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COMPARISON BETWEEN INDUSTRY
SUBMITTED BY:NEHA MENON (7) PRITI MANCHANKAR (6) VAISHAKHI HALDAR (8) DIPTI GOSAVI (5) RAHUL GHAGADMAL (3) DEEPIKA GATTANI (4) AJAY SHINDE (1) PRAVIN DESHMUKH (2)
SATISFACTION AND IT
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
INTRODUCTION NEED OF JOB SATISFACTION SURVEY OBJECTIVES OF STUDY HYPOTHESIS LITERATURE REVIEW RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DATA ANALYSIS AND ITERPRETATION FINDINGS AND SUGGESTION LIMITATIONS BIBLOGRAPHY ANNEXURE
3 10 16 16 17 27 40 43 46 47 48
Comparison of job satisfaction between manufacturing and software industry
1. Introduction of study:
Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These studies (1924±1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers¶ productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction. Scientific management (aka Taylorism) also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylor¶s 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework towards the more modern of assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg set the tone for Taylor¶s work. Some argue that Maslow¶s hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life ± physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories.
Job satisfaction can also be seen within the broader context of the range of issues which affect an individual's experience of work, or their quality of working life. Job satisfaction can be understood in terms of its relationships with other key factors, such as general well-being, stress at work, control at work, home-work interface, and working conditions. Locke and Lathan (1/976) give a comprehensive definition of job satisfaction as pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experience. Job satisfaction is a result of employee's perception of how well their job provides those things that are viewed as important. According to (Mitchell and Lasan, 1987), it is generally recognized in the organizational behaviour field that job satisfaction is the most important and frequently studied attitude. While Luthan (1998) posited that there are three important dimensions to job satisfaction: y Job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation. As such it cannot be seen,
it can only be inferred. y Job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcome meet or exceed expectations. For instance, if organization participants feel that they are working much harder than others in the department but are receiving fewer rewards they will probably have a negative attitudes towards the work, the boss and or coworkers. On the other hand, if they feel they are being treated very well and are being paid equitably, they are likely to have positive attitudes towards the job. y Job satisfaction represents several related attitudes which are most important characteristics of a job about which people have effective response. These to Luthans are: the work itself, pay, promotion opportunities, supervision and coworkers. ³Mid career employees and managers who should be at their peak of productivity are the most dissatisfied segment of the workforce. The companies need to find ways to rekindle the fires of this vast neglected group of people ± or risk losing them all together.´ Hippock defines Job Satisfaction as, ³any combination of psychological, physiological and environment circumstances that causes a person truthfully to say, µI am satisfied with my job¶´ The Executive Satisfaction Survey is an important tool to help the management understand the views and aspirations of its workforce. Most organizations conduct employee opinion surveys at some time. The Senior Management will say that surveying their executives is
indicative of their concern for people, and that the survey process should result in wellmotivated, productive and quality conscious officials; these same managers are often perplexed because, no matter how many surveys they conduct, productivity and quality do not improve. To improve executive morale and decrease their attrition, the executive satisfaction surveys can be a useful management tool.
In addition to an interview with the management and the employees, we examine professional journals to better understand the needs at hand. Secondly, we develop a survey based on the requirements stated. In developing the survey, we evaluate the questions that are necessary to assess a particular domain of satisfaction, and reviewing sampling methodologies and question formats. Thirdly, administering the survey, write ± up the findings, prepare an executive summary and provide suggestions. In constructing the survey, we are mindful of the reliability and validity of the instrument. Reliability refers to the consistency of the responses and the effect on the measurement error. For example, test-retest reliability or parallel forms of the survey may be employed to assess the stability of the responses. Scales of high reliability distinguishes domains more accurately than scales with low reliability; reliable assessment leads to an accurate discovery of relationships among variables. Validity refers to measuring what you think you are measuring. Content validity, criterion-related validity, and construct validity assess the degree to which we can assure we can measure what we intend to measure. People in the organizations are the most valuable assets. Most of the organizations spend their resources in order to extract the best from them. As it is rightly said, ³man power is considered to be the dynamic factors because without man power, things are just unimaginable to be done.´
There are few important elements of job satisfaction, and special compensation and benefits elements. Career Development y y y Organization¶s commitment to professional development Career advancement opportunities within the organization Career development opportunities for learning and professional growth (mentorships, cross training, etc.) y y Job-specific training Opportunities to network with others (within or outside the organization) to help in advancing one¶s career y y y y y y Opportunities to use skills and abilities in work Paid training and tuition reimbursement programs Relationship With Management Communication between employees and senior management Autonomy and independence to make decisions Management recognition of employee job performance (feedback, incentives, rewards) Relationship with immediate supervisor
Compensation and Benefits y y y Compensation/pay Base rate of pay Opportunities for variable pay (bonuses, commissions, other variable pay, monetary rewards for ideas or suggestions) Benefits y y Health care/medical benefits Family-friendly benefits (life insurance for dependents subsidized child care, elder care service, etc.) y y Paid time off (vacation, holidays, sick days, personal days, etc.) Retirement benefits (defined contribution plans such as 401(k) and other defined plans such as pensions)
Importance of these elements in an organization-
1.1 NEED OF JOB SATISFACTION SURVEY
Here, since the survey is concentrated on the middle management, it¶s referred to as Executive Satisfaction Survey. The development of customized surveys helps to assess the executive¶s population¶s attitudes and perceptions. This feedback helps us to determine the organizational strengths and areas of development for ongoing growth and profitability.
