Explain social research, with its main features as objectives and different stages?

Answer: Research is a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. According to Redman and Mary research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge. According to D.Sleshinger and M.Stemson has defined research as the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, heather that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art. Social research is a scientific undertaking which by means of logical and systematized techniques, aims to discover new factory verify a test old facts, analyze their sequence interrelationship and casual explanation which were derived within an appropriate theoretical frame of reference, develop new scientific tools, concepts and theories which would facilities reliable and valid study of human behavior. According to PV young social research the systematic method of discovering news facts or verifying old facts, their sequences, interrelationships, casual explanation and the natural laws which governs them. Prof C.A Mosr defines social research as “systematized investigation to give new knowledge about social phenomena and surveys”. Rummel defined social research as it is devoted to a “study of mankind in his social environment and is concerned with improving his understanding of social orders, groups, institutes and ethics”. Mary Stevenson defined social research as “social research is a systematic methods of exploring, analyzing and conceptualizing social life in order to extend ,correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aid in the construction of a theory or in the practice of an art. The characteristic features of social research: Social research is scientific approach of adding to the knowledge about society and social phenomenon. Knowledge to be meaningful should have a definite purpose and direction. The growth of knowledge is closely linked to the methods and approaches used in research investigation. Hence the social science research must be guided by certain laid down objectives enumerated below Development knowledge The main object of any research is to add to the knowledge. As we have seen earlier, research is a process to obtain knowledge. Similarly social research is an organized and scientific effort to acquire further knowledge about the problem in question. Thus social science helps us to obtain and add to the knowledge of social phenomena. This one of the important objective of social research. Scientific study of social research: Social research is an attempt to acquire knowledge about the social phenomena. Man being the part of a society, social research studies human being as an individual, human behavior and collects data about various aspects of the social life of man and formulates law in this regards. Once the law is formulated then the scientific study tries to establish the interrelationship between these facts. Thus, the scientific study of social life is the base of the sociological development which is considered as second best objective of social research. Welfare of humanity: The ultimate objective of the social science study if often and always to enhance the welfare of humanity. No scientific research makes only for the sake of study. The welfare of humanity is the most common objective in social science research. Classification of facts:

According to Prov P.V.Young, social research aims to clarify facts. The classification of facts plays important role in any scientific research. Social control and prediction: The ultimate object of many research undertaking is to make it possible, to redirect the behavior of particular type of individual under the specified conditions. In social research we generally study of the social phenomena, event and factors that govern and guide them. a) Social research deals with phenomena. It studies the human behavior. b) It discovers new facts and verifies old facts. With the improvement in the technique and changes in the phenomena the researcher has to study the. c) Casual relationship between various human activities can also be studies in social research. For the sake of systematic presentation, the process of research may be classifies under three stages Primary stage Secondary stage Tertiary stage The primary stage includes Observation Interest Crystallization, identification and statement of a research problem Formulation of hypothesis Primary synopsis Conceptual clarity Documentation Preparation of bibliography and Research design The secondary stage includes Project planning Project formulation Questionnaire preparation Investigation and data collection Preparation of final synopsis Compilation of data Classification Tabulation and presentation of data Experimentation Analysis Testing of hypothesis and Interpretation The tertiary stage includes Report writing Observation, suggestions and conclusions.

Problems of scientific social research In fact social research deals with social phenomena which are quite different than natural phenomena. the public opinion expert. Research laboratory techniques are helping in finding further knowledge. Hence there are fundamental difference between research in social science and that of physical or natural science. social science are accruing a scientific method of study for this method. courses in methods of social research have come to occupy an increasingly important role in sociological curricula. temperamental . In science sociology is assuming a scientific base. The social research is an effective method. about the subject. Through research only it has been possible to make progress and reach further. research is an important factor. In fact.psychological. biological social cultural etc. The market analysis. for example. in underdevelopment countries. In the last two or three decades. Apart from thus. Knowledge of social research is useful for interpreting and weighing such reports. assumed greater importance. social research is a apart of the curriculum of the sociology. It is based on the past experience and past knowledge. Let us study main difficulities faced by the researcher in the application so scientific methods in social research. necessity is the mother of invention and invention is the result if research. It is part of man’s nature. geographical. the investigator of communication and propaganda all are growing facts for governmental and business needs. Problems of concepts: In social science research. research has become a part of study. one has to face number of problems among which of a) Abstraction b) Faculty reasoning Plays major role in formulating and defining the concepts and laws. social. It is therefore said that because of this complexity of social fata human beings cannot be put to scientific test. the economics development cannot be accelerated due to lack of technical know how and capital cannot be obtained due to underdevelopment of the country. Dynamic nature of social phenomena . The cause and effect are one and the same. So long as necessity exists the research shall be these social science and particularly sociology has come occupy an importance place for us. Social research has therefore. In fact almost all the universities. a social research has become an important subject of the curriculum of sociology. greater the surely of the results. It likely that at present every major university offers such courses.Give the significance of social research also mention the different problems of social research and how they are solved? within the last 20 to 25 years. The richer the past knowledge. because of these factors a researcher is generally confused. In this present age. the social science research is essential for proper understanding the society and proper collection and analysis of social facts. we generally find interdependent relationship between cause and effect. it is not an easy task to predict social behavior because of human nature is ever changing. where sociology is taught. The importance saying goes. This is because growing significance of social research and also growing job opportunities in this field. research is an organized effort to acquire new knowledge. Problems in interpreting relationship between cause and effects: In social science research. Complexity of social data It is a well known that social science studies the human behavior which depends on several factor such as physical.

