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India ( i /ˈɪndiə/), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गणराजय Bhārat

Gaṇarājya; see also official names of India), is a state in South Asia. It is the seventh-
largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2
billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian
Ocean on the south, the
Arabian Sea on the
southwest, and the Bay
of Bengal on the
southeast, it shares land
borders with Pakistan to
the west; Bhutan, the
People's Republic of
China and Nepal to the
northeast; and
Bangladesh and Burma
to the east. In the Indian
Ocean, India is in the
vicinity of Sri Lanka and
the Maldives; in
addition, India's
Andaman and Nicobar
Islands share a maritime
border with Thailand and
Indonesia.

Home to the ancient


Indus Valley Civilization
and a region of historic
trade routes and vast
empires, the Indian
subcontinent was
identified with its
commercial and cultural
wealth for much of its
long history.[15] Four of
the world's major
religions—Hinduism,
Buddhism, Jainism and
Sikhism—originated
here, while
Zoroastrianism,
Christianity and Islam
arrived in the first
millennium CE and
shaped the region's
diverse culture.[16]
Gradually annexed by
the British East India Company from the early 18th century and colonised by the United
Kingdom from the mid-19th century, India became an independent nation in 1947 after a
struggle for independence which was marked by non-violent resistance and led by
Mahatma Gandhi.

The Indian economy is the world's eleventh largest by nominal GDP and fourth largest by
purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India has
become one of the fastest growing major economies, and is considered a newly
industrialized country; however, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, illiteracy,
corruption and inadequate public health. A nuclear weapons state and a regional power, it
has the third-largest standing army in the world, and ranks tenth in military expenditure
among nations.

India is a federal constitutional republic with a parliamentary system consisting of 28


states and seven union territories. It is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned
Movement, the World Trade Organization, the South Asian Association for Regional
Cooperation, the East Asia Summit, the G20, the G8+5, and the Commonwealth of
Nations; and is one of the four BRIC nations. India is a pluralistic, multilingual, and
multiethnic society. It is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected
habitats.

Contents
[hide]

• 1 Etymology
• 2 History
• 3 Geography
o 3.1 Climate
o 3.2 Biodiversity
• 4 Politics
o 4.1 Government
o 4.2 Judiciary
o 4.3 Administrative divisions
o 4.4 Foreign relations
o 4.5 Military
• 5 Economy
• 6 Demographics
o 6.1 Religion
o 6.2 Languages
• 7 Culture
o 7.1 Society and traditions
o 7.2 Music, dance, theatre and cinema
o 7.3 Cuisine
o 7.4 Sport
• 8 See also
• 9 References

• 10 External links

Etymology
Main article: Names of India

The name India is derived from Indus, which is derived from the Old Persian word
Hindu, from Sanskrit िसनधु Sindhu, the historic local appellation for the Indus River.[17]
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ινδοί), the people of the Indus.[18] The
Constitution of India and common usage in various Indian languages also recognise
Bharat (pronounced [ˈbʱaːrət̪] ( listen)) as an official name of equal status.[19] The name
Bharat is derived from the name of the legendary king Bharata in Hindu scriptures.
Hindustan ([ɦɪnd̪ʊˈst̪aːn] ( listen)), originally a Persian word for “Land of the Hindus”
referring to northern India and Pakistan before 1947, is also occasionally used as a
synonym for all of India.[20]

History
The neutrality of this section is disputed. Please see the discussion on the talk
page. Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved. (February
2011)
Main articles: History of India and History of the Republic of India

Stone Age rock shelters with paintings at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh
are the earliest known traces of human life in India. The first known permanent
settlements appeared about 8,500 years ago and gradually developed into the Indus
Valley Civilisation,[21] dating back to 3400 BCE in western India. It was followed by the
Vedic period, which laid the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early
Indian society, and ended in the 500s BCE. From around 550 BCE, many independent
kingdoms and republics known as the Mahajanapadas were established across the
country.[22]

In the third century BCE, Maurya Empire gradually united the Indian sub-continent under
Chandragupta Maurya, his son Bindusara and grandson Ashoka the Great.[23] From the
third century CE, the Gupta dynasty oversaw the period referred to as ancient "India's
Golden Age".[24][25] Empires in southern India included those of the Chalukyas, the Cholas
and the Vijayanagara Empire. Science, technology, engineering, art, logic, language,
literature, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy flourished under the
patronage of these kings.
Paintings at the Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, sixth century

Following invasions from Central Asia between the 10th and 12th centuries, much of
northern India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate and later the Mughal Empire.
Under the rule of Akbar the Great, India enjoyed much cultural and economic progress as
well as religious harmony.[26][27] Mughal emperors gradually expanded their empires to
cover large parts of the subcontinent. However, in northeastern India, the dominant
power was the Ahom kingdom of Assam, among the few kingdoms to have resisted
Mughal subjugation. Due to Mughal persecution, the Sikhs developed a martial tradition
and established the Sikh Empire which stood until the Anglo-Sikh wars in the mid-19th
century.[28] The first major threat to Mughal imperial power came from a Hindu Rajput
king Maha Rana Pratap of Mewar in the 16th century and later from a Hindu state known
as the Maratha confederacy, that ruled much of India in the mid-18th century.[29]

From the 16th century, European powers such as Portugal, the Netherlands, France, and
Great Britain established trading posts and later took advantage of internal conflicts to
establish colonies. By 1856, most of India had come under the control of the British East
India Company.[30] A year later, a nationwide insurrection of rebelling military units and
kingdoms, known as India's First War of Independence or the Sepoy Mutiny, seriously
challenged the Company's control but eventually failed. As a result of the instability,
India was brought under the direct rule of the British Crown.

