Ummi Ciptasari - Chapter 19 precis Party system of late 19th century was very stable with little fluctuation

in state loyalties. Republicans held most presidencies and Senate while Democrats lead House. Public intensely loyal to parties, voter turnout was tremendous- loyalty result of region, religion and ethnicity. Party identification was more cultural than of economic interest. The Federal government held little power and responsibility aside from supporting economic development and delivering pensions to Civil War veterans. Most of the party leaders cared more about holding office than policy. The President also just had little power save to make government appointments (patronage used). President Rutherford B. Hayes had to deal with factional Republicans party split between Stalwarts (favored machine politics) and the Half-Breeds (favored reform). Patronage system overshadowed presidency, civil service system effort was failed. Republicans won presidency in 1880 election, President James Garfield and Vice President Chester Arthur took the office. Garfield attempted to defy Stalwarts and create civil service reform, but he was assassinated in 1881. New President Chester attempted supported civil service reform over Stalwarts. In 1883 Congress passed Pendleton Act requiring exams for some government jobs. In 1884 election Republican nominee Senator James Blaine, “liberal” Republicans flocked to Democratic reform candidate Grover Cleveland. Cleveland opposed to graft and special interest, wished to see limited government- asked Congress to reduce protective tariff rate 1887 to reduce government surpluses and size. Democrats passed the bill while Republicans opposed it. It became an issue of 1888 elections. Democrats renominated Cleveland, but Republicans named Benjamin Harrison whose got the chair at the end. President Harrison made little effort to influence Congress, but public opinion forced government to begin to confront social and economic issues, especially trusts. By mid 1880s some states limiting combinations preventing competition, but reformers wanted national movement- 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act passed, but little enforced, weakened by courts, and had just a little impact. The Republicans main issue was dealing with tariff. They passed McKinley Tariff in 1890 which was the highest protective tariff ever. Public opposed the bill, by 1892 President election Republicans lost both House and Senate, Democrats nominee Cleveland won this Presidential election. The policies of Cleveland’s in his 2nd term was still like the 1st, devoted to minimal government. Supported tariff reduction, Wilson-Gorman Tariff was passed. Movement coming up at 1880s in many states to regulate Rail Roads. After 1886 Supreme Court case Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad vs Illinois ruled only fed government able to regulate interstate commerce. To appease public Congress passed 1887 Interstate Commerce Act which banned rate discrimination and injustice and formed the Interstate Commerce Commission. American farmers were revolting against the government at the time. First major effort to organize farmers was the Grange movement of 1860s (at first goal to teach new scientific techniques), not until 1873 recession and fall of farm prices did it become highly political and large. Grange urged cooperative political action to fight monopolistic Rail Road and warehouse practices, setup up co-operation stores, insurance companies, and Montgomery Ward mailorder business. The Elected Grange politicians went to state legislatures to focus on Rail Road reform, but the regulations destroyed by courts, temporary boom in late 1870s destroyed the Grange. Farmers’ Alliances formed in South, Northwest- like Grange focused on local problems (co-op banks, processing plants) but also larger goal to create society of cooperation. Like

Ocala platform in 1892 outlined Populist reform programs“subtreasuries” to strengthen cooperatives. with “Coxey’s Army”. Populist Jacob Coxey called for massive public works program for unemployed and currency inflation. created People’s Party (Populists). Unemployment soared. but attracted miners in Rocky Mountain states with “free silver” policy that allowed for silver to be currency. McKinley carried election because Democrats platform had proved to be too narrow (sectional) to win nationally. he was voted as nominee. consolidated commercial agriculture. Rail Roads and trust regulation. protested in D. regulation and ownership of Rail Roads.divided Dem party iv)Presidential of 1986 incredibly fierce b/c supporters of gold standard saw it as essential to national stability. Also depressed farm prices of late 1880s. issued Ocala Demands (party platform). led to social unrest. Southern and Northwestern Alliances merged. Populism appealed mainly to small farmers. McKinley administration saw return to calm because of labor unrest and agrarian protest . The Democrats of West sought to weaken People’s Party by adopting Populist demands. expand money supply. In late 1870s. Businesses. and silver remonetization. those whose farming becoming less viable in face of mechanized. Sentiments forming toward national third party in1892. The Democrats nominated William McKinley with platform opposed to free coinage of silver. “Bimetal” standard discontinued 1873 by Congress because market value of silver high back than was 16:1 standard. their cooperatives were not very successful. In 1894. African Americans were also allowed to have limited involvement in the South. However. banks. It was caused by bankruptcy of few corporations that led to bank failure. silver became less valuable than standard but people unable to convert silver because of “Crime of ‘73”. abolish national banks. Bryan’s national stump and camp-meeting style alienated Cath + ethnic voters who feared he embodied Protestants who so firmly opposed them. supported Bryan. currency inflation. Business and finance communities donated heavily to Republicans. graduated income tax. Populism was associated with anti-Semitism. supporters of “free silver” (guided by William Harvey’s 1894 Coin’s Financial School) saw gold standard as tyrannous and advantageous to wealthy. debated platform of free silver. comparable to that of the 1930s. led to credit contraction. tariff reduction. Populists split as to whether or not to fuse with Democrats party because felt some of their unique needs addressed. which led to political turmoil. iii)At same time decreasing government gold reserves led PresidentCleveland 1893 to seek repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890. populists failed to attract much labor support.C. President Cleveland believed currency instability was the cause of depression. concluded no other alternative. William Jennings Bryan delivered “Cross of Gold” speech opposed to gold standard at convention. which was an opposition by silverminers and farmers who wanted greater $ circulation (inflation) to ease debts. Rail Roads were all failed. government warehouse system. In 1892 elections Populists did surprisingly well. there was a massive depression. other ways for people to influence political system. In Financial panic weakened monetary system. harnessed frustrations into creating national political organization in 1880s. they won seats in states and Congress. They won seats in 1890 elections. the People’s Party began to dissolve in wake of defeat. telephones. silver would decrease debt Republicans in 1896 election were pretty confident of victory because of Cleveland and Democrats failure to deal with depression. Because of “fusion” gamble with Democrats.Grange. By 1889. European depression and Rail Road expansion beyond market demand. direct election of US Senators. Many people believed specie (precious metal) must back money to give it value. In the 1890s. income tax.

had subsided by 1897. . economic crisis gradually easing. Congress soon passed Dingley Tariff. but by late 1890s increase in gold supply inflated money. Republicans passed Currency (Gold Standard) Act of 1900 that confirmed nation’s gold standard. satisfied free-silver people. McKinley focused on implementing high tariff rate.during late 19th century money supply had expanded much more slowly than increase in production and population. nation entered period of expansion once again—clear trend between prosperity and gold standard support. Free-silver movement had failed. pegged dollar to specific gold value Foreign crop failures resulted in economic uptick.

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