MSC Innovation Configuration

Trunks and SS7 Links High Speed SS7 Links NetM SSNC 207Mb/s MB D 207Mb/s AMPC CP IOP:MB PCM30/24 LTG LTG SN B
SSNC: Signaling System Network Control Line Trunk Group Switching Network Message Buffer Typ D Input/Output Processor ATM Bridge Processor Coordination Processor Net Manager

LTG: SN: MB: IOP: AMP: CP: NetM:

MSC structure
Access Switching

DLU

LTG LTG

SN

Signaling System Network Control

Coordination

SSNC

SYP MB CCG CP

Some terms of the Circuit Switched Exchange Telephony Transit Exchange Originating Exchange Idle Terminating Exchange Note: The network shown here is only an example. .

. Operator. Whithin a Switch.) Calling Party Number Transmission Medium Required (Any..) …. Analog. some or all elements can be considered.. Routing) Category of the Calling Subscriber (Ordinary.. according to the evaluation results of the Routing Information Some typical elements of the Routing Information whithin a Switch: Called Party Number (= dialed number. how to find a way through a network for a given Routing Information. the most classical element) Originating Trunk (where the call comes from. Depend. Only Digital.. Routing is to find an outgoing trunk. During the evaluation of the of the Routing Information. see Origin.Routing Routing in general is the method. one. Priority.

Authentication and Ciphering .

in the subscriber database as KiA2 with A2 and K2. A reserve of 6 "triples" are provisioned. the SIM cards are produced on the one hand and the database for the subscriber are generated in the authentication center on the other. These three values are designated "triples".Ki)). A8 Version Version of the algorithm 8 stored in the AC and to be used.Authentication and ciphering execution In the personalization center (PCS). . As soon as the subscriber is set up in the HLR. the AC begins with the generation of the security parameters. These consist of three values: the rand (a random value). The KiA4 is deciphered in the AC with the help of algorithm A4 and key K4 (Ki=A4(K4. Used for generating the ciphering key The following parameters are necessary in the database commands along with theIMSI for authentication and ciphering: KiA4 General key. enciphered again (KiA2=A2(K2. however enciphered with algorithm A4 and additional key K4 A3 version Version of the algorithm 3 stored in the AC and to be used. the Sres or signed response (electronic signature for authentication) and the kc (key for the ciphering on the radio interface). The following parameters are necessary on the SIM card along with the IMSI for authentication and ciphering: Ki General key A3 Algorithm 3.KiA4)) and is stored. Used for generating the authentication code A8 Algorithm 8.

Authentication and ciphering execution (part2) .

the Rand is also used in the MS.rand)). The Sres is sent back to the MSC/VLR and there compared with the Sres of the triple. so that the ciphering can be carried out here as well. If they are different. The key Kc is generated (Kc=A8(Ki. the SIM card is rejected. If both Sres are the same. The key Kc contained in the triple is meanwhile relayed to the BSS.Authentication • The Rand is relayed to the mobile station. Rand)) with the help of the parameter Ki stored on the SIM card and A8. This generates the Sres with the help of the parameter Ki stored on the SIM card and A3 (Sres =A3(ki . The algorithm A5 is also available here. Ciphering • For the ciphering. . The ciphering is thereupon carried out with the algorithm 5 stored in the mobile equipment and the key Kc. and only emergency calls are possible depending on the project. the authentication is successful.

it is absolutely necessary to log the current site to a central position for the availability of the subscriber.Location Registration Since subscribers can change their locations in the PLMN any number of times. for instance. Therefore the routing label of the visited MSC/VLR is entered there. – The subscriber checks into a network for the first time. Location update is carried out for the following situations: • When first checking into a network. a location update is carried out in the HLR. • Periodical location update (only in the VLR) – A time provider in the mobile station runs out and a location update is carried out in the VLR. – The subscriber changes to another MSC area. This central position is the HLR of the respective subscriber. • After failure of the HLR – After a HLR failure. all affected VLRs are informed of the possible data loss. After subsequent originating traffic (mobile originating call). • Upon change of location. .

it requests from there the security parameters not used (triples) and the subscriber identification IMSI (international mobile subscriber identity). the mobile subscriber sends both LAIs back to the MSC. .Location up-date MS old LAI & old TMSI BS/MSC/VLR Allocate new TMSI ciphered(new TMSI) Acknowledgement • While staying in the old MSC area. • If the new MSC knows the old LAI or the corresponding old MSC/VLR. • Since the new LAI is different from the old LAI. the identification code of the location area (LAI location area ID) is noted on the SIM card (subscriber identity Module) • If the subscriber now moves to a new MSC area and thus also to a new location area. the mobile subscriber receives a new LAI from the MSC/VLR. • The HLR thereupon informs the old MSC/VLR that the subscriber is to be deleted in the VLR. • Hereupon the new location area is transmitted to the HLR from the new VLR/MSC.