The information gathered from the Executive Satisfaction Surveys can give the Management at large, knowledge that directly impacts the bottom line employees which therefore triggers pressures in the managerial levels.
These are some of the ways and means in which positive executive relations are fostered:-
1. Identifying cost-saving opportunities 2. Curbing absenteeism 3. Strengthening supervision 4. Assessing training needs 5. Streamlining communication 6. Benchmarking the organization¶s progress in relation to the industry
TEN REASONS FOR CONDUCTING AN EXECUTIVE SATISFACTION SURVEY
1. It produces useful quantifiable information about issues of concern. It reveals where the actions should be taken to generate immediate positive results. 2. It identifies areas where the organization is doing well. It identifies and ensures where the organization is doing well in terms of its executive¶s performance satisfaction. It identifies the strengths one can build on, and offers opportunity for giving praise where deserved. 3. It reinforces the organizational values.
4. It improves communication and trust. 5. It can promote greater commitment and reduce turnover. 6. An organization can use it to build better leaders. 7. It enables to measure change over time. 8. An organization can use it to float proposed corporate changes. 9. It offers a reality check. 10. It aims at improving the productivity.
Why measuring job satisfaction?
Many organizations conduct executive satisfaction surveys. They are based on the premise that happy, enthusiastic officials will perform more effectively. If the areas are found where the they are not satisfied, initiatives can be taken to address the areas of dissatisfaction. This should provide benefits in the areas of:-
y y y y y y y
Retention Identifying reasons for unauthorized absence Executive performance level Product service quality Customer satisfaction Market share Profit
So, an effort to improve the executive satisfaction should lead to an improvement in the quality of the products or services, due to timely decisions taken, leadership ability, a competitive advantage, increased market share and improved profits.
By conducting the survey, one can send a message to the executives that their views are of interest to the management. This can effect their perceptions to a large degree and its most important to remember that it creates expectations. Executives might conclude that the top management would not ask about working conditions, if they were not willing to consider to
improving them. If the survey shows dissatisfaction about the working conditions, however and you do nothing about them, and after a year has gone by, another survey comes out asking about working conditions, the executive¶s perception of an attitude towards them and the survey process will dramatically change. Typically, the response rate will diminish and the cynicism of the response will increase.
Measuring executive satisfaction
Executive satisfaction drives employee satisfaction and thus, customer satisfaction, indirectly creating profit for an organization. Research on the service-profit chain shows that satisfied executives are far better than unsatisfied ones at delivering excellent customer service and hence enhancing customer satisfaction with the organization¶s products/services.
Administration of job satisfaction survey:
Executive Satisfaction Survey is now easy to administer. With the Custom Insight Survey Administrator, one can create online survey that executives in an organization can complete. Employees will appreciate the convenience, case of use and the anonymity that custom insight surveys provide. Once executives respond to executive¶s survey, the management can generate the full color reports that will highlight the strong and the weak areas within the organization Examples of executive assessments delivered with custom insight survey administrator. 1. Executive Satisfaction Survey 2. Executive Attitude Survey 3. Executive Performance Survey 4. Organizational Culture and Effectiveness Survey 5. Group Feedback and Team Building Surveys 6. 360-Degree Ratings
2. Review of literature: The purpose of review of literature is analyzing the job satisfaction of the middle management officials. It also assists in knowing the various attributes which influences their behavior. It helped in finding the perceptions, and precise and elaborate information required for the study. Some others who have made a study in this regard are:1. Hippock (1935): in his monograph µJob Satisfaction¶ He proposed the following six major components of job satisfaction:y y y y Individual¶s reaction to unpleasant situations Facility of adjusting with other individuals Standing in the socio-economic group with which he has been identified Relationship between demands of job and employee¶s abilities, interests and training y y Security Loyalty
2. Evans and Laseau (1950): Made a study on employee attitudes Dissatisfaction arising from off-the-job factors frequently reacts to job conditions and also that low job adjustment co-exists with low social and personnel adjustment 3. Shaik (1994): Conducted and enquiry in to the relationship between attitudes of management and job satisfaction 4. Srivatsava (1992): Conducted a study to evaluate the relationship between job satisfaction and need satisfaction. Indicated that overall job satisfaction was negatively correlated with the basic needs. The other four needs showed no significant relation
Along with perception, personality, attitudes, and learning, motivation is a very important part of understanding behaviour. Luthan (1998) asserts that motivation should not be thought of as the only explanation of behaviour, since it interacts with and acts in conjunction with other mediating processes and with the environment. Luthan stress that, like the other cognitive process, motivation cannot be seen. All that can be seen is behaviour, and this should not be equated with causes of behaviour. While recognizing the central role of motivation,
Evans (1998) states that many recent theories of organizational behaviour find it important forthe field to re-emphasize behaviour. Definitions of motivation abound. One thing these definitions have in common is the inclusion of words such as "desire", "want", "wishes","aim","goals", "needs", and" incentives". Luthan (1998) defines motivation as, ³a process that starts with a physiological deficiency or need that activates a behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal incentive´. Therefore, the key to understanding the process of motivation lies in the meaning of, and relationship among, needs, drives, and incentives. Relative to this, Minner, Ebrahimi, and Watchel, (1995) state that in a system sense, motivation consists of these three interacting and interdependent elements, i.e., needs, drives, and incentives. Managers and management researchers have long believe that organizational goals are unattainable without the enduring commitment of members of the organizations. Motivation is a human psychological characteristic that contributes to a person's degree of commitment (Stoke, 1999). It includes the factors that cause, channel, and sustain human behaviour in a particular committed direction. Stoke, in Adeyemo (1999) goes on to say that there are basic assumptions of motivation practices by managers which must be understood.