It is generally argued that the social scientific are less objective than natural scientific because their own interest affected by the finding of their studies. the problem of unbiased sampling selection of data etc. While observation leads to research. high degree of predictability is possible but it is not so in case of social data. economics. we cannot draw water-tight compartments for each other social science. its product being a human being cannot be put to lab test. In case of social science research. we generally observed that small amount if finance is made available to them. but this statement is also partially true. Problems of maintaining objectivity The problem of impartiality in part of problem of objectivity. In case of social science research its product being a human being cannot be put to laboratory test. Incapability of being dealt through empirical method: An empirical method cannot be applied in case of social science research as repeated experiment is not possible . Unpredictability Predictability is one of the most important characteristics of science. Sometimes a casual or associated observation leading to substantial research and a great invention. research should be followed by some sort of original contribution.e related with. research results in elaborate observation and convulsions. Difficulty in the verification of the inferences: In social research. Difficulty in the use of experimental method.Man is a social animal and human society undergoes constant change. Research is a source which can be draw upon to make a substantial contribution to the body of the knowledge. their responses wouldn’t be natural but subject to the awareness of the artificial condition. The primary stage includes Observation: Research start with observation. Observation can either be unaided visual observation or guided and controlled observation. inter-disciplinary one i. Less resources: Prof Mitchell has rightly pointed out that social science researcher require less resources in comparing to physical science. briefly explain the various primary stages of research process.for example. On a account of this dynamic nature of social phenomena our task of analyzing data becomes very much complicated and the interferences drawn may be misleading. their responses wouldn’t natural but subject to the awareness of the artificial condition. What is true today may not be useful tomorrow. Thus social scientist has to watch them in wide world. it is not sufficient to conduct research effectively. which leads to curiosity to learn more about what has been observed. Paucity of funds: In case of social science research. Difficulty in the use of experimental method. Deliberate and guided observation can also form the basis for research. political science and sociology. The techniques used in past may prove useless for present ad future studies. hence leading to prejudice and bias. the events of social science are non repetitive and the social science are ill-equipped with their tools to verify inferences. Even if it is done. or even further research observation can either be . Even if it is done. In case of physical science. the social scientist can roughly estimate the behavior of the group. Problem of inter-disciplinary research Social science being. Thus the social scientist has to watch them in the wide world.

Conceptual clarity Any researcher should have in-depth background knowledge of the topic of his study. A document is anything in writing – a record. Formulation of hypothesis At this stage the hypothesis is formed on the basis of observation. Interest: The observation of certain occurrences creates an interest and inquisitiveness in the mind of the researcher to study it further. letters. Crystallization. official statistics. constitution. files or diaries. controlled observation and non controlled observation. official and unofficial records. newspapers editorials. he can also gain knowledge by details discussion with the people concerned and by his own observation. It is very valuable source of information for research either in management or in social science. reports of surveys or research of commissions. reports of the past studies. These are participant observation. biographies. company news. special articles. business and legal papers. on –participant observation. It may be self interest or group interest. including financial commitments and sources. societies. proceedings of any courts . limitations.committees. etc. However it is imperative for a researcher to gain a deep knowledge form any reliable source prior to actually plunging himself into a research. it may comprises office files. Documents may be classified into 1) Personal documents . and has been dealt with in detail in the chapter on “scientific method and hypothesis” Primary synopsis Synopsis is a summary /outline/brief of any subject. It saves time. cases or company directors reports etc. It is at this stage that the research project is given a concrete shape and structure. so theta he may have clear knowledge of the concepts which would be of value to him in his task. The interest is the guiding force behind any research. enactments. paragraph heading-elaborate the paragraph with important of main issues. Documentation The documentary sources are important sources of information for a researcher. assemblies and parliaments. published or unpublishedwhich can be extracted and used in research. rationale. It will give an idea of time required for presentation of the main subject. He can gain such basic knowledge only be an extensive reading of text books. Hypothesis is apart of the scientific method. scope. methodology. a defining its objectives. specialized books and publications on the topic in addition to articles and research papers published in journals and periodicals. Crystallization is the process of designing the definite form of Research to be undertaken for the purpose of studying the subject matter. Once the subject is decided you can arrange titles likes like main headings. This is the basis of interest to study the subject matter of observation. documentation is the process of collecting and extracting the documents which relevant research. It is the formulation of the research project.subjective or objective. forming a basis of further investigation. It is not a complete subject still formalization of a subject/replica of a subject.

many books and publications at the primary stage of researcher in order to gain conceptual clarity. it is good to consider what questionnaires are good at measuring and when it is appropriate to use questionnaires.2) Company documents 3) Consultants report and published materials and 4) Public documents Bibliography At the end of any research report a bibliography is generally added. a researcher reads. A well-designed questionnaire that is used effectively can gather information on both the overall performance of the test system as well as information on specific components of the system. Defining the Objectives of the survey 2. they can be used to correlate performance and satisfaction with the test system among different groups of users. place of publication etc. may be self-administered or groupadministered. editions. Often they are the only feasible way to reach a number of reviewers large enough to allow statistically analysis of the results. These facilities any further reference to the matter either by the researcher himself or anybody who goes through the researcher report. journals. Every step needs to be designed carefully because the final results are only as good as the weakest link in the questionnaire process. What can questionnaires measure? Questionnaires are quite flexible in what they can . Interpretation of the Results This document will concentrate on how to formulate objectives and write the questionnaire. It is important to remember that a questionnaire should be viewed as a multi-stage process beginning with definition of the aspects to be examined and ending with interpretation of the results. in ordinary circumstance. Writing the Questionnaire 4. etc which are used by researcher in the connection with the study. year of publication. Some mistakenly believe that a bibliography is merely a list of publication compiled at the end of report writing like an appendix. It is a description of books. reports. The steps required to design and administer a questionnaire include: 1. This is the list of books publication. Although questionnaires may be cheap to administer compared to other data collection methods.mention its characteristics and illustrate a sample questionnaire for any product you can choose Answer: Questionnaire is a method used for collecting data. If the questionnaire includes demographic questions on the participants. what is questionnaire. which helps him in the course of his research. publishers. Questionnaires are an inexpensive way to gather data from a potentially large number of respondents. their authorship. He prepares a list of such publications are reports then and there. periodicals. they are every bit as expensive in terms of design time and interpretation. and makes notes form. Determining the Sampling Group 3. Administering the Questionnaire 5. On the contrary a bibliography contains and is composed of the details of publications that the researcher has used in connection with his study. Before these steps are examined in detail. a set of written questions which calls for responses on the part of the client.

