Basic Jewish Cuisine

101 Jewish Recipes
INDEX I.Appetizers (1-21) II. Breads (22-25) III. Soups (26-40) IV. Side-Dishes (41-63) V. Vegetarian Entrees (64-74) VI. Entrees (75-82) VII. Passover (83-86) VIII. Desserts (87-101)

I.APPETIZERS - 21 Recipes 1.Hummus YIELD: About four cups, or six-to-eight servings 1 cup dried chickpeas 1 cup tahina 1/2 cup lemon juice, or to taste 2 cloves garlic, or to taste 1 teaspoon salt Freshly ground pepper to taste 1/2 teaspoon ground cumin, or to taste 3 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil 2 tablespoons pine nuts Dash of paprika or sumac 2 tablespoons chopped fresh parsley or cilantro 1. Put the raw chickpeas in a bowl with cold water to cover and soak overnight. 2. Drain and rinse the chickpeas, then place them in a heavy pot with enough cold water to cover. Bring to a boil, then simmer, partially covered, for about an hour or until the chickpeas are soft and the skin begins to separate. Add more water as needed. 3. Drain the chickpeas, reserving about 1-1/2cups of the cooking liquid. Set aside 1/4cup of the cooked chickpeas for garnish. In a food processor fitted with a steel blade, process the remaining chickpeas with the tahina, lemon juice, garlic, salt, pepper, cumin, and at least 1/2 cup of the reserved cooking liquid. If the hummus is too thick, add more reserved cooking liquid or water until you have a paste-like consistency. 4. Heat a frying pan and add 1 tablespoon of the olive oil. Spread the pine nuts in the pan and stir-fry, browning on all sides. 5. To serve, transfer the hummus to a large, flat plate, and with the back of a spoon make a slight depression in the center. Drizzle the remaining olive oil on top and sprinkle the reserved chickpeas, pine nuts, paprika or sumac, and parsley or cilantro over the surface. 6. Serve with cut-up raw vegetables and warm pita cut into wedges

2. Mock Chopped Liver Ingredients 1 can French style green beans 2 hard boiled eggs 2 medium onions oil for browning onions 1/4 cup walnuts salt to taste Saute onions in oil until brown. Drain green beans, pressing out as much water as possible. Put all ingredients into food processor, processing until smooth. Salt to taste. Note: You can substitute additional hard boiled egg whites for one or both of the yolks. This recipe can also be made vegan by replacing the eggs with fresh mushrooms. 3. Borekas Turkish Turnovers YIELD: 30 small borekas Sometimes known as pastilles, borekas come from the Turkish Sephardic tradition. These turnovers make an enticing appetizer or delicious side dish, and can be stored in the freezer before baking. Ingredients: 2 ½ cups flour 1 stick butter (1/2 cup) ½ cup oil 1 tsp lemon juice 5 tbsp ice water 1 egg 5 tbsp ice water 1 egg 1 tbsp water Dash sesame seeds 3 tbsp olive oil 1 medium yellow onion, chopped 10 oz. spinach, frozen, thawed and squeezed 2 eggs, lightly beaten ½ cup mashed potatoes ¼ cup parsley, chopped ½ tsp salt Put the 2-1/2 cups flour in a large bowl and make a well in the center. Place 1 stick of butter and 1/2 cup vegetable oil in the well and, using a pastry blender, cut in the butter until the mixture resembles coarse crumbs. Stir the lemon juice (or vinegar) into the ice water. Sprinkle the water, 1 tablespoon at a time, over a section of the flour. Gently mix with a fork to moisten. Push the moistened section aside and continue adding enough water to make a soft dough that just holds together. The dough should not be wet or crumbly. Place the dough on a lightly floured surface and knead briefly with the heel of your hand. Form into a ball, flatten slightly, cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate for several hours or overnight. (Dough can also be frozen.) When ready to make the Borekas, let the dough stand at room temperature until workable before rolling. Preheat oven to 375 degrees Fahrenheit. On lightly floured surface, roll out the dough and cut into 3-inch rounds (or can make them larger), about 1/8-inch thick. Place a heaping teaspoon of the filling in the center of each round. Fold the dough in half over the filling to form a half-moon and press the rounded edge with the tines of a fork to seal. (They can be prepared to this point and frozen. Do not defrost for baking, just increase the baking time by about 10 minutes.) Place

the borekas on a baking sheet. Beat 1 egg with 1 tablespoon water. Brush the tops of the borekas with the egg wash. Sprinkle with sesame seeds. Bake until golden brown, about 30 minutes. Serve warm. Sephardic Spinach Filling: Heat the 3 tablespoons olive oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Add the onion and saute until soft and translucent, 5-10 minutes. Either add the spinach, 2 eggs, mashed potatoes, parsley and 1/2 teaspoon salt to the pan and cook them OR put everything in the food processor and pulse it twice, without further cooking. 4. Walnut Hummus 1/2 cup walnuts, toasted 2 cups cooked (or canned) garbanzo beans, drained 1-2 medium cloves garlic, to taste Juice of 1 lemon (about 4 tablespoons) 1/4-1/2 cup hot water 1/4 cup olive oil 1 tablespoon za'atar (or paprika) Grind the walnuts in a food processor, so they are a sandy texture. Add most of the garbanzos, 1 or 2 tablespoons of the oil, 1 clove garlic, and lemon juice. Process until smooth. Drizzle in the water a bit at a time and puree more, until the hummus is creamy. Taste; if desired, add the second garlic clove. Let the processor run for a minute or so, to incorporate air into the puree and give the hummus a light texture. Taste, adjust the seasoning--more salt, more lemon juice, etc. Serve in a shallow bowl, topped with remaining chickpeas, drizzled with plenty of the remaining oil, and sprinkled with paprika or za'atar. You can also garnish with cured olives and red pepper oil, another lovely option. Makes roughly 2 1/2 cups. 5. Labane 1 quart greek or regular yogurt 1 teaspoon salt Olive oil Za'atar Stir salt into yogurt. Line a wire mesh strainer with either cheesecloth (at least two layers) or paper towels. Spoon yogurt into strainer; set over a bowl, cover loosely with saran wrap, and refrigerate overnight. In the morning, bowl will contain much of the whey, which should be discarded. Greek yogurt will be ready if it has sat over night for about 8 hours. For regular yogurt, strain an additional 3-4 hours for maximum thickness. Serve in a shallow bowl; drizzle olive oil, and top with a generous sprinkle of za'atar. 6. Muhammara Serves 8 as an appetizer 1 12-ounce jar roasted red bell peppers, drained, OR 2 red bell peppers, seeded and cut into strips 1-2 cloves garlic, to taste 1 cup walnuts (more if a chunkier texture is desired) 1/3 cup breadcrumbs 2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil 1 1/2 teaspoons pomegranate molasses or 1 teaspoon fresh lemon juice 1 teaspoon ground cumin

1/2 teaspoon cayenne pepper OR 1 teaspoon Aleppo pepper (a slightly sweet and not-too-spicy pepper from Syria, available at most spice stores, including Penzeys and Kalustyan s) 1 teaspoon paprika (omit if using Aleppo pepper) Pita chips If using fresh red peppers, spread in a single layer on an oven sheet in a 400-degree oven to roast, about 45 minutes, until skin is blistered and flesh is soft. Allow to cool 15 minutes, then carefully remove skins from pepper strips and discard. Blend all ingredients except pita chips in food processor until a coarse puree forms. Season with salt to taste. Transfer to bowl; garnish with fresh parsley or mint, and a drizzle of olive oil, if desired. Serve with chips. 7. Pickled Cauliflower Serves 4 as an appetizer 3 tablespoons coriander seeds 1 teaspoon turmeric 1/2 teaspoon white mustard seeds 1/2 teaspoon cumin seeds 1/2 teaspoon celery seeds, optional 3 bay leaves 1 head cauliflower, washed and separated into florets 1 large carrot, sliced into thick chunks 1/2 a small yellow onion, halved then sliced into half-rings 1 1/2 cups white wine or plain white vinegar 3 tablespoons sugar 3 teaspoons kosher salt A pinch of cayenne pepper, optional Bring a 2-quart saucepan of salted water to a boil. Boil the cauliflower and carrots for 3 minutes; drain and transfer to a large bowl. Add the onion and stir to combine. Mix spices, not including sugar and salt, together in a medium bowl. In a large sealable container (canning jars will work, but are not required if you plan to eat the salad soon and store in the fridge), add half the spice mixture. If dividing the salad among several jars, divide half the spice mixture among the jars, saving the other half to top the vegetables. Add the vegetables into the container(s), leaving about 3/4 of an inch of space at the top of each container. In a 4-quart saucepan, bring 2 cups water and all the sugar and salt to a boil over high heat, stirring occasionally until fully dissolved. Add vinegar and stir to combine. Pour the vinegar solution into the container(s), leaving 1/2 an inch of space below each rim. Divide remaining spice mixture evenly between the jars. Close or seal container(s) and transfer to the refrigerator. Allow to marinate at least 24 hours before serving; the longer you wait, the better. 8. Yaprakes De Parra For the Filling 3 tablespoons olive oil 2 onions, chopped 3 cloves garlic, minced 1 cup long-grain white rice, soaked in water for 30 minutes and drained 2/3 cup peeled, seeded, and diced tomato 1/4 cup finely chopped fresh fennel leaves 6 tablespoons chopped fresh mint 1/4 cup chopped fresh flat-leaf parsley 2 teaspoons salt 1 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper

1/4 cup pine nuts, toasted (optional) 1/4 cup dried currants, plumped in hot water until softened and drained (optional) For the Wrapping 36 to 40 brine-packed grape leaves, well rinsed and patted dry 1 cup olive oil Juice of 2 lemons Lemon wedges Plain yogurt To make the filling, warm the olive oil in a saute pan over medium heat. Add the onions and saute until tender and translucent, about 10 minutes. Add the garlic and saute for a few minutes longer. Add the drained rice to the saute pan along with all of the remaining ingredients. Stir well and remove from the heat. Lay out some of the grape leaves on a work surface, shiny side down. Snip off the stems with scissors. Place a teaspoon or so of the mixture near the stem end of a leaf. Fold the stem end over the filling, fold in the sides, and then roll up the leaf into a cylinder. Do not roll too tightly, as the rice expands during cooking. Repeat until all the filling is used. Place the filled leaves, close to each other and seam side down, in a single layer in a wide saucepan. Pour the olive oil, lemon juice, and hot water to cover over them. Place 1 or 2 heavy plates only slightly smaller than the diameter of the pan on top of the leaves to weight them down. Make sure that the leaves are just covered with liquid, adding more hot water, if necessary. Bring the liquids to a boil over medium heat, cover, reduce the heat to low, and simmer gently until the filling is cooked, 35 to 40 minutes. Remove from the heat, uncover, and remove the plate(s) so that the stuffed leaves can cool quickly. Using a spatula, transfer the filled leaves to a platter. Cool to room temperature before serving. (They can be transferred to a container, covered, and refrigerated for up to 1 week; bring to room temperature before serving.) Accompany with lemon wedges and a bowl of yogurt. 9. Tarator Serves 4 to 6. 2 cups plain yogurt 1 large or 2 small cucumbers Salt for sprinkling, plus 1 teaspoon 5 or 6 cloves garlic, green sprouts removed and finely minced 2 to 3 tablespoons white wine vinegar 1/3 cup chopped toasted walnuts 3 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil 1 tablespoon chopped fresh dill or mint, or a mixture Pita bread, cut into quarters if large, halves if small, and warmed Spoon the yogurt into a sieve placed over a bowl and place in the refrigerator to drain for four hours. Peel and seed the cucumber(s). If using the large cucumber, grate it; if using the small cucumbers, cut into tiny dice. Place the grated or diced cucumber in a colander and sprinkle with salt. Allow to drain for 30 minutes, then squeeze dry in a kitchen towel. Refrigerate until needed. In a bowl, stir together the garlic, 1 teaspoon salt, and vinegar. Add the nuts and olive oil, and fold in the drained yogurt and cucumber(s). Stir in the herbs. Spoon into a shallow bowl and surround with warmed pita. Serve at once. 10. Bastel & Sambussak Serves 15 to 20 (about 4 dozen pastries) Sambussak Cheese Filling

3 large eggs, lightly beaten 1/4 teaspoon baking powder 4 cups coarsely grated kashkevalle cheese or mix half Parmesan and half Muenster cheese Bastel Meat Filling 2 tablespoons vegetable oil 1 1/3 cups finely chopped yellow onions 1/4 cup pine nuts 1 pound ground chuck 3/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon 3/4 teaspoon ground allspice 1/2 teaspoon salt Several grindings of black pepper 1 cup pomegranate seeds (from about 1 large pomegranate; see note below) Basic Pocket Dough 2 cups unbleached all-purpose flour 1 cup semolina flour (available in natural food and Middle Eastern stores) 1 1/2 cups (3 sticks) unsalted butter or margarine, softened to room temperature 1 teaspoon baking powder 3/4 teaspoon salt (for bastel only) 2 to 4 tablespoons ice water, if needed Dish of sesame seeds (about 1/4 cup) 1. Prepare the sambussak filling. Pour the beaten eggs into a bowl. Add the baking powder and grated cheese(s) and mix well. Prepare the bastel filling. Heat the vegetable oil in a large skillet for about 30 seconds over high heat. Cook the onions, stirring, until softened, about 3 minutes. Add the pine nuts and cook, stirring, until the onions are golden. Add the meat and brown, mashing with a fork, until it loses its redness. Add the cinnamon, allspice, salt, and pepper and cook for another 1 minute. Take off the heat and let cool to room temperature. Mix in the pomegranate seeds and set filling aside to prepare dough. 2. Prepare the dough. Put the all-purpose flour, semolina, softened butter (or margarine, for bastel, baking powder, and salt (if making bastel) in a large bowl. Mix by squeezing everything between the tips of your fingers. The dough should be soft and moist (sprinkle with the ice water if the dough is too dry to work). 3. Preheat the oven to 350°F if you intend to bake the pastries (you can also freeze the pastries and bake at a later date). 4. Form the dough into small balls 1 to 1 1/2 inches in diameter. Working with one ball of dough at a time, press one side into the sesame seeds until well coated . Lightly flour a wooden work surface. Place the ball on the surface, sesame seed side down. Flatten it gently with your palm. Using the bottom of a lightly floured round glass or rolling pin, form a circle 2 1/2 inches in diameter and about 1/8 inch thick. 5. Place a teaspoon of filling (cheese or meat) in the center of the dough circle . Fold one side of the dough over until the edges meet. Press the edges together all around to firmly seal. This will form a half-moon shape. Using your thumb, gently press around the edges to "plump" the filling toward the center (this will help each pastry puff up a bit when it bakes). 6. There are two methods of decorating the edges: The traditional edging, which gives each pastry a fancy "braid" look, is created by starting at one end of the dough, pinching it between thumb and forefinger, and then gently twisting the dough inward . If this is too difficult, you can flute the edges with the tines of a fork . 7. Bake for 15 to 20 minutes on an ungreased baking sheet. When done, the edges should be lightly golden but not brown and the tops should stay on the light side. (If the pastries are baked too long, the filling will dry out.) Serve warm, which is preferable, or at room temperature.

To freeze either bastel or sambussak, place the uncooked pastries between layers of wax paper in a tightly sealed plastic container (the pastries will last about 2 months in the freezer). Defrost and bake in a preheated 350°F oven until the outside is flaky. NOTE: To remove the seeds from a pomegranate, cut one into quarters. Holding one piece of the fruit at a time, use your fingers to gently dislodge the small red seeds into a large bowl. 11. Ashkenazi Haroset On the Passover seder plate, haroset symbolizes the mortar used by slaves in Egypt. These are the classic Eastern European ingredients. Only the proportions vary. 2 medium-sized tart apples 1/2 cup (50 g) walnuts, chopped 1/2 - 1 teaspoon cinnamon 2 - 3 tablespoons sweet red wine 1 tablespoon sugar or honey or to taste Peel, core, and finely chop or grate the apples. Mix with the rest of the ingredients. 12. Haroset from Turkey 2 sweet apples weighing 1/2 lb (250 g), peeled and cut into small pieces 1/2 lb (250 g) dates, pitted 1 cup (150 g) raisins Juice and grated zest of 1 orange 1 cup (250 ml) sweet red Passover wine 2 - 4 tablespoons sugar or to taste (optional) 2 oz (60 g) walnuts, coarsely chopped Put all the ingredients except the sugar and the walnuts together in a saucepan and cook on very low heat until the mixture is soft and mushy and the liquid is reduced, stirring occasionally. Add sugar to taste. The amount will depend on the sweetness of the other ingredients. Blend to a paste in the food processor. Pour into a bowl and sprinkle with walnuts. 13. Haroset from Egypt 1/2 lb (250 g) pitted dates, chopped 1/2 lb (250 g) large yellow raisins or sultanas 1/2 cup (125 ml) sweet red Passover wine 1/2 cup (60 g) walnuts coarsely chopped Put the dates and sultanas with the wine in a pan. Add just a little water to cover. Cook on very low heat, stirring occasionally, until the dates fall apart into a mush. Cook until it thickens to a soft paste. Pour into a bowl and sprinkle with walnuts.