First, that motivation is commonly assumed to be a good thing. One cannot feel very good about oneself if one is not motivated. Second, motivation is one of several factors that go into a person's performance (e.g., as a librarian). Factors such as ability, resources, and conditions under which one performs are also important. Third, managers and researchers alike assume that motivation is in short supply and in need of periodic replenishment. Fourth, motivation is a tool with which managers can use in organizations. If managers know what drives the people working for them, they can tailor job assignments and rewards to what makes these people ³tick.´ Motivation can also be conceived of as whatever it takes to encourage workers to perform by fulfilling or appealing to their needs.
Parameters of job satisfaction
Numerous studies found that job stress influences the employees¶ job satisfaction and their overall performance in their work. Because most of the organizations now are more demanding for the better job outcomes. In fact, modern times have been called as the ³age of anxiety and stress´ (Coleman, 1976).The stress itself will be affected by number of stressors. Nevertheless, Beehr and Newman (1978) had defined stress as a situation which will force a person to deviate from normal functioning due to the change (i.e. disrupt or enhance) in his/her psychological and/or physiological condition, such that the person is forced to deviate from normal functioning. From the definition that has been identified by researchers, we can conclude that it is truly important for an individual to recognize the stresses that are facing by them in their career.
Management role of an organization is one of the aspects that affect work-related stress among workers (Alexandros-Stamatios et. al., 2003).Workers in an organization can face occupational stress through the role stress that the management gave. Role stress means anything about an organizational role that produces adverse consequences for the individual (Kahn and Quinn, 1970). Management will have their own role that stands as their related. Role related are concerned with how individuals perceive the expectations other have of them and includes role ambiguity and role conflict (Alexandros-Stamatios et. al., 2003).
Family and work are inter-related and interdependent to the extent that experiences in one area affect the quality of life in the other (Sarantakos, 1996). Home-work interface can be known as the overlap between work and home; the two way relationship involves the source of stress at work affecting home life and vice versa affects of seafaring on home life, demands from work at home, no support from home, absent of stability in home life. It asks about whether home problems are brought to work and work has a negative impact on home life (AlexandrosStamatios G.A et al., 2003). For example, it questions whether the workers have to take work home, or inability to forget about work when the individual is at home. Home-work interface is important for the workers to reduce the level of work-related stress. According to Lasky (1995) demands associated with family and finances can be a major source of µextra-organisational¶ stress that can complicate, or even precipitate, work-place stress. Russo & Vitaliano (1995) argued that the occurrence of stressors in the workplace either immediately following a period of chronic stress at home, or in conjunction with other major life stressors, is likely to have a marked impact on outcome. Several studies have highlighted the deleterious consequences of high workloads or work overload. According to Wilkes et al. (1998) work overloads and time constraints were significant contributors to work stress among community nurses. Workload stress can be defined as reluctance to come to work and a feeling of constant pressure (i.e. no effort is enough) accompanied by the general physiological, psychological, and behavioral stress symptoms (Division of Human Resource, 2000). Rapidly changing global scene is increasing the pressure of workforce to perform maximum output and enhance competitiveness. Indeed, to perform better to their job, there is a requirement for workers to perform multiple tasks in the workplace to keep abreast of changing technologies (Cascio,1995; Quick, 1997). The ultimate results of this pressure have been found
to one of the important factors influencing job stress in their work (Cahn et al., 2000). A study in UK indicated that the majority of the workers were unhappy with the current culture where they were required to work extended hours and cope with large workloads while simultaneously meeting production targets and deadlines (Townley, 2000). Role ambiguity is another aspect that affects job stress in the workplace. According to Beehretal. (1976), Cordes & Dougherty (1993), Cooper (1991), Dyer & Quine (1998) and Ursprung (1986) role ambibuity exists when an individual lacks information about the requirements of his or her role, how those role requirements are to be met, and the evaluative procedures available to ensure that the role is being performed successfully. Jackson & Schuler (1985) and Muchinsky (1997) studies found role ambiguity to lead to such negative outcomes as reduces confidence, a sense of hopelessness, anxiety, and depression.
Link between Job Stress and Job Satisfaction Several studies have tried to determine the link between stress and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction and job stress are the two hot focuses in human resource management researches. According to Stamps & Piedmonte (1986) job satisfaction has been found significant relationship with job stress. One study of general practitioners in England identified four job stressors that were predictive of job dissatisfaction (Cooper, et al., 1989). In other study, Vinokur-Kaplan (1991) stated that organization factors such as workload and working condition were negatively related with job satisfaction. Fletcher & Payne (1980) identified that a lack of satisfaction can be a source of stress, while high satisfaction can alleviate the effects of stress. This study reveals that, both of job stress and job satisfaction were found to be interrelated. The study of Landsbergis (1988) and Terry et al. (1993) showed that high levels of work stress are associated with low levels of job satisfaction.