of the system or interface in question. The administration cost per person of a questionnaire can be as low as postage and a few photocopies. potentially several thousand people could respond in a few days. When a questionnaire is administered. Qualitative. When to use a questionnaire? There is no all encompassing rule for when to use a questionnaire. but the cost of such a questionnaire can be much higher and offset their economic advantage. if a group of participants are asked on a questionnaire how long it took them to learn a particular function on a piece of software. It would be impossible to get a similar number of usability tests completed in the same short time. Subjective vs. A follow-up large scale questionnaire may be necessary to corroborate these earlier results . however they are not equally suited to measuring all types of data. This loss of control means the validity of the results are more reliant on the honesty of the respondent. More elaborate questionnaire design or administration may provide slightly better objective data. When corroborating other findings. it is likely that they will be biased towards themselves and answer. on average. quantitative questions are more exact then qualitative. When it is necessary to protect the privacy of the participants. any data collection scheme will have similar preparation expenses. More costly schemes may turn up interesting trends. The choice will be made based on a variety of factors including the type of information to be gathered and the available resources for the experiment. For example. and interpretation. Examples of such cases would include studies that need to ask embarrassing questions about private or personal behavior. but that qualitative questions require more care in design. but in particular questions that assess a qualitative measure must be phrased to avoid ambiguity. Often confidentiality is the necessary to ensure participants will respond honestly if at all. such as a e-mail questionnaire. When resources and money are limited. In studies that have resources to pursue other data collection strategies. but occasionally there will not be resources to run these other tests on large enough participant groups to make the results statistically significant. This is why questionnaires are inexpensive to administer. with a lower than actual time. a. For example. Although preparation may be costly. Time is also an important resource that questionnaires can maximize. c. the researchers control over the environment will be somewhat limited. such as user satisfaction.measure. Qualitative questions may also require more thought on the part of the participant and may cause them to become bored with the questionnaire sooner. b. We can classify data in two ways. A more objective usability test of the same function with a similar group of participants may return a significantly higher learning time. Questionnaires are easy to administer confidentially. we can say that questionnaires can measure both qualitative and quantitative data well. In general. Any question must be carefully crafted. A Questionnaire can be quite inexpensive to administer. By their very nature. A questionnaire should be considered in the following circumstances. the word "easy" and "difficult" can mean radically different things to different people. it is more difficult to claim complete objectivity with questionnaire data then with results of a tightly controlled lab test. In general. If a questionnaire is self-administering. Consequently. Questions may be designed to gather either qualitative or quantitative data. questionnaires can be a useful confirmation tools. administration. Objective and Quantitative vs. questionnaires are better suited to gathering reliable subjective measures.

#Mode. must be objective Attractive in appearance (questions spaced out. Statistics geared toward measuring central tendency all focus on this concept of "typical" or "average. the most frequent value in the data set. It simply the sum of the numbers divided by the number of numbers. one measure of central tendency of a group of high school students is the average (mean) age of the students. For example. As an example. we often want to know before purchasing a car its average distance per litre of petrol. A "measure of central tendency" is either a location parameter or a statistic used to estimate a location parameter. the mean of the numbers 1+2+3+6+8=205=4 1 2 3 6 8 20 5 4 regardless of whether the numbers constitute the entire population or just a sample from the . or "location". The concept is extremely important and we encounter it frequently in daily life. or typical value that is representative of the majority of cases. the value that separates the higher half from the lower half of the data set. not ambiguous or vague. FOR EXAMPLE. and the mode. Or. Or before accepting a job. attempt to quantify what we mean when we think of as the "typical" or "average" score in a data set. Answers to such a question tell us a lot about the phenomenon or process we are studying Arithmetic Mean The arithmetic mean is the most common measure of central tendency. Measures of central tendency. and neatly arranged) Write a descriptive title for the questionnaire Write an introduction to the questionnaire Order questions in logical sequence Keep questionnaire uncluttered and easy to complete Delicate questions last (especially demographic questions) Design for easy tabulation Design to achieve objectives Define terms Avoid double negatives (I haven't no money) Avoid double barreled questions (this AND that) Avoid loaded questions ("Have you stopped beating your wife?") Explain the various measure of central tendency? In statistics. the general level. The symbol mm is used for the mean of a population. the median. Among several accepted measures of central tendency employed in data reduction. The symbol MM is used for the mean of a sample. we often ask questions in psychological science revolving around how groups differ from each other "on average". if you are a smoker. you might often think about how many cigarettes you smoke "on average" per day." As we will see. Central tendency is a term used in some fields of empirical research to refer to what statisticians sometimes call "location". the most common are the arithmetic mean (simple average).#Median. The formula for mm is shown below: m=SXN m S X N where SX S X is the sum of all the numbers in the numbers in the sample and NN is the number of numbers in the sample.Characteristics of a Good Questionnaire • • • • • • • • • • • • • Questions worded simply and clearly. Examples include: #Arithmetic mean. characteristic. you might want to know what a typical salary is for people in that position so you will know whether or not you are going to be paid what you are worth. the sum of all data divided by the number of observations in the data set.

Let's return to the made up example of the quiz on which you made a three discussed previously in the module Introduction to Central Tendency and shown in table 2. 44. For this dataset. The 16th highest score (which equals 20) is the median because there are 15 scores below the 16th score and 15 scores above the 16th score. Thus. the median is the mean of the two middle numbers. Number of touchdown passes. The table. your score is below the median. 4. The median can also be thought of as the 50th percentile.5 . the same as your score. the median is 4. there are 31 scores. For the data in the table. 1212 is 4+72=5.4516 m S X N 634 31 20. For example. it is by far the most commonly used. When there is an even number of numbers. For the data in the table. Finally for Dataset 3. the median of 2. Therefore. 77. The mean number of touchdown passes thrown is 20. the median is 2. the median of the numbers 22. This means you are in the lower half of the class. Number of touchdown passes. Three possible datasets for the 5-point make-up quiz Student Dataset 1 Dataset 2 Dataset 3 You 3 3 3 John's 3 4 2 Maria's 3 4 2 Shareecia's 3 4 2 Luther's 3 5 1 For Dataset 1. For Dataset 2.population. the geometic mean. the mode is the middle of that interval (650). the median is simply the middle number. With continuous data such as response time measured to many decimals. or some other mean. if the term "mean" is used without specifying whether it is the arithmetic mean. The median is the midpoint of a distribution: the same number of scores are above the median as below it. the frequency of each value is one since no two scores will be exactly the same (see discussion of continuous variables). m=SXN=63431=20. it is assumed to refer to the arithmetic mean.4516 Number of touchdown passes 37 22 19 14 33 22 19 14 33 22 18 14 32 21 18 12 29 21 18 12 28 28 23 21 20 20 18 16 15 9 6 Although the arithmetic mean is not the only "mean" (there is also a geometic mean). your score is above the median and therefore in the upper half of the distribution. Median The median is also a frequently used measure of central tendency. Therefore. Since the interval with the highest frequency is 600-700.4516 as shown below. Grouped frequency distribution . mode The mode is the most frequently occuring value. Number of touchdown passes. shows the number of touchdown (TD) passes thrown by each of the 31 teams in the National Football League in the 2000 season. the mode is 18 since more teams (4) had 18 touchdown passes than any other number of touchdown passes. Therefore the mode of continuous data is normally computed from a grouped frequency distribution. The Grouped frequency distribution table shows a grouped frequency distribution for the target response time data.5 4 7 2 5. the median is three. and 7 is 4. Computation of the Median: When there is an odd number of numbers.