14. Haroset from Morocco 1 lb (500 g) dates, pitted and chopped 1-1/2 cups sweet red Passover wine 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon 1/2 teaspoon ground cloves 1 cup (125 g) walnuts, coarsely chopped Put the dates into a pan with the wine, cinnamon, and cloves and simmer, stirring occasionally, until you have a soft paste. Put through the food processor if you want a smoother texture. Let it cool and stir in the walnuts. VARIATION

A Libyan version is flavored with ground ginger, nutmeg, and cloves -- 1/4 teaspoon of each. 15. Haroset from Italy In Italy there are various regional versions of haroset. The haroset of Padua has prunes, raisins, dates, walnuts, apples, and chestnuts. In Milan they make it with apples, pears, dates, almonds, bananas, and orange juice. The following is a general version. 3 apples, sweet or tart 2 pears 2 cups sweet wine 1/3 cup (50 g) pine nuts 2/3 cup (50 g) ground almonds 1/2 lb (250 g) dates, pitted and chopped 3/4 cup (100 g) yellow raisins or sultanas 4 oz (100 g) prunes, pitted and chopped 1/2 cup (100 g) sugar or honey or to taste 1 teaspoon cinnamon 1/2 teaspoon ground ginger Peel and core the apples and pears and cut them in small pieces. Put all the ingredients into a pan together and cook, stirring occasionally, for about one hour, until the fruits are very soft, adding a little water if it becomes too dry. VARIATIONS Other possible additions: chopped lemon or candied orange peel, walnuts, pistachios, dried figs, orange or lemon juice, ginger, nutmeg, and cloves. 16. Piedmontese Haroset This recipe is adapted from one sent by Nedelia Tedeschi, of Turin. She enclosed a little picture of a squirrel eating a chestnut, from the package of dried chestnuts she uses to make the paste. It was Passover, and the Italian store near my house had closed, so when I phoned around to try to find dried chestnuts and couldn't, I used cooked vacuum-packed ones instead. The result was very unusual and also delightful. 1/2 lb (250 g) cooked chestnuts 2/3 cup (125 g) blanched almonds 2 hard-boiled egg yolks Grated zest of 1 orange Juice of 1 orange About 3/4 cup (175 ms) sweet red kosher wine 1/3 cup (75 g) sugar or more to taste Boil the chestnuts for a minute or two, and drain. Grind the almonds fine in the food processor, then add the rest of the ingredients, including the chestnuts, and blend to a paste. 17. Warm Goat Cheese-Stuffed Dates Serves 10 as an appetizer. 20 Medjool or other soft, dark dates 5 oz goat cheese fleur de sel or other flaky sea salt Preheat oven to 375 degrees. Layer a rimmed baking sheet with parchment paper. Slice dates open lengthwise, remove pit, and place on baking sheet. Sprinkle each date with a small pinch of salt. Stuff each date with one teaspoon of goat cheese, and sprinkle another small pinch

of salt overtop. Bake for 10-12 minutes, until dates are fragrant and tender and goat cheese has softened considerably. If desired, sprinkle another pinch of salt over all the dates. Serve immediately. 18. Sweet and Savory Stuffed Prunes A delicious appetizer for your Sukkot meal. Serves 6 (3-4 prunes per person) 1 tablespoon olive oil 1/2 small onion, finely diced (about 3/4 cup) 3 cloves garlic, minced (about 1 tablespoon) 1/2 pound ground lamb or beef 2 teaspoons honey 4 dried apricots, finely minced (about 3 tablespoons) 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon 1/2 teaspoon chili powder 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon fresh ground black pepper 3 tablespoons minced parsley 2 tablespoons chopped mint 3 tablespoons pine nuts, lightly toasted and cooled (toast in a 300 degree oven for 78 minutes, until nuts are fragrant and lightly toasted) 20 large, moist prunes, pitted 1 8 oz. can tomato sauce 1/4 cup chicken stock Heat olive oil in a heavy skillet over medium heat. Add onions to skillet and cook, stirring, until onions are golden, about 8 minutes. Add garlic during last 2 minutes of cooking. Add beef or lamb and cook, stirring often to separate clumps, until just cooked through, about 5-6 minutes. Add honey, apricots, cinnamon, chili powder, salt, and pepper and cook an additional 2 minutes. Add parsley, mint and pine nuts, stir to combine, and remove from heat. Let mixture cool. Using a small spoon, stuff each prune with about 1 tablespoon meat mixture, packing down the filling with your index finger. Place prunes in a glass baking dish. Combine tomato sauce and chicken stock and pour over prunes. Cover with foil and bake for 20 minutes. Remove foil and bake an additional 20 minutes. Serve hot or room temperature, with tomato sauce spooned on top. Note: To make this recipe vegetarian-friendly, substitute kasha or bulgur for the ground meat. 19. Easy Eggplant General Directions for Eggplant Line stovetop with aluminum foil or burner covers. Turn a burner to high heat and place eggplant directly over burner grate, turning occasionally with tongs until all sides are charred and eggplant is soft, about 5 minutes per side or 15-20 minutes total. Remove to a baking sheet and let cool completely. Drain juices, remove skin and place eggplant pulp in the bowl of a food processor. (I like my eggplant campfire-smoky--known as al ha'esh, or "on the fire" in Israel--but if the flavor is too strong, you can bake the eggplant on a baking sheet in a 400°F oven for about an hour, then cool and skin the eggplant according to the directions below.) Baba Ghanouj (Eggplant with Tahini)

Makes about 2 cups 2 medium eggplants (about 1 to 1 1 4lbs each) 2 cloves garlic, smashed 2 teaspoons lemon juice, plus more to taste 3 4 teaspoon salt, plus more to taste 1/3 cup pure tahini (not a prepared tahini dip, which may contain preservatives and additives) 1 teaspoon minced parsley Prepare eggplant according to directions above and place in the bowl of a food processor. Add garlic, lemon juice, salt, and tahini and process to desired consistency, pulsing 20-30 times for chunkier results or blending 15 seconds for smoother results. Season with additional lemon juice and salt to taste. Transfer to bowl, garnish with parsley, and serve with wedges of pita bread. 20. Eggplant with Mayonnaise (Chatzilim be' Mayonnaise) Makes about 2 cups Isralies feel strongly about mayo in their eggplant--it's a love-it or hate-it sort of thing. For me, the marriage of creamy mayonnaise with the smoky eggplant is pure comfort-food, equally great as a dip or as a sandwich spread. 2 medium eggplants (about 1 to 1 1 4 lbs each) 3 cloves garlic, smashed 1 4 cup mayonnaise 1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon lemon juice 1 teaspoon minced parsley Prepare eggplant according to directions above and place in the bowl of a food processor. Add garlic, mayonnaise, salt, and lemon juice and process to desired consistency, pulsing 20-30 times for chunkier results or blending 15 seconds for smoother results. Season with additional lemon juice and salt to taste. Transfer to bowl, garnish with parsley, and serve with wedges of pita bread. 21. Eggplant Salad with Red Pepper and Scallions This simple recipe is inspired by one I tasted at the Mahaneh Yehuda, Jerusalem's famous market (also known as the shuk). For this version, I would opt for the baked, not smoked, eggplant preparation. 2 medium eggplants (about 1 to 1 1 4 lbs each) 1 4 cup diced red bell pepper, plus more for garnish 1 clove garlic, finely minced 1 scallion, green included, thinly sliced, plus more for garnish 2 tablespoons olive oil 1 4 cup lemon juice, plus more for garnish 1 2 teaspoon salt, plus more for garnish Prepare baked eggplant according to directions above and transfer to the bowl of a food processor. Pulse 10-15 times until eggplant flesh is chopped, but some chunks remain. Remove to a bowl and add red pepper, garlic, scallion, olive oil, lemon juice, and salt, stirring to incorporate all ingredients. Transfer to a bowl and garnish with additional red pepper and scallion. Serve with wedges of pita bread. II. BREADS - 4 Recipes 22. Challah Makes 4 Loaves

2 tablespoons dry yeast 2¼ cups (500 ml) lukewarm water · ½ cup (100g) sugar · 4 eggs, beaten, plus 2 yolks or 1 whole egg for glazing · 1 tablespoon salt · ½ cup (125 ml) vegetable oil · About 9 ¼ cups (1 1/3 kg) flour · Poppy or sesame seeds (optional) Dissolve the yeast in the water with 1 teaspoon of the sugar. Beat well and leave 10 minutes, until it froths. In a very large bowl, lightly beat the eggs. Then add the salt, sugar, and oil and beat again. Add the frothy yeast mixture and beat well. Now add the flour gradually, and just enough to make a soft dough that holds together, mixing well, first with a large spoon, then working it in with your hands. Knead vigorously for about 15 minutes, until it is very smooth and elastic, adding flour if the dough is too sticky. Pour a little oil in the bowl and turn the dough, so that it is greased all over. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and put it in a warm place to rise for 2-3 hours, or until it has doubled in bulk. Punch the dough down and knead again, then divide into four pieces to make 4 loaves. To make round challah: Take 1 piece of dough, roll it between your palms, and pull it out into a long fat rope about 18 inches (46 cm) long and 2 inches (5 cm) thick a little fatter at one end. Take the fatter end and put it in the middle of an oiled baking sheet, then coil the rest of the rope around it like a snail. Continue with the remaining 3 pieces. To make braided challah with 3 strands: Divide 1 piece of the dough into 3. Roll each piece between your palms and pull into long thin ropes about 18 inches (46 cm) long and 1¼ inches (3 cm) wide. Pinch 1 end of all the strands together and plait them: bring the rope on the right over the middle one, then bring the one on the left over it and continue to the end. Pinch the ends together and tuck them under the loaf. You may find it, easier to begin plaiting in the middle of the 3 strands and plait towards the 2 ends. Continue with the remaining 3 pieces. Place the 4 loaves on well-oiled baking sheets, leaving plenty of room for them to expand, then leave to rise for 1 hour, or until doubled in bulk. Now brush gently with the beaten egg yolks or if you want to sprinkle with poppy or sesame seeds, brush first with the whole beaten egg (the seeds stick better if the white is there too). Bake in a preheated 350° F (180°C) oven for 30-40 minutes or until the loaves are beautifully golden-brown. They are done if they sound hollow when you tap the bottoms. Variations for Sweet Challahs: * Add ½ cup (125 ml) honey to the beaten eggs. * Add ¾ cup (100 g) raisins and knead them into the dough after it has risen and been punched down. 23. Pita Bread Serves 4-6 Pita bread, a staple of Middle Eastern cuisine, is a round flatbread with a pocket. It is traditionally eaten with falafel, hummus, and Israeli salad, but can also be used for other sandwiches or dipping. Ingredients: 1 (1/4 ounce) package dry yeast (about 2 ¼ teaspoons) ½ cup lukewarm water 3 ½ cups flour 1 ¼ teaspoons salt 1 teaspoon sugar 1 cup lukewarm water You Will Also Need: Mixing bowl

Rolling pin, or bottle Paddle to transfer pita to oven Cookie sheet or pizza stone Dissolve yeast in 1/2 cup lukewarm water, add one tsp sugar, stir and let stand for 10 minutes until frothy. In a large mixing bowl combine the flour and salt, mix thoroughly using your hands or a rubber spatula; make a well, add the yeasty water and about 1/2 the lukewarm water; mix and gradually add more water a few tablespoons at a time using a rubber spatula (it can be very sticky until well mixed) until firm and elastic and just a little sticky (may adhere slightly to your hand). Turn dough on to a lightly floured working surface and knead for 10 minutes or until dough is smooth and elastic. Return to the bowl, cover with a plastic wrap and leave in a warm, draft-free place to rise for 2-3 hours (much less if you are using rapid-rise yeast). When dough has nearly doubled in size, punch down, knead lightly, roll out a "rope" and pinch off handfuls to form into balls about the size of tangerines--between a ping-pong and a tennis ball. Put pizza stone or baking sheet in oven on lowest rack; remove any other racks to ease access, pre-heat oven to 450 degrees Fahrenheit. Place balls on a lightly floured surface a few inches apart, cover and let rest for 10-15 minutes. On your lightly floured working surface, squash a ball flat and round with your hand and then roll out, flipping and turning, a round of the desired thickness--less than 1/4 inch thick and about 5 inches across. Set aside, covered, for another 10 minutes. Now the interesting part: baking the bread. Middle Eastern bread ovens are cavernous affairs (even wood-fired from time to time) and are very hot, with a very hot floor. The bread is put on long paddles (same as pizza) and deployed in the oven until it puffs and browns slightly on top. We try to achieve the effect by using the bottom rack of the oven; using a pre-heated pizza stone or baking sheet; transferring the bread to the hot stone or sheet and baking for about 4 minutes-when the bread has "popped" and browned ever so slightly on the edges or top. The time depends on how thick and moist your bread is; how your oven is constructed, and how hot the oven is. Allow to cool, flatten, store in plastic bags. Can be refrigerated or frozen, with appropriate reheating. 24. Bagels Makes 11: 3½ cups (500g) bread flour 1 envelope fast action dried yeast 1½ teaspoons salt 1½-2 tablespoons sugar 1 egg, lightly beaten 1½ tablespoons vegetable oil, plus a drop more to grease the dough About ½ cup lukewarm water 1 egg white to glaze In a large bowl, mix the flour, yeast, salt, and sugar well. Then mix in the egg and the oil and add the water gradually, working it in with your hand--enough to make a soft dough that holds together in a ball. Add more water if necessary, or more flour if it is too sticky. Turn the dough out and knead on a floured board for 10-15 minutes, until it is very smooth and elastic. Grease the dough all over by putting a drop of oil in the bowl and rolling the dough around in it. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and leave to rise in a warm place for 1½ hours, or until doubled in bulk. Punch the dough down and knead again briefly. An easy way of shaping the bagels into rings is to roll out the dough to a rectangle about 1 inch (2½ cm) thick and cut it into 11 equal strips with a pointed knife. Roll each strip between your palms into a rope about 7 inches (18 cm) long and ½ inch (1½ cm) thick and bring the ends together, pinching them to seal and form a bracelet. Place the rings on an oiled surface, and let them rise for about 1 hour, or until doubled in bulk.

Bring plenty of water to a boil in a wide pan, then lower the heat to medium. Slip in 4 bagels at a time. Boil them for 1-2 minutes, turning them over once as they rise to the top. Then lift them out quickly with a slotted spoon and place them on a cloth to dry. Do the same with the rest of the bagels. Arrange on oiled baking sheets, brush with egg white, and bake in a preheated 375°F (190°C) oven for 15-20 minutes, until nicely browned. VARIATIONS -Sprinkle the bagels lightly with poppy or sesame seeds, fried onion, or coarse salt before baking. -Another way of shaping the bread is to roll it into small balls, make a hole in the middle, and widen it by pulling the ring from the center. -If you want to make the bagels in the old way, without the egg, you will simply need to add a little more warm water to bind the flour. 25. Matzah Ingredients and Tools - special Passover flour, or whole-grain wheat - cold spring water - a baker s oven - smooth working surfaces, preferably glass or marble slabs - a kneading tub - rolling pins - sandpaper - matzah-perforating machine (you may have to improvise this: it looks like a rolling pin with spikes) - long wooden poles - six or more people The Basic Problem Hametz, which is forbidden during the entire holiday of Passover, is defined as any fermented grain product (specifically, from one of the five grains mentioned in rabbinic literature: wheat, spelt, barley, oats, and rye; rice, millet, and beans, while not explicitly forbidden in the Talmud, are not eaten by any Ashkenazic Jews because they undergo a process similar to fermentation). Fermentation is presumed to take place within 18 minutes after the exposure of the cut grain to moisture. Matzah, which is required as the central element at the Seder and which is the staple food throughout the week of Passover, is defined as the bread made from grain and water dough without fermentation. The problem, of course, is how to make such a dough without causing fermentation. This is accomplished by three means. 1. Protecting the ingredients from moisture and heat prior to mixing. 2. Preparing the dough very rapidly. 3. Baking at extremely high temperatures. The Starting Ingredients The flour must be absolutely dry and stored in a cool, dark place. According to the strictest interpretation, it should have been watched from the time of reaping to ascertain that it was never exposed to moisture. Such flour, known as shemurah flour, may be purchased from one of the shemurah matzah bakeries in New York. According to a more lenient view, it is sufficient if the flour was watched from the time of milling. In the latter case, you may purchase whole grain for matzah at any grain store and mill it yourself, making sure that your mill is kosher-for-Passover before you start. The water must be drawn from a spring and allowed to settle overnight in a cool, dark, place. This is done so the water will not be warm. The vessel in which it is stored should be perfectly clean and kosher-for-Passover. Tap water or bottled spring water may not be used. The Kneading Before starting, make certain that the boards, rolling pins, etc. that you are using are

kosher-for-Passover. Everyone who will be handling dough should wash his/her hands in cold water before beginning to work, and between each batch of dough he/she handles, and then dry his/her hands thoroughly. The flour and water are mixed in a tub at a ratio of 3-1/4 to 1. The maximum amount of flour to be used at any one time is three pounds, but unless one has a small army of people working together it s advisable to use much less. Once the dough is made, it should be cut into small pieces, no bigger than the palm of your hand, and distributed for kneading. Each piece should be worked continuously--it may not sit on the table, even for a brief period. Kneading prevents the dough from rising. The small teyglekh, or balls of dough, should be kneaded until they are of uniform consistency--perhaps for 60 or 90 seconds--and then rolled out into a pancake shape. While the matzot are being rolled, they should be constantly picked up, to make certain that the dough does not stick to the table. One reason that this is important is that, unlike kneading bread, one may not sprinkle additional flour on the kneading board. Once the dough has become very thin, and has reached a diameter of six or eight inches, it should be carried on the rolling pin to a special place where the matzah is perforated with holes by means of a special machine. From here the dough is taken to the oven. Between batches of dough, several people should be assigned to clean off each work spot and every rolling pin. Because water might produce hametz, sandpaper is probably best for this purpose. Baking As noted above, it is probably necessary to use a baker s oven to make matzah, in order to reach temperatures of 600° to 800° F. The oven should be stoked up from two to four hours or more before baking begins. The perforated matzot are placed in the oven with long wooden poles and should bake within two to three minutes. The total time elapsed, from the beginning of the kneading till the matzot are placed in the oven, should in no event be more than 18 minutes. After baking is completed, a small portion is separated, using the same blessing as in baking challah, and this is burnt up completely. The Result Brown, crisp matzot suitable for eating at the Seder and celebrating true freedom. III. SOUPS - 15 Recipes 26. Addes SERVES 4 TO 6 2 1/2 cups dried split red lentils 10 cups cold water 2 1/2 teaspoons salt 1 to 2 teaspoons minced garlic, to taste 1 1/2 teaspoons ground cumin 1 tablespoon ground coriander 2 tablespoons olive oil 2 tablespoons unbleached all-purpose flour dissolved in 3 tablespoons Cold water Lemon wedges (1 to 2 per person) 1. Submerge the lentils in a medium-size bowl filled with cold water. Pick out small rocks and skim off any dirt or old shells that float to the surface. Drain. 2. Put the drained lentils in a 5-quart saucepan or kettle, add the water, and bring to a boil. Reduce the heat to medium-low, partially cover, and simmer for 45 minutes to 1 hour, stirring occasionally. Add the salt and mix well. Continue to simmer until the soup becomes fairly thick, like pea soup, an additional 10 to 15 minutes.