Different stress and performance levels
The relationship between psychological job demands and control
The Demand/Control Model is based on two central assumptions, reflected by diagonals A and B in Figure above. The first assumption (diagonal A) is that psychological strains are caused by high psychological demands and low decision latitude, and is constituted by low strain and high strain jobs. Karasek and Theorell stated that such a combination can be described as an interactive effect. The effect job demands have on health and well-being varies according to the amount of decision latitude that the job provides. The second assumption (diagonal B) is that work motivation as well as learning and development opportunities will occur if both the job demands and decision latitude are high. The active and passive jobs, taken together, trace diagonal B in the figure (Karasek & Theorell 1990: 38).
Four distinctly different kinds of psychosocial work experience are generated by the interactions of high and low levels of psychological demands and decision latitude; high strain jobs, active jobs, low strain jobs and passive jobs (Karasek & Theorell 1990: 31). These four situations, which are combinations of high and low job decisions latitude and psychological demands, illuminate the importance of psychological demands and decision latitude in predicting health and behaviour (Karasek & Theorell 1990). High strain jobs The first prediction in Karasek and Theorell¶s model is that the most undesirable reactions of psychological strain such as depression, anxiety and physical illness, occurs when the psychological demands of the job are high and the worker¶s decision latitude in the task is low. This category is called high strain jobs, and is placed in the lower right-hand cell in the model (Karasek & Theorell 1990). When workers experience job situations with high demands combined with a low control over environmental circumstances, the response is psychological strain. This arousal energy is transformed into damaging, unused residual strain, which can lead to physical and psychological damage. According to Karasek and Theorell there are still high levels of strain in jobs in the modern world, but in less acute form. One example of high strain jobs are assembly-line jobs. Assembly-line workers behaviour is rigidly constrained. If the line is speeded up and the workers are expected to perform more, the arousal level consequently ascends. If the pace is kept up and long-lasting and the worker¶s control over the situation is non-present, the arousal will be transformed to psychological and physical strain (Karasek & Theorell 1990: 33). Karasek and Theorell claim that responses to high strain situations can go beyond arousal to psychological strain, and in the long term, to stress-related illnesses such as heart disease (Karasek & Theorell 1990: 34). Unintended outcomes may occur depending on the severity of the requirements. Low-level stressors can cause simple symptoms as fatigue, whereas long-time and high strain situations can lead to personal breakdowns.
Active jobs The second prediction in the model is that active jobs, with high control and high psychological demands, also have a high degree of learning and growth, which are conducive to high productivity. Active jobs are found in the upper right-hand corner of the figure, and although these jobs are high in demand they don¶t cause negative psychological strain (Karasek & Theorell 1990). Active jobs situations are intensely demanding, and involve activities in which the worker feels a large measure of control. Together with a high level of control, the worker has the freedom to use all available skills. Karasek and Theorell call this kind of job active jobs because research in both Swedish and American populations has shown this group of workers, in spite of heavy work demands, to be the most active in leisure and popular activity outside of work (Karasek & Theorell 1990: 35). Karasek and Theorell claim that these jobs result in positive psychological outcomes such as learning and growth, which both are conducive to high productivity. The energy aroused by the active job is translated into action through, for instance, effective problem-solving. This way, the amount of residual strain to cause disturbance is kept on an average level. When the worker has the freedom to decide the most effective course of action in response to a stressor, he or she can test the efficacy of the chosen course of action, and then reinforce it if it has worked or modify it if it has failed (Karasek & Theorell 1990: 36). Psychologically demanding work is associated with more active leisure, rather than less active leisure. There are findings from Sweden which indicates that active job situation with high psychological demand and high decision latitude is associated with high rates of participation in socially active leisure and political activities. Passive workers do not compensate for passive jobs with active leisure but instead appear to carry over social patterns of behaviour from work to leisure (Karasek & Theorell 1990).
Low strain jobs Low strain jobs are found in the upper left-hand quadrant of the model, and represent the third prediction in Karasek and Theorell¶s model. The third prediction is that high degree of decision latitude combined with few demands and challenges, creates a lower than average levels of residual psychological strain. This low-strain job category represents the other end of the residual psychological strain diagonal, labelled A. Passive jobs The last cell in the figure represents situations which are low on demand and low on control, which are called passive jobs in a work context. The passive job setting is the second major psychosocial work problem which, according to Karasek and Theorell, can be described in the model. If compared to high strain jobs, passive jobs can result in different injuries on health and involve different strategies for eliminating injuries. Janitors, dispatchers and miners are examples of passive occupations (Karasek & Theorell 1990: 43). Karasek and Theorell claim that passive jobs which lack job challenges, can lead to negative learning or gradual loss of previously acquired skills. A passive work situation can influence workers leisure activities outside the job in a negative way. Environmentally rigid restrictions preventing workers from testing their own ideas for improving the work process can only mean an extremely unmotivating job setting and result in long-term loss of work and productivity (Karasek & Theorell 1990: 38). For passive jobs, like for active work, Karasek and Theorell hypothesise only an average level of psychological strain and illness risk. The Demand/Control Model and learning The changes in demands can be perceived as both negative and positive for an employee, since demands can be a clear contributor to psychological strain, but also is necessary for effective learning. Work demands can be interpreted as burdens to the individual, but also represent challenges and opportunities for growth and learning. Diagonal B represents the second hypothesis in the Demand/Control Model, which proposes that high demands in the work situation combined with high control increases the probability of learning, and motivation to develop new behaviour patterns. According to the model learning is important to workers health (Karasek & Theorell 1990).