A trimmed mean is obviously less susceptible to the effects of extreme scores than is the arithmetic mean. 50th. Therefore. It is less efficient than the mean for normal distributions. VARIANCE If everything were the same. 55. measures of central tendency are less useful in statistical analysis than measures of dispersion of values around the central tendency The dispersion of values within variables is especially important in social and political research because: • Dispersion or "variation" in observations is what we seek to explain. But. • Researchers want to know WHY some cases lie above average and others below Average for a given variable: o TURNOUT in voting: why do some states show higher rates than others? o CRIMES in cities: why are there differences in crime rates? o CIVIL STRIFE among countries: what accounts for differing amounts? • Much of statistical explanation aims at explaining DIFFERENCES in observations -also known as o VARIATION. people's heights. What follows is an example of how to compute the trimean. The median is the mean trimmed 100% and the arithmetic mean is the mean trimmed 0%. etc. a mean trimmed 50% is computed by discarding the lower and higher 25% of the scores and taking the mean of the remaining scores.. the trimean is computed as: The trimean is almost as resistant to extreme scores as the median and is less subject to sampling fluctuations than the arithmetic mean in extremely skewed distributions. The 25th. Trimmed means are often used in Olympic scoring to minimize the effects of extreme ratings possibly caused by biased judges. . Trimmed Mean A trimmed mean is calculated by discarding a certain percentage of the lowest and the highest scores and then computing the mean of the remaining scores. ages. or the more technical term. We often need to measure the extent to which scores in a dataset . It is therefore less susceptible to sampling fluctuation than the mean for extremely skewed distributions. explain each of them? Answer: In many ways. do vary. The trimean is a good measure of central tendency and is probably not used as much as it should be.Range Frequency 500-600 3 600-700 6 700-800 5 800-900 5 900-1000 0 1000-1100 1 Trimean The trimean is computed by adding the 25th percentile plus twice the 50th percentile plus the 75th percentile and dividing by four. and 63 respectively. Which are various measure of dispersion. For example. It is less efficient than the mean for normal distributions. we would have no need of statistics. and 75th percentile of the dataset "Example 1" are 51.

The Range of a Distribution Find the range in the following sets of data: NUMBER OF BROTHERS AND SISTERS { 2. The "box" of the box plot shows the middle or "most typical" 50% of the values. 3. 1." 2. 1. 1. 1. the lowest and highest scores may be reported as the range. Commonly used percentile measures are named in terms of how they divide distributions. 0. i. 1. 2. The boundaries of the . Two other percentile scores commonly used to describe the dispersion in a distribution are decile and quintile scores which divide cases into equal sized subsets of tenths (10%) and fifths (20%). 12. 2. A score that is at a certain percentile falls even with or above that percent of scores. 2. 1." instructors look to see how a particular score compares to the other scores. 1. 50th (median)." which would be written (62. while a score in the fourth quartile is higher than at least 75% of the scores. Range is of limited use as a measure of dispersion. 7. 0. 1. 4. 2 } An outlier is an extreme score. 94). percentile scores divide a distribution into 100 equal sized groups. 6. 5. 0. Quartiles divide scores into fourths.differ from each other. 4. because it reflects information about extreme values but not necessarily about "typical" values. As a quantity: the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. Such a measure is called the dispersion of a distribution Some measure of dispersion are 1) Range The range is the simplest measure of dispersion. 2. 2.. so that a score falling in the first quartile lies within the lowest 25% of scores. 3. 2. "B" to above-average scores. an infrequently occurring score at either tail of the distribution. "The range was 62 to 94. Only when the range is "narrow" (meaning that there are no outliers) does it tell us about typical values in the data. The median score of a distribution is at the 50th percentile: It is the score at which 50% of other scores are below (or equal) and 50% are above. Below is the box plot for the distribution you just separated into quartiles. In practice this may not be possible because the number of cases may be under 100. "The range of scores on the exam was 32. When grading exams "on a curve. while the "whiskers" of the box plot show the more extreme values. 5. respectively. Quartile Finder The divisions you have just performed illustrate quartile scores. In theory. 1. 1. 4. 5. 2. 1. 8. A box plot is an effective visual representation of both central tendency and dispersion. 0. As an interval. Range is determined by the furthest outliers at either end of the distribution. and so forth. 0. 3. The letter grade given to an exam score is determined not by its relationship to just the high and low scores. and 75th percentile scores. 3. 3. The range can be thought of in two ways . It simultaneously shows the 25th. 2. 1.e. but by its relative position among all the scores. 2. The length of the whiskers indicate visually how extreme the outliers are. along with the minimum and maximum scores. 0. Percentile describes the relative location of points anywhere along the range of a distribution. 7. 2) Percentile range Most students are familiar with the grading scale in which "C" is assigned to average scores. 2.