Mahatma Gandhi (right) with Jawaharlal Nehru, 1937. Nehru would go on to become
India's first prime minister in 1947.
In the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian
National Congress and other political organisations.[31] A large part of the movement for
independence was led by Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress, which led
millions of people in several national campaigns of non-violent civil disobedience.[32]

On 15 August 1947, India gained independence from British rule, but at the same time
the Muslim-majority areas were partitioned to form a separate state of Pakistan.[33] On 26
January 1950, India became a republic and a new constitution came into effect.[34]

Since independence, India has faced challenges from religious violence, casteism,
naxalism, terrorism and regional separatist insurgencies, especially in Jammu and
Kashmir and Northeast India. Since the 1990s terrorist attacks have affected many Indian
cities. India has unresolved territorial disputes with the People's Republic of China,
which, in 1962, escalated into the Sino-Indian War, and with Pakistan, which resulted in
wars in 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999. India is a founding member of the United Nations (as
British India) and the Non-Aligned Movement.

India is a state armed with nuclear weapons; having conducted its first nuclear test in
1974,[35] followed by another five tests in 1998.[35] Beginning 1991, significant economic
reforms[36] have transformed India into one of the fastest-growing economies in the world,
increasing its global clout.[37]

Geography
Main article: Geography of India
See also: Geology of India

Topographic map of India.

India, the major portion of the Indian subcontinent, lies atop the Indian tectonic plate, a
minor plate within the Indo-Australian Plate.[38] India's defining geological processes
commenced seventy-five million years ago, when the Indian subcontinent, then part of
the southern supercontinent Gondwana, began a northeastwards drift—lasting fifty
million years—across the then unformed Indian Ocean.[38] The subcontinent's subsequent
collision with the Eurasian Plate and subduction under it, gave rise to the Himalayas, the
planet's highest mountains, which now abut India in the north and the north-east.[38] In the
former seabed immediately south of the emerging Himalayas, plate movement created a
vast trough, which, having gradually been filled with river-borne sediment,[39] now forms
the Indo-Gangetic Plain.[40] To the west of this plain, and cut off from it by the Aravalli
Range, lies the Thar Desert.[41]

The original Indian plate now survives as peninsular India, the oldest and geologically
most stable part of India, and extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in
central India. These parallel ranges run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the west
to the coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand in the east.[42] To their south, the
remaining peninsular landmass, the Deccan Plateau, is flanked on the left and right by the
coastal ranges, Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats respectively;[43] the plateau contains the
oldest rock formations in India, some over one billion years old. Constituted in such
fashion, India lies to the north of the equator between 6°44' and 35°30' north latitude[44]
and 68°7' and 97°25' east longitude.[45]

The Himalayas form the mountainous landscape of northern India. Seen here is Ladakh in
Jammu and Kashmir.

India's coast is 7,517 kilometres (4,700 mi) long; of this distance, 5,423 kilometres
(3,400 mi) belong to peninsular India, and 2,094 kilometres (1,300 mi) to the Andaman,
Nicobar, and Lakshadweep Islands.[46] According to the Indian naval hydrographic charts,
the mainland coast consists of the following: 43% sandy beaches, 11% rocky coast
including cliffs, and 46% mudflats or marshy coast.[46]

Major Himalayan-origin rivers that substantially flow through India include the Ganges
(Ganga) and the Brahmaputra, both of which drain into the Bay of Bengal.[47] Important
tributaries of the Ganges include the Yamuna and the Kosi; the latter's extremely low
gradient causes disastrous floods every year. Major peninsular rivers, whose steeper
gradients prevent their waters from flooding, include the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the
Kaveri, and the Krishna, which also drain into the Bay of Bengal;[48] and the Narmada and
the Tapti, which drain into the Arabian Sea.[49] Among notable coastal features of India
are the marshy Rann of Kutch in western India, and the alluvial Sundarbans delta, which
India shares with Bangladesh.[50] India has two archipelagos: the Lakshadweep, coral
atolls off India's south-western coast; and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a volcanic
chain in the Andaman Sea.[51]

Climate

Main article: Climate of India


India's climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of
which drive the monsoons.[52] The Himalayas prevent cold Central Asian katabatic winds
from blowing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations
at similar latitudes.[53][54] The Thar Desert plays a crucial role in attracting the moisture-
laden southwest summer monsoon winds that, between June and October, provide the
majority of India's rainfall.[52] Four major climatic groupings predominate in India:
tropical wet, tropical dry, subtropical humid, and montane.[55]

Biodiversity

Main article: Wildlife of India


See also: List of ecoregions in India

The Indian peacock is India's national bird and is found primarily in semi-desert
grasslands, scrubs and deciduous forests of India.[56]

Lying within the Indomalaya ecozone, with three hotspots located within its area, India
displays significant biodiversity.[57] As one of the seventeen megadiverse countries, it is
home to 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of all avian, 6.2% of all reptilian, 4.4% of all
amphibian, 11.7% of all fish, and 6.0% of all flowering plant species.[58] Many
ecoregions, such as the shola forests, exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; overall,
33% of Indian plant species are endemic.[59][60]

India's forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western
Ghats, and northeastern India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between these
extremes lie the sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern India; the teak-
dominated dry deciduous forest of central and southern India; and the babul-dominated
thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain.[61] Important Indian trees
include the medicinal neem, widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies. The pipal fig
tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro, shaded Gautama Buddha as he sought
enlightenment. According to latest report, less than 12% of India's landmass is covered
by dense forests.[62]

Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, from which the
Indian plate separated a long time ago. Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards,
and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However,
volcanism and climatic changes 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many
endemic Indian forms.[63] Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two
zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya.[61] Consequently, among
Indian species, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with
45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians.[58] Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf
monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. India contains
172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species.[64] These include the Asiatic Lion,
the Bengal Tiger, and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction
from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle.

