continues to pioneer methods of speach verification that can effectively operate without the benefit of an external server or hard drive. The entire software program and templates can be operated and stored in the protected device itself. Optionally, the voice templates used for validation can be loaded at verification time from a smartcard or stored in external RAM due to their small size The greatest benefit of our method is that user security can be self-contained

within a device. Cell Phones, ATM cards, Automobiles and Door Access are just some of the applications that are protected by our Voice Protection Technology.

Advantages: 1) It is inexpensive. 2) It also works through telephone. 3) Some person mimicry with other person voices. Disadvantages: a. One can mimic the voice of the individual. Biometric does not guarantee security. It simply offers ore convenient and reliable means of identification and authentication.

Mixed form Biometrics
Some times use more than one form biometrics. This mixed form provides more security. Here combine more than one type. Even 80% equals with database then access provide to user.



It is a process of recognition and involves taking the biometric data and searching for the match in the database asking it a slow process that it is more prone to errors.

It involves confirming your identity and the biometric systems have to match your data with only one, single record. Depending on the technique used, Biometric have varying levels of accuracy .The system might let you pass in one attempt on Monday and require five on Tuesday. The accuracy of any biometric system is measured in terms of FAR and FRR. FAR (False Acceptance Rates): Where an imposer is accepted as a match. It is a probability of falsely accepting a metric as a match. FRR (False Rejection Rates): Where a legal match is denied. Where the system sails to recognize an

authentic Bio-signature. As FRR increases, the FAR goes down and vice versa. Almost all biometric systems can be adjusted to varying levels of strictness to create a variation in FAR and FRR. For a system to be successful, both have to be with in acceptable low limits.

Biometrics Applications
In today’s technology advancement era, where computers are a necessary nutrient to comply with and serve all the activities, the need for secured, reliable, simple and flexible system has advertently become a challenging concern for the organizations. The technology advancement has been a boon for speedy achievements of activity goals but at the same time the security breaches and transaction frauds are on rise. Thus, the Biometric Technology has taken its pace to prevent any security breaches and fraudulent. This technique measures unique physiological and behavioral features of individuals to identify and verify them as the right person for the crucial information. The physiological features include face, fingerprints, hand geometry, iris, retinal, DNA etc. and behavioral features include signature, study of keystroke, voice etc. Biometric techniques are providing a highly-secured identification and personal verification solutions thereby providing a robust solution to many challenging problems in security. The collection of Biometric characteristics is done using a device called a sensor used to acquire the data needed for verification or identification and to convert the data to a digital code. The quality of the device chosen to capture data has a significant impact on the recognition results. Among various devices, digital cameras can be used for face recognition, ear recognition etc or a telephone for voice recognition etc. A biometric system operates in verification mode or identification mode. In verification mode the system validation of a person identity is performed by

comparing the captured biometric data with the biometric template stored in the database and is mainly used for positive recognition. In the identification mode the system captures the biometric data of an individual and searches the biometric template of all users in the database till a match is not found. METHODS OF BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION: • VERIFICATION: is the process of verifying the user is who they claim to be. • IDENTIFICATION: is the process of identifying the user from a set of known users.

 It provide good security mechanism than all other security methods  It never fails in security constraints.  In public locations such as banks and airports a large number of people transit every day including known criminals. Face recognition systems attached to video surveillance systems are supposed to help catch them.  A professor recently published his techniques for fooling finger print scanners. He found that Optical finger print scanners can be fooled by silicon rubber. However electro magnetic scanners would reject those, because electrical characteristics are different from that of a live finger.

It needs high memory space in the back end.  Collect data for security is difficult  Some times fails the security with right users  Any time data loose in database high effect for security mechanism.  So many equipments are needed for provide this technology.  It highly expensive



Security is not just about putting big locks on the front door; it also involves making sure all the windows are shut. Each one can be individually fooled, but the comparison makes the system more secure as a whole. Biometrics is having its own advantages and disadvantages. It high expensive but it provides good security. Money is not important than security. It is more useful for confidential maters.

http://Biometrics.com http://whitepapers.com http://www.milesresearch.com http://microsoft/biometrics.com IT Magazines


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