• Variance in a set of scores on some dependent variable is a baseline for measuring the correlation between two or more variables (the degree to which they are related). taking the square root of the variance "undoes" the squaring of the differences that we did when we calculated the variance. the many non-extreme scores (those closer to the mean) will tend to offset the misleading impact of any extreme scores. especially if the sample is small. For example. a single outlier has greater impact on the size of the variance than does a single score near the mean. etc. these measures are based on a maximum amount of information.25 + 1 = 3.50 + 1 = 0. The box plot displays the median score and shows the range of the distribution as well. Consequently. The standard deviation and variance are the most commonly used measures of dispersion in the social sciences because: • Both take into account the precise difference between each score and the mean. Instead. respectively. Standard deviation is the square root of the variance. respectively.50. we square the terms to obtain a variance equal to 2. If we summed the differences of the mean from each wage. By far the most commonly used measures of dispersion in the social sciences are Variance and standard deviation.50-7) + (7. For example. because variance relies on the squared differences of scores from the mean. Fortunately.box plot's "box" line up with the columns for the quartile scores on the histogram. (You can try it yourself -. especially when there is reason to doubt the reliability of some of the extreme scores. we square the difference between each point and the mean because if we summed the differences directly. respectively. In other words.50. The variance is the minimum sum of squared differences of each score from any number. we would get (5. a researcher might believe that a person who reports watching television an average of 24 hours per day may have misunderstood the question. In some sense. This figure is a measure of dispersion in the set of scores. and $8 per hour.) The standard deviation is simply the square root of the variance. $7.50. if we used any number other than the mean as the value from which each score is subtracted. tons. years.25 + . Variance is the average squared difference of scores from the mean score of a distribution.50 + .50 + 7." These are expressed in terms of empirical units like dollars.50. Standardized Distribution Scores. Just one such extreme score might result in an appreciably larger standard deviation. Variance and standard deviation of a population are designated by and . suppose three friends work on campus and earn $5. since all scores are used in the calculation of variance. the resulting sum of squared differences would be greater. However. The other measures of dispersion we have discussed are based on considerably less information.50-7) + (8-7) = -1. In calculating the variance of data points. 4) Standard Deviation The standard deviation ( or s) and variance ( or s2) are more complete measures of dispersion which take into account every score in a distribution. the result would always be zero. We might say "The . Some statisticians view this property as a shortcoming of variance as a measure of dispersion. The mean of these values is $(5. Variance and standard deviation of a sample are designated by s2 and s.see if any number other than 7 can be plugged into the preceeding calculation and yield a sum of squared differences less than 3. or "Z-Scores" Actual scores from a distribution are commonly known as a "raw scores.50 + 8)/3 = $7 per hour. • The standard deviation is the baseline for defining the concept of standardized score or "z-score".

100) / 15 = 1.232 emirical units (dollars.000 units above the mean might sound very high for someone accustomed to thinking in terms of U. For example. is the population standard deviation. Empirical distributions are not likely to conform perfectly to the normal distribution.S.65 always corresponds to the 95th percentile. expressed in terms of empirical units. We get more information about deviation from the mean when we use the standard deviation measure presented earlier in this tutorial. .Q.Smith family's income is $29. However. Thus. meaning that 95% of the scores lie at or below $69.65.418. we might say something like "The mean household income in the U. In this case. then z-scores do not translate to percentiles in the "normal" way. Thus. the z-score is a relative measure instead of an absolute measure. in this example) from the mean. of 128 would correspond to: = (128 . a score of 90 would correspond to: z = (90 . The z-score is a measure of how many units of standard deviation the raw score is from the mean.100) / 15 = . the standard deviation is $5. For example.67 A positive z-score indicates that the corresponding raw score is above the mean. z-scores do translate to percentiles in a reliable way. specific percentile score. but if the unit is much smaller (such as Italian Lires or Greek Drachmas)." This difference is an absolute deviation of 2.87 For the same distribution.Q.200. then he or she can assume that the data's z-scores approximate the z-scores of the normal distribution as well. A raw score equal to the mean has a z-score of zero (it is zero standard deviations away). For a normal distribution. are there many families that make less money than the Smith family. z-scores can map the raw scores to their percentile scores in the data. If a researcher can assume that a given empirical distribution approximates the normal distribution.500. When we are given an absolute deviation from the mean. and the distribution of the data values approximates the normal distribution. and x is the raw score being converted. When a dataset conforms to a "normal" distribution. The normal distribution is a precisly defined. This is because every individual in the dataset affects value for the standard deviation. In the above example. is the sample mean. Z-scores allow for control across different units of measure.275. each z-score corresponds exactly to known.232 above the Smith family's income. s is the sample standard deviation. Raw scores are converted to standardized z-scores by the following equations: Population zscore Sample z-score where is the population mean. the raw score might be only slightly above average.275 is calculated to have a z-score of 1.0. to the extent that an empirical distribution approximates the normal distribution. If the data distribution is unlike the normal distribution.S.275 is the 95th percentile score in the empirical data. we can assume that $69. is $2. Raw scores expressed in empirical units can be converted to "standardized" scores. it is difficult to tell if the difference is "large" or "small" compared to other members of the data set. dollars. Then an income of $69. called z-scores. suppose the mean of a set of incomes is $60. a z-score of 1. then an I." To compare a raw score to the mean. As an example. A negative z-score represents a raw score that is below the mean. theoretical distribution. Z-scores provide a standardized description of departures from the mean that control for differences in size of empirical units. an income that is 25. or only a few? We were not given enough information to decide. if the mean of a sample of I. scores is 100 and the standard deviation is 15.