In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife; in response,
the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was
substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act[65] and Project
Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; in addition, the Forest Conservation Act was enacted in
1980.[66] Along with more than five hundred wildlife sanctuaries, India hosts thirteen
biosphere reserves,[67] four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere
Reserves; twenty-five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.[68]

Politics
Main article: Politics of India

Vijay Chowk with the Secretariat Building in the background which houses key
government buildings in the national capital New Delhi

India is the most populous democracy in the world.[69][70] A parliamentary republic with a
multi-party system,[71] it has six recognised national parties, including the Indian National
Congress and Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP), and more than 40 regional parties.[72] The
Congress is considered centre-left or "liberal" in the Indian political culture, and the BJP
centre-right or "conservative". For most of the period between 1950—when India first
became a republic—and the late 1980s, the Congress held a majority in the parliament.
Since then, however, it has increasingly shared the political stage with the BJP,[73] as well
as with ever more powerful regional parties which have often forced multi-party
coalitions at the centre.[74]
Rashtrapati Bhavan, the official residence of the President of India

In the first three general elections in the Republic of India, in 1951, 1957 and 1962, the
Congress, led by Jawaharlal Nehru, won easy victories. In 1964, after Nehru's death, Lal
Bahadur Shastri briefly became prime minister, and was succeeded after his own
unexpected death, in 1966, by Indira Gandhi, who went on to lead the Congress to
election victories in 1967 and 1971. Following public discontent with the state of
emergency declared by Indira Gandhi in 1975, the Congress was voted out of power in
1977, and a new party, the Janata Party, which had opposed the emergency, voted in. Its
government, however, proved short lived, lasting just over three years. Back in power in
1980, the Congress saw a change in leadership in 1984, when prime minister Indira
Gandhi was assassinated and succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi, who won an easy
victory in the general elections later that year. The Congress was voted out again in 1989,
when a National Front coalition, led by the newly formed Janata Dal, in alliance with the
Left Front, won the elections; that government too proved short lived, lasting just under
two years.[75] Elections were held again in 1991 in which no party won an absolute
majority, but the Congress, as the largest single party, was able to form a minority
government, led by P.V. Narasimha Rao, and to complete a five-year term.[76]

The two years after the general election of 1996 were years of political turmoil, with
several short-lived alliances sharing power at the centre. The BJP formed a government
briefly in 1996, followed by one of the United Front coalition, but without the support of
either the BJP or the Congress. In 1998, the BJP was able to form a successful coalition,
the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), which, under the leadership of Atal Bihari
Vajpayee, became the first non-Congress government to complete a full five-year term.[77]
In the 2004 Indian general elections, again no party won an absolute majority, but the
Congress emerged as the largest single party, forming a successful coalition, the United
Progressive Alliance (UPA), with the support of left-leaning parties and MPs opposed to
the BJP. The UPA coalition was returned to power in the 2009 general election, the
proportion of left-leaning parties within the coalition now significantly reduced.[78] That
year, Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1957
and 1962 to be re-elected to a second five-year term.[79]

Government

Main articles: Government of India and National Symbols of India[80][81]


Constitution of India Flag Tricolour
Emblem Sarnath Lion Capital
India is a federation with a parliamentary Anthem Jana Gana Mana
system governed under the Constitution of Song Vande Mataram
Animal Royal Bengal Tiger
India.[82] It is a constitutional republic and
Bird Indian Peacock
representative democracy, in which
Aquatic animal Dolphin
"majority rule is tempered by minority Flower Lotus
rights protected by law." Federalism in Tree Banyan
India defines the power distribution Fruit Mango
between the centre and the states. The Sport Field hockey
government is regulated by a checks and Calendar Saka
River Ganges
balances defined by Indian Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal
document. The Constitution of India, which came into effect on 26 January 1950,[83]
states in its preamble that India is a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.[84]
India's form of government, traditionally described as 'quasi-federal' with a strong centre
and weak states,[85] has grown increasingly federal since the late 1990s as a result of
political, economic and social changes.[86]

The President of India is the head of state[87] elected indirectly by an electoral college[88]
for a five-year term.[89][90] The Prime Minister is the head of government and exercises
most executive power.[87] Appointed by the President,[91] the prime minister is by
convention supported by the party or political alliance holding the majority of seats in the
lower house of parliament.[87] The executive branch of the Indian government consists of
the president, the vice-president, and the council of ministers (the cabinet being its
executive committee) headed by the prime minister. Any minister holding a portfolio
must be a member of one of the houses of parliament. In the Indian parliamentary system,
the executive is subordinate to the legislature, with the prime minister and his council
directly responsible to the lower house of the parliament.[92]

The legislature of India is the bicameral parliament, operating under a Westminster-style


parliamentary system, and comprising the upper house called the Rajya Sabha (Council
of States) and the lower called the Lok Sabha (House of People).[93] The Rajya Sabha, a
permanent body, has 245 members serving staggered six year terms.[94] Most are elected
indirectly by the state and territorial legislatures, their numbers in proportion to their
state's population.[94] All but two of the Lok Sabha's 545 members are directly elected by
popular vote to represent individual constituencies for five-year terms.[94] The remaining
two members are nominated by the president from among the Anglo-Indian community,
in case the president decides that the community is not adequately represented.[94]

Judiciary

India has a unitary three-tier judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court, headed by the
Chief Justice of India, 21 High Courts, and a large number of trial courts.[95] The Supreme
Court has original jurisdiction over cases involving fundamental rights and over disputes
between states and the Centre, and appellate jurisdiction over the High Courts.[96] It is
judicially independent,[95] and has the power both to declare the law and to strike down
Union or State laws which contravene the Constitution.[97] The Supreme Court is also the
ultimate interpreter of the Constitution, it being one of its most important functions.[98]

Administrative divisions

Main article: Administrative divisions of India

India consists of 28 states and seven Union Territories.[99] All states, as well as the union
territories of Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected
legislatures and governments, both patterned on the Westminster model. The remaining
five union territories are directly ruled by the Centre through appointed administrators. In
1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were reorganised on a linguistic basis.
[100]
Since then, their structure has remained largely unchanged. Each state or union
territory is further divided into administrative districts.[101] The districts in turn are further
divided into tehsils and ultimately into villages.