3. Research methodology: Background of research topic: ³ A Study on Job Satisfaction in the Software Industry and manufacturing industry with special focus to the Middle Management Group´ was carried out by us in Pune. When we conduct the research to ascertain how the executives feel about any organization and their situation in it, we call it an ³EXECUTIVE SATISFACTION SURVEY´ Every organization would probably agree that executives are most likely to be successful in delivering customer satisfaction if they are themselves satisfied with their work and the environment in which they work in. So, organizations take as much interest in executive satisfaction as it will do in customer satisfaction and therefore term the survey as ³EXECUTIVE SATISFATION SURVEY´ Executive satisfaction survey allows an organization to understand executive perceptions. Perceptions are reality. As employees at any organization act on the basis on their perceptions, management must be keenly aware of the executives¶ view.
Statement of problem: To study the job satisfaction of the middle management, working in the Software Industry and manufacturing industry. Its imperative to understand the satisfaction of the executives because nowadays there is increasing rate of attrition. Therefore, companies are doing their best to retain the best talent pool within the organization.
Need of study: In these days, the job satisfaction of the employees is having a vital role in each and every business sector because of its HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. This study is very helpful to know the management of human resources in practical concerns. This study will help the top management to understand the mindset of the executives and make necessary changes for a satisfied workforce to enhance productivity and efficiency.
1.2 Objectives of study: The study has the following objectives: a. To identify the criteria for job satisfaction in an organization b. To evaluate the employee¶s job satisfaction level on the basis of the criteria identified c. Comparison of job satisfaction between software and manufacturing industry.
Ho: There is less job satisfaction for the middle management officials in the Software Industry as compared to manufacturing industry.
H1: There is more job satisfaction for the middle management officials in the software industry as compared to manufacturing Industry.
According to Clifford Woody research comprises of ³defining, redefining problem, formulating hypothesis or suggested solution, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and reading conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis´. It is a way to systematic solution of the research problem. The encyclopedia of social science defines research as the manipulation of generalizing to expand, correct or verify knowledge. The researcher needs to understand the assumption underlying various techniques and procedures that will be applicable to certain problem. This means that it is necessary for the researcher to design its methodology. There are various factors such as the personal factors as well as the organizational factors that motivate a person to join this industry. Thus the questionnaire will be directed towards the respondents to understand the factors and the preferences by the use of rating scales. The primary focus of the study was to measure the employee satisfaction and their perception on their work, relations, career growth etc within the organization that leads to their disengagement in their duties and responsibilities that trigger them to find for the best suitable work place. These lead to attrition of employees in the organization. This will also help in knowing the perception of the employees, towards their benefits given by the company. The research design employed for the purpose of the study was directive in nature and a simple survey was conducted for the purpose of generation. The steps involved were: y y y y y y y y y y y Determining the need to survey Setting the survey to the management Selecting the methodology When to require questioning Proofing and testing Marketing and survey Inviting the officials Obtain high response rates Selecting the norms to use Interpreting the results Action on the results
A Schematic diagram of the conceptual framework
Dimensions of job satisfaction survey: Each item in an executive satisfaction survey is combined with other related survey systems to produce dimensions. y y y y y y y y y y y y y Overall job satisfaction Satisfaction with work Co ± workers performance and their co-operation Pay satisfaction Promotions Supervisory considerations Communication Concern for colleagues Productivity/efficiency Training and Development Physical working conditions Strategy/mission Job stress
Organization and individual should develop and progress simultaneously for their survival and attainment of mutual goals. So, every modern management has to develop the organization through Human Resource Development. Satisfaction surveys: Satisfied customers and employees ensure the business success. Knowing customer and employee needs and achieving satisfaction are the basis for successful business activities. The employees and customers¶ feedback are the most important source of information for improving products and services. Satisfied and convinced customers and employees ensure the company¶s success in the long term.
Customer surveys and employee surveys provide the company with this feedback: y y y Motivate employees with higher levels of productivity Inspire employee trust, respect and loyalty Manage differences, including but not limited to gender, age, ethnicity, education, personality, experience and values y y y y Hone presentation skills to influence and persuade Manage conflicts constructively Help people think in new and innovative ways Manage performance, using the most current , updated tools and systems
Sampling: All items under study in any field of survey is known as a universe or population. A complete enumeration of all items in the population is census enquiry, which is not practically possible. Thus sample design is done which basically refers to the definition plan defined by any data collection for obtaining a sample from a given population.
Sampling technique: The sampling technique used in this study is purposive in nature as we are concentrating on the factors that made employees to quit the firm due to various reasons and is trying to draw a conclusion that compensation is the main factor.
This study is not based on any concept or the personal opinion of any individual. It is recorded in the real environment with the actual employees to find out exactly the factors. Thus the research is descriptive in nature. Simple random sampling is the method adopted here, thus each unit has an equal chance of being selected. Sample size: The sample size of 200 taken to analyze the above stated objectives.
Sample type: The sample consists of Managers and employees of two different streams(manufacturing and software industry).
Sample design: Sample design or sample procedure refers to a definite plan followed for the collection of sample from as given population. The process followed was, firstly a questionnaire being prepare with the objective in the mind. The respondent who includes the various managerial cadre from the IT industry and manufacturing industry , Pune was determined. The second step includes selection of sample and the questionnaire was administered.