It must be so formed that it will be likely to prove valid. but none of the quirks or other puzzling features that we actually find when we study them. It is regarded as an invention for the purpose of explaining the given. if their is an experimental approach or observational study that can be designed to check the outcome of a prediction. display the kind of regularity in . These rules state the main requirements of a good hypothesis. Hypothesis is to determine its nature a little more precisely through an investigation of its rather obscure origin. and writers have formulated various rules to be followed in the formation of hypotheses. scope and testing of hypothesis? Answer: A tentative proposal made to explain certain observations or facts that requires further investigation to be verified. the genius differs from the ordinary plodding mortal in just this ability to form fruitful Hypotheses in the midst of the same facts which to other less gifted individuals remain only so many disconnected experiences. A question can only be use as scientific hypothesis.should be seen through the perspective of an underlying regularity of structure and interpretation that can be revealed only through extended inquiry. the rest must be left to "genius." for which no rule or law can be given. there is no reasonable doubt that a language with a context-free grammar. In respect to the origin of the hypothesis. That is to say." for hypotheses arise as "happy guesses. while its origin has been comparatively neglected. The scope hypothesis We should be surprised that language is as complicated as it is.” in popular terminology --. This prediction can be verified or falsified. This circumstance suggests that the relations between apparent syntactic structure on the one hand and interpretation on the other --the “interface conditions. and are intended to aid in a general way by pointing out certain limits within which it must fall. Indeed. to furnish a method of dealing with things. The function of the hypothesis is to unify. after favorable external conditions have been given. and to call attention to certain features of its function which have not generally been accorded their due significance. at least over a broad domain. together with a transparent inductive characterization of the semantics. would have all of the expressive power of historically given natural languages. writers have usually contented themselves with pointing out the kind of situations in which hypotheses are likely to appear. In fact. and its structure must be suitable to this end. taking into consideration especially comparative data. its structure and function have received considerable attention. advances made especially during the past twenty-five years or so indicate that. Nature of hypothesis N the various discussions of the hypothesis which have appeared in works on inductive logic and in writings on scientific method. The hypothesis has generally been treated as that part of scientific procedure which marks the stage where a definite plan or method is proposed for dealing with new or unexplained facts.define hypothesis-what are the nature. or else underlying those apparent structures. structures either generated from what is (more or less) apparent. But after this has been done. A hypothesis is a formulation of a question that lends itself to a prediction. as a definite conjecture which is to be tested by an appeal to experience to see whether deductions made in accordance with it will be found true in fact.

3. Identify a test statistic that can be used to assess the truth of the null hypothesis. The usual process of hypothesis testing consists of four steps. The smaller the -value. TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS Hypothesis testing refers to the process of using statistical analysis to determine if the observed differences between two or more samples are due to random chance (as stated in the null hypothesis) or to true differences in the samples (as stated in the alternate hypothesis). and those that do so through the information that they provide about the intentional states of the speaker or those the speaker is talking about. As will be seen. DPMO) for two or more populations. that the observations are the result of pure chance) and the alternative hypothesis (commonly. Hypothesis testing is the process of using a variety of statistical tools to analyze data and. If . 2. usually less than 10%.their interface conditions that is familiar to us from the formalized languages. 2 Choose ?. It is important to consider the consequences of both types of errors. which is the probability that a test statistic at least as significant as the one observed would be obtained assuming that the null hypothesis were true. Hypothesis testing is the use of statistics to determine the probability that a given hypothesis is true. finding statistical evidence that the null hypothesis is false allows you to reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternate hypothesis. on the other. the stronger the evidence against the null hypothesis. The alternate hypothesis (Ha) is a statement that the observed difference or relationship between two populations is real and not the result of chance or an error in sampling. Compute the P-value. variance. The value should be small. ultimately. Flow Diagram 1 Identify the null hypothesis H0 and the alternate hypothesis HA. that the observations show a real effect combined with a component of chance variation). A null hypothesis (H0) is a stated assumption that there is no difference in parameters (mean. I will in part support Jaakko Hintikka’s view that the latter distinction involves scope too. The elements that I concentrate upon here are two: the triggering of relative scope (from the interpretive point of view). and the alternative hypothesis is valid. Compare the -value to an acceptable significance value (sometimes called an alpha value). to fail to reject or reject the null hypothesis. 4. but in a more derivative fashion than he has explicitly envisaged. the null hypothesis is ruled out. and the distinction between those elements that contribute to meaning through their contribution to reference and truth conditions. Formulate the null hypothesis (commonly. that the observed effect is statistically significant. 3 Select the test statistic and determine its value from the sample data. Remember that a t statistic is usually . From a practical point of view. on the one hand. This value is called the observed value of the test statistic. 1.

063 6. BOD in the stream One tailed t-test : Upstream Downstream 6. o H0: ?B < ?A o HA: ?B > ?A 2. 4 Compare the observed value of the statistic to the critical value obtained for the chosen ?. Let us use 5% for this example. The owner thinks that. for larger number of samples. If the test statistic falls in the critical region: Reject H0 in favour of HA.321 8.545 6. Practical Example A) One tailed Test An aquaculture farm takes water from a stream and returns it after it has circulated through the fish tanks. a z statistic can work well if data are normally distributed. Choose an ?.879 8. and tests for Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD).628 8.001 1. The observed t value is calculated 4.014 9.448 8. 5 Make a decision.appropriate for a small number of samples.809 8. If BOD increases. To find out if this is true.063 5. 3.849 8. he takes some samples of the water at the intake and other samples downstream the outlet.782 9.405 7.248 7.986 9. since the water circulates rather quickly through the tanks.381 6.822 8. there is little organic matter in the effluent. If the test statistic does not fall in the critical region: Conclude that there is not enough evidence to reject H0. The data for this problem are given in the following table: Table 3.660 6.735 5. it can be said that the effluent contains more organic matter than the stream can handle. and B is the set of samples taken downstream.772 6. The critical t value is obtained according to the degrees of freedom The resulting t test values are shown in this table: . A is the set of samples taken at the intake.

and in which multiple sources of evidence are used (Yin. This introduction to case study research draws upon their work and proposes six steps that should be used: • Determine and define the research questions • Select the cases and determine data gathering and analysis techniques • Prepare to collect the data . Social scientists. Researchers have used the case study research method for many years across a variety of disciplines. Critics of the case study method believe that the study of a small number of cases can offer no grounds for establishing reliability or generality of findings.2124 0. The study examines the issue of whether or not the electronic community network is beneficial in some way to non-profit organizations and what those benefits might be. have made wide use of this qualitative research method to examine contemporary real-life situations and provide the basis for the application of ideas and extension of methods.6874 Variance 0.2988 Observations 10 10 Pooled Variance 0. 23). nonprofit organizations. issues. Answer: Case study research excels at bringing us to an understanding of a complex issue or object and can extend experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research.2556 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0 Degrees of freedom 18 t stat -8. Case studies emphasize detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships. make use of an electronic community network. t-Test : Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances Upstream Downstream Mean 6.9941 P(T The numerical value of the calculated t statistic is higher than the critical t value. Yin have written about case study research and suggested techniques for organizing and conducting the research successfully.Table 4. Helen Simons. Others feel that the intense exposure to study of the case biases the findings. in particular. Researcher Robert K. We therefore reject H0 and conclude that the effluent is polluting the stream. Stake.6539 8. what is a case study method? Briefly explain assumption and major steps in case study method. when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident. and problems. Reports on case studies from many disciplines are widely available in the literature. and Robert K. p. 1984. Many well-known case study researchers such as Robert E. Some dismiss case study research as useful only as an exploratory tool. This paper explains how to use the case study method and then applies the method to an example case study project designed to examine how one set of users. Yin defines the case study research method as an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context. Yet researchers continue to use the case study research method with success in carefully planned and crafted studies of real-life situations.