3. Meanwhile, in a small bowl, combine the garlic, cumin, and coriander. 4. Heat the oil in a small skillet over medium heat and add the garlic mixture. Brown the mixture until the garlic and oil turn into a yellow sauce, about 30 seconds (make sure not to cook the garlic over high heat; it burns easily). Remove from the heat and set aside. 5. Add the dissolved flour to the soup. Simmer, partially covered, for 10 minutes. (May be frozen for up to 1 month at this point or refrigerated for 2 to 3 days. When reheating, it may be necessary to add water, as the soup thickens upon cooling.) 6. Taste the soup for salt. Serve very hot accompanied by lemon wedges, which are squeezed, several drops at a time, into each spoonful of soup as it is eaten. 27. Borscht SERVES 6 2 lbs (1 kg) raw beets A little salt and pepper Juice of 1 lemon 2 tablespoons sugar or to taste 6 peeled boiled potatoes (optional) 1 cup (250 ml) sour cream to pass around Peel the beets and dice them. If they are young, that is easy to do. If they are old and too hard to dice, simply cut them in half and, when they have softened with boiling, lift them out, cut them up, and put them back in the pan. Put the beets in a pan with 9 cups (2 liters) of water and salt and pepper and simmer for 1-1/2 hours. Let the soup cool, then chill, covered, in the refrigerator. Add the lemon and sugar to taste before serving (these could be added when the soup is hot, but it is more difficult to determine the intensity of the flavoring). Remove some of the beet pieces with a slotted spoon if it seems like there are too many of them and keep them for a salad. Serve, if you like, with a boiled potato, putting one in each plate. Pass around the sour cream for all to help themselves. VARIATIONS When the soup is served with meat to follow, and the sour cream cannot be added, it is usual to thicken it with two egg yolks. Beat them in a bowl, add a little of the boiling soup, beat well, and pour into the pan, beating all the time. Take off the heat at once, before the soup curdles. There are dozens of different Russian and Ukrainian borschts. These are rich hot soups made with a number of ingredients, including meat, cabbage and potatoes, carrots, onions, celery and parsnips, sometimes spinach or sorrel, tomatoes or mushrooms, leeks, dried beans, apples, and dried fruit. The common ingredient, which gives them their name and their color, is beets. 28. Chicken Soup With Vegetables 4 quarts water 1 large chicken, cut-up 2 whole onions 4 parsnips, peeled 1 parsley root (optional) 1/2 cup chopped celery leaves plus 2 stalks celery and their leaves or 4 stalks celery 1 rutabaga, peeled and quartered (optional) 1 large turnip, peeled and quartered 1 kohlrabi, quartered (optional) (optional) 6 carrots, peeled 6 tbsp chopped fresh parsley or 6 tsp dried parsley

1 bay leaf 2 slices of fresh ginger (peeled)(optional) 6 tbsp snipped dill or 6 tsp dried dill 1 tsp pepper 1 zucchini salt and pepper to taste 1. Put the water and the chicken in a large pot and bring the water to a boil. Skim off the froth. 2. Add the onions, parsnips, parsley root, celery, 3/4 of the rutabaga, turnip, kohlrabi, 4 of the carrots, the parsley, 4 tbsp of the dill, and the salt and pepper. Cover and simmer for 2 1/2 hours, adjusting the seasoning to taste. (If using a pressure cooker, cook at pressure for 30 minutes and then let cool gradually.) 3. Strain, remove the chicken and the vegetables. Refrigerate the liquid to remove the fat from the soup. If a thicker soup is desired, add back the vegetables to the soup chopped or mashed. 4. Remove the skin and bones from the chicken and cut the meat in to bite-size chunks. Refrigerate. 5. Just before serving, reheat the soup. Bring to a boil. Cut the zucchini and the remaining 2 carrots into thin strips and add to the soup along with the remaining rutabaga cut into thin strips as well some pieces of chicken. Simmer about 15 minute or until the vegetables are cooked, but still firm. Serve with the remaining snipped dill. 6. Add noodles or matzah balls. (Note: if you cook the noodles and keep them separate, they will remain firm) Yield: about 10 servings 29. Cucumber-Parsley Soup This recipe requires a bit of cooking. Use olive oil instead of butter and eliminate the sour cream or yogurt if you want a non-dairy soup. This recipe will serve 4-6 people, but can easily be doubled for a crowd. 2 medium or 4 small cucumbers, unpeeled (best to use organic or English cucumbers) 1 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons butter or olive oil 2 shallots or 1 small onion, minced (shallots will provide a sweeter flavor) 4 cups vegetable stock or water 1 tablespoon chopped parsley or other herbs (you can use dill, basil, or tarragon) Optional: 1/4 to 1/2 cup heavy or sour cream or plain yogurt 1) Cut the cucumbers in half lengthwise and scoop out the seeds with a spoon. Chop the cucumbers coarsely and sprinkle with 1 teaspoon of salt. Set them in a colander with a plate or bowl underneath and let drain. The salt helps to remove additional liquid from the cucumbers. Discard the seeds. 2) Place the butter or oil in a saucepan and heat to medium. Add the shallots or onion, turning the heat to medium-low and cook, stirring occasionally, until soft, about 5 minutes. Add the water or stock and herbs. 3) Rinse the cucumbers quickly and add them to the soup. Cook over medium heat for 5 minutes. Turn off heat and let stand for about 10 minutes to cool slightly. Puree in a blender or food mill. Be careful with the hot liquid in the blender. Taste and adjust seasoning if necessary. 4) Chill. 5) When you're ready to eat, taste and adjust seasoning again, and add yogurt or sour cream if desired. (The soup in the photo is without any sour cream or yogurt.) Garnish with salsa (recipe below) and serve.

30. Cucumber-Avocado Yogurt Soup This recipe will serve 4-6 people, but can easily be doubled for a crowd. 2 medium or 4 small cucumbers (best to use organic or English cucumbers) 1/2 avocado, ripe (it would also be fine to use a whole avocado, if you really love avocados) 1 8-oz container plain low-fat or non-fat yogurt 1 tablespoon lime juice Soy or skim milk, or water, to thin soup if necessary Salt and pepper to taste 1) Peel cucumber and scoop out seeds with a spoon. Chop coarsely and add to blender. 2) Remove pit and scoop out avocado flesh and add to blender with cucumber. Add yogurt, lime juice, salt, and pepper and blend until smooth, about 1 minute. If soup is too thick, add milk or water in small increments to thin soup to desired consistency. Taste and adjust seasonings. 3) Refrigerate until ready to serve. Garnish with salsa. Salsa Garnish for Either Soup This is a great garnish for soups, or even to eat with chips alone. 1/4 cup chopped bell peppers (various colors) 1/4 cup diced tomatoes, seeds removed 1 tablespoon diced red or sweet onion or sliced scallions (green and white parts) 1/4 cup diced unpeeled cucumbers, seeds removed 1 tablespoon chopped jalapeno peppers, seeds removed (keep some seeds if you want it spicy) Splash lime or lemon juice Splash olive oil Salt and pepper to taste Mix all ingredients in a bowl, taste, and adjust seasonings. Refrigerate until ready to serve, and garnish soup with salsa. Serve any extra salsa with chips or bread. 31. Matzah Balls (Pareve or Meat) Preparation Time: 20 minutes Chilling Time: 1-1/2 hours Boiling Time: 30-40 minutes 4 jumbo egg yolks 1 tsp. salt pinch cayenne pepper 1 tsp. parsley 1 tbsp. grated onion 2 tbsp. vegetable oil (or melted chicken fat, if desired) 1/2 tsp. pareve chicken soup mix (optional) 4 jumbo egg whites, beaten stiffly 3/4 cup matzah meal Beat the egg whites until stiff and set aside. Beat the egg yolks, salt, parsley, onion, oil, pepper, and soup mix until creamy. Fold the egg whites into the egg mixture. Gradually fold in the matzah meal. Cover and chill for 1-1/2 hours. Bring a very large pot of water to a rolling boil. Add about 1 teaspoon of salt to the water. With well oiled hands, make small balls about 3/4 inch in diameter. Drop them into the boiling water. Cover the pot tightly and boil for about 30-40 minutes. Don't peek!! Makes about 20.

32. Matzah Balls With A Twist (Meat) Preparation Time: 20 minutes Chilling Time: 1 hour Cooking Time: 1 hour 1/2 cup pareve margarine 4 jumbo eggs 1/4 cup chicken soup pinch salt 3 tbsp. chopped parsley 1/4 cup chopped spinach, squeezed dry 1/4 tsp. thyme 2 tsp. grated onion 1/2 tsp. sage pinch tarragon 1 cup matzah meal pinch white pepper Beat the eggs well. Add all the other ingredients EXCEPT the matzah meal. Mix well. Add the matzah meal gradually, mix well, cover, and refrigerate for an hour. Bring a large pot of water to a boil. Add a teaspoon of salt. With well greased hands, make small balls, about an inch in diameter, and drop them into the water. Cover and simmer for an hour. 33. No Fat, No Cholesterol, Great Flavor Matzah Balls (Pareve) Preparation Time: 20 minutes Chilling Time: at least an hour (no more than two) Cooking Time: 30 minutes 1/2 cup matzah meal 3/4 tsp. salt pinch white pepper 1 tbsp. grated onion 1 tsp. pareve instant chicken broth pinch onion powder pinch cayenne pepper (optional) 2 tbsp. parsley 3 jumbo or 4 extra large egg whites 3 tbsp. club soda or seltzer Mix the matzah meal and the dry ingredients together. Beat the egg whites until just barely at the soft peak stage. Add the onions and club soda to the dry ingredients and fold in the egg whites. Add the matzah meal slowly and mix well. Refrigerate for at least an hour. Boil a large pot of water with one teaspoon salt. With wet hands, make small balls and drop in the water. Cover and simmer for 30-40 minutes. This makes about 10 matzah balls. Double the recipe if needed. 34. Potato Matzah Balls (Pareve) Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 20-30 minutes 2 jumbo eggs 1/2 tsp. salt 2 tbsp. grated onion 1/3 cup potato flour

3 tbsp. matzah meal 4 cups grated, drained raw potatoes Bring a large pot of water to a rolling boil. Add a teaspoon of salt. Beat the eggs, salt and onions together. Add the potato flour, matzah meal, and potatoes. With well greased hands, shape into balls about 1-1/2 inches in diameter. Cook until they rise to the top, about 20-30 minutes. 35. Fluffy, Soft Matzah Balls (Pareve or Meat) Preparation Time: 20 minutes Chilling Time; 1-several hours Cooking Time: 30-40 minutes 4 jumbo eggs 2 tablespoons chicken fat or vegetable oil 1/2 cup seltzer 2 tsp. grated onion 1/2 tsp. salt 2 tsp. parsley (optional) pinch white pepper 1 cup matzah meal Mix the eggs well. Add the fat or oil, seltzer, herbs, spices, onion, and matzah meal. Mix thoroughly. Cover and chill for several hours, even overnight. Bring a large pot of salted water to a boil. Dip your hands in cold water and make about 12 matzah balls. Drop them into the boiling water, cover and simmer for about 30-40 minutes. 36. Matzah Balls That Will Never Sink (Meat) Preparation Time: 20 minutes Chilling Time: 1 hour Cooking Time: 20-30 minutes I won't guarantee that these will never sink, but they are a bit different and very delicious. 3/4 cup matzah meal 1/4 cup matzah cake meal 1 tsp. baking powder 1/2 cup water plus 1/4 tsp. pareve instant chicken broth 4 jumbo eggs 1/3 cup vegetable oil or melted margarine 1 tsp. salt pinch white pepper 1/2 tsp. onion powder 1/2 tsp. garlic powder Beat the eggs well. Add the water, instant broth, melted margarine or oil, and spices. Beat well. Add the matzah meal, cake meal, and baking powder and mix thoroughly. Chill for one hour. Bring a large pot of water to a boil. Add salt. With well oiled hands, make balls about the size of walnuts. Drop the balls into the water, cover and simmer for 20 to 30 minutes. MATZAH BALL HINTS: * Use well oiled or wet hands to form the balls. This (usually) ensures a matzah ball with a definite shape that doesn't fall apart. * Unless otherwise stated, cover the matzah balls as they simmer. DON'T PEEK! Somehow, peeking causes the matzah balls to fall. * Add some of your favorite herbs or spices to any of these recipes. Some common

additions are cayenne pepper, parsley, chopped chives, grated onion, grated garlic, and ground ginger. These all add a delicious flavor to your matzah balls. 37. Schav SERVES 6 This flavorful cold Russian soup was a favorite of the Jews of Eastern Europe. Ingredients: 2 quarts water 1 lb. fresh sorrel, washed thoroughly, stemmed, ribs removed, coarsely chopped. Ribs and stems tied securely in a bundle. Kitchen string 3 eggs 1 egg yolk, cooked 1 tsp. lemon juice to taste ½ cup sour cream Bring water with sorrel leaves and bundle of ribs and stems to a boil in a nonreactive saucepan. Reduce heat to low and simmer 20-30 minutes, until leaves are soft and starting to lose texture. Discard bundle of ribs and stems. Lightly beat eggs and egg yolk with a fork in a large bowl. Slowly beat in the hot soup. When four cups soup have been added, trickle egg mixture back into the saucepan, beating constantly. Pour soup back and forth between the pot and bowl to cool it more quickly. Let cool and refrigerate until cold. Stir in lemon juice, and salt and pepper to taste just before serving. Serve with sour cream. 38. Sour Cherry Soup Serves 6 2 (24 oz.) jars pitted sour cherries in liquid 1 cup unsweetened sour or tart cherry juice (available at health food stores) 1 cup water 3 tablespoons lemon juice 1/4 cup sugar 1 cinnamon stick 2 (1/2-inch) strips lemon zest 1 1/2 cups sour cream 2 tablespoons flour Strain liquid from jarred cherries into a saucepan (there should be about 2 1/2 cups liquid), reserving cherries. Add unsweetened sour cherry juice, water, lemon juice, sugar, cinnamon stick, and lemon zest. Bring to boil, reduce heat, and simmer for ten minutes. While mixture is simmering, combine 1 cup sour cream and flour in a medium-sized bowl with a whisk and reserve. Remove cherry liquid from heat, remove lemon zest and cinnamon, and cool slightly, about three minutes. Add 1/2 cup of the cooled cherry liquid to the flour mixture and whisk until smooth. Whisk in cooled cherry liquid until combined, add reserved cherries, and simmer for five minutes, or until slightly thickened. Remove from heat and chill at least two hours. Ladle into bowls and top with additional sour cream, if desired. 39. Passover Tuscan Spinach Soup For the meatballs: 1 pound ground beef or turkey 1 egg 3/4 cup matzah meal 1/2 teaspoon oregano 1 teaspoon salt

1/2 teaspoon pepper For the soup: 1 large onion 1 celery rib 2-3 cloves of garlic olive oil 6-8 cups chicken or vegetable stock 1-2 teaspoons salt (to taste) l pound bag of fresh spinach 1/2 cup Passover couscous (optional) To make the meatballs: Place the chopped meat in a large mixing bowl. Add the egg, matzah meal, oregano, salt, and pepper. Mix gently with your hands until just homogenous; try not to work the meat too much or the meatballs might end up hard. Once the meat is mixed, roll donut-hole sized meatballs, and set on a plate. Heat 2 tablespoons of oil in a pan and brown the meatballs on all sides. When the meatballs are browned, remove with a slotted spoon and place on a plate with paper towel to remove any excess oil. Add them to the boiling soup pot as described below. To make the soup: Chop onion, celery, and garlic; set aside. Heat 2 tablespoons of olive oil in a large saucepan until very hot, but not smoking. Add the onions, celery, and garlic and cook until translucent. Add the stock and salt, raise the flame to high, and let the liquid come to a rolling boil. Once the liquid is lightly boiling, reduce the flame, and let simmer. If you are including meatballs you should add them now and let the soup simmer for another 10-15 minutes. For the last 5 minutes, add the fresh spinach or kale. Prepare the couscous as directed on the box. Once the spinach is completely wilted, add the couscous if you choose. Let sit until the couscous absorbs enough liquid that it is plump. 40. Vegetarian Chicken Soup Serves 4-6. 2 Tablespoons olive oil 1 large onion, roughly chopped 2 large carrots, peeled and roughly chopped 2 large celery stalks (with leaves), roughly chopped 1 parsnip, peeled and roughly chopped 5 large garlic cloves, smashed 1 leek, cleaned well and roughly chopped 9 cups water 2 bay leaves A handful of flat-leaf parsley, roughly chopped 1 stalk lemongrass, split into four small pieces 2 Tablespoons coarse kosher salt (or to taste) In a large stockpot, heat oil and saute onions for about 5 minutes over medium heat. Add carrots, celery, parsnip, garlic, and leeks and saute for another 3 minutes, until fragrant. Add water and bay leaves and bring to a boil. Reduce heat and let simmer for about one hour uncovered. After one hour, add lemongrass, parsley, and salt, and simmer for another thirty minutes. Let soup cool a bit, then strain into a large bowl using a cheesecloth or mesh strainer. If desired, add some of the vegetables back (discard the rest). Serve hot as is or with matzah balls, noodles, kreplach, etc.

