Reynella East Schools MYP Science End of Year Review ~ Year 10

Name:
[1] The Rock Cycle

Science Class: SHORT ANSWER SECTION

There are three main types of rock: • Sedimentary, for example chalk, limestone, sandstone and shale; • Igneous, for example basalt and granite; • Metamorphic, for example slate and marble The Earth's rocks do not stay the same forever. They are continually changing because of processes such as weathering and large earth movements. The rocks are gradually recycled over millions of years. This is called the rock cycle.

Given the information above and the diagram, along with your own knowledge, choose and answer only 2 of the following questions. Choice 1: Explain briefly how either sedimentary or metamorphic rocks are formed.

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Reynella East Schools MYP Science End of Year Review ~ Year 10 3 Choice 2: Explain briefly the difference between weathering and erosion, include an example of each in your answer.

3 Choice 3: Explain briefly how large earth movements can form either mountains or volcanoes, give an example in your answer.

3 Choice 4: Explain briefly how the rock cycle supports life on Earth.

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[2]

Living things of the same type belong to the same species. For example, humans are one species and dogs are another species. Individuals of the same species can reproduce to make more individuals of the same species. Two individuals belonging to different species cannot normally reproduce together. If they do, their offspring is usually infertile and unable to reproduce. Some variation within a species is inherited, and some variation is due to the environment. (a) Briefly explain, using 2 examples for each, the difference between the causes of inherited variation and the causes of environmental variation.

5 (b) Briefly explain, using 2 examples for each, the difference between natural selection and artificial selection.

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Reynella East Schools MYP Science End of Year Review ~ Year 10 5

[3]

Light is produced by luminous objects, such as fires, electric lamps and stars like the Sun. The light that we can see is called visible light, but there is also light that we cannot see, including ultraviolet light and infrared light. Light cannot travel through opaque objects, such as brick walls. Opaque objects can cast dark shadows when light is shone on them. Light travels through transparent objects, such as glass windows. Paper and other translucent objects let some light through, but not all of it. This is why you can see the typing on the other side of a piece of printed paper if you hold it up to a light. Light can travel through a vacuum such as space, but sound cannot. Science fiction films often show explosions in space with loud bangs. In real life, you would see the explosion but not hear it. Choose and answer only 1 of the following questions: Choice A: Briefly explain the difference between the reflection of light and the refraction of light.

3 The three primary colours of light are red, green and blue. If all three are mixed together, we get white light. If just two of them are mixed together, we get one of three secondary colours. The secondary colours are yellow, cyan and magenta. Choice B: Briefly explain either how colour filters work or how we see a specific colour.

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Reynella East Schools MYP Science End of Year Review ~ Year 10 [4] [5] [6] What is the name for chemicals that react in a chemical reaction? 1 What is the name for chemicals which result from a chemical reaction? Distinguish between endothermic and exothermic reactions. 1

2 [7] Study the following diagram, then answer the question below:

(a)

Briefly explain the theory that is suggested by the sequence of events occurring in the diagrams.

3 (b) What type of evidence do we have that this theory is still happening or occurring?

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Reynella East Schools MYP Science End of Year Review ~ Year 10

2 (c) In approximately 50 million years time, where might the continent of Australia be headed based on the diagram?

1 [8] A student conducts an experiment to determine the effect of salt water on the growth of wheat plants. She plants 50 wheat seeds each into 5 identical containers (A, B, C, D, E) and allows them to germinate. After germination she waters each container with 500 ml of saltwater of various concentrations once a day for 20 days. After 20 days she measures how much each plant has grown. The table below shows the concentrations Container A B C D E In this experiment: (a) (b) (c) (d) Which is the Independent Variable? Which is the Dependent Variable? Which is the Control? 1 What factors must the experimenter be sure are kept constant? 1 1 Salt % 0 2 4 8 35

2 (e) Suggest 2 examples of errors that could have distorted this experiment:

2 (f) Suggest 2 things that could have improved this experiment:

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[9]

The graph to the right presents the average height of the men plotted against the average height of the women for each of more than 200 human societies. (a) Give an explanation and/or the meaning of this figure.

2 (b) One of the points in the graph shown above is very close to the diagonal line. What does this mean or suggest about that specific society?