The 28 states and 7 union territories of India

States:

8. Haryana
1. Andhra Pradesh 9. Himachal 22. Rajasthan
15. Maharashtra
2. Arunachal Pradesh 23. Sikkim
16. Manipur
Pradesh 10. Jammu and 24. Tamil Nadu
17. Meghalaya
3. Assam Kashmir 25. Tripura
18. Mizoram
4. Bihar 11. Jharkhand 26. Uttar
19. Nagaland
5. Chhattisgarh 12. Karnataka Pradesh
20. Orissa
6. Goa 13. Kerala 27. Uttarakhand
21. Punjab
7. Gujarat 14. Madhya 28. West Bengal
Pradesh

Union Territories:

A. Andaman and Nicobar Islands


B. Chandigarh
C. Dadra and Nagar Haveli
D. Daman and Diu
E. Lakshadweep
F. National Capital Territory of Delhi

G. Puducherry
Foreign relations

Main article: Foreign relations of India

India and Russia share an extensive economic, defence and technological relationship.[102]
Shown here is PM Manmohan Singh with President Dmitry Medvedev at the 34th G8
Summit.

Since its independence in 1947, India has maintained cordial relations with most nations.
In the 1950s, it strongly supported the independence of European colonies in Africa and
Asia and played a pioneering role in the Non-Aligned Movement.[103][104] In the late 1980s,
India made two brief military interventions at the invitation of neighbouring countries,
one by the Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka and the other, Operation Cactus, in
the Maldives. However, India has had a tense relationship with neighbouring Pakistan
and the two countries have gone to war four times, in 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999. The
Kashmir dispute was the predominant cause of these wars, excepting that of 1971, which
followed the civil unrest in erstwhile East Pakistan.[105] After the India-China War of 1962
and the 1965 war with Pakistan, India proceeded to develop close military and economic
ties with the Soviet Union; by late 1960s, the Soviet Union had emerged as India's largest
arms supplier.[106]

Today, in addition to the continuing strategic relations with Russia, India has wide
ranging defence relations with Israel and France. In recent years, India has played an
influential role in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the World
Trade Organization.[107] The nation has provided 55,000 military and police personnel to
serve in thirty-five UN peacekeeping operations across four continents.[108] India is also
an active participant in various multilateral forums, most notably the East Asia Summit
and the G8+5.[109][110] In the economic sphere, India has close relationships with the
developing nations of South America, Asia and Africa. For about a decade now, India has
also pursued a "Look East" policy which has helped it strengthen its partnerships with the
ASEAN nations, Japan and South Korea on a wide range of issues, but especially
economic investment and regional security.[111][112]

Recently, India has also increased its economic, strategic and military cooperation with
the United States and the European Union.[113] In 2008, a civilian nuclear agreement was
signed between India and the United States. Although India possessed nuclear weapons at
the time and was not party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), it received
waivers from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Suppliers Group
(NSG), ending earlier restrictions on India's nuclear technology and commerce. As a
consequence, India has become the world's sixth de facto nuclear weapons state.[114]
Following the NSG waiver, India was also able to sign civilian nuclear energy
cooperation agreements with other nations, including Russia,[115] France,[116] the United
Kingdom,[117] and Canada.[118]

Military

Main article: Indian Armed Forces

Jointly developed by Sukhoi and Hindustan Aeronautics, the Su-30 MKI "Flanker-H" is
the Indian Air Force's prime air superiority fighter.[119]

India's military, comprising the Indian Army, Navy, Air Force, and auxiliary forces such
as the Paramilitary Forces, the Coast Guard, and the Strategic Forces Command, is the
third largest in the world.[34] The President of India is the supreme commander of the
Indian Armed Forces. The official Indian defence budget for 2011 stands at US$36.03
billion (or 1.83% of GDP).[120] According to a 2008 SIPRI report, India's annual military
expenditure in terms of purchasing power stood at US$72.7 billion,[121] India has also
become the world's largest arms importer, receiving 9% of all international arms transfers
during the period from 2006–2010.[122] Defence contractors, such as the Defence Research
and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Hindustan Aeronautics (HAL), oversee
indigenous development of sophisticated arms and military equipment, including ballistic
missiles, fighter aircraft and main battle tanks, in order to reduce India's dependence on
foreign imports.

China's nuclear test of 1964 as well as its repeated threats to intervene in support of
Pakistan in the 1965 war convinced India to develop nuclear weapons of its own.[123] India
conducted its first nuclear weapons test in 1974 and further underground testing in 1998.
Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has signed neither the Comprehensive
Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) nor the NPT, considering both to be flawed and
discriminatory.[124] India maintains a "no first use" nuclear policy and is developing a
nuclear triad capability as a part of its "minimum credible deterrence" doctrine.[125][126] It is
also developing a ballistic missile defence shield and, in collaboration with Russia, a fifth
generation fighter jet.[127][128] Other major indigenous military development projects
include Vikrant class aircraft carriers and Arihant class nuclear submarines.[129][130]

Economy
Main article: Economy of India
See also: Economic history of India, Economic development in India, and Transport in
India

The Bombay Stock Exchange, in Mumbai, is Asia's oldest and India's largest stock
exchange by market capitalisation.

According to the International Monetary Fund, India's nominal GDP stands at US$1.43
trillion, making it the eleventh-largest economy in the world.[131] With purchasing power
parity (PPP), India's economy is the fourth largest in the world at US$4.001 trillion.[132]
With its average annual GDP growing at 5.8% for the past two decades, India is also one
of the fastest growing economies in the world.[133] However, India's per capita income is
US$1,000,[134] and the country ranks 142th in nominal GDP per capita and 127th in GDP
per capita at PPP among all countries of the world.[131]

Until 1991, all Indian governments followed protectionist policies that were influenced
by socialist economics. Widespread state intervention and regulation[135] caused the Indian
economy to be largely closed to the outside world. After an acute balance of payments
crisis in 1991, the nation liberalised its economy and has since continued to move
towards a free-market system,[136][137] emphasizing both foreign trade and investment.[138]
Consequently, India's economic model is now being described overall as capitalist.[137]