IV. SIDE-DISHES - 23 Recipes 41. Beet & Potato Frittata 1 pound beets (include yellow beets, if available) 1 pound new potatoes (include purple potatoes, if available) 6 eggs, lightly beaten A handful of chives and parsley, or any mixture of fresh herbs, minced Dash of salt and pepper Olive oil for the pan Peel and slice the beets and potatoes on a mandoline. If you don't have a mandoline, slice as thinly as possible with a regular knife. Add a splash of olive oil into a shallow, oven-proof pan and add the beets and potatoes. You can layer these in a pattern or just throw them in. Add a dash of salt and pepper. Cook the beets and potatoes either in the oven at 375 degrees or over medium-low heat on the stove, covered, for about 30 minutes. If you use the stovetop, preheat the oven to 350 degrees. When the vegetables are tender, stir in the eggs and most of the herbs (save a small amount for a garnish), and use a fork to make sure the eggs get to every part of the pan. Place the pan in the oven at 350 degrees for about 20 minutes, or until the eggs are cooked through. Garnish with the rest of the minced herbs. Serve hot or at room temperature. 42. Fish with Lemon-Egg Sauce Serves 4, but can easily be adjusted for more guests 1 onion, sliced 1 carrot, sliced diagonally 2 celery stalks, sliced diagonally 2 bay leaves salt and pepper 4 fish steaks or fillets, or a whole side of fish for a crowd 2 teaspoons cornstarch 2 eggs juice of 1 1/2 lemons 1 tablespoon sugar chopped parsley for garnish Place the onion, carrot, celery, and bay leaves in a wide, shallow pan. Pour 3 cups of water, or enough to eventually cover the fish, into the pan. Add a dash of salt and pepper, and simmer on medium-low heat for about 10-15 minutes. Place the fish in the pan and simmer on low heat for another 10-15 minutes. Turn off the heat, and ladle off about 1 3/4 cups of the water into a smaller sauce pan, to create a stock. Make a paste with the cornstarch and a bit of cold water in a separate small bowl, and add it to the separated stock. Bring to a boil. In a separate bowl, beat the eggs, and stir in the lemon and sugar. Add a few spoonfuls of the stock to the egg mixture to prevent the eggs from curdling, then pour the whole egg/lemon mixture into the hot stock while stirring. Stir until the sauce thickens a bit, but do not let it come to a boil. Remove the fish from the pan. Remove the bay leaves and garnish with the carrots, celery, and parsley, and pour the sauce over it. Serve hot or at room temperature. 43. Apple-Pear-Cranberry Kugel

This kugel has a very light souffle-like texture. If you prefer a denser, more custardlike texture, do not separate the eggs in the final stages of preparation. Serves 8 10 2 pounds tart apples 1/2 pound pears 6 oz cranberries (half a bag of frozen cranberries) 3/4 cup currants or raisins (or both) optional 1/2 cup white wine or water 1/4 cup white sugar 1/4 cup brown sugar 6 eggs, separated Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Peel and core the apples and pears, and cut them in half. Put them in a pan with the cranberries, and the raisins, if you are using them. Add the wine or water and cover. Cook on low heat for about 20 minutes, or until the apples fall apart. Mash the fruit into large chunks with a fork and add both sugars. Cook over medium-low heat for another 5 minutes. Turn off the heat and allow the mixture to cool. When the mixture has cooled a bit, add the egg yolks to the pan and stir well. Beat the egg whites in a clean bowl with an electric mixer until they form stiff peaks. Gently fold the egg whites into the fruit mixture. Pour into an oiled or buttered baking dish and bake for about 40-50 minutes, or until the top browns. Serve hot or at room temperature. 44. Potato Latkes SERVES 6 This is one of the most famous of Jewish foods and a specialty of Hanukkah. The latkes are served as an appetizer, as a side dish, and even for tea with a sprinkling of confectioners' sugar. They can be marvelous if properly prepared, just before eating. 2 lbs (1 kg) potatoes 2 large eggs Salt Oil for frying Peel and finely grate the potatoes. Put them straight into cold water, then drain and squeeze them as dry as you can by pressing them with your hands in a colander. This is to remove the starchy liquid, which could make the latkes soggy. Beat the eggs lightly with salt, add to the potatoes, and stir well. Film the bottom of a frying pan with oil and heat. Take serving-spoonfuls, or as much as 1/4 cup (50 ml), of the mixture and drop into the hot oil. Flatten a little, and lower the heat so that the fritters cook through evenly. When one side is brown, turn over and brown the other. Lift out and serve very hot. VARIATION You may add black pepper, chopped parsley, and finely chopped onion to the egg and potato mixture. Adding 4 tablespoons of potato flour binds the fritters into firmer, more compact cakes, easier to handle but not quite as lovely to eat. 45. Plov Serves 8-10 2 tablespoons canola oil 2 medium Idaho potatoes, peeled, each cut into 8 wedges

1 1/2 lbs. cubed beef or lamb stew meat, preferably a bit fatty 1 large onion, diced (about 3 cups) 1 head garlic, peeled and minced 1 tablespoon ground cumin 2 dried red peppers 10 whole black peppercorns 1 teaspoons kosher salt 3 large carrots, peeled, trimmed and cut into long thin strips 1 1/2 cups soaked (uncooked) chick peas 5 1/2 cups beef stock or lamb stock (or water), plus more if necessary 2 cups white rice, rinsed until water runs clear kosher salt and pepper to taste Heat oil over medium-high heat in a large braising pan or Dutch oven. Sear potatoes on all sides until light brown and crisp but still uncooked on the inside, about 1-2 minutes per side. Add meat and cook until browned on all sides, about 6-7 minutes total. Add onions, garlic, cumin, dried pepper and peppercorns and cook until onions are soft and slightly browned, about 10 minutes. Reduce heat to low, cover and cook an additional 10 minutes. Uncover, raise heat to medium, add carrots and cook until slightly soft, about 7 minutes. Add chick peas, stock or water and salt and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to a simmer and cook until chick peas are softer but still partially uncooked, about 25-30 minutes. Sprinkle rice on top of mixture; liquid should just cover rice (add a bit more stock if necessary). Simmer vigorously for about 20 minutes, until the rice is cooked and most of the liquid is absorbed. Reduce heat to very low, cover and steam dish an additional 15 to 20 minutes to further tenderize rice. Remove from heat and let rest for 5 minutes. To serve, transfer rice to a large serving platter. Taste stew and season with salt and pepper to taste. Ladle stew over rice. 46. Riso Del Sabato SERVES 4 TO 6 5 to 6 cups chicken or beef broth, or part water and part broth 2 tablespoons olive oil or rendered chicken fat 2 cloves garlic, minced 3 tablespoons chopped fresh flat-leaf parsley 1 1/2 cups Arborio rice 1/4 teaspoon chopped saffron threads, infused in 2 tablespoons hot broth 3/4 cup grapes, or golden raisins plumped in white wine for 30 minutes (optional) Salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste Pour the broth (or water and broth) into a saucepan and bring to a simmer; adjust the heat to maintain a gentle simmer. Warm the olive oil or chicken fat in a large deep saute pan over medium heat. Add the garlic and parsley and saute for a few minutes until softened. Add the rice and stir until opaque, about three minutes. Add a ladleful (about one cup) of the simmering broth and stir for three to four minutes until the liquid is absorbed. Reduce the heat and continue to add broth a ladleful at a time, waiting until each addition is absorbed before adding the next, until the rice kernels are al dente in the center and creamy on the outside, 18 to 20 minutes in all. Add the saffron and its broth about halfway through, and add the grapes or raisins during the last addition of broth, if using. Season with salt and pepper. Remove from the heat and transfer to a warmed serving dish. Serve immediately. 47. Braised Fennel with Raisins and Pine Nuts

Serves 6 6 medium fennel bulbs 1/4 cup olive oil 5 cloves garlic, sliced 1 1/2 teaspoons salt 1/2 cup golden raisins 2 cups chicken stock or vegetable stock zest of 1 lemon (about 1 tablespoon) 1 tablespoon lemon juice, or more to taste Trim stalks and fronds (the green parts of the vegetable) from fennel bulbs, reserving fronds. Slice bulbs in half. Using a sharp knife, cut out tough inner root (it will be white in color) from each half. Slice fennel into 1-inch thick slices, rinse, and dry. Heat olive oil in a large stockpot over medium heat. Add garlic and cook until softened but not browned, about 3 minutes. Add fennel and cook 2 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add salt and chicken stock and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to a simmer, cover, and cook 10 minutes. Remove cover, add raisins, stir, cover, and cook an additional 5 minutes. Remove from heat, add lemon juice and lemon zest, and stir to incorporate. Transfer fennel to a bowl and spoon some of the liquid from the pot over the fennel. Top with pine nuts and fennel fronds and serve warm. 48. Chick Peas for Purim Makes about 2 cups One 20-ounce can chick peas or garbanzo beans Salt to taste Freshly ground pepper to taste 1. Place the chick peas with the liquid from the can in a saucepan. Simmer a few minutes, until heated through. 2. Drain the water. Sprinkle with salt and freshly ground pepper to taste. Serve in a dish with toothpicks, or eat the chick peas as you would sunflower seeds or peanuts. 49. Herbed Parsnip-Sweet Potato Pancakes Makes 18-20 pancakes I prefer not to use flour in these latkes, but if you like your pancakes to hold together more firmly, add 2 tablespoons of flour to the batter 2 large parsnips (about 12 oz), peeled 2 medium sweet potatoes (about 12 oz), peeled 2-3 shallots, thinly sliced (about 2/3 cup) 1 teaspoon salt 4 egg whites 1 1 /2 teaspoons chopped thyme 3/4 cup canola oil for frying Accompaniments: Sour Cream or Crème Fraiche Using a food processor or box grater, grate parsnips and sweet potatoes. In a large mixing bowl, combine parsnips, sweet potatoes, shallots, salt, egg whites, and thyme. Heat oil in a heavy skillet over medium heat. Working in batches, spoon 1/4 cup batter at a time on to the skillet and press down with a fork to flatten. Fry for 2-3 minutes per side, until crisp and browned. Drain on paper towels and keep warm for up to one hour in a 200°F oven. Serve with sour cream or crème fraiche. 50. Sweet Sweet Potato Latke (Pareve)

Preparation Time: 15 minutes Frying Time: About 10 minutes per batch 2 lbs. sweet potatoes or yams 2 Tbs. matzoh meal or flour 2 eggs 1 tsp. baking powder 1 - 2 tsp. cinnamon (to taste) 1/4 tsp. nutmeg 1/4 tsp. cloves peanut oil Peel and grate sweet potatoes and remove any excess moisture (can put in dish towel or cheesecloth and squeeze out moisture). Beat eggs and add one at a time, mixing well. Add matzoh meal or flour and baking powder. Add spices and mix well. Heat oil until hot and put large spoonful for each pancake. Cook until brown and flip. Makes about 18 - 20 pancakes. Note: For fluffier pancakes, separate eggs. Separate and add yolks where "add eggs." Beat egg whites until stiff. Fold in egg whites after all other ingredients have been mixed in. 51. Gingered Sweet Potato Latke (Pareve) Preparation Time: 15 minutes Frying Time: About 10 minutes per batch Use same recipe as above, except: 1. Eliminate spices except for 1/4 tsp. clove 2. Add 2-1/2 tsp. fresh ginger or 1 tsp. powdered ginger 3. Add 1 tsp. tamari or soy sauce 4. Add two finely diced scallions 52. Curried Sweet Potato Latke (Pareve or Dairy) Preparation Time: 15 minutes Frying Time: About 10 minutes per batch 2 lbs. sweet potatoes or yams 1 apple 1/4 cup milk or soymilk 1/3 cup matzoh meal or flour 3 eggs 1 tsp. baking powder 1 tsp. curry 1/4 tsp. cayenne 1/4 tsp. cumin 1/8 tsp. fresh ginger 1/4 tsp. garlic peanut oil Grate sweet potatoes and apple. Remove any excess moisture (can put in dish towel or cheesecloth and squeeze out moisture). Beat eggs and add one at a time, mixing well (see note above for separating eggs for fluffier pancakes). Add milk. Add matzoh meal or flour and baking powder. Add spices and mix well. Heat oil until hot and put large spoonful for each pancake. Cook until brown and flip. Makes about 18 - 20 pancakes. 53. Green Latkes (Pareve) Preparation Time: 15 minutes Frying Time: About 10 minutes per batch

2 medium zucchini 1 large potato 1 small onion 3 Tbs. matzoh meal or flour 1 tsp. baking powder 2 eggs 1/2 tsp. salt or soy sauce 1/2 tsp. pepper peanut oil Grate zucchini and potato. Remove excess water (can put in dish towel or cheesecloth and squeeze out moisture). Beat eggs and add one at a time, mixing well (see note above for separating eggs for fluffier pancakes). Add matzoh meal or flour and baking powder. Add spices and mix well. Heat oil until hot and put large spoonful for each pancake. Cook until brown and flip. Makes about 12 - 18 pancakes. 54. Colorful Veggie Latkes (Pareve) Preparation Time: 15 minutes Frying Time: About 10 minutes per batch 1 medium zucchini 2 carrots 2 yellow finn potatoes 1 red pepper Proceed as with green latkes, except substituting vegetables. I've included a cheese latke to honor Judith. Judith fed the Assyrian general salty cheese pancakes which made him drink much wine. He got drunk and fell asleep and Judith cut off his head, saving the Jews from death by his command. 55. Cheese Latkes (Dairy) Preparation Time: 15 minutes Frying Time: About 10 minutes per batch 2 potatoes 2/3 pound of farmer's cheese, dry cottage cheese, or dry feta cheese 2 eggs 2-1/2 Tbs. matzoh meal or flour 1/4 tsp. baking powder 1/4 tsp. salt or tamari (eliminate if using feta cheese) 1/2 tsp. pepper 1 tsp. garlic or 2 garlic cloves peanut oil Peel, cube, and boil potatoes. Mash. Add cheese. Beat eggs well and add. Add matzoh meal or flour, baking powder, and spices. Heat oil until hot and put large spoonful for each pancake. Cook until brown and flip. Variation: Use one potato and 10 oz. package of spinach (frozen or cooked), well drained and chopped. This is especially tasty if you're using feta. While there's nothing like the traditional applesauce and sour cream, here's a bit of variation. It's easy to make and tastes great. 56. Apple Pear Sauce (Pareve) Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: About 20 minutes 8 medium apples 5 medium pears

3 tsp. lemon rind 1 tsp. cinnamon (or to taste) Core and cut apples and pears. Cover well with water and cook until soft. Stir occasionally to prevent sticking. Put through foley food mill or force through colander to remove skins and seeds. Mix in lemon rind and cinnamon. 57. Apple Cranberry Sauce (Pareve) Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 20 minutes 9 medium apples 1/2 bag of fresh cranberries 1/2 cup honey or to taste 1 tsp. lemon rind Core and cut apples. Cover well with water and cook until soft. Stir occasionally to prevent sticking. Cover cranberries with water and cook until very soft (about twenty minutes). Drain. Put apples through foley food mill or force through colander to remove skins and seeds. Add cranberries, honey, and lemon rind. 58. Cheese Lokshen Kugel SERVES 6 This deliciously creamy noodle dish is a specialty of Shavuot. It can be savory or sweet. 10 oz (300 g) medium egg noodles 4 tablespoons butter Salt 2 eggs 1/2 lb (250 g) curd or cream cheese 2 cups (500 ml) sour cream A good pinch of nutmeg (optional) Cook the noodles in boiling salted water till tender, then drain, and mix with the butter. At the same time, in a large bowl, with a fork, beat the eggs with the curd or cream cheese, then beat in the sour cream. Add salt and nutmeg, if using, and mix in the cooked pasta. Pour into a baking dish and bake at 350 F (180 C) for 30 minutes, or until set. Variations Use vermicelli instead of flat noodles. This kugel can also be a sweet dessert. In this case, do not add salt or nutmeg to the cheese mixture. Add instead 1/2 cup (125 g) sugar, the grated zest of an orange or a lemon and 3/4 cup (100 g) black or golden raisins, or dried pitted cherries. 59. Tzimmes of Yesteryear Serves 15 Carrots: 1 pound carrots, peeled and sliced in rounds 1 cup brown sugar A squirt of honey 4 or 5 prunes (optional) Kneidlach: 1 pound schmaltz--unrendered/raw chicken fat (or 3 sticks margarine, if you must) 2 white onions 1 pound flour (a mixture of white flour and course semolina is optimal)