1 [10] In genetics, a dominance relationship refers to how the alleles for a single locus interact to produce a phenotype. For example, flower colour in sweet peas (Lathyrus odoratus) is controlled by a single gene with two alleles. The three genotypes are PP, Pp, and pp. The flower colour for PP (purple) and pp (white) do not depend on the dominance relationship. However, the heterozygote Pp could theoretically have many different colours, e.g., purple, white, or a light purple. The colour of flowers produced by the heterozygous plants depends on the dominance relationship between the two alleles in question. There are three main kinds of dominance relationships: • Simple dominance or complete dominance (simple Mendelian inheritance) over a recessive trait • Incomplete dominance • Codominance (a) Using R for the dominant allele in a different kind of flower (say R for red) and r for the recessive allele in the same flower (say r for no pigment) – in the space below draw the Punnett Square that would represent the genetic possibilities for this flower. 2

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Reynella East Schools MYP Science End of Year Review ~ Year 10

(b) If the pure bred dominants from these flowers make pure red and the recessives make no pigment which appears white – what is the likely colour of the two intermediate phenotypes (= monohybrid heterozygotes)? 1

[11] Use the diagram below to answer the questions that follow:

(a) By how much will the temperature of the Earth rise in the next 40 years? A 2°C B 20°C C 200°C (b) Will the weather: A become more extreme with more blizzards and droughts B become much better with no blizzards and droughts C not change at all

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Reynella East Schools MYP Science End of Year Review ~ Year 10 (c) Wood is burned in poor countries, releasing more CO2 because: A it looks good B it is a cheap fuel C it is the only fuel available (d) Sea levels will probably rise by: A 3 cm B 30 cm C 300 cm

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(e) Most modern transport, such as cars and planes, gives out a lot of carbon dioxide. This causes: A more global warming B no global warming C less global warming

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[12] Brendan conducted an investigation in which he: • mixed two solutions • filtered the precipitate which formed • placed some of the solid into a crucible (labelled N) • heated the crucible with a Bunsen burner (labelled M) to dry the solid. (a) Explain why the crucible (labelled N) is a more appropriate choice than a beaker (labelled P) to dry the solid.

2 (b) (i) Brendan then wanted to know if the temperature at which the two solutions were mixed affected the amount of precipitate produced. In the table, list the variable(s) he should keep the same and those that he should change, in order to conduct the investigation. 2

(ii)

Brendan produced a graph of results from his investigation.

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Reynella East Schools MYP Science End of Year Review ~ Year 10

State a conclusion that Brendan could draw from the results of his investigation.

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0(c)
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Brendan explained to another student that he was concerned about the accuracy of his data at 30°C. State a possible cause for the result at 30°C. 1

1(d) Brendan’s teacher said that the precipitate was not to be washed down the sink when he cleaned up after conducting his investigations. Suggest a reason for the teacher’s instruction. 1 [13] Read the following information relating to whales – then answer the questions below. Southern Right whales inhabit the southern oceans of Australia. They do not have teeth, but have a series of vertical plates in their mouths called baleen, which act as a filtering system. They eat schools of tiny animals such as shrimp (krill) and microscopic plankton which are filtered from sea water by the baleen.

Threat to Whales All whales are protected in Australian waters. Southern Right whales are considered endangered. Whale numbers are increasing at an estimated 10% per year. Human activities impact on whale habitat. Some of these activities are shown in

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Reynella East Schools MYP Science End of Year Review ~ Year 10

(a) Select a human activity that impacts on whale habitats, and explain how this activity could affect whales.

2 (b) Some groups in our society support a ban on whaling. Their reasons may be legal, economic or scientific. Justify, with a scientific argument, why some groups in society would support a ban on whaling.

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[14] The table provides information on the effects of adding biodegradable wastes to river water. Distance Dissolved oxygen along river concentration (km) (ppm) 1 9 Wastes added 2 3 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 10 9 (a) Graph the information on the grid below. 5

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Reynella East Schools MYP Science End of Year Review ~ Year 10

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Use your graph to answer these questions. (b) What was the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the river before the wastes were added? 2 [14] (c) Fish die at oxygen concentrations below 4ppm. At what distance downstream would you expect to find dead fish?