With 467 million workers, India has the world's second largest labour force.[139] The
service sector makes up 54% of the GDP, the agricultural sector 28%, and the industrial
sector 18%. Major agricultural products include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea,
sugarcane, and potatoes.[99] Major industries include textiles, telecommunications,
chemicals, food processing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum,
machinery and software.[99] By 2006, India's external trade had reached a relatively
moderate proportion of GDP at 24%, up from 6% in 1985.[136] In 2008, India's share of
world trade was 1.68%;[140] India was the world's fifteenth largest importer in 2009, and
the eighteenth largest exporter.[141] Major exports include petroleum products, textile
goods, gems and jewelry, software, engineering goods, chemicals, and leather
manufactures.[99] Major imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, chemicals.
[99]
Tata Nano, the world's cheapest car.[142] India's annual car exports have surged fivefold in
the past five years.[143]

Averaging an economic growth rate of 7.5% during the last few years,[136] India has more
than doubled its hourly wage rates during the last decade.[144] Moreover, since 1985, India
has moved 431 million of its citizens out of poverty, and by 2030 India's middle class
numbers will grow to more than 580 million.[145] Although ranking 51st in global
competitiveness, India ranks 16th in financial market sophistication, 24th in the banking
sector, 27th in business sophistication and 30th in innovation, ahead of several advanced
economies.[146] With seven of the world's top 15 technology outsourcing companies based
in India, the country is viewed as the second most favourable outsourcing destination
after the United States.[147] India's consumer market, currently the world's thirteenth
largest, is expected to become fifth largest by 2030.[145] Its telecommunication industry,
the world's fastest growing, added 10 million subscribers during 2008–09;[148] its
automobile industry, the world's second-fastest growing, increased domestic sales by
26% during 2009–10,[149] and exports by 36% during 2008–09.[150]

Despite impressive economic growth during recent decades, India continues to face a
number of socio-economic challenges. India contains the largest concentration of people
living below the World Bank's international poverty line of $1.25/day,[151] the proportion
having decreased from 60% in 1981 to 42% in 2005.[152] Half of the children in India are
underweight[153] and 46% of children under the age of three suffer from malnutrition.[151]
Since 1991, economic inequality between India's states has consistently grown: the per
capita net state domestic product of the richest states in 2007 was 3.2 times that of the
poorest.[154] Corruption in India is perceived to have increased significantly,[155] with one
report estimating the illegal capital flows since independence to be US$462 billion.[156]

According to a 2011 PwC report, India's GDP at purchasing power parity will overtake
that of Japan during 2011 itself and that of the United States by 2045.[157] Moreover,
during the next four decades, India's economy is expected to grow at an average of 8%,
making the nation potentially the world's fastest growing major economy until 2050.[157]
The report also highlights some of the key factors behind high economic growth — a
young and rapidly growing working age population; the growth of the manufacturing
sector due to rising levels of education and engineering skills; and sustained growth of
the consumer market due to a rapidly growing middle class.[157] However, the World Bank
cautions that for India to achieve its economic potential, it must continue to focus on
public sector reform, transport infrastructure, agricultural and rural development, removal
of labour regulations, education, energy security, and public health and nutrition.[158]

Demographics
Main article: Demographics of India
See also: Ethnic groups of South Asia, List of most populous metropolitan areas in
India, and Religion in India

Population density map of India.

The 2011 Indian Census reported there are 1,210,193,422 people in India, India is the
world's second most populous country. India's population grew at 1.76% per annum
during the last decade,[10] down from 2.201% per annum in the previous decade.[34] The
human sex ratio in India, according to the 2011 census, is 940 females per 1,000 males,[10]
the lowest since independence. India's median age was 24.9 in the 2001 census.
[34]
Medical advances of the last 50 years, as well increased agricultural productivity
brought about by the "green revolution" have caused India's population to grow rapidly.
[159][160]
The percentage of Indian population living in urban areas has grown as well,
increasing by 31.2% from 1991 to 2001.[161] Despite this, in 2001, over 70% of India's
population continued to live in rural areas.[162][163] According to the 2001 census, there are
twenty seven million-plus cities in the country,[161] with Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata
being the largest.

India's overall literacy rate in 2011 is 74.04%, its female literacy rate standing at 65.46%
and its male at 82.14%.[164] The state of Kerala has the highest literacy rate, whereas Bihar
has the lowest.[165][166] India continues to face several public health-related challenges.[167]
[168]
According to the World Health Organization, 900,000 Indians die each year from
drinking contaminated water or breathing polluted air.[169] There are about 60 physicians
per 100,000 people in India.[170]

Religion

Main article: Religion in India


See also: Hinduism in India, Islam in India, and Christianity in India

The Indian Constitution recognises 212 scheduled tribal groups which together constitute
about 7.5% of the country's population.[171] The 2001 census reported over 800 million
Indians (80.5%) to be Hindu. Other religious groups include Muslims (13.4%), Christians
(2.3%), Sikhs (1.9%), Buddhists (0.8%), Jains (0.4%), Jews, Zoroastrians and Bahá'ís.[172]
India has the world's third-largest Muslim population and the largest Muslim population
for a non-Muslim majority country.

Languages

Main article: Languages of India

India is home to two major linguistic families: Indo-Aryan (spoken by about 74% of the
population) and Dravidian (spoken by about 24%). Other languages spoken in India come
from the Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman linguistic families. Neither the Constitution
of India, nor any Indian law defines any national language.[173] Hindi, with the largest
number of speakers,[174] is the official language of the union.[175] English is used
extensively in business and administration and has the status of a 'subsidiary official
language;'[176] it is also important in education, especially as a medium of higher
education. In addition, every state and union territory has its own official languages, and
the constitution also recognises in particular 21 "scheduled languages".

Culture
Main article: Culture of India

The Taj Mahal in Agra was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan as a memorial to his
deceased wife Mumtaz Mahal. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered to be of
"outstanding universal value".[177]

India's culture is marked by a high degree of syncretism[178] and cultural pluralism.[179]


India's cultural tradition dates back to 8000 BCE[180] and has a continuously recorded
history for over 2,500 years.[181] With its roots based in the Indus Valley Tradition, the
Indian culture took a distinctive shape during the 11th century BCE Vedic age which laid
the foundation of Hindu philosophy, mythology, literary tradition and beliefs and
practices, such as dhárma, kárma, yóga and mokṣa.[182] It has managed to preserve
established traditions while absorbing new customs, traditions, and ideas from invaders
and immigrants and spreading its cultural influence to other parts of Asia, mainly South
East and East Asia.