11/2 teaspoons salt 1/2 teaspoon course ground pepper Optional A piece brisket or flanken 1 white onion Salt and pepper Place the carrots in a bowl. Add the sugar and honey. Stir well and let sit in the refrigerator at least a few hours, preferably overnight. Preheat the oven to 400 degrees and place the carrot-sugar mixture in a large casserole dish. Add the prunes if you're using them. Chop the onions and place in another bowl. Chop the schmaltz and add to the onions. Add the flour salt and pepper. Start mixing with a wooden spoon and then knead with your hands until it becomes doughy. Roll the dough like a sausage and place it in the center of the casserole dish, with the carrot mixture. If including the optional meat, rub the brisket with salt and pepper. Sautee an onion and pan-sear the brisket in the same pan. Bury the meat under the carrots, together with the kneidlach mixture. The carrots should have released some liquid. Depending on the amount of moisture, add some water--just enough so the carrots are covered. Cover the dish and place it in the oven. After 15 minutes, turn the temperature down to 320 degrees. Cook for about three to four hours, checking periodically to make sure the dish doesn't boil over. Can be frozen and reheated. 60. Tzimmes of Tomorrow Serves 6 1 tablespoon olive oil A small bunch of scallions, a leek, or a bunch of chives 1 pound carrots, peeled and sliced 1/4 cup honey (or a little less of agave nectar) 1 cup apple juice or apple cider 1/4 teaspoon salt Choose three of the following (what suits your taste): 1 cinnamon stick (discard before serving) 1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg 1 teaspoon ground cumin 1/2 teaspoon freshly grated ginger 2 teaspoons chopped fresh mint 2 or 3 cloves in cheesecloth (discard before serving) 1/4 cup coarsely chopped shelled walnuts or pistachios Sautee the onions in the oil for a minute. Add the carrots and when browned, add everything else, including whatever spices you've chosen. Bring to a boil in a large pot. Reduce the heat to low, cover, and simmer for 15 minutes, or until the carrots are very soft. Remove and discard cinnamon stick and cloves before serving. 61. Savory Sausage Stuffing If you are a vegetarian, simply replace meat sausage with veggie breakfast sausage patties. Ingredients: 4-5 cups leftover bread, cut or broken into chunks 4 celery ribs 1 yellow onion 2-3 garlic cloves

1/4 teaspoon fresh or dried sage leaves Olive oil 2 cups beef sausage (or vegetarian sausage) 1-2 cups chicken or vegetable stock 1 egg Salt and pepper to taste Chop celery and onion into small to medium pieces depending on your taste; chop garlic into small pieces. Set aside. Take sausage out of casings, and break into pieces. Sautee sausage in frying pan with 1-2 tablespoons of olive oil until browned. Remove from pan with a slotted spoon and set aside. Sautee celery, onion, and garlic in the leftover oil until translucent. Add sage leaves during the last 1-2 minutes of cooking. Grease a 9x13 baking pan, pyrex, or aluminum pan on all sides. Put bread pieces in pan. Add sausage and cooked celery and onion mixture, and toss together. Add chicken or vegetable stock and mix together; add egg and mix together. (The mixture will be a little slimy, but that?s good - it will mean a moist stuffing) Cover with aluminum foil and bake at 350 degrees for 30 minutes. Remove foil and bake for another 15 minutes. 62. Cereal Coated Fish Bites or Chicken Fingers This recipe can be used with cornflakes, bran flakes, Chex, Rice Krispies--whatever your heart desires though I would probably steer away from Fruity Pebbles or Cinnamon Toast Crunch. Alternatively, you can use potato chips or vegetable chips. Ingredients: 2 white fish filets such as flounder, tilapia, or cod cut in pieces (you can also use 2-3 chicken breasts cut in pieces) 2-3 cups flour 1 teaspoon salt 1 1/2 teaspoons pepper 1/2teaspoon cayenne pepper 2-3 eggs 2 cups cereal of your choice, crushed Oil Cut fish or chicken into strips and set aside. Place cereal in a sealable plastic bag, and pound until broken up. You can use a pot, heavy bottle, or rolling pin for pounding. In a shallow baking dish spread 2 cups of flour mixed with the pepper, salt, and cayenne pepper. In another bowl, crack eggs and beat lightly with a fork. Take a strip of fish or chicken and dip it first in the flour mixture, then dip it in the egg, and finally dip it in the crushed cereal. Repeat until all strips are coated. This process is called dredging. Coat a frying pan with oil and place on medium heat. When the oil is warm (but not so hot it is sizzling or smoking), place coated strips of fish or chicken in the pan and cook on each side. The cooking time is approximately 2-3 minutes per side, but it will vary depending on whether you are using fish or chicken and how large each strip is. Serve with condiment of your choice. 63. Yerushalmi Kugel Serves 10-12 One 16-oz. package thin egg noodles 1/2 cup canola oil 1 cup sugar 6 eggs, beaten

1 1/2 teaspoons kosher salt 1 tablespoon finely ground black pepper Preheat oven to 350°F. Cook noodles according to package directions; rinse and drain well. In a heavy skillet, combine oil and sugar over medium heat. Cook, stirring constantly, until sugar is very dark but not burnt, about 11-12 minutes. Remove from heat. In a large bowl, quickly combine drained noodles and caramelized sugar. Stir to incorporate. Let cool at least 10 minutes, then add eggs, salt, and pepper and stir to combine. Grease the bottom and sides of a 6-quart soup pot or Dutch oven and pour noodle mixture into pot. Do not cover pot. Bake for 2 hours, or until kugel is very dark brown and top is crusty. Note: if you prefer a more traditional kugel, yielding flatter, square servings, bake in a greased 9" x 13" casserole for about 75 minutes. V. VEGETARIAN ENTREES - 11 Recipes 64. Atayef (stuffed Syrian pancakes) Makes 48 pancakes Adapted from A Fistful of Lentils (Harvard Common Press) by Jennifer Felicia Abadi. For Rosewater Syrup: 3/4 cup cold water 2 cups sugar 1 tablespoon plus 2 teaspoons rose water 1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice For Filling: 1/2 cup cold water 1/2 cup whole milk 3 heaping tablespoons dried cream of rice cereal 1 1/2 tablespoons sugar 1 teaspoon rose water (optional) 1 cup whole-milk ricotta cheese For Pancakes: 2 cups unbleached all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon baking soda 1/2 teaspoon baking powder 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon sugar 1 egg, lightly beaten 2 cups plus 1 1/2 tablespoons lukewarm water 2 cups vegetable oil Make the Syrup: Bring the water and sugar to a boil in a medium saucepan. Reduce heat and simmer, stirring occasionally, for 12-15 minutes, until liquid thickens slightly. Remove from heat and immediately stir in rosewater and lemon juice. Cool, then transfer to an airtight container. Refrigerate until very cold, for 5-6 hours or overnight. Keeps for up to 1 month in the refrigerator. Make the Filling: Combine the water and milk in a saucepan and bring to a boil. Add the cereal, lower heat and stir for 30 seconds. Remove from heat, cover and let stand for 3 minutes. Transfer to a medium-sized bowl and add the sugar, rose water, and ricotta. Mix well to combine and reserve. Make the Pancakes: Combine the flour, baking soda, baking powder, salt, and sugar in a large bowl. Add the egg and blend well.

Grease a large skillet or griddle with oil and heat until very hot. Pour batter, about 1 1/2 tablespoons at a time, onto the skillet to form 3-inch round pancakes. When undersides are browned and pancakes appear dry, remove to a platter and reserve. While pancakes are still warm place a heaping tablespoonful of cheese filling in the center of each pancake. Fold pancake in half and pinch edges with fingers until wellsealed (do six pancakes at a time, then fry, to ensure that the pancakes are warm enough to make the edges seal together). Heat 1 cup oil over medium-high heat in a medium saucepan. Using a slotted spoon gently lower the pancakes into the hot oil 23 at a time and fry until dark brown, being careful not to burn, 1 1/2 to 2 minutes. Remove the pancakes from the oil and immediately submerge in the syrup, turning to coat and soaking for 1 minute, adding additional syrup as necessary. Drain pancakes in a colander and serve warm or at room temperature. 65. Blintzes MAKES 12 Blintzes are of Hungarian origin. Pancakes of every kind with various fillings, called "palacsinta," are common in Hungary. For the Pancakes 1 cup (150 g) flour 1-1/4 cups (300 ml) milk 2/3 cup (150 ml) water 1 egg 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon oil plus more for greasing the pan For the Filling 1 lb (500 g) curd cheese 1/2 lb (250 g) cream cheese 1/2 cup (100 g) or more sugar, to taste Zest of 1-1/2 lemons 3 egg yolks A few drops of vanilla extract (optional) 3/4 cup (100 g) currants or raisins soaked in a little rum for 1/2 hour (optional) 2-3 tablespoons melted unsalted butter Confectioners' sugar to sprinkle on (optional) 2 teaspoons cinnamon to sprinkle on (optional) Sour cream to pass around Add the milk and water to the flour gradually, beating vigorously. Add the egg, salt, and oil and beat the batter until smooth. Leave to rest for 1-2 hours. Heat a preferably nonstick frying pan--with a bottom not wider than 8 inches (20 cm)--and grease very slightly with oil. Pour about half the pan around until its entire surface is covered with batter. The batter and the resulting pancake should be thin. As soon as the pancake is slightly browned and detached, turn it over with a spatula and cook a moment only on the other side. Continue until all the batter is used and put the pancakes in a pile. For the filling, blend the curd and cream cheese with the sugar, lemon zest, egg yolks, and vanilla, if you like, in a food processor. Then stir in the raisins, if using. Take each pancake, 1 at a time, put 2 heaping tablespoons of filling on the bottom half, fold the edge of the pancake over the filling, tuck in the sides so that it is trapped, and roll up into a slim roll. Place the rolls side by side in a greased oven dish. Sprinkle with butter and bake in a preheated 375 F (190 C) oven for 20 minutes. Serve hot, dusted with confectioners' sugar and cinnamon, if you like, and pass the sour cream for people to help themselves if they want to. Variations For an apple filling: Peel and core 2 lbs (1 kg) apples. Steam in a pan with the lid on

and only a drop of water. Then puree and sweeten with sugar to taste, and add 1 teaspoon cinnamon and a few gratings of nutmeg. For a cherry filling: Pit 2 lbs (1 kg) cherries and steam them in a pan with the lid on. Some mix this with 1/2 cup (75 g) ground almonds and 2 or 3 drops of almond extract. 66. Strawberry Rhubarb Blintzes This recipe highlights one of spring's most dazzling fruit and vegetable combinations and makes 10-12 blintzes. Filling: 2 1/2 cups sliced rhubarb (about 1/2 pound) 1 cup sliced strawberries 1/3 cup sugar 1 teaspoon orange zest Make the filling first. Combine ingredients in a saucepan and cook over medium heat until the rhubarb is tender and the juice has thickened slightly--about 8-10 minutes. Remove from heat and allow to fully cool before using. Blintz leaves: 1 cup flour 1 cup milk 3 eggs 2 teaspoons sugar Pinch of salt Combine ingredients in a blender and mix until smooth. Let the mixture rest for about 15-20 minutes. Place a non-stick pan over medium heat--ideally, the pan should be about 8 inches in diameter. Coat with a little butter. Pour 3-4 Tablespoons of batter in the pan and quickly pick the pan up off the heat and swirl it around to spread the batter thinly and evenly around the pan. Cook until the top is dry and the bottom is golden. Remove the blintz wrapper with a spatula and place it on a piece of wax paper. Continue cooking the wrappers, stacking them on the wax paper as you go. When the wrappers are cool, spoon about 2 Tablespoons of filling onto the center of the uncooked side of the blintz wrapper. Fold the two sides of the wrapper to the center. Starting at the bottom, fold the wrapper up approximately 1/3 of the way. Then, moving in the same direction, fold it up again to create a rectangular package. (If you/your family has a different folding method, feel free to improvise.) From here, the blintzes can be wrapped tightly and frozen for up to one month. When you're ready to eat, heat a little butter in a large skillet over medium heat. When the butter is bubbly, place the blintzes, seam side down and cook until golden on both sides. Transfer blintz to a paper towel or plate. Serve immediately, sprinkled with powdered sugar or with a dollop of sour cream. 67. Falafel YIELD: ABOUT 20 BALLS 1 cup dried chickpeas 1 teaspoon cumin Half a large onion, roughly chopped (about 1 cup) 1 teaspoon baking powder 4-6 tablespoons flour 2 tablespoons finely chopped fresh parsley Soybean or vegetable oil for frying Chopped tomato for garnish 2 tablespoons finely chopped fresh cilantro

Diced onion for garnish 1 teaspoon salt Diced green bell pepper for garnish 1 teaspoon dried hot red pepper Tahina sauce 4 cloves garlic Pita bread 1. Put the chickpeas in a large bowl and add enough cold water to cover them by at least 2 inches. Let soak overnight, then drain. Or use canned chickpeas, drained. 2. Place the drained, uncooked chickpeas and the onions in the bowl of a food processor fitted with a steel blade. Add the parsley, cilantro, salt, hot pepper, garlic, and cumin. Process until blended but not pureed. 3. Sprinkle in the baking powder and 4 tablespoons of the flour, and pulse. You want to add enough bulgur or flour so that the dough forms a small ball and no longer sticks to your hands. Turn into a bowl and refrigerate, covered, for several hours. 4. Form the chickpea mixture into balls about the size of walnuts, or use a falafel scoop, available in Middle Eastern markets. 5. Heat 3 inches of oil to 375 degrees in a deep pot or wok and fry 1 ball to test. If it falls apart, add a little flour. Then fry about 6 balls at once for a few minutes on each side, or until golden brown. Drain on paper towels. Stuff half a pita with falafel balls, chopped tomatoes, onion, green pepper, and pickled turnips. Drizzle with tahina thinned with water. Note: Egyptians omit the cilantro and substitute fava beans for the chickpeas. 68. Fassoulyeh b'Chuderah A vegetarian bean stew with cinnamon and tomato. Serves 6-8 l lb. (2 1/2 cups) dried cannelini or navy beans 3 tablespoons vegetable oil or olive oil 1 large onion, chopped (about 2 1/2 cups) 2 tablespoons minced garlic one 6-oz. can tomato paste one 14-oz. can diced tomatoes with juice 4 cups cold water or vegetable broth 1 tablespoon lightly packed brown sugar 1 1/2 teaspoons ground cinnamon 1 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon black pepper cooked rice Cover the beans with cold water and remove any rocks, dirt, or other debris from the surface of the water. Drain water and transfer to a 4-quart saucepan. Cover with water, bring to a boil, reduce heat, and simmer vigorously until beans are just cooked but not soft, about 45 minutes. Drain water and reserve beans. Heat the oil in a heavy soup pot over medium-high heat. Cook the onions, stirring, until translucent, about 4-5 minutes. Add garlic and cook 1 additional minute; do not burn. Add the tomato paste and cook, stirring constantly, about 2 minutes. Add diced tomatoes, water, brown sugar, cinnamon, salt, and pepper and stir to combine. Return to a boil, then reduce heat, cover, and simmer over medium-low heat until beans are very soft and liquid has thickened considerably, about 1 1/2-2 hours. Serve in bowls over basmati rice. 69. Kasha Varnishkes Buckwheat with bowtie noodles.

Serves 6 1 cup kasha 1 egg 1 large onion, diced 1 teaspoon salt, divided 2 tablespoons canola oil 1 cup egg bowtie pasta (wheat pasta is an acceptable substitute) 2 cups low sodium chicken broth or water 1/4 teaspoon fresh ground pepper, or more to taste. Heat oil in a 3- or 4-quart saucepan over medium heat. Saute onions until golden and edges are slightly charred, about 10-12 minutes. Transfer from saucepan to a plate, scraping as much of the onion from the saucepan as possible. While onions are cooking, cook pasta according to package directions, drain and reserve. Beat egg in a small bowl. Add kasha and stir until kasha is well coated with egg. In the same pan used to cook the onions, heat kasha over medium heat, stirring constantly, until egg is cooked away and kasha separates into individual grains. Add chicken broth or water and bring to a boil. Reduce to a low simmer, cover and cook until kasha absorbs liquid, about 10 minutes. Remove from heat. Remove cover, add onions and pasta, recover, and let sit an additional 10 minutes. Season with additional salt and pepper to taste. 70. Passover Spinach and Cheese Lasagna A year-round favorite reimagined for Passover. Serves 12 one 1 lb package frozen spinach, completely defrosted 3 cups (1 1/2 lbs) small-curd cottage cheese 3 cups (3/4 lb) shredded mozzarella cheese 1/2 cup shredded parmesan cheese 1/4 cup chopped parsley 3/4 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon black pepper 2 jars (about 6 1/2-7 cups) marinara sauce 8 or 9 whole boards matzah (regular or whole-wheat) Preheat oven to 400°F. Combine cottage cheese, 1 1/2 cups mozzarella, parsley, salt, and pepper in a bowl and stir to incorporate. Reserve. Using your hands, squeeze excess moisture from spinach and separate spinach until it is no longer clumped (you should end up with about 3 1/2-4 cups spinach). Reserve. Spoon 3/4 cup marinara sauce into the bottom of a disposable, high-sided lasagna pan. Fit matzah to cover as much of the bottom of the pan as possible, breaking into pieces where necessary. Pour 1 1/2 cups sauce on top of matzah and distribute evenly. Spoon about 1 cup of the cheese mixture onto the matzah and distribute evenly. Sprinkle about 1 1/4 cups of the spinach on top of the cheese, then sprinkle 2 tablespoons parmesan cheese. Repeat matzah-sauce-cheese-spinach-parmesan process two more times, then cover with a fourth layer of matzah. Pour remaining 1 1/2 cups sauce on top of matzah. Let lasagna rest for 15 minutes before baking to allow matzah to moisten slightly. Cover lasagna with foil and bake for 35 minutes. Remove foil and sprinkle remaining 1 1/2 cups mozzarella on top of lasagna. Reduce oven temperature to 350°F and bake lasagna an additional 30 minutes, until cheese is bubbly and browned around the edges. Remove from oven, let rest for 5 minutes, and serve hot. 71. Pizza Ebraica di Erbe Double-crusted vegetable pie