4.Data analysis and interpretation: Process used to study:
Our investigation process had following steps: y Determine Collaboration Selection Criteria: We began our efforts in January 2011 by identifying a set of criteria, which would define the job satisfaction level. y Conduct Initial Survey: Based on our selection criteria, we developed a short survey that we used to identify candidate collaborations. The survey contained 25 questions intended to highlight the selection criteria and to elicit some general information about respondent¶s background, age,marital status, satisfaction level,salary,
and work culture etc. Primary data was being
collected afresh from the executives with the help of questionnaire. The questionnaire was specifically designed to accomplish the objectives of the study. It collected information such as age, sex, experience, professional status, marital status, position, and so on. Secondary data are used such as books, survey reports, internet etc.
During month of Februrary we distributed this survey to a variety of software and manufacturing industry.
Filter Respondent Information: The next step in our process was to apply the selection criteria to the results of the initial survey and to filter the respondent information. This processes involved deleting the unwanted and missing data and selecting only the authentic information.
Administer the questionnaire : Our next step, carried out was to administer the questionnaire in a detailed manner. And use various qualitative analysis for carrying out the research.
evaluate questionnaire results: Upon receiving responses from the questionnaires and interviews, we used various statistical techniques and tools to find out correlation between various variables. During the end of the month of February 2011, we tabulated the results of the questionnaire of both manufacturing and software industry to
determine characteristics of successful correlations. Ananlysis and design of the survey is done on the basis of SPSS statistical technique.This study used a descriptive survey design. The purpose of descriptive surveys, according to Ezeani (1998), is to collect detailed and factual information that describes an existing phenomenon. Overall Total 200 samples were taken , 100 samples from software industry and 100 from manufacturing industry.
There were 200 participants , age distribution of participating employees are given below :
On the basis of SPSS technique code book and master chart is prepared and data analysis is done. Inferential Statistics: Pearson Correlation The Pearson correlation matrix is used to indicate the direction, strength and significance of the bivariate relationships of all the variables in the study. The Pearson correlation matrix obtained for the variables of manufacturing industry is given below.
Manufacturing Industry: y The variables used for the descriptive analysis is job satisfaction and salary in manufacturing industry.
Descriptive Statistics Std. Mean Salary 20.00 Deviation 18.166 18.534 N 5 5
Correlations salary Salary Pearson Correlation 1 Sig. (2-tailed) N 5 satisfaction .683 .204 5 1
satisfaction Pearson Correlation .683 Sig. (2-tailed) N .204 5
From the above table we can see that there is a positive correlation between job satisfaction and salary. Thus we can say that higher the salary of the individual greater is the level of job satisfaction.
Next we found of the correlation between other two variables that is job satisfaction and recognition of an individual in the manufacturing industry.
Correlations Recognitio satisfaction n satisfaction Pearson Correlation 1 Sig. (2-tailed) N 5 .966** .007 5 1
recognition Pearson Correlation .966** Sig. (2-tailed) N .007 5
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). From the above table we found significant correlation at 0.01 level. And thus we can interpret that recognition and respect by the superiors boosts the moral of an individual and thus increases their job satisfaction.
The table below shows the correlation between two variables, that is job satisfaction and workload in manufacturing industry.
Correlations Satisfaction Workload Satisfaction Pearson Correlation 1 Sig. (2-tailed) N Workload 5 .711 .178 5 1
Pearson Correlation .711 Sig. (2-tailed) N .178 5
We can see that there is a positive correlation between the two variables. Thus the greater the amount of workload in the industry, the more difficult it is to achieve the targets and that effects the level of satisfaction.
Next we found out the correlation between job satisfaction and professional development.
Correlations proffesional satisfaction development Satisfaction Pearson Correlation 1 Sig. (2-tailed) N proffesional development 5 .959** .010 5 1
Pearson Correlation .959** Sig. (2-tailed) N .010 5
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
From the above table we can say that there is a significant correlation at the 0.01 level. And hence both the variables are positively correlated. Professional development of the individual in an industry, greater opportunities causes increasing level of job satisfaction.
The Pearson correlation matrix obtained for the variables of software industry is given below.
Software Industry: y The variables used for the descriptive analysis is job satisfaction and salary in software industry.
Descriptive Statistics Std. Mean satisfaction it 20.00 salary it 20.00 Deviation 17.678 16.432 N 5 5
Correlations satisfaction it salary it satisfaction (It) Pearson Correlation 1 Sig. (2-tailed) N salary (It) 5 .160 .797 5 1
Pearson Correlation .160 Sig. (2-tailed) N .797 5
From the above table we can see that there is a positive correlation between job satisfaction and salary. Thus we can say that higher the salary of the individual greater is the level of job satisfaction
The table below shows the correlation between two variables , that is job satisfaction and workload in software industry.
Correlations satisfaction it workload it Satisfaction ( It) Pearson Correlation 1 Sig. (2-tailed) N 5 .986** .002 5 1
workload (It) Pearson Correlation .986** Sig. (2-tailed) N .002 5
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
We can see that there is a positive correlation between the two variables. From the above table we found significant correlation at 0.01 level. Thus the greater the amount of workload in the industry, the more difficult it is to achieve the targets and that effects the level of satisfaction.
Next we found of the correlation between other two variables that is job satisfaction and recognition of an individual in the software industry.