Indian religions form one of the most defining aspects of Indian culture.[183] Major
dhármic religions which were founded in India include Hinduism, Buddhism and
Jainism. Considered to be a successor to the ancient Vedic religion,[184] Hinduism has
been shaped by the various schools of thoughts based on the Upanishads,[185] the Yoga
Sutras and the Bhakti movement.[183] Buddhism originated in India in 5th century BCE
and prominent early Buddhist schools, such as Theravāda and Mahāyāna, gained
dominance during the Maurya Empire.[183] Though Buddhism entered a period of gradual
decline in India 5th century CE onwards,[186] it played an influential role in shaping Indian
philosophy and thought.[183]

Indian architecture is one area that represents the diversity of Indian culture. Much of it,
including notable monuments such as the Taj Mahal and other examples of Mughal
architecture and South Indian architecture, comprises a blend of ancient and varied local
traditions from several parts of the country and abroad. Vernacular architecture also
displays notable regional variation.

A Buddhist prayer flag above Tanze Monastery in the Kurgiakh Valley, Ladakh. The
wind is believed to propagate the prayers printed on tissue.

Considered to be the earliest and foremost "monument" of Indian literature, the Vedic or
Sanskrit literature was developed from 1,400 BCE to 1,200 AD.[187][188] Prominent Indian
literary works of the classical era include epics such as Mahābhārata and Ramayana,
dramas such as the Abhijñānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Śakuntalā), and poetry
such as the Mahākāvya.[189] Developed between 600 BCE and 300 AD, the Sangam
literature consists 2,381 poems and is regarded as a predecessor of Tamil literature.[190][191]
[192]
From 7th century AD to 18th century AD, India's literary traditions went through a
period of drastic change because of the emergence of devotional poets such as Kabīr,
Tulsīdās and Guru Nānak. This period was characterised by varied and wide spectrum of
thought and expression and as a consequence, medieval Indian literary works differed
significantly from classical traditions.[193] In the 19th century, Indian writers took new
interest in social questions and psychological descriptions. During the 20th century,
Indian literature was heavily influenced by the works of universally acclaimed Bengali
poet and novelist Rabindranath Tagore.[194]

Society and traditions

Traditional Indian society is defined by relatively strict social hierarchy. The Indian caste
system describes the social stratification and social restrictions in the Indian subcontinent,
in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often
termed as jātis or castes.[195] Several influential social reform movements, such as the
Bramho Shômaj, the Arya Samāja and the Ramakrishna Mission, have played a pivotal
role in the emancipation of Dalits (or "untouchables") and other lower-caste communities
in India.[196] However, the majority of Dalits continue to live in segregation and are often
persecuted and discriminated against.[197]

Traditional Indian family values are highly respected, and multi-generational patriarchal
joint families have been the norm, although nuclear families are becoming common in
urban areas.[198] An overwhelming majority of Indians have their marriages arranged by
their parents and other respected family members, with the consent of the bride and
groom.[199] Marriage is thought to be for life,[199] and the divorce rate is extremely low.[200]
Child marriage is still a common practice, more so in rural India, with half of women in
India marrying before the legal age of 18.[201][202]

Many Indian festivals are religious in origin, although several are celebrated irrespective
of caste and creed. Some popular festivals are Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Ugadi, Thai
Pongal, Holi, Onam, Vijayadashami, Durga Puja, Eid ul-Fitr, Bakr-Id, Christmas,
Buddha Jayanti, Moharram and Vaisakhi.[203][204] India has three national holidays which
are observed in all states and union territories — Republic Day, Independence Day and
Gandhi Jayanti. Other sets of holidays, varying between nine and twelve, are officially
observed in individual states. Religious practices are an integral part of everyday life and
are a very public affair.

Traditional Indian dress varies across the regions in its colours and styles and depends on
various factors, including climate. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such
as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men; in addition, stitched clothes such as salwar
kameez for women and kurta-pyjama and European-style trousers and shirts for men, are
also popular.

Music, dance, theatre and cinema


Kathak, one of the popular forms of Indian Classical Dance

Indian music covers a wide range of traditions and regional styles. Classical music
largely encompasses the two genres – North Indian Hindustani, South Indian Carnatic
traditions and their various offshoots in the form of regional folk music. Regionalised
forms of popular music include filmi and folk music; the syncretic tradition of the bauls
is a well-known form of the latter.

Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms. Among the well-known folk dances
are the bhangra of the Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the chhau of West Bengal, Jharkhand ,
sambalpuri of Orissa , the ghoomar of Rajasthan and the Lavani of Maharashtra. Eight
dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded
classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama. These
are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and
mohiniyattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, manipuri of Manipur, odissi of
Orissa and the sattriya of Assam.[205]

Theatre in India often incorporates music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue.[206]
Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowing from medieval romances, and news
of social and political events, Indian theatre includes the bhavai of state of Gujarat, the
jatra of West Bengal, the nautanki and ramlila of North India, the tamasha of
Maharashtra, the burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh, the terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu, and the
yakshagana of Karnataka.[207]

The Indian film industry is the largest in the world.[208] Bollywood, based in Mumbai,
makes commercial Hindi films and is the most prolific film industry in the world.[209]
Established traditions also exist in Assamese, Bengali, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi,
Oriya, Tamil, and Telugu language cinemas.[210]

Cuisine

Indian cuisine is characterised by a wide variety of regional styles and sophisticated use
of herbs and spices. The staple foods in the region are rice (especially in the south and the
east), wheat (predominantly in the north)[211] and lentils.[212] Spices, such as black pepper
which are now consumed world wide, are originally native to the Indian subcontinent.
Chili pepper, which was introduced by the Portuguese, is also widely used in Indian
cuisine.[213]