SERVES 8 For the Pastry 2 1/2 cups all-purpose flour 1/2 teaspoon salt 8 to 10 tablespoons chilled unsalted butter or margarine 1 egg, lightly beaten 2 to 4 tablespoons water, or as needed For the Filling Juice of 1 lemon 3 large or 5 medium artichokes Olive oil 1 large onion, diced I large bunch fresh flat-leaf parsley, chopped (about 1/3 cup) 1 pound beet greens or spinach, coarsely chopped 2 pounds English peas, shelled (about 2 cups shelled) 1 tablespoon salt 1/2 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper 1/2 teaspoon freshly grated nutmeg, or to taste 2 eggs, lightly beaten Olive oil or lightly beaten egg for coating pastry To make the pastry, stir together the flour and salt in a bowl or in the container of a food processor. Cut in the butter or margarine until the mixture resembles coarse meal. Blend in the egg and as much water as needed for the dough to come together into a rough ball. Divide the dough in into two pieces, one slightly larger than the other, and flatten each portion into a disk. Place the disks in a plastic bag and refrigerate for one hour. To make the filling, have ready a large bowl filled with water to which you have added the lemon juice. Working with one artichoke at a time, remove the stems and all the leaves until you reach the pale green heart. Pare away the dark green areas from the base. Cut the artichoke in half lengthwise and scoop out and discard the choke from each half. Then cut each half lengthwise into 1/4-inch-thick slices and drop into the lemon water to prevent discoloration. Pour enough olive oil into a large saute pan to form a film on the bottom and place over medium heat. Add the onion and parsley and saute three to four minutes. Drain the artichokes and add to the pan along with the greens and peas. Reduce the heat to low, cover, and cook slowly until the mixture is almost dry, 10 to 15 minutes. Remove from the heat, let cool, and season with the salt, pepper, and nutmeg. Mix in the eggs. Preheat an oven to 375 degrees F. On a lightly floured work surface, roll out the larger pastry disk into an l1-inch round about 1/8 inch thick. Carefully transfer to a 9-inch tart pan with a removable bottom. Spoon in the filling. Roll out the remaining pastry disk in the same way into a 10-inch round. Carefully place over the filling. Trim any excessive overhang, then turn under the pastry edges and pinch together. Cut a few steam vents in the top crust, then brush with olive oil or beaten egg. Bake until the crust is golden, 30 to 40 minutes. Remove from the oven and place on a rack to cool. Serve warm or at room temperature. Notes If you are worried about the bottom crust becoming soggy, sprinkle a thin layer of fine dried bread crumbs over the pastry before adding the filling. Alternatively, blind bake the bottom crust for 15 minutes, lining it with pie weights, let cool, and then add the filling. This vegetable filling is suitable for making scacchi, a matzah pie. Use it in place of the meat filling, and substitute vegetable broth for the meat broth.

72. Polenta A staple of Italian Jewish cooking SERVES 3 TO 4 1 cup polenta (not instant) 1 teaspoon salt, plus salt to taste 4 cups water or as needed 3 to 4 tablespoons unsalted butter (optional) 1/3 cup grated Parmesan cheese (optional) Combine the polenta, one teaspoon salt, and water in a heavy-bottomed saucepan and place over medium heat. Bring to a gentle boil, whisking occasionally. Adjust the heat to maintain a gentle simmer and cook, stirring often, until very thick and no longer grainy on the tongue, about 30 minutes. If the polenta thickens too quickly but still feels undercooked and grainy, stir in some hot water and continue to cook until it is cooked through and soft. Season to taste with salt and add the butter or cheese, if desired. Serve warm right out of the pot. You may hold it over hot water in a double boiler for a half hour or so, adding hot water as needed to keep it soft and spoonable. Or pour the polenta out onto a buttered or oiled 9-by-12-inch baking pan or baking sheet, let cool, cover, and refrigerate until fully set. Cut the polenta into strips or triangles while it is still in the pan. To saute, cook the polenta strips or triangles over high heat in clarified butter or olive oil in a nonstick or cast-iron frying pan until golden on both sides. To bake, preheat an oven to 400 degrees F. Place the polenta strips or triangles in buttered gratin dishes and sprinkle with grated Parmesan cheese. Bake until golden and crusty, 20 to 30 minutes. To deep-fry, coat the strips or triangles with flour, then beaten egg, then bread crumbs. Deep-fry a few pieces at a time in olive oil heated to 350 degrees F. Drain on paper towels. Serve hot. 73. Sabich An Iraqi Jewish classic. Serves 4 one 1-lb eggplant, sliced into 1/2-inch rounds 3/4 teaspoon kosher salt, plus more to taste for seasoning vegetable oil for frying 3/4 lb cucumbers, peeled, seeded and chopped (about 1 1/2 cups) 3/4 lb tomatoes, seeded and chopped (about 1 1/4 cups) 1/4 cup chopped flat-leaf parsley 1/2 small onion, chopped (about 1/2 cup)--optional fresh ground pepper to taste 4 whole pita breads 1 cup hummus 4 hard-boiled eggs, sliced 1/2 cup prepared tahini sauce* schug (hot sauce) to taste amba (mango pickle) to taste** Sprinkle eggplant on both sides with salt, place on a cookie sheet or wire rack, and let rest 30 minutes. Press eggplant slices firmly between paper towels to remove excess salt and moisture. Heat 1 inch of oil in a large frying pan until very hot but not smoking, about 375°F. Working in batches, fry eggplant until dark brown and tender, about 5-6 minutes on first side and 2-3 minutes on second side. Using a slotted spoon, remove eggplant and drain and cool on paper towels. In a small bowl combine cucumbers, tomatoes, parsley, onions (if using), and salt and

pepper to taste. Reserve. To assemble sandwiches, warm pitas in a 300°F oven for 5 minutes, or in the microwave on high for 30 seconds. Spread 1/4 cup hummus inside each pita, then fill with 1 sliced egg, 3 to 4 slices fried eggplant, and about 1/2 cup salad. Drizzle with 2 tablespoons tahini and hot sauce to taste. *To make your own tahini, combine ¼ cup tahini paste with 3 tablespoons water and 1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice; add more water and lemon to achieve desired consistency. 74. Shakshuka Yield: six servings 2 pounds fresh tomatoes, unpeeled and cut in quarters, or one 28-ounce can tomatoes 6 cloves garlic, roughly diced 2 teaspoons salt, or to taste 1 teaspoon sweet paprika 2 teaspoons tomato paste 1/4 cup vegetable oil 6 large eggs 1. Place the tomatoes, garlic, salt, paprika, tomato paste, and vegetable oil in a small saucepan. Bring to a simmer and cook, uncovered, over low heat until thick, for about 30 minutes, stirring occasionally. 2. Ladle the tomato sauce into a greased 12-inch frying pan. Bring to a simmer and break the eggs over the tomatoes. Gently break the yolks with a fork. Cover and continue to cook for about 3 to 4 minutes, until the eggs are set. Bring the frying pan directly to the table. Set it on a trivet and spoon out the shakshuka. Note: Alternatively, you can make individual portions, as they do at Doktor Shakshuka, by ladling some of the sauce into a very small pan and poaching one egg in it. VI. ENTREES - 8 Recipes 75. Brisket An easy recipe with old-world Jewish charm. 5-7 lbs. brisket Seasoning: Salt Onion salt (optional) Garlic salt (optional) Liquid: 1 12-oz bottle chili sauce 20 oz Farbrengen, Manischewitz or other very sweet wine 2 tablespoons barbecue sauce 1 tablespoon lemon juice Vegetables: 1 sliced sweet onion 6 chopped carrots 3 lbs potatoes, quartered Sprinkle seasonings over meat and rub in lightly. Sear the meat in 500 degree oven for 10 minutes on each side. Combine liquids and vegetables, pour over meat, cover and cook at 350 degrees for 3 hours. Freezes well. 76. Cholent

SERVES 6 2 lbs (1 kg) fatty beef brisket, breast, or rib 3 tablespoons light vegetable oil 2 large onions, sliced 3-5 garlic cloves, peeled and left whole 2 marrow bones (optional) 2 lbs (1 kg) potatoes, peeled, whole if small, quartered if medium ½ lb (250 g) dried white haricot or butter beans, soaked for an hour ½ cup (100 g) pearl barley (optional) Salt and pepper In a large heavy pot or casserole with a tightly fitting lid, brown the meat in the oil. Remove it, and fry the onions until soft. Add the garlic and fry until the aroma rises. Return the meat to the pot, add the marrow bones, and arrange the potatoes, beans, and barley around it, sprinkling each layer with salt and pepper. Cover with water and bring to a boil. Remove the scum, then put the lid on and leave in the lowest oven (225ºF; 110ºC) overnight. Remove the lid at the table, so that everyone can get the first whiff of the appetizing smell which emanates. VARIATIONS -Two marrow bones (ask the butcher to slice them for you) add a wonderful rich flavor and texture. -Use 1¼ cups (250 g) kasha instead of the beans and barley. -Some people put onion skins on top of the stew to give a more pronounced brown color. -Flavor with 1 teaspoon paprika and 1 teaspoon ground ginger. -Hungarians and Alsatians add smoked or preserved goose. ACCOMPANIMENTS TO CHOLENT WHICH ARE PLACED IN THE STEW POT BEFORE COOKING -For a cholent knaidlach (dumpling) also referred to as cholent kugel (pudding), work 4 tablespoons finely chopped chicken fat into 1 cup (150g) flour with your hands, add 1 egg, 2 tablespoons grated onion, salt and pepper, and if you like 1 tablespoon finely chopped parsley or 1 teaspoon paprika. Add a little water if the dough is too dry, or a little flour if it is too sticky. Roll into a fat oval loaf or ball and place on top of the other ingredients in the stew. When serving, cut in slices. -For a matzo knaidlach, beat 2 eggs with salt, pepper, and 3 tablespoons rendered chicken fat and mix in 1 1/3 cups (175 g) medium matzo meal. Form into a ball and put on top of the other ingredients in the pot. When serving, cut in slices. 77. Dafina Moroccan cholent (Sabbath stew) SERVES 6 TO 8 4 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil 2 large onions, chopped 4 to 6 garlic cloves 2 cans (15 ounces each) chickpeas (garbanzo beans), rinsed and drained 2 beef bones with marrow 3 pounds brisket or chuck roast, cut into 4 pieces 3 pounds small potatoes 2 or 3 sweet potatoes cut into chunks 4 tablespoons honey 1 tablespoon paprika 2 teaspoons ground cumin 1 teaspoon allspice 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon 1/2 to 1 teaspoon ground turmeric pinch of saffron threads, crumbled

1/2 cup chopped fresh parsley salt freshly ground pepper 4 to 6 large eggs Preheat oven to 225°F. In a large pot, heat the oil and saute the onions and garlic until soft and translucent. Add the chickpeas, bones, meat, potatoes, honey, paprika, cumin, allspice, cinnamon, turmeric, saffron, parsley, and salt and pepper to taste. Add enough water to cover, place the unshelled eggs in the center, and bring to a boil. Reduce the heat to medium low, and simmer for 1 hour. Skim off the foam occasionally. Cover the pot tightly, place in the oven, and cook overnight, or cook on low on the stove for 5 to 6 hours, or until meat is tender and done. In the morning, after cooking all night, check the water level. If there is too much water, turn the oven up to 250°F or 300°F, cover, and continue cooking. [If cooking over Shabbat, traditionally observant Jews would refrain from changing the heat level, for doing so would run counter to Sabbath laws against manipulating flame and cooking.] If there is no water, add another cup, cover, and continue cooking. To serve, place the chickpeas and cooking liquid in one bowl, and the eggs, potatoes, and meat in separate bowls. 78. Kibbeh Nabilseeyah Syrian Stuffed Fried Bulgur Wheat SERVES 20 (3 1/2 TO 4 DOZEN KIBBEH) Beef Filling 3 tablespoons vegetable oil (2 tablespoons if using pomegranate seeds) 1 cup finely chopped yellow onions 1 pound ground chuck 1/2 teaspoon ground allspice 1/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon 1/2 teaspoon salt Several grindings of black pepper 1/4 cup pine nuts or seeds from 1 pomegranates Turkey Filling 1/4 cup vegetable oil 1 cup finely chopped yellow onions 1 pound ground turkey 1/4 teaspoon paprika 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper 2 tablespoons water 1/4 cup pine nuts Potato-Spinach Filling 3 medium-size white potatoes (about 2 pounds; any kind) 1/4 cup vegetable oil 1 cup finely chopped yellow onions 3 cups finely chopped spinach 1/2 teaspoon ground coriander 2 1/2 teaspoons salt Several grindings of black pepper Basic Bulgur Dough 3 cups fine-grain bulgur wheat (you must use fine-grain and not anything coarser or the dough will turn to mush) 1 1/2 cups unbleached all-purpose flour 3 to 4 tablespoons vegetable oil

1 tablespoon salt 1 tablespoon ground cumin 2 teaspoons paprika 5 tablespoons cold water To Fry And Serve 1 to 2 cups vegetable oil Lemon wedges 1. If preparing the potato-spinach filling, rinse unwashed leaves thoroughly in cold water to get out all of the dirt (you may want to rinse 2 to 3 times). Dry well in a salad spinner or use paper towels to squeeze out excess water. Chop finely, discarding the stems. Set aside. 2. If preparing the beef or turkey filling, heat 2 (for the beef filling) or 3 (for the turkey filling) tablespoons of the oil in a large skillet and cook the onions, stirring, over medium heat until golden and soft, 3 to 4 minutes. Add the ground beef or turkey and stir constantly with a fork until the meat loses its red or pink color, about 10 minutes. Cover and cook for 5 additional minutes. Add the spices, salt, pepper, and water (for the turkey filling) and mix well. Continue to cook over medium heat for 15 to 20 minutes, mashing with a fork. Remove from the heat. If using pine nuts, heat the remaining 1 tablespoon oil in a small skillet over medium heat. Add the pine nuts and brown, shaking the skillet a few times, 1 1/2 to 2 minutes. Remove when just beginning to turn brown (be careful not to burn, as they will cook quickly). Add the pine nuts or pomegranate seeds to the meat mixture and mix gently. Set aside. If preparing the potato-spinach filling, peel the potatoes (they're easier to peel if you don't wash them). Bring a large pot of water to a boil. Add the peeled potatoes and continue to boil until very soft, 35 to 40 minutes (test with a fork after 30 minutes). Drain well. Place the boiled potatoes and 2 tablespoons of the oil in a large bowl and press with a large masher or fork into soft and smooth mashed potatoes. Set aside. Heat the remaining oil in a large skillet and cook the onions, stirring, over medium heat until golden and soft, 3 to 4 minutes. Add the spinach, one handful at a time, and toss to coat with the onions and oil. When all of spinach has been added and mixed, cover and let steam over low heat until the spinach is cooked down and wet in texture, about 10 minutes. Add the coriander, salt, and pepper and mix again. Remove from the heat and transfer to the bowl with the mashed potatoes. Mix well with a wooden spoon. Set aside. 3. Prepare the bulgur dough. Place the bulgur in a large fine-mesh strainer and rinse under cold running water. Place the rinsed bulgur in a large bowl. Add the flour, oil, salt, cumin, and paprika and mix well by squeezing the mixture with your hands to distribute the spices evenly. Add the water and knead the bulgur by hand to form a dough-like consistency. 4. Shape the kibbeh. Keep a dish of cold water at hand as you work. Wet your palm and place a small amount of the dough, about the size of a golf ball, in it. Roll it into the shape of a 3-inch-long torpedo or sausage. 5. Holding the dough in one hand, make an indentation (with the index finger of your opposite hand) in one end of the torpedo to create a tube, open on only one end. Remember to keep your palm and fingers moist with cold water as you work, diligently smoothing out any cracks or holes that occur along the way. 6. Stuff each shell with 1 to 2 teaspoons of the filling of your choice. Gently seal the open end of the torpedo by pinching it closed. Set on a large platter or baking sheet and continue to shape and fill all the torpedoes in the same fashion. (May be frozen at this point between layers of wax paper in a tightly sealed plastic container. When ready to serve, deep-fry without defrosting. Will keep in the freezer for up to 6 weeks.) 7. In a small saucepan, heat 1 to 2 cups of oil (there should be enough oil to completely submerge a torpedo) over high heat until very hot, about 3 minutes. Deep-fry 2 to 3 torpedoes at a time until they are brown and crisp, but not black. Use

a spoon to gently turn each one so that the shell fries evenly. 8. Using a slotted spoon, transfer each fried torpedo to a plate covered with 2 sheets of paper towels to absorb the excess oil. Repeat with the remaining torpedoes. 9. Serve the torpedoes immediately or hold in a warm oven until they're all done. Serve on a platter with lemon wedges. Variations You can also make an easier and healthier version of the kibbeh in an 8-inch square baking pan. Press half of the dough into the bottom of the pan. Spread the filling over the dough, then place the remaining dough on top. Bake in a preheated 350°F oven until the top is brown and crispy, 20 to 30 minutes. Cut into diamonds and eat hot. If you have leftover meat filling once you have stuffed all of the meat-filled torpedoes, refrigerate it and use it as a delicious sandwich filling in warm pita bread for lunch the next day. If you have leftover bulgur dough, you can make what the Syrians call eras. Form the dough into small pancakes and deep-fry them. They are delicious served with a wedge of lemon and can be put out on the same platter as the kibbeh nabilseeyah. 79. Kufta Kebab Serves 6 1 1/2 lbs. ground lamb 1 medium onion, finely chopped (about 1 1/2 cups) 1/3 cup finely chopped parsley 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon pepper 1 teaspoon cumin 4 cloves garlic, minced Spray 8 metal skewers with cooking spray and set aside. Combine all ingredients in a bowl and incorporate well with hands. Form meat mixture into about 18 to 20 equal-sized oval or round patties, and thread 3 patties onto each skewer. Preheat a clean grill or well-seasoned grill pan over medium-high heat. Grill skewers until cooked through, about 3 minutes per side. Remove from heat and slide off skewers. Serve warm. 80. Masgouf: Iraqi Fish To prepare masgouf with salmon under the broiler: Have the fishmonger clean and scale the fish and slit and open it out from the back, so that you can open it out flat. Alternatively, and more easily, ask him to fillet the fish and keep the skin on. Brush the fish with mild extra-virgin olive oil and season with salt. Lay the whole fish or the fillets, skin side up, on a large shallow dish (laying it on foil makes turning over easier). Put it under the preheated broiler and cook for 6-8 minutes, until the skin is crispy. Turn over and cook the flesh side for about 2 minutes or until done. Now sprinkle the fish with the juice of 1 lemon and cover with a layer of diced ripe firm tomatoes--about 4 or 5. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and continue to cook under the broiler until the tomatoes are hot and the fish is done. Serve with pickled cucumbers or mango chutney. 81. Meat Kreplach Makes about 60 MEAT FILLING 1 small onion, chopped 3/4 pound ground meat (at least half cooked) or leftover brisket, chopped 1 egg