For example. each case is treated as a single case. social. a person." The questions are targeted to a limited number of events or conditions and their inter-relationships. but each case remains a single case. and early determination of the potential audience for the final report guide how the study will be designed. historical. but a case study can include more than one unit of embedded analysis. Careful definition of the questions at the start pinpoints where to look for evidence and helps determine the methods of analysis to be used in the study. Select the Cases and Determine Data Gathering and Analysis Techniques During the design phase of case study research. an entity. Determine and Define the Research Questions The first step in case study research is to establish a firm research focus to which the researcher can refer over the course of study of a complex phenomenon or object. This review establishes what research has been previously conducted and leads to refined. The researcher investigates the object of the case study in depth using a variety of data gathering methods to produce evidence that leads to understanding of the case and answers the research questions. The research object in a case study is often a program. researchers conduct a literature review. Exemplary case studies carefully select cases and carefully examine the choices available from among many research tools available in order to increase the validity of the study. Step 2. definition of the purpose of the case study.• Collect data in the field • Evaluate and analyze the data • Prepare the report Step 1. a case study may involve study of a single industry and a firm participating in that industry. The researcher must determine whether to study cases which are unique in some way or cases which are considered typical and may also select cases to represent a variety of geographic regions. Selecting multiple or single cases is a key element. a variety of size parameters. or a group of people. The literature review. Each case?s conclusions can then be used as information contributing to the whole study. Each object is likely to be intricately connected to political. insightful questions about the problem. the researcher determines what approaches to use in selecting single or multiple real-life cases to examine in depth and which instruments and data gathering approaches to use. When using multiple cases. conducted. or other parameters. Careful discrimination at the point of selection also helps erect boundaries around the case. providing wide ranging possibilities for questions and adding complexity to the case study. and personal issues. The researcher establishes the focus of the study by forming questions about the situation or problem to be studied and determining a purpose for the study. To assist in targeting and formulating the questions. A useful step in the selection process is to repeatedly refer back to the purpose of the study in order to focus attention on where to look for cases and evidence that will satisfy the purpose of the study and answer the research questions posed. and publicly reported. This type of case study involves two levels of analysis and increases the complexity and amount of . Case study research generally answers one or more questions which begin with "how" or "why.

the more variations in places. The researcher must use the designated data gathering tools systematically and properly in collecting the evidence. observation. accuracy. Throughout the design phase. Reliability refers to the stability. external validity. The program covers protocols for case study research. . and conduct a pilot study in advance of moving into the field in order to remove obvious barriers and problems. people. Exemplary case study design ensures that the procedures used are well documented and can be repeated with the same results over and over again. or lack of office space.data to be gathered and analyzed. and even the collection of physical artifacts. Prepare to Collect the Data Because case study research generates a large amount of data from multiple sources. and methods. and teaches investigators how to properly apply the techniques being used in the study. systematic organization of the data is important to prevent the researcher from becoming overwhelmed by the amount of data and to prevent the researcher from losing sight of the original research purpose and questions. Exemplary case studies prepare good training programs for investigators. Techniques such as cross-case examination and within-case examination along with literature review helps ensure external validity. and precision of measurement. The researcher determines in advance what evidence to gather and what analysis techniques to use with the data to answer the research questions. guidelines for collection of documents. A key strength of the case study method involves using multiple sources and techniques in the data gathering process. and procedures a case study can withstand and still yield the same findings. Researchers prepare databases to assist with categorizing. interviews. documentation review. Step 3. The researcher strives to establish a chain of evidence forward and backward. including time deadlines. and guidelines for field procedures to be used. terminology. Qualifications for investigators also include being able to ask good questions and interpret answers. Construct validity requires the researcher to use the correct measures for the concepts being studied. Investigators need to be flexible in real-life situations and not feel threatened by unexpected change. Data gathered is normally largely qualitative. sorting. formats for narrative reporting and field notes. The program also trains investigators to understand how the gathering of data using multiple techniques strengthens the study by providing opportunities for triangulation during the analysis phase of the study. Tools to collect data can include surveys. The investigator training program covers the basic concepts of the study. storing. but also read between the lines and pursue collaborative evidence elsewhere when that seems appropriate. missed appointments. Advance preparation assists in handling large amounts of data in a documented and systematic fashion. the more external validity. Investigators need to understand the purpose of the study and grasp the issues and must be open to contrary findings. establish clear protocols and procedures in advance of investigator field work. processes. and retrieving data for analysis. internal validity. Good investigators review documents looking for facts. External validity reflects whether or not findings are generalizable beyond the immediate case or cases. and reliability. Internal validity (especially important with explanatory or causal studies) demonstrates that certain conditions lead to other conditions and requires the use of multiple pieces of evidence from multiple sources to uncover convergent lines of inquiry. researchers must ensure that the study is well constructed to ensure construct validity. Investigators need to be good listeners who can hear exactly the words being used by those interviewed. but it may also be quantitative.