Location up-date – TMSI unknown MS old LAI & old TMSI BS/MSC/VLR old TMSI unknown ID request IMSI Allocate new TMSI ciphered(new TMSI) Acknowledgement .

Since in this case the old MSC/VLR is unknown in the new MSC/VLR. the MSC/ VLR requests the subscriber identification number (IMSI international subscriber identity) from the mobile subscriber and transmits the new location to the HLR. Since the new LAI is different from the old LAI. the mobile subscriber receives a new LAI from the MSC/VLR. the mobile subscriber sends both LAIs back to the MSC. the identification code of the location area (LAI location area ID) is noted on the SIM card (subscriber identity Module) If the subscriber now moves to a new MSC area and thus also to a new location area. The HLR thereupon informs the old MSC/VLR that the subscriber is to be deleted in the VLR.Location Update with Location Change to an Unknown MSC/VLR • • • • • • • • • • • While staying in the old MSC area. .

•An audit of possible subscriber restrictions takes place in the MSC/VLR.Mobile Originated Call (MOC) in D900 •The dialing information is received via BSSAP in the MSC. A-interface BSSAP based on SCCP Signalling e g by ISUP. MFCR2 VLR BSC B number Visited MSC B number Transit switch B number Transit switch B number Terminating exchange B-side terminal equipment MOC Outgoing Traffic Transit Call Transit Call Terminating Call Outgoing Traffic Outgoing Traffic Terminating Traffic BTS Air interface A-side Mobile Station . •The dialing information is converted in the MSC and via the routing a route into the PSTN is determined. TUP.

MOC macro Message 1 MSC <.BSS DT1(Connect Acknowledge .BSS DT1(Authentication Response) Message 4 MSC -> BSS DT1(Cipher Mode Command) Message 5 MSC <.BSS CR(Complete L3 info(CM service request)) Message 2 MSC -> BSS CC(Authentication Request) Message 3 MSC <.BSS DT1(TMSI Reallocation Complete) Message 14 PSTN <.BSS DT1(Assignment Complete) Message 12 MSC -> BSS DT1(TMSI Reallocation Command) Message 13 MSC <.BSS DT1(Cipher Mode Complete) Message 6 MSC -> BSS DT1(ID Request (IMEI)) Message 7 MSC <.BSS DT1(ID Response (IMEI)) Message 11 MSC <.BSS DT1(Setup) Message 8 MSC -> BSS DT1(Call Proceeding) Message 9 MSC -> BSS DT1(Assignment Request) Message 10 MSC <.MSC IAM Message 15 PSTN -> MSC ACM Message 16 MSC -> BSS DT1(Alerting) Message 17 PSTN -> MSC ANM Message 18 MSC -> BSS DT1(Connect) Message 19 MSC <.

MFCR2 VLR BSC B number Visited MSC B number Transit switch B number Transit switch B number Terminating exchange B-side terminal equipment MOC Outgoing Traffic Transit Call Transit Call Terminating Call Outgoing Traffic Outgoing Traffic Terminating Traffic BTS Air interface A-side Mobile Station . MNP server is triggered •The information from MNP server is converted in the MSC and via the routing a route into the PSTN is determined. MNP query is started. •An audit of possible subscriber restrictions takes place in the MSC/VLR. •Based on the dialled digits. TUP.Mobile Originated Call (MOC) in D900 with MNP (QoD – query on digits) •The dialing information is received via BSSAP in the MSC. A-interface BSSAP based on SCCP MNP server Signalling e g by ISUP.

g. • The MSC/VLR makes a temporary directory number available and sends it back via the HLR to the gateway MSC. • A so-called "interrogation" is started as a response. The location area is specified in the MSC/VLR owing to the cross-connection between temporary directory number and mobile subscriber. i. via ISUP in the PLMN gateway MSC • The dialing information is converted in the gateway MSC.g. • The gateway MSC converts this temporary directory number and sets up a circuit connection (ISUP) to the visited MSC.e.Mobile Terminating Call e. from PSTN • The dialing information is received by PSTN e.e. • The visited MSC now sends a "paging" to all BSCs situated in the location area. • The MSC makes the connection to the called subscriber. The HLR knows the location routing label i. • The BSC in which the subscriber is currently situated answers with a "paging response". . the MSC/VLR by the "location update" and relays the query there. a MAP message is sent to the HLR in order to obtain location-specific routing information.

MFCR2) A-interface Mobile Terminating Traffic BSSAP based on SCCP MSISDN Transit switch Transit Call Outgoing Traffic MSISDN Gateway MSC MSRN Transit switch MSRN BSC Visited MSC VLR BTS MSRN local exchange Originating Call Outgoing Traffic Interrogation SendRoutingInfo Outgoing Traffic MSRN MSRN Provide RoamingNr Air interface HLR B-side Mobile Station MAP signalling based on SCCP and TCAP .Mobile Terminating Call A-side terminal equipment Signalling e g by ISUP (TUP.