Salt and pepper to taste 1. Saute the onion with the ground meat. Remove excess fat. 2. Combine with the egg and salt and pepper to taste. NOODLE DOUGH 3 eggs 3/4 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons water 2 cups all-purpose flour 1. Beat the eggs slightly. Add salt, water, and enough flour to make a medium-soft dough. Knead well by hand or in the food processor. Divide the dough into 2 balls. Cover with a moist towel. 2. Working quickly, roll out 1 ball of dough very thin with a rolling pin and cut into 6 strips, each 1-1/2 inches wide. Then cut into pieces 1-1/2 inches square. 3. Place 1/2 teaspoon meat mixture on each square. Fold into a triangle and press edges together firmly, using flour to bind. Leave as is, or press together two of the ends. Repeat with the second ball of dough. 4. Drop into boiling water and cook, uncovered, 15 minutes. 82. Schnitzel Ingredients Serves 3 to 4 (depending on your appetite). 1 1/2 pounds skinless boneless chicken or turkey breast (about 6 breasts), split and trimmed 1/2 teaspoon salt, plus more for seasoning 1/4 teaspoon black pepper, plus more for seasoning 1 cup bread crumbs 2 tablespoons sesame seeds 1/2 teaspoon paprika 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder 1/4 teaspoon chili powder or cayenne 1/2 teaspoon dried parsley 1/2 cup flour 2 eggs, beaten 1/2 cup oil for frying Directions Combine the salt, black pepper, bread crumbs, sesame seeds, paprika, garlic powder, and chili powder/cayenne in a Ziploc bag and shake to combine. Transfer to a shallow pie plate or other similar dish. Reserve. Trim tenders from chicken and reserve. Season on both sides with salt and pepper. Place breasts between 2 pieces of plastic wrap and pound lightly with a mallet to an even thickness of about 1/4 inch. Dredge cutlets and tenders in flour, then egg, then bread crumb mixture. Heat oil over medium-high heat in a heavy skillet until hot but not smoking. Working in batches, lay 2 cutlets in pan and fry until underside is golden brown and crisp, about 2-3 minutes. Flip and fry an additional 2-3 minutes. Drain on paper towels, season with salt and pepper to taste and serve hot. VII. PASSOVER - 4 Recipes 83. Compote 1/2 cup dried prunes 1/4 cup dark raisins

1/4 cup golden raisins 1/2 cup dried apricots (cut in half if they re large) 1/2 cup dried figs (cut in half) Wash all ingredients well to remove the sulfites, and place in a saucepan. Add water to cover the fruit, at least 2 cups (fruit will swell when rehydrated). Bring to a boil uncovered, reduce heat and simmer just around 10 minutes. Do not overcook! Remove from heat and allow to cool. Pour fruit and liquid into jars and refrigerate before serving. Delicious for breakfast or poured over sponge cake! TIPS AND VARIATIONS: I prefer using prunes that have not been pitted (still have pits) because they hold their shape better, but then you have to warn guests that there are pits. Other dried fruits may also be used, and you can vary the proportions to your liking. 84. Flourless Chocolate Cake Serves 12 2 sticks margarine or butter 10 ounces good-quality semisweet or bittersweet chocolate 6 eggs, lightly beaten 1 cup sugar 1/2 cup cocoa 1 teaspoon vanilla 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/4 cup confectioner's sugar Mint sprigs and assorted berries for garnish Preheat oven to 350°F. Grease a 10-inch springform pan, then line bottom of pan with parchment paper. In a small saucepan, chocolate and margarine and cook over medium-low heat, stirring occasionally, until completely melted. Remove from heat and let cool. In a large workbowl, combine sugar, cocoa, and salt with a whisk until incorporated. Add eggs and vanilla and whisk until smooth. Add 1/3 of chocolate mixture and stir until incorporated; repeat with remaining 2/3 of chocolate. Pour batter into prepared pan and bake for 40 minutes, until just set but still soft in the center. Let cool completely. Sift confectioner's sugar over the top of the cake, and garnish with mint and berries. 85. Passover Lemon Roll (Pareve) Preparation Time: 45 minutes (total) Baking Time: 15 minutes, 10 minutes Assembly Time: 15 minutes CAKE ROLL 4 extra large eggs, separated 2/3 cup superfine granulated sugar 2 tbsp. fresh lemon juice 2 tsp. grated lemon zest (yellow part ONLY of lemon peel) 1/3 cup potato starch 1/3 cup sifted matzah cake meal 1/3 -1/2 cup confectioners' sugar Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. Grease a 10x15 jelly roll pan and line it with parchment or waxed paper. Grease the paper. In a large bowl of the electric mixer beat the egg whites until soft peaks form. The soft peak stage is when you lift up the beater and the tip of the peak falls over. Gradually, add 1/3 cup superfine granulated sugar and continue to beat until stiff peaks form (peaks will stand up straight). Set aside.

In a small bowl of the mixer, beat the yolks on high until they are very light and lemony colored. It will take about 6 or 7 minutes. Gradually add the other 1/3 cup superfine sugar while continuing to beat the yolks. Slowly, add the lemon juice and the lemon zest and beat for another minute. Remove the beaters and set the bowl aside. Take about 1 cup of the egg whites and mix it into the yolks. Gently fold this mixture into the larger egg white bowl. Set aside. Sift the potato starch and the matzah cake meal two times. Gently add this to the eggs in three additions. Gently spread the batter on the greased pan and bake in the center of the oven for about 15 minutes or until a clean knife or cake tester comes out clean. Remove from the oven and let sit for about 5 minutes. Turn the cake out onto a clean dish towel. Roll it up the long way with the towel inside and refrigerate. FILLING 1-1/8 cups sugar 3 tbsp. potato starch 1-1/8 cup cold water 3 extra large egg yolks (save whites for meringue) grated zest from 1 large lemon 5 tbsp. freshly squeezed lemon juice 1-1/2 tbsp. unsalted pareve margarine Combine the sugar and potato starch in a heavy saucepan. Add the cold water. Place on a medium heat. Beat the egg yolks slightly, and add them to the saucepan. Add the lemon zest and lemon juice. With a wire whisk, stir the mixture constantly as it heats. If it is too thick, add more hot water, one tablespoon at a time. As soon as it comes to a boil, whisk more vigorously but for only one minute. Remove from the heat and add the margarine, stirring constantly. Set aside to cool. MERINGUE 1-1/2 tsp. potato starch 3/8 cup water 3/8 cup superfine sugar 3 egg whites 2 tsp. lemon extract In a small saucepan combine the potato starch with one tablespoon of the sugar and the water. Bring to a boil then lower heat and simmer until thick. Remove from heat and cool. Beat the egg whites in the electric mixer on high until soft peaks form. While the mixer is still beating, add the sugar spoonful by spoonful until it is all added. Add the potato starch mixture slowly. Add the lemon juice. Continue to beat until stiff peaks form. ASSEMBLY Preheat the oven to 375 degrees. All family members can help with the assembly of the lemon roll. Remove the cake roll from the refrigerator and unroll it so the towel is on the table. Gently spread the lemon filling over the area leaving a one-inch border empty. Roll up the cake roll, using the towel to help keep the cake even and being careful not to roll too tightly or the filling will ooze out. Place the roll seam side down on a jelly roll pan. Spread the meringue evenly over the cake making any design you like. Brown in the oven for 8-10 minutes at 350 degrees. Turn off the oven and let stay for 2 or 3 minutes more if the browning is not too dark. If it is dark, remove immediately. Refrigerate until serving time. 86. Matzah Brei SERVES 4

6 sheets of matzah 4 eggs boiling water salt and pepper to taste In a large bowl, break matzah into fragments. Not too small! Sprinkle with a little boiling water to soften matzah (no more than 1/4 cup). While matzah is softening, beat eggs. Pour over softened matzah, add salt and pepper to taste. Mix well. Pour mixture into hot, oiled frying pan and cook over medium heat, stirring until matzah brei is dry but not crisp. Serve with cinnamon and sugar, honey, or preserves (blackberry jam is particularly good). Matzah brei cools quickly. Can be reheated in the microwave. VIII. DESSERTS - 15 Recipes 87. Debla MAKES 10 ROSES 5 large eggs 1 teaspoon baking soda 2 1/2 to 3 cups all-purpose flour vegetable oil for deep-frying For the Syrup: 2 cups sugar 1/4 teaspoon lemon juice 1/4 teaspoon orange flower water 1/8 teaspoon vanilla In a large bowl, beat the eggs. Add the baking soda and 2 1/2 cups of flour, mixing well to form a firm dough. If the dough is too sticky, add more flour. Sprinkle a little flour over a work surface or pastry board and the rolling pin. Separate the dough into 5 pieces and roll out each piece in paper-thin strips. Heat the oil in a deep frying pan. Cut the large strips into strips two-inches wide and about 12-inches long, and prick the dough with a fork. Carefully begin wrapping the strip around the prong of a wide two-prong fork while frying it. This forms a "rose." Keep rolling (or coiling) it around itself as it fries and fry until lightly browned. Remove from the oil and drain in papertowel lined colander. Repeat with remaining dough. Prepare the syrup by combining the sugar, 1 1/2 cups of water, lemon juice, orangeflower water, and vanilla together in a pan. Just cover the mixture with water and simmer over low heat for 45 minutes to thicken the syrup. Stir and remove from the heat. Use immediately or set aside for later use. Dip the debla into the heated syrup, soaking it well, and drain in a colander. If the syrup becomes too thick, add 1 or 2 tablespoons of warm water. Place the debla on a platter and serve. 88. Candy Infused Vodka for Purim Ingredients: One 1.75 liter bottle of vodka A total of 1 lb of kosher hard candies. You can use Lemonheads, Red Hots, Starlight mints, even jelly beans. Tools and utensils: One large empty plastic water bottle for each flavor or color that you're making

A funnel A large multi-cup measuring cup with a spout Coffee filters or paper towels Glass bottles for storage Next, separate your candy by color and kind. This is only necessary if you're using a candy that comes in one package with many colors (like jelly beans). If you're using Lemonheads and Red Hots, for instance, you can skip this step. Pour one flavor of candy into each infusion bottle. Then, pour vodka into each water bottle. If you're making three or four flavors, try to divide the vodka into three or four bottles leaving approximately even amounts of vodka in each bottle. If you're making four flavors, this will be about 15 ounces of vodka in each bottle. Put the caps back on the bottles, and shake vigorously. The more you shake, the more quickly the candy will dissolve. Set the bottles aside for a few hours, and then come back and shake them again. Ideally, leave them overnight, and shake in the morning. After 24 hours, most of the candy will have dissolved, and you should be left with brightly colored vodka with some little bits of candy floating in it. The candies will dissolve at different rates, so don't be surprised if there's nothing left of your Lemonheads, but the jelly beans are mostly intact. If the candy hasn't dissolved significantly, shake it again, and leave it for another day. At this point you can put the bottles in the freezer, to chill. The bits of candy will add a little crunch to your drinks. But, if you want to strain out whatever's left, you'll be left with a smoother and slightly fancier looking drink. To strain the vodka, start by putting a funnel inside a large measuring cup. Put a coffee filter in the funnel. Pour one of the infusions into the strainer setup. Pour slowly, and allow the liquid time to soak through. In the end, you should have about 13 ounces of candy infused vodka. Toss out the filter and whatever was caught in it. Pour the vodka into clean empty glass bottles, easy to find at dollar and houseware stores. Repeat this process for each flavor. Stick the bottles in the freezer overnight and voila! Candy flavored vodka, ready for your Purim celebrations. 89. Mandelbrot: Almond Bread Ingredients 3 eggs 1 cup sugar 1/2 cup vegetable oil 1 1/2 teaspoons vanilla extract 3 1/2 cups all-purpose flour 2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 teaspoon baking soda 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 cup whole almonds, toasted, cooled and chopped 2 teaspoons grated orange zest Directions Preheat oven to 350°F. Place eggs in the bowl of an electric mixer and beat on high until thickened and slightly foamy, about 2-3 minutes. Sift flour, baking powder, baking soda and salt in a bowl, and reserve. Add 1 cup sugar, oil and vanilla and beat until blended, about 1 minute. Add flour and orange zest to eggs, and mix on low speed until incorporated. Add almonds and mix just until incorporated. Dough will be unified, but still slightly sticky. Spray two cookie sheets with cooking spray, or lightly grease with oil. Wet hands lightly, and form half of dough into a 10-inch rectangular loaf and place on cookie sheet. Repeat with other half dough. Bake 35-40 minutes, or until loaves are browned and firm, but still slightly soft when pressed.

90. Eretz Yisrael Cake with Orange, Dates, and Marzipan YIELD: 8 TO 10 SERVINGS 3/4 cup sugar 1/3 cup candied citrus peel, chopped 1/2 cup marzipan (see recipe below, or use store-bought) 1 teaspoon baking powder 1/4 teaspoon salt Grated zest of 2 oranges 4 large eggs 1 3/4 cups all-purpose flour 1/2 cup pitted dates, chopped 3/4 cup orange juice 3/4 cup (11/2 sticks) unsalted butter, melted 1. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees and grease a 9-inch springform pan. Line the bottom of the pan with parchment paper cut into a circle. 2. Place the sugar, marzipan, and orange zest in the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with a paddle; beat to break up the marzipan until it is the texture of sand. 3. Replace the paddle with the whisk and add the eggs to the marzipan mixture. Whisk until light, fluffy, and pale yellow in color. 4. Take 2 tablespoons of the flour and sprinkle over the dates and candied citrus peel in a small bowl. This flour coating prevents them from sinking to the bottom of the batter. 5. Sift the remaining flour, the baking powder, and salt into a medium bowl. 6. Replace the whisk with the paddle and add the sifted dry ingredients, orange juice, and melted butter to the marzipan-egg mixture. Mix on low speed until the dry ingredients are just incorporated. Don't overmix-the batter should be soft and creamy. Fold in the dates and citrus peel. 7. Pour the batter into the springform mold, tap the mold a couple of times against the counter to remove the air bubbles, and bake on the middle rack of the oven for 40 minutes. Homemade Marzipan YIELD: 11/2 CUPS MARZIPAN 1 cup finely ground almonds or almond flour 1/2 egg white (about 11/2 tablespoons) 1/2 cup sugar Place the almonds and sugar in a food processor equipped with a steel blade and process, adding just enough egg white to bind the sugar and the almonds together. 91. Babka The Jewish coffee cake SERVES 12 5 to 6 cups all-purpose flour 1/2 ounce dried yeast (2 packets) 1 1/2 cups plus 2 tablespoons sugar 1/4 cup warm water 1 teaspoon salt 3/4 cup butter or margarine, melted 1 cup milk 1/4 cup canola oil 3 large eggs, slightly beaten 1 teaspoon cinnamon 1/2 cup chopped walnuts (optional)

1/2 cup golden raisins 1/2 cup chocolate chips (optional) 1 large egg yolk mixed with 1 tablespoon water (egg wash)* Place 3 cups of the flour in a large mixing bowl, making a well in the middle. Dissolve the yeast mixed with the 2 tablespoons of the sugar in the warm water. Pour yeast mixture into the well and add 1 cup of the sugar and the salt. Mix together thoroughly. Melt 1/2 cup of the butter in the milk, remove it from the heat, and stir in the oil. Add the butter mixture to the flour, a little at a time, alternating with the eggs. Beat in another 2 or 3 cups of flour (or more if needed) until mixture is not sticky. On a lightly floured surface, knead the dough for about 10 minutes, or until smooth. Lightly oil a large bowl, and roll the ball of dough around until all sides are covered with a little oil. Place a kitchen towel over the bowl and let the dough rise in a warm place until it has doubled in size, about 1 hour. Punch the dough down and place on the counter or a pastry board. Cover the dough and let it rest for 10 minutes. Divide the dough into 4 parts and roll each part out into a rectangle about 12 inches long by 8 inches wide and 1/8-inch thick. Melt the remaining 1/4 cup butter. Brush rectangles with melted butter and sprinkle them with the 1/2 cup sugar mixed with the cinnamon, nuts, raisins, and chocolate chips, if desired. Roll each rectangle up the long way (like a jelly roll) and place in a greased Bundt or 10 or 12-inch angel food cake pan. Cover with a towel and let dough rise again until doubled in size, 30 to 60 minutes. Preheat oven to 325°F. Brush the top of the babka with the egg wash and bake for 1 hour. Remove from the oven and cool on a wire rack. *The egg mixture gives the babka a crispy crust. For a softer crust use melted butter instead of the egg mixture. 92. Travados Nut-filled pastries Makes 32-36 pastries For the Pastry 3 cups all-purpose flour 1 cup confectioners sugar 2 tablespoons granulated sugar 1/2 cup unsalted butter, melted and cooled 3/4 cup sweet wine such as late-harvest riesling or marsala 1/2 teaspoon almond extract 1 egg white, for sealing dough (optional) 1 egg yolk, diluted with a bit of water, for glaze For the Greek Almond & Currant Filling 1 cup confectioners sugar 1 1/2 cups ground blanched almonds 1/2 cup dried currants 3 tablespoons cognac 2 to 3 tablespoons water 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon For the Greek Almond & Orange Filling 2 cups ground blanched almonds 2 cups confectioners sugar 1/4 cup fresh orange juice 3 tablespoons grated orange zest For the Turkish Walnut Filling 2 cups walnuts, finely chopped