Sport

Main article: Sport in India

A 2008 Indian Premier League Twenty20 cricket match being played between the
Chennai Super Kings and Kolkata Knight Riders

India's official national sport is field hockey, administered by Hockey India. The Indian
hockey team won the 1975 Hockey World Cup and 8 gold, 1 silver and 2 bronze medals
at the Olympic games, making it one of the world's most successful national hockey
teams ever. Cricket, however, is by far the most popular sport;[214] the India cricket team
won the 1983 Cricket World Cup, 2007 ICC World Twenty20, and shared the 2002 ICC
Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka. Cricket in India is administered by the Board of
Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) and domestic competitions include the Ranji Trophy,
the Duleep Trophy, the Deodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy and the NKP Salve Challenger
Trophy. In addition, BCCI conducts the Indian Premier League, a Twenty20 competition.

India is home to several traditional sports which originated in the country and continue to
remain fairly popular. These include kabaddi, kho kho, pehlwani and gilli-danda. Some
of the earliest forms of Asian martial arts, such as Kalarippayattu, Yuddha, Silambam and
Varma Kalai, originated in India. The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and the Arjuna Award
are India's highest awards for achievements in sports, while the Dronacharya Award is
awarded for excellence in coaching.

Chess, commonly held to have originated in India, is regaining widespread popularity


with the rise in the number of Indian Grandmasters.[215] Tennis has also become
increasingly popular, owing to the victories of the India Davis Cup team and the success
of Indian tennis players.[216] India has a strong presence in shooting sports, winning
several medals at the Olympics, the World Shooting Championships and the
Commonwealth Games.[217][218] Other sports in which Indian sports-persons have won
numerous awards or medals at international sporting events include badminton,[219]
boxing[220] and wrestling.[221][222] Football is a popular sport in northeastern India, West
Bengal, Goa, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.[223]

India has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events, such as the 1951 and
the 1982 Asian Games, the 1987 and 1996 Cricket World Cup, the 2003 Afro-Asian
Games, the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy, the 2010 Hockey World Cup and the 2010
Commonwealth Games. Major international sporting events annually held in India
include the Chennai Open, Mumbai Marathon, Delhi Half Marathon and the Indian
Masters. The country is presently co-hosting 2011 Cricket World Cup together with
Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. It would also host the first Indian Grand Prix in 2011.

See also
India portal

Book: India
Wikipedia Books are collections of articles that can be downloaded or ordered in print.
Main articles: Outline of India and Index of India-related articles

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207. ^ (Karanth 1997, p. 26) Quote: "The Yakṣagāna folk-theatre is no isolated
theatrical form in India. We have a number of such theatrical traditions all around
Karnataka... In far off Assam we have similar plays going on by the name of
Ankia Nat, in neighouring Bengal we have the very popular Jatra plays.
Maharashtra has Tamasa. (p. 26.)
208. ^ "Country profile: India". BBC. 19 August 2009.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/country_profiles/1154019.stm. Retrieved
2007.
209. ^ Dissanayake & Gokulsing 2004
210. ^ Rajadhyaksha & Willemen (editors) 1999
211. ^ Delphine, Roger, "The History and Culture of Food in Asia", in Kiple &
Kriemhild 2000, pp. 1140–1151.
212. ^ Lentil: An Ancient Crop for Modern Times.
http://books.google.co.uk/books?
id=VfT6hZHpXPkC&pg=PA174&dq=lentils+staple+india&hl=fr&ei=IQEzTbK
DLoyqhAfI2YDPCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCc
Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=lentils%20staple%20india&f=false. "But it has been
red lentils which have 'fed the masses' particularly in the Indian subcontinent.
Lentils are a staple food in many regions"
213. ^ Achaya 1994, Achaya 1997
214. ^ Shores, Lori. Teens in India. Compass Point Books, 2007.
ISBN 0756520630, 9780756520632.
215. ^ "Anand crowned World champion". Rediff. 29 October 2008.
http://www.rediff.com/sports/2008/oct/29anand.htm. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
216. ^ "India Aims for Center Court". WSJ. September 11, 2009.
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB1000142405297020344010457440670402688350
2.html. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
217. ^ "Shooting is India's No. 1 sport: Gagan". Deccan Herald. 5 October
2010. http://www.deccanherald.com/content/102196/shooting-indias-no-1-
sport.html. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
218. ^ "Sawant shoots historic gold at World Championships". TOI. Aug 9,
2010. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/sports/more-sports/shooting/Sawant-
shoots-historic-gold-at-World-Championships/articleshow/6274795.cms.
Retrieved 5 October 2010.
219. ^ "Saina Nehwal: India's badminton star and 'new woman'". BBC. 1
August 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-10725584. Retrieved
5 October 2010.
220. ^ "Is boxing the new cricket?". Live Mint. Sep 24 2010.
http://www.livemint.com/2010/09/24211250/Is-boxing-the-new-cricket.html.
Retrieved 5 October 2010.
221. ^ "India makes clean sweep in Greco-Roman wrestling". TOI. Oct 5,
2010. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/cwgarticleshow/6691936.cms. Retrieved
5 October 2010.
222. ^ Xavier, Leslie (Sep 12, 2010). "Sushil Kumar wins gold in World
Wrestling Championship". TOI. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/sports/more-
sports/wrestling/Sushil-Kumar-wins-gold-in-World-Wrestling-
Championship/articleshow/6542488.cms. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
223. ^ Majumdar & Bandyopadhyay 2006, pp. 1–5.

History

• Brown, Judith M. (1994). Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy.


Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. xiii, 474. ISBN 0-19-873113-2.
http://www.oup.com/uk/catalogue/?ci=9780198731139.
• Guha, Ramchandra (2007). India after Gandhi — The History of the World's
Largest Democracy. 1st edition. Picador. xxvii, 900. ISBN 978-0-330-39610-3.
• Kulke, Hermann; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. 4th edition.
Routledge. xii, 448. ISBN 0-415-32920-5. http://www.amazon.com/History-
India-Hermann-Kulke/dp/0415329205/.
• Metcalf, Barbara; Thomas R. Metcalf (2006). A Concise History of Modern India
(Cambridge Concise Histories). Cambridge and New York: Cambridge
University Press. xxxiii, 372. ISBN 0-521-68225-8.
http://www.amazon.com/Concise-History-Modern-Cambridge-
Histories/dp/0521682258/.
• Spear, Percival (1990). A History of India. 2. New Delhi and London: Penguin
Books. p. 298. ISBN 0-14-013836-6. http://www.amazon.com/History-India-Vol-
2/dp/0140138366/ref=pd_ybh_a_6/104-7029728-9591925.
• Stein, Burton (2001). A History of India. New Delhi and Oxford: Oxford
University Press. xiv, 432. ISBN 0-19-565446-3.
http://www.amazon.com/History-India-
World/dp/0631205462/ref=pd_ybh_a_7/104-7029728-9591925.
• Thapar, Romila (1990). A History of India. 1. New Delhi and London: Penguin
Books. p. 384. ISBN 0-14-013835-8. http://www.amazon.com/History-India-
Penguin/dp/0140138358/.
• Wolpert, Stanley (2003). A New History of India. Oxford and New York: Oxford
University Press. p. 544. ISBN 0-19-516678-7. http://www.amazon.com/New-
History-India-Stanley-Wolpert/dp/0195166787/.

Geography

• Dikshit, K.R.; Joseph E. Schwartzberg (2007). "India: The Land". Encyclopædia


Britannica. pp. 1–29. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/285248/India.
Retrieved 29 September 2007.
• Government of India (2007). India Yearbook 2007. Publications Division,
Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. ISBN 81-230-1423-6.
• Heitzman, J.; R.L. Worden (1996). India: A Country Study. Library of Congress
(Area Handbook Series). ISBN 0-8444-0833-6.
• Posey, C.A (1994). The Living Earth Book of Wind and Weather. Reader's Digest
Association. ISBN 0-89577-625-1.

Flora and fauna

• Ali, Salim; Ripley, S. Dillon (1995). A Pictorial Guide to the Birds of the Indian
Subcontinent. Mumbai: Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University
Press. pp. 183, 106 colour plates by John Henry Dick. ISBN 0-19-563732-1
• Blatter, E.; Millard, Walter S. (1997). Some Beautiful Indian Trees. Mumbai:
Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University Press. pp. xvii, 165, 30
colour plates. ISBN 0-19-562162-X
• Israel, Samuel; Sinclair (editors), Toby (2001). Indian Wildlife. Discovery
Channel and APA Publications.. ISBN 981-234-555-8
• Prater, S. H. (1971). The book of Indian Animals. Mumbai: Bombay Natural
History Society and Oxford University Press. pp. xxiii, 324, 28 colour plates by
Paul Barruel.. ISBN 0-19-562169-7
• Rangarajan, Mahesh (editor) (1999). Oxford Anthology of Indian Wildlife:
Volume 1, Hunting and Shooting. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. xi,
439. ISBN 0-19-564592-8
• Rangarajan, Mahesh (editor) (1999). Oxford Anthology of Indian Wildlife:
Volume 2, Watching and Conserving. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. xi,
303. ISBN 0-19-564593-6
• Tritsch, Mark F. (2001). Wildlife of India. London: Harper Collins Publishers. p.
192. ISBN 0-00-711062-6

Culture

• Dissanayake, Wimal K.; Gokulsing, Moti (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A


Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. p. 161. ISBN 1-85856-329-1.
http://books.google.com/?id=_plssuFIar8C&dq
• Johnson, W. J. (translator and editor) (1998). The Sauptikaparvan of the
Mahabharata: The Massacre at Night. Oxford and New York: Oxford University
Press (Oxford World's Classics). p. 192. ISBN 978-0-19-282361-8.
http://www.oup.com/uk/catalogue/?ci=9780192823618
• Kālidāsa; Johnson (editor), W. J. (2001). The Recognition of Śakuntalā: A Play in
Seven Acts. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press (Oxford World's
Classics). p. 192. ISBN 978-0-19-283911-4. http://www.oup.com/uk/catalogue/?
ci=9780192839114
• Karanth, K. Shivarama (1997). Yakṣagāna. (Forward by H. Y. Sharada Prasad).
Abhinav Publications. p. 252. ISBN 81-7017-357-4
• Kiple, Kenneth F.; Ornelas, Kriemhild Coneè, eds (2000). The Cambridge World
History of Food. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-40216-6
• Lal, Ananda (1998). Oxford Companion to Indian Theatre. Oxford and New
York: Oxford University Press. p. 600. ISBN 0-19-564446-8.
http://www.amazon.com/Oxford-Companion-Indian-Theatre/dp/0195644468/
• MacDonell, Arthur Anthony (2004). A History of Sanskrit Literature. Kessinger
Publishing. ISBN 1-4179-0619-7
• Majumdar, Boria; Bandyopadhyay, Kausik (2006). A Social History Of Indian
Football: Striving To Score. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-34835-8
• Massey, Reginald (2006). India's Dances. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-
434-1
• Ramanujan, A. K. (1985). Poems of Love and War: From the Eight Anthologies
and the Ten Long Poems of Classical Tamil. New York: Columbia University
Press. p. 329. ISBN 0-231-05107-7. http://books.google.com/?
id=nIybE0HRvdQC&dq
• Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen (editors), Paul (1999). Encyclopedia of Indian
Cinema, 2nd revised edition. University of California Press and British Film
Institute. p. 652. ISBN 978-0-85170-669-6. Archived from the original on 6
August 2007.
http://web.archive.org/web/20070806090314/http://ucpress.edu/books/bfi/pages/P
ROD0008.html
• Vilanilam, John V. (2005). Mass Communication in India: A Sociological
Perspective. Sage Publications. ISBN 0-7619-3372-7
External links
Find more about India on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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• Government of India – Official government portal (in English)


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