Correlations satisfaction it recognition it satisfaction (It) Pearson Correlation 1 Sig. (2-tailed) N recognition (It) 5 .805 .101 5 1
Pearson Correlation .805 Sig. (2-tailed) N .101 5
And thus we can interpret that recognition and respect by the superiors boosts the moral of an individual and thus increases their job satisfaction.
Next we found out the correlation between job satisfaction and professional development.
Correlations professional development satisfaction it it satisfaction (It) Pearson Correlation 1 Sig. (2-tailed) N professional development (It) 5 .851 .067 5 1
Pearson Correlation .851 Sig. (2-tailed) N .067 5
From the above table we can say that there is a positive correlation. And hence both the variables are positively correlated. Professional development of the individual in an industry, greater opportunities causes increasing level of job satisfaction.
Comparison between Manufacturing and Software industry :
1. Salary 32% 55%
3. Work overload
4. Professional development
60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1. Salary 2. Recognition 3. Work overload 4. Professional development
On this bar chart on x-axis taken variables, on y-axis values in percentage. This graph shows the comparison between manufacturing & information technology on the basis of fore variables.
Salary:- 55% employee agree that salary given by software industries are satisfactory. 32% employee agrees that salary given by manufacturing industry is satisfactory. Thus we can say that maximum number of employee satisfy with the salary given by software.
Recognition:- 44% of employee agree that satisfactory recognition and praise is received in manufacturing industry, & 36% agree with software industry.
Workload:- in case of workload software industry is more than manufacturing. Professional Development:- here neck to neck Professional Development in both the sector. 56% in manufacturing & 54% in software.
4. Findings and suggestions: It was found according to the survey software staffers reported feeling frustrated when sometimes their role of job involves maintenance rather than new projects. It was found that software employees are frustrated by lack of recognition. Unrelenting pressure and unrealistic expectation and deadlines make IT professions especially vulnerable to work exhaustion and burnout. Excessive demands to keep technology working & computer applications functioning around the clock in organization causes ubiquitous reports of being on call on weekends and vacations often lead to work exhaustions. In manufacturing job stability is a hallmark of success, but IT has created a labor market in which job hopping serves as a means to gain vital skills needed for carrier opportunities.
Low turnover factors in manufacturing industry was because of good working conditions and management style that provided open communication with workers and an understanding of their day-to-day problems. Managers were cited as being ³accessible and approachable´, ³respected and trusted´, and ³help you out if you have a problem´. Manager¶s approach to the work force is generally pro-active. In each of these factories, initiatives have been introduced to ease work/family conflicts such as; Having flexible hours, Ignoring occasional lateness, Providing transportation for workers.
Maintaining open communication was important because it is the only way to identify problems before they disrupt work. In each factory, the majority of workers were crosstrained so that absences could be easily covered. Workers saw this in a positive light since it suggested that the factory was committed to them. Managers stated that this fostered a culture of cooperation and maintained productivity levels. In each of the factories in this category, workers commented that managers ³seemed to care about what happened to workers´ as well as responding to their perceived needs (and complaints) in a positive manner. Many cited the pleasant social atmosphere in the workplace; ³the factory is a friendly, happy environment, a nice place to work«more like a family.´ Workers also cited loyalty to the company as being an important factor.
The retention of workers in the software category of factories is less a function of satisfaction and more of the absence of employment opportunities elsewhere. While some talked of their satisfaction with their current employment it appeared to be based more upon resignation than any intrinsic pleasure derived from work. Some of these workers saw themselves as survivors and built a sense of a protected group. Most took an instrumental approach with pay seen as assuring the otherwise negative aspects of work. As one employee mentioned, ³I stay here because I can earn more than I could elsewhere. Is it enough? No.
Suggestions: In order to keep high satisfaction level, it appears that managers must create the conditions for: y y Young workers to acquire the necessary skills to perform efficiently, and Enable older skilled workers to maximize their earnings
This implies that investment in training and appropriate support mechanisms is necessary to facilitate the transition from a training wage to a production wage. When skilled workers complained about pay it was often because the work process was poorly organized and they were left idle for extended periods of the day. Since for factories labor turnover by skilled workers is more problematic than turnover among unskilled workers, it remains to be an important work organizational issue that managers need to address. The fact that they have in some instances reaffirms the importance of managers in shaping instrumental aspects of work. Second, a supportive and considerate work environment appears to be a crucial feature of factories with low rates of job satisfaction. Having managers who are sympathetic to, and understanding of, workers domestic constraints can, as we have seen, mediate the overall worker concerns of low wages endemic to the industry. Not only had low turnover factories facilitated and encouraged informal inter-personal networks and friendship-based work groups, but they have created a culture of mutual trust with their predominantly female workforce. At this stage managers' role is significant because they were aware of the problematic aspects of work in this industry (pay, status, work pressure) and sought to ameliorate this as much as possible. The third and a similarly expressive function of managers refer to the importance of friendship attachments at work. Many workers view working with friends as crucial to maximizing their individual production effectiveness and this can significantly reduce the probability of leaving. The longer the tenure at work is translated into stronger bonds of friendship and attachment to the work place. In the face of heightened competitive pressures, managers should thus foster a work environment based upon information sharing, training and skill development. Constant appraisal programs and appreciation should be given to reinstate
and motivate the employees. Motivation is a key factor as well in affecting job stress among employees. Employees who are highly motivated will feel happier and are more willing to work for the organizations. Unhealthy job stress among the people responsible in assisting the future generation¶s education will ultimately affect their intellectual and social abilities. At the end of the day, both employer and employees are responsible when it comes to the issue of handling stress. Because it is the institution, internal and external environment that cause the stress, the employees face the stress and the employers will experience the effect of the stresses.