1/2 cup orange marmalade 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon Sugar to taste (optional) For the Optional Syrup 1 cup water 2 cups granulated sugar 3 tablespoons fresh lemon juice 1 orange zest strip, 3 inches long (optional) 1 tablespoon orange-flower or rose water (optional) Confectioners sugar, if not using syrup To make the pastry, in a bowl, stir together the flour and sugar. Slowly add the butter, wine, and almond extract, stirring until a smooth, soft dough forms. Let rest in the bowl for 15 to 20 minutes. Meanwhile, preheat the oven to 350 degrees F. Lightly butter two baking sheets with sides or line them with parchment paper. Select one of the fillings, place the ingredients for it in a bowl, and stir to mix. Pull off a walnut-sized piece of the dough and roll it into a ball between your palms. Flatten the ball and place it on a lightly floured work surface. Roll it our into a threeinch round about 1/8-inch thick. Moisten a fingertip with egg white or water and dampen the edge of the round. Place two teaspoons of the filling in the center of the round and fold the round in half to form a half-moon. Pinch the edges of the dough together. Place on a prepared baking sheet. Repeat until all the dough and filling arc used. Brush the half-moons with the egg-yolk glaze. Bake the pastries until lightly browned, 20 to 25 minutes. Remove from the oven and let cool on the baking sheets on a rack. If you are using the syrup, prepare it while the pastries are baking: In a saucepan, combine the water, sugar, lemon juice, and the orange zest, if using, and bring to a boil over medium heat, stirring until the sugar dissolves. Boil until the syrup coats a spoon, about 10 minutes, then remove from the heat. Add the orange-flower or rose water, if using, and remove from the heat. Let stand for a few minutes, then dip the cooled pastries in the warm syrup and place on racks to drain for a few hours. If you are not using the syrup, sprinkle the pastries with confectioners sugar while they are still warm. Variations The same fillings can be enclosed in filo. Preheat the oven to 375 degrees F. Brush a baking sheet with melted butter. Cut filo sheets into three-inch-wide strips, and stack two or three strips, brushing each one with melted butter. (Place a sheet of plastic wrap over any filo sheets you are not working with at the moment to prevent them from drying out.) Place a rounded tablespoonful of filling near the upper corner of the stack and fold over the end on the diagonal to cover the filling, creating a triangular shape. Then fold again, maintaining the triangular shape. Continue folding in this manner, as if folding a flag, until you have a triangular pastry. Place on the prepared baking sheet. Repeat until all the filling has been used, then, just before baking, brush the triangles with melted butter. Bake until golden brown, 20 to 25 minutes. Let cool, then dip in the warm syrup, if desired. Alternatively, make cigars: Cut filo sheets into six-inch squares. Brush a square with melted butter and top with another square, again brushing with butter. Arrange a strip of filling along one end, fold the sides in, and then roll up the square to form a cigar shape. Seal the edge with a little water or beaten egg. Bake as for the triangles, let cool, and dip in the syrup, if desired. 93. Bimuelos with Honey-Orange Drizzle A Sephardic Hanukkah dessert.

Makes 25-30 doughnuts 3 1/2 cups all purpose flour 1 tablespoon plus 1 teaspoon sugar 3/4 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon active dry yeast 1 1/2 cups warm water, divided juice of 1 large orange, strained of pulp (about 1/3 cup), divided 1 teaspoon finely grated orange zest 2 tablespoons vegetable oil, plus more for frying 1 cup honey Combine flour, 1 tablespoon sugar and salt in a large bowl. Reserve. Pour 1/2 cup water into a large bowl. Sprinkle sugar and yeast over water and wait until mixture become foamy, about 10 minutes. Add flour mixture, remaining water, 3 tablespoons orange juice, orange zest, and 2 tablespoons oil to yeast mixture and stir with a wooden spoon to combine, about 30 seconds. Using your hands, knead dough in bowl until smooth, adding 1 tablespoon of additional flour at a time to reduce stickiness, for about 1-2 minutes. Remove dough and place in a clean, lightly oiled bowl. Cover with a clean kitchen towel and let rest until dough has doubled in volume, about 1 to 1 1/2 hours. Heat about 4 inches of oil in a large, tall pot to about 350-360°F (very hot but not smoking, or when a pea-sized piece of dough turns brown immediately when dropped into oil). Lightly oil hands, form dough into walnut-sized balls, and drop into oil in batches. Fry until golden brown on both sides, about 3-4 minutes total. Remove with a slotted spoon and drain on paper towels. Place honey and remaining orange juice in a small saucepan and simmer 3-4 minutes until warm. Drizzle honey over doughnuts and serve. 94. Sufganiyot A recipe for Hanukkah jelly doughnuts MAKES 12 1 teaspoon dried yeast 1/4 cup (50 ml) lukewarm milk or water 2 tablespoons sugar 1 whole egg 1 egg yolk 3 tablespoons sour cream or vegetable oil A pinch of salt 2 or 3 drops of vanilla extract 1 2/3 cups (250 g) flour, plus a little more if necessary Oil for deep-frying Apricot, red-currant, or raspberry jam Confectioners' sugar to sprinkle on Dissolve the yeast in the warm milk or water with 1 teaspoon of sugar and leave for 10 minutes, until it froths. Beat the rest of the sugar with the egg and the yolk. Add the sour cream or oil, the salt, vanilla, and yeast mixture, and beat very well. Fold in the flour gradually, and continue beating until you have a soft, smooth, and elastic dough, adding more flour if necessary. Then knead for 5 minutes, sprinkling with a little flour if it is too sticky. Coat the dough with oil by pouring a drop in the bowl and turning the dough in it. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and leave in a warm place to rise for about 2 hours, or until doubled in bulk. Knead the dough again for a few minutes, then roll out on a floured surface with a floured rolling pin to 1/4-inch (1/2-cm) thickness. With a pastry cutter, cut into 2-inch (5-cm) rounds. Make a ball out of the scraps so as not to waste them, roll out, and cut

into rounds. Put a teaspoon of jam in the center of a round of dough, brush the rim with a little water to make it sticky, and cover with another round. Press the edges together to seal. Continue with the rest of the rounds and arrange them on a floured tray. Leave them to rise for about 30 minutes. Heat 1-1/2 inches of oil in a saucepan to medium hot. Drop in the doughnuts, a few at a time. Fry in medium-hot oil for 3-4 minutes with the lid on until brown, then turn and fry the other side for 1 minute more. Drain on paper towels. Serve sprinkled with confectioners' sugar. They are at their best when still warm and fresh. VARIATION An easier way is to fry a thicker round of dough--about 1/2 inch (1 1/4 cm) thick--and when it is cool enough to handle, cut a slit with a pointed, serrated knife and put in a teaspoonful of jam. 95. Hamantaschen A recipe for triangular Purim cookies Makes about 36 2/3 cup pareve margarine or butter 1/2 cup sugar 1 egg 1/2 teaspoon vanilla 2 1/2-3 cups sifted unbleached all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon baking powder Dash of salt 1. Cream the shortening with sugar. Add egg and continue creaming until smooth. 2. Add the vanilla. Stir in the sifted flour, baking powder, and salt until a ball of dough is formed (a food processor is excellent for this). 3. Chill for 2-3 hours, or overnight. 4. Preheat oven to 375 degrees. 5. Taking 1/4 of the dough, roll out on a lightly floured board to a thickness of 1/8 inch. Cut circles of dough with a drinking glass or round cookie-cutter. With your finger put water around the rim of the circle. Fill with 1 teaspoon poppy-seed or nut filling and fold into three-cornered cookies. (Press two sides together, and then fold the third side over and press the ends together.) 6. Bake on a well-greased cookie sheet 10-16 minutes, until the tops are golden. 96. Rosh Hashanah Honey Cake (Pareve) Ingredients 1 cup very strong coffee ( I use decaf) 1-3/4 cups honey 4 extra large eggs 4 tbsp. canola oil 1-1/4 cups packed dark brown sugar 3-1/2 cups unbleached flour 1 tbsp. baking powder 1 tsp. baking soda 1 tsp. cinnamon 1/2 tsp. ginger 1/4 tsp. cloves 1/4 tsp. nutmeg 1 cup whole or half candied or plain almonds 1 cup raisins Preheat oven to 300 degrees. Grease and flour 2 9x5 inch loaf pans or one 9x13 pan. Set aside.

In a saucepan, combine the honey and coffee and bring to a boil. Cool and set aside. In a large mixing bowl, blend the eggs, brown sugar and oil. Do not over-beat. Sift the flour, baking powder and baking soda and spices together. Stir the flour and honey into the eggs alternating and ending with the liquid. Stir in the raisins. Blend well. Pour into the prepared pans and place the almonds over the cake. Bake for 6070 minutes, or until the cake springs back. Let sit overnight before serving. 97. Tayglach (Pareve) Preparation Time: 20 minutes Baking Time: 15-20 minutes Boiling Time: 40 minutes Ingredients DOUGH: 6 eggs 3 tbsp. oil 1 tsp. baking powder 3-1/2 cups unbleached flour 1 tsp. cinnamon 1 tsp. ginger pinch salt HONEY SYRUP: 1 pound honey 1/4 cup water 2 tbsp. lemon juice 1-1/2 cups sugar 1/2 cup light brown sugar OPTIONAL: 1 cup broken walnut pieces 1 cup almonds 1 cup candied cherries Place the honey, water, lemon juice and sugar in a very large, heavy pot, about 6 quarts. Heat to boiling and continue to simmer gently. While the honey syrup is heating, Mix the eggs, oil, spices and salt together. Sift the baking powder and flour and add to the liquid. Mix together until the mixture forms a sticky dough. Dust with flour and roll out into 8 or 9 ropes about 3/4 inch thick, cut into pieces about 3/4 inch long. Drop the pieces of dough into the boiling syrup and simmer slowly for about an hour. Stir every 10 minutes and add more boiling water as needed, about 1/3 cup at a time. While the tayglach is cooking, place aluminum foil on a cookie sheet and grease the foil. Set aside. Ten minutes before the hour is up, add the nuts and cherries. Stir well and add more water if needed. The tayglach is done when it is a deep mahogany color, a rich, golden brown. Spoon the tayglach on the greased cookie sheet and spread out. Let cool and form the tayglach into small groups of a few tayglach and some nuts and cherries. Let cool and put into a bowl. Cover lightly. VARIATION: When placing the tayglach onto the greased cookie sheet, reserve as much of the syrup in the pot as possible. Add some sesame seeds, about 1/4-1/2 cup, to the syrup and mix well. Pour the syrup onto another greased cookie sheet and let cool slightly. Cut the syrup into squares and roll each square onto a small ball. Let cool. Makes a delicious candy treat. 98. Cheesecake

Serves 8 Cheesecake, a favorite Shavuot holiday cake.6 tablespoons unsalted butter 1 cup graham cracker crumbs 6 eggs, separated 1 pound cream cheese 1 pound sour cream 1 cup sugar Juice of 1/2 lemon 1 teaspoon vanilla 2 tablespoons flour Preheat oven to 300. Grease the sides of a 9-inch springform pan. Melt the butter and combine with the graham cracker crumbs. Press the crumbs into the bottom of the pan. Save some crumbs. Combine the egg yolks, cream cheese, sour cream, sugar, lemon juice, vanilla, and flour. Beat very well until light and fluffy. Beat the egg whites until stiff peaks form. Fold into cream cheese mixture. Pour the batter into the pan and sprinkle with the remaining graham cracker crumbs. Bake 1 hour. Turn off oven and leave cake in the oven 1 additional hour. Then leave the oven door ajar 30 minutes more. 99. Rugelach Cream cheese cookies Makes 48-64 Dough 1/2 pound unsalted butter, softened 8 ounces cream cheese, softened 2 cups all-purpose flour Raisin Nut Filling 1/2 cup sugar 1/2 cup seedless raisins 1 teaspoon cinnamon 1 cup finely chopped nuts 1/4 cup sugar (for topping) Strawberry Jam Filling 1 cup ground almonds 1 cup strawberry jam 1/4 cup sugar (for topping) In a mixing bowl or food processor, cream the butter and cream cheese together. Beat in the flour, little by little. Knead the dough lightly until all the flour is incorporated. Refrigerate at least 1 hour. Divide the dough into 3 or 4 portions, depending on the size you want the rugelach to be. Prepare one of the fillings by combining the ingredients (except the 1/4 cup sugar for the topping) and set aside. Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Roll out one of the portions of dough in a circle about 1/16 inch thick. With a knife or pastry wheel, cut the pastry into 16 pie-shaped wedges. If the dough is sticky, dust it with a little flour. Sprinkle or spread the filling of your choice on each little wedge. Beginning at the wide edge, roll the dough up toward the point. Place on an ungreased cookie sheet and carefully sprinkle with a tiny bit of the reserved sugar. Repeat with the rest of the dough and filling. Bake for 20-25 minutes, or until golden, brushing with melted butter after 15 minutes

if desired. 100. Lemon & Almond Semolina Cake Serves 16 1 1/2 cups semolina flour 1/2 cup ground almond meal 2 teaspoons baking powder 1 teaspoon baking soda 1/4 teaspoon salt 1 cup light olive oil (or canola oil) 1 cup light brown sugar 3/4 cup vanilla soymilk Finely grated zest of 1 lemon (about 1 teaspoon) 1 tablespoon almond liqueur (or 1 teaspoon almond extract) 1 teaspoon vanilla Syrup: 1/2 cup honey 1/2 cup sugar 1/4 cup freshly squeezed lemon juice Make Syrup: Combine honey, sugar, and lemon juice and stir to combine. Bring to a boil, reduce heat, and simmer until sugar is dissolved and mixture has thinned, about 5 minutes. Turn off heat and cool. Make Cake: Preheat oven to 350°F. Combine semolina flour, almond meal, baking powder, baking soda and salt in a bowl, stir well with a fork and reserve. Using a hand mixer or electric stand mixer, beat oil and sugar over high speed until sugar is dissolved and mixture has slightly lightened in color, about 2 minutes. Add eggs one at a time, beating well after each addition, about 2 minutes total. Add soymilk, lemon zest, almond liqueur, and vanilla and beat to combine. Add dry ingredients and beat to combine, about 30 seconds. Pour batter into a lightly greased 9 x 13-inch baking pan and bake cake for 30 minutes, until top is browned and a toothpick inserted into the center comes out clean. Slowly pour syrup over top of cake and let cool completely. 101. Lemon Lavender Cake Ingredients: 2/3 cup hot water 2 tablespoons dried lavender (available at specialty spice and Asian grocery stores) 4 cups all-purpose flour 1 tablespoon baking powder 1/2 teaspoon baking soda 1/2 teaspoon salt 8 ounces unsalted butter, at room temperature 2 1/4 cups granulated sugar 3 tablespoons freshly grated lemon zest 3 eggs 1/4 cup freshly squeezed lemon juice 1 cup yogurt (I used vanilla flavored, but plain or lemon would be fine, as would sour cream) For the glaze: 1 cup prepared icing 2 tablespoons dried lavender 1/3 cup hot water

Directions: Preheat the oven to 325F. Oil a 12-cup bundt pan. Boil water. Add lavender to hot water and allow to steep. Sift flour, baking powder, baking soda, and salt into a large bowl. Toss with your hands and set aside. Combine butter, sugar, and lemon zest in a large bowl using electric beaters. Beat for 2 to 3 minutes. Add eggs, one at a time, making sure each egg is fully mixed into the batter before adding another. After the last egg is incorporated, slowly add the lemon juice and mix for one more minute. Scrape down the sides of the bowl and mix for 30 seconds to make sure all of the ingredients are fully incorporated. Strain the lavender from the hot water, and add the water (which should be-surprise!--lavender colored) to the yogurt stirring slightly. It won't totally incorporate, but don't worry about it. Alternate adding small amounts of the flour mixture and the yogurt mixture to the batter, mixing with a wooden spoon just until all dry ingredients are incorporated into the batter. Pour batter into prepared bundt pan, filling two thirds of the pan. Bake on center rack of oven for 1 hour and 10 minutes, or until the top is golden brown. Check the center of the cake with a skewer. It will come out clean when the cake is finished. Let cool in the pan on a wire rack for at least 20 minutes. Loosen the sides of the cake with a sharp knife. Place serving plate, upside down, on the top of the cooled bundt pan and invert the pan to remove the cake.Let cake cool completely. Glazing the cake: Boil the water and add the lavender. Allow to steep for about twenty minutes (this can be done while the cake is baking). Strain the lavender, reserving the water. Using plain vanilla or butter cream icing (you can buy it prepared or make it yourself if you're feeling ambitious), measure a cup of icing into a microwave safe bowl and microwave for 20-25 seconds until icing is much thinner. Stirring constantly, pour the water into the icing in a thin stream. Continue stirring until the consistency is thin and even. Carefully spoon the glaze over the top of the bundt cake,allowing it to drip into the center and on the outside. Makes about 10 servings.