MSC ANM .BSS DT1(Alerting) PSTN <.MSC ACM MSC <.BSS DT1(ID Response) MSC -> BSS DT1(TMSI Reallocation Command) MSC <.BSS DT1(Connect) MSC -> BSS DT1(Connect Acknowledge) PSTN <.BSS DT1(Authentication Response) MSC -> BSS DT1(Cipher Mode Command) MSC <.BSS DT1(TMSI Reallocation Complete) MSC <.BSS DT1(Call Confirmed) MSC -> BSS DT1(Assignment Request) MSC <.BSS DT1(Cipher Mode Complete) MSC -> BSS DT1(ID Request) MSC -> BSS DT1(Setup) MSC <.MTC macro Message 1 Message 2 Message 3 Message 4 Message 5 Message 6 Message 7 Message 8 Message 9 Message 10 Message 11 Message 12 Message 13 Message 14 Message 15 Message 16 Message 17 Message 18 Message 19 Message 20 PSTN -> MSC IAM MSC -> BSS UDT(paging) MSC <.BSS CR(ComL3Inf (Paging response) MSC -> BSS CC(Authentication Request) MSC <.BSS DT1(Assignment Complete) MSC <.

Mobile Terminating Call with MNP (QoHLR – query on HLR) A-side terminal equipment Signalling e g by ISUP (TUP. MFCR2) Transit switch MSISDN Transit switch Transit Call Outgoing Traffic MSISDN Gateway MSC Outgoing Traffic Transit switch local exchange Originating Call Outgoing Traffic Interrogation SendRoutingInfo Unknown subscriber HLR MAP signalling based on SCCP and TCAP .

MFCR2) MSISDN Transit switch Transit Call Outgoing Traffic MSISDN Gateway MSC FTNO Transit switch FTNO terminating exchange local exchange Originating Call Outgoing Traffic Transit Call Interrogation Transit Call Outgoing Traffic Terminating Call Terminating Traffic SendRoutingInfo FTNO C-side HLR terminal equipment MAP signalling based on SCCP and TCAP .Call Forwarding Unconditional A-side terminal equipment Signalling e g by ISUP (TUP.

a message is sent to the HLR in order to obtain location-specific routing information. • The visited MSC now sends a "paging" to all BSCs situated in the location area. • The MSC/VLR makes a temporary directory number available and sends it back via the HLR to the MSC of the calling subscriber. The location area is specified in the MSC/VLR owing to the cross-connection between temporary directory number and mobile subscriber. . The HLR knows the location routing label i. • The MSC makes the connection to the called subscriber. i. The BSC in which the subscriber is currently situated answers with a "paging response".e.e. • A so-called "interrogation" is started as a response. the MSC/VLR by the "location update" and relays the query there.Mobile to Mobile Call (Mobile Subscribers in different MSC/VLRs) • The dialing information is received via BSSAP in the MSC • An audit of possible subscriber restrictions takes place in the MSC/VLR • The dialing information is converted in the visited MSC of the calling subscriber. • The MSC of the calling subscriber converts this temporary directory number and sets up a circuit connection (ISUP) to the visited MSC.

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MIC LOOP: (Mobile Internal Call Loop) MS BSSAP .LTG CP LOOP .LTG MOC MTC CP MS BSSAP .LTG MIC-Code would be neccesary .

then we use the ORIG1 parameter in command CR CPT The ORIG1 can be imagined as an additional digit suffix. (see MML command ENTRMPRDDAT) .. how an ORIG1 can be assigned to a call (and copied to the CPB): a) assignment via incoming trunk group b) assignment within specific callsetup An incoming trunkgroup can be forced to assign an ORIG1 by the ORIG1 parameter in CR TGRP. This method is used in D900 MIC/PBX-loop treatment to distinguish between BSSAP... IN Loop. NP. It is copied into the CPB and is together with the digits an additional input for the digittranslator. (see Origination Dependent Routing in the EWSD). Trunk or PBX call origination In specific cases during call setup. CF. There are two kinds.The ORIG1 Story When we need to perform different actions in differnet callsetup-states with the same digits. the assignement occurs with a procedural access to preadministered ORIG1 values for MSRN.

Quiz • Q1: Does the HLR know the respective location of the subscriber? • Q2: Does the AC generate the mobile station roaming number? • Q3: Does the MSC serve to through connect the call from the BSC to other MSCs? • Q4: Which number serves to identify the subscriber and is stored on the SIM card? • Q5: With which number can the subscriber be internationally dialed? • Q6: Which number is transmitted to the equipment identification register for auditing? • Q7: Which number is used instead of the IMSI in order to avoid unnecessary interchange of the IMSI via the radio interface? • Q8: Which three components does a so-called triple comprise? • Q9: Which parameter of the triple compares the MSC/VLR for the authentication test? • Q10: Did you find this course interesting/usefull? .

Answers • • • • • • • • • • A1: Yes A2: No A3: Yes A4: IMSI A5: MSISDN A6: IMEI A7: TMSI A8: Sres. rand. kc A9: Sres A10: Of course .

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