5. Limitation of study: y y Only a percentage of total executives could be interviewed but the analysis is generalized. The findings and conclusion drawn out of the study will reflect only existing trends in the organization. y The accuracy and authenticity of the observation made and conclusions drawn largely depend upon the corresponding accuracy and authenticity of the information supplied by the concerned organization authorities and employees. y y Study is conducted only in Pune The study can be strengthened by increasing the sample size as the data analysis results and findings may vary substantially when the sample size is increased or decreased.
y y y y y
http://www.mindtools.com http://www.wikipedia.com/jobsatisfaction http://www.unjobs.org/tags/job-satisfaction http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=job+satisfaction Model from a Work Psychological Perspective, International Journal of Stress Management (4).
Survey report from society of human resource management(SCHRM). Abercrombie, N., Hill, S. and Turner, B. (1994): Dictionary of Sociology. England: Penguin Books. Agervold, M. (1998).
Argyris, C. & Schön, D. A. (1978): Organisational learning. Reading, MA: AddisonWesley.
Argyris, C. & Schön, D. A. (1996): Organisational learning II. Theory, method and practice .
New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Rokeach, M. (1968). Beliefs, attitudes, and values: A theory of organization and change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Schommer, M. (1990).
Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 498±508.
7. Annexure : Questionnaire
Survey of Job Satisfaction Manufacturing & IT industry
Name of Company: ««««««««««««« Name of Employee: «««««««««««««««««« 1. In which sector do you work? Manufacturing «««««««««««.««««. Information Technology«««««....«««««. 2. What is your age? Under 21 ..................................................... 21 to 34........................................................ 35 to 44........................................................ 45 to 54........................................................ 55 or older................................................... 3. What is your sex? Male ............................................................ Female......................................................... 4. What is your marital status? Married....................................................... Unmarried .................................................. 5. How long have you worked? Less than one year ...................................... One year to less than two years ................. Two years to less than five years ............... Five years to less than ten years................. Ten years or more ......................................
6. Overall, how satisfied are you with the company as an employee? (Please circle one number) Very Dissatisfied 1 Very Satisfied 5
7. Your role at company (Please circle one number for each statement) Disagree Agree Strongly Strongly I am given enough authority to make decisions I need to make . 1 ........... 2 ............ 3............ 4 ........... 5 I like the type of work that I do ................................................... 1 ........... 2 ............ 3............ 4 ........... 5 I believe my job is secure ............................................................. 1 ........... 2 ............ 3............ 4 ........... 5
8. Corporate culture (Please circle one number for each statement) Disagree Agree Strongly Strongly Company¶s corporate communications Are frequent enough .................................................................... 1 ........... 2 ............ 3............ 4 ........... 5 I feel I can trust what company tells me...................................... 1 ........... 2 ............ 3............ 4 ........... 5 I believe there is a spirit of cooperation at company ................. 1 ........... 2 ............ 3............ 4 ........... 5 9. People are held accountable for achieving goals
And meeting expectations««««««.......................................1«««.2«.««3«««4««......5
10.Are the targets in the organization Achievable««««««««««««««««««.. 1«««.2«.««3«««4«««..5 11. Unnecessary bureaucratic procedures and delays are minimal in this organization. «............................................1«««.2«.««3«««4«««..5
12. Employee input is considered before important decisions Or changes made««««««««««««««««............1«««.2«.««3«««4«««..5
13. I can disagree with my manager without fear of getting in trouble «««««..1«««.2«.««3«««4«««..5 14. When I do a good job, I receive praise and recognition I deserve. .........................................................................................1«««.2«.««3«««4«««..5
15. My job does not cause stress or anxiety in my life. ..................1«««.2«.««3«««4«««..5
16. I am paid fairly for the work I do. ........................................... .1«««.2«.««3«««4«««..5
17. My workplace is well maintained. ..............................................1«««.2«.««3«««4«««..5 18. The benefits I receive are comparable to those offered by other organizations. ........................................................................ 1«««.2«.««3«««4«««..5
19. High ethical standards are always maintained throughout This organization. ............................................................................ 1«««.2«.««3«««4«««..5
20. I am extremely proud to tell people that I work for this organization. ««««««««««««««««...1«««.2«.««3«««4«««..5 21. I have plenty of opportunities for professional growth in this Organization. ..................................................................................1«««.2«.««3«««4«««..5
22. Your relations with your immediate supervisor (Please circle one number for each statement) My supervisor treats me fairly«««««««««...1«««2«««.3«««4«««5 My supervisor asks me for my input to help make decisions1 ........... 2 ............ 3............ 4 ........... 5 23. Training program (Please circle one number for each statement) Did the company provide as much initial training as needed ......................................... 1 ........... 2 ............ 3............ 4 ........... 5 24. Pay and Benefits (Please circle one number for each statement) My salary is fair for my responsibilities«««««..1«««...2««.....3««..4«««5
25. Specifically, I'm satisfied with the: Amount of vacation ................................................................ 1 ........... 2 ............ 3............ 4 ........... 5
What do you like most about working for this organization? «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« «««««««««««««««««««««««.. What causes you most stress at work? «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« ««««««««««««««««««««