2 (d) About 8 km downstream the oxygen levels have returned to acceptable levels. How could this happen?

2 [15] Water is continually recycled through the water cycle. Match the word with its meaning – connect by straight lines. 4 Evaporation Change of state from vapour to liquid

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Reynella East Schools MYP Science End of Year Review ~ Year 10 Precipitation Condensation Transpiration Change of state from liquid to vapour Loss of water through plant leaves The falling of rain, snow or hail.

[16] Acid rain is rain that is more acidic than normal rainwater. It may be caused when gases released by coal-burning power stations react with water vapour in the atmosphere, producing dilute acid. Acid rain can increase the acidity of waterways.

(a)

What would be ONE effect of acid rain on the ecosystem shown in the diagram? 1

(b)

State ONE advantage or ONE disadvantage of using coal-burning power stations, or any other source of energy you have studied. 1

[17] Only 3% of all the water on Earth is fresh water, and 71% of this fresh water is locked away in icecaps and glaciers. The table shows where water is found in the hydrosphere.

(a)

From the table, name ONE source of fresh water, other than icecaps and glaciers.
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Reynella East Schools MYP Science End of Year Review ~ Year 10 1 (b) Name another use for this water source, other than food production. 1 (c) Australia is a very dry continent. What is ONE impact this has had on the lifestyle of Australians?

2 [18] Water is one of our most important natural resources, so it is important to use it wisely. The graph shows how household water is used.

Select TWO household uses of water, and for each suggest how the amount of water being used could be reduced.

2 [19] A researcher conducted an experiment on sugar cane. Three plots of sugar cane were watered daily, each with a different amount of water. After two months the plots looked like this:

(a)

What was the purpose of this experiment?

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Reynella East Schools MYP Science End of Year Review ~ Year 10 1 (b) Write a conclusion for this experiment.

3 (c) Name TWO variables that would need to be controlled to ensure a fair test.

2 (d) How would the results of this experiment be useful to a sugar cane farmer?

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MULTIPLE CHOICE SECTION
Choose the best answer in each of the following questions that makes it correct. Place your choice in the space provided below. [1] [6] [11] [ [ [ ] ] ] [2] [7] [12] [ [ [ ] ] ] [3] [8] [13] [ [ [ ] ] ] [4] [9] [14] [ [ [ ] ] ] [5] [10] [15] [ [ [ ] ] ]

[1]

Use the following diagram to answer the question.

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Reynella East Schools MYP Science End of Year Review ~ Year 10

Which of the following best describes when the event labelled U occurred? A. after T B. before V C. before Z D. after Z

You have been asked to set up a new science project team for a biochemical company to manufacture a new wonder drug. Now answer Questions [2] and [3]. [2] Which one of the following is likely to be most appropriate and important at the first formal meeting of a team? new project

A. Establish a common sense of direction and expectations. B. Agree on a set of rewards and punishments for behaviours during the project. C. Start by having some drinks and food to relax everyone and keep things sociable. D. Make lists of strengths and weaknesses of people and share these prior to delegating tasks. E. Appoint the most dominating person as leader and chairperson so they can direct the project. [3] In general, which one of the following is likely to be the best approach to establishing the social cohesion of your new science project team?

A. going to the pub for a few drinks B. electing a leader to help direct the group C. assigning tasks according to the experience of group members D. identifying project goals and phase deadlines so everyone knows what to do E. sharing an experience that requires interaction between group members and is fun [4] Use the following diagram to answer the question.

What is the sequence of the four oldest features from oldest to youngest?

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Reynella East Schools MYP Science End of Year Review ~ Year 10

Reading the following information then answer Questions [5], [6] and [7]. If the drinking water in a particular area is naturally low in minerals, sodium fluoride can be added to the water supply in order to help children develop healthy teeth. The following passage is adapted from a magazine article on fluoridation of drinking water. The pro-fluoride lobby tends to be passionate about fluoridating water supplies because they believe the benefits — in reducing caries1 — are so self-evident. The anti-fluoride brigade can be just as forceful in putting their concerns, which often reflect mistrust of scientific assurances about the safety of fluoridation. Ironically, public support for fluoridation seems to have fallen at the same time as caries rates in children have declined — in 1977, 90% of 12-year-old Australian children had caries, compared with 46% in 1994. Water fluoridation can’t take all the credit for this improvement, but a comparison of caries rates in Brisbane (the only capital city not to fluoridate water) with fluoridated Townsville highlights its important role.
(1 Caries: tooth decay)

[5]

The passage implies that caries rates B. are higher in adults than in children. D. are at an unacceptable level in Townsville.

A. have fallen in Brisbane since 1994. C. have increased in Brisbane since 1977. E. are higher in Brisbane than in Townsville. [6]

Which one of the following claims about fluoridation in Australia is supported by evidence presented in the passage?

A. The anti-fluoride lobby denies that fluoridation reduces caries. B. The pro-fluoride lobby represents wealthy and powerful interests. C. Caries rates in children have declined in most capital cities since 1977. D. Advocates of fluoridation place too much trust in scientific assurances. E. The number of Australians supporting fluoridation has fallen by 44% since 1977.

[7]

The word ‘ironically’ (line 3) suggests that the writer was expecting public support for fluoridation to

A. vary according to people’s age and education. B. be greater in capital cities than in regional centres. C. fall as the incidence of caries in children was reduced. D. rise if fluoridation reduced the rate of caries in children. E. vary according to the media exposure gained by the pro- and anti-fluoride lobbies. [8] What is a gene?

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A. a chromosome

B. a section of DNA

Reynella East Schools MYP Science End of Year Review ~ Year 10 C. an inherited disease

D. a compound found in all cells

[9]

Mary heated a copper block to 70°C and then cooled it in a water-bath to 25°C. She measured the temperature of the block every minute as it cooled. Mary’s results are shown in the graph.

How long did it take for the block to cool to 25°C? 1 2A. 6 minutes B. 8 minutes C. 10 minutes

D. 11 minutes

[10] Four students investigated whether plants need light to survive. They each set up identical plants in different conditions. Each student’s experiment is shown in the diagram.

Which student has used a suitable control? A. Jake B. Kim C. Mitchell D. Ruby

[11] When Hurricane Katrina caused flooding in New Orleans, a group of people became ill after coming into contact with the floodwaters. The disease did not spread from person to person and no disease-causing organisms were found in tests on the sick people. Using this information, what was the most likely cause of the illness? 1A. 2 3C. [12] 1A. Fungi in damp buildings Pollution from nearby chemical industries B. D. Parasites from untreated sewage Bacteria from decaying plants in the water

The theory of evolution states that all living things developed from simpler organisms. Why is this statement known as a theory? There is no evidence for the idea. B. Scientists cannot agree about the idea.

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Reynella East Schools MYP Science End of Year Review ~ Year 10 2 3C. [13] The idea is not open to doubt or argument. D Scientists may modify the idea as they gather more evidence.

Lipstick manufacturers usually choose colourings that are insoluble in water. What is one advantage of colourings that are insoluble in water? B. The colouring is less easily wiped off by licking. D. The lipstick is less toxic.

A. The colouring is more easily washed out of clothes. C. The lipstick is less likely to melt in hot weather.

[14] The diagram shows information on the label of a face-wash product.

What is the likely pH range of this product? A. pH 6.3–6.5 B. pH 6.9–7.1 C. pH 7.5–7.7 D. pH 7.9–8.1

[15] A team of students carried out an investigation to compare the pH of a range of cosmetic products designed for use on the skin. A one-gram sample of each cosmetic product was placed in separate test tubes, and then diluted with water. Universal indicator solution was added to each test tube to measure the pH of each sample. What should the students have done to ensure that the investigation was a fair test? A. B. C. D. They should have tested cosmetic products that were packaged in the same size and type of container. They should have diluted each cosmetic product in each test tube using the same volume of water. They should have used the same size test tube to test each cosmetic product. They should have used cosmetic products with the same use-by date. **************************************************** (Short Answer – 90 + Multiple Choice – 15) ] and Multiple Choice [ ] Converted % = [ ]

EOY Total: 105 Marks Your Score:

Short Answer [

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