Researchers categorize. Case study research is flexible. and tabulating frequency of events. They record testimonies. Researchers need to anticipate key problems and events. identify key people. the researcher remains open to new opportunities and insights. They may warn of impending bias because of the detailed exposure of the client to special attention. Exemplary case studies will deliberately sort the data in many different ways to expose or create new insights and will deliberately look for conflicting data to disconfirm the analysis. repeat interviews may be necessary to gather additional data to verify key observations or check a fact.Investigators must also be aware that they are going into the world of real human beings who may be threatened or unsure of what the case study will bring. and actively seek opportunities to revisit and revise the research design in order to address and add to the original set of research questions. Renegotiation of arrangements with the objects of the study or addition of questions to interviews may be necessary as the study progresses. Researchers use the quantitative data that has been collected to corroborate and support the qualitative data which is most useful for . with its use of multiple data collection methods and analysis techniques. Specific techniques include placing information into arrays. The tactics used in analysis force researchers to move beyond initial impressions to improve the likelihood of accurate and reliable findings. establish rules for confidentiality. and cross-references all evidence so that it can be efficiently recalled for sorting and examination over the course of the study. classifies. Step 5. pose questions. and conduct cross-checks of facts and discrepancies in accounts. Researchers carefully observe the object of the case study and identify causal factors associated with the observed phenomenon. but the researcher documents. they are documented systematically. or give an early signal that a pattern is emerging. Exemplary case studies use field notes and databases to categorize and reference data so that it is readily available for subsequent reinterpretation. The case study method. provides researchers with opportunities to triangulate data in order to strengthen the research findings and conclusions. Collect Data in the Field The researcher must collect and store multiple sources of evidence comprehensively and systematically. and document the work in progress. Evaluate and Analyze the Data The researcher examines raw data using many interpretations in order to find linkages between the research object and the outcomes with reference to the original research questions. 4. and recombine data to address the initial propositions or purpose of the study. Field notes should be kept separate from the data being collected and stored for analysis. the final advance preparation step is to select a pilot site and conduct a pilot test using each data gathering method so that problematic areas can be uncovered and corrected. Field notes record feelings and intuitive hunches. The researcher may enter some data into a database and physically store other data. creating flow charts or other displays. After investigators are trained. Throughout the evaluation and analysis process. Maintaining the relationship between the issue and the evidence is mandatory. prepare letters of introduction. They assist in determining whether or not the inquiry needs to be reformulated or redefined based on what is being observed. stories. and illustrations which can be used in later reports. short. Focused. tabulate. creating matrices of categories. but when changes are made. in formats that can be referenced and sorted so that converging lines of inquiry and patterns can be uncovered.

Researchers pay particular attention to displaying sufficient evidence to gain the reader?s confidence that all avenues have been explored. Prepare the report Exemplary case studies report the data in a way that transforms a complex issue into one that can be understood. and produce large amounts of data for analysis. allowing the reader to question and examine the study and reach an understanding independent of the researcher. One researcher then examines the data of that type thoroughly. to produce new theory. to provide a basis to apply solutions to situations. confidence in the findings increases. or to describe an object or phenomenon. Based on the comments. Step 6. and giving special attention to conflicting propositions. contemporary. During the report preparation process. the researcher rewrites and makes revisions. to dispute or challenge theory. the cross-case search for patterns. cause the researchers to pry more deeply. Techniques for composing the report can include handling each case as a separate chapter or treating the case as a chronological recounting. The advantages of the case study method are its applicability to real-life. When a pattern from one data type is corroborated by the evidence from another. on the other hand. Conflicting perceptions. clearly communicating the boundaries of the case. Cross-case analysis divides the data by type across all cases investigated. to explain a situation. researchers critically examine the document looking for ways the report is incomplete. The goal of the written report is to portray a complex problem in a way that conveys a vicarious experience to the reader. may include multiple cases within a study. Another technique is to use multiple investigators to gain the advantage provided when a variety of perspectives and insights examine the data and the patterns. human situations and its public accessibility through written reports. Case studies are complex because they generally involve multiple sources of data. the finding is stronger. the researcher treats the evidence fairly to produce analytic conclusions answering the original "how" and "why" research questions. When evidence conflicts. Some case study researchers suggest that the document review audience include a journalist and some suggest that the documents should be reviewed by the participants in the study. Case study results relate directly to the common reader’s everyday experience and facilitate an understanding of complex real-life situations. Case studies present data in very publicly accessible ways and may lead the reader to apply the experience in his or her own real-life situation. When the multiple observations converge. The importance assumptions are explained below .understanding the rationale or theory underlying relationships. deeper probing of the differences is necessary to identify the cause or source of conflict. ASSUMPTION OF CASE STUDY METHOD The case study method is based on several assumptions. The researcher uses representative audience groups to review and comment on the draft document. Some researchers report the case study as a story. In all cases. Researchers from many disciplines use the case study method to build upon theory. keeps investigators from reaching premature conclusions by requiring that investigators look at the data in many different ways. to explore. Another technique.

. IV. III. VII. information and materials. It gives the background for the study Comprehensive study The assumption of comprehensive study of the unit concerned Applicability Psychologist has stated that some statement about human broadly apply to each individual or to each member of a large group. Nature history of the unit The assumption of studying the natural history of the unit concerned. VIII. Major steps of case study method: I. Develop interview protocol (key questions for various informants) and further information to collect. primary focus. This will evolve further. reports and other appropriate materials. Identify the case topic. Homogeneity According to cora dubois. minutes. Consider varied perspective and sources of information and pedagogical purpose of the case. Obtain relevant public background materials and knowledgeable informant insights. setting. V.Uniformity of human nature The assumption of uniformity in the basic human nature in spite of the fact that human behavior may vary according to situations. II. Develop preliminary chronology of key events leading to controversy or decision and identify key players and issues.an antraopologist. and perspective. Obtain relevant documents. approval. and clarify anonymity issues with key gatekeeper. Conduct interviews and collect other documents. This assumption underlines the collection of case data. the case study is possible only because of certain basic homogeneity or similarity in evidenced in the mankind. VI. Obtain access.

published or unpublishedwhich can be extracted and used in research. letters. Row and column headings must explain the figures therein. societies. assemblies and parliaments. X. Obtain comment and feedback from key gatekeeper (and other students). Develop case outline and style of presentation. cases or company directors reports etc. 5. 3. They may include autobiographical. 2. newspapers editorials. highlighting important details. special articles. The table number and title of the table should be given.committees. reports of surveys or research of commissions. presentation and interpretation of the information. Documents may be classified into 1) Personal documents: personal documents are those are written by or on behalf of individuals. it may comprises office files. Draft case.IX. Personal documents play a very vital role in research. 2) Company documents 3) Consultants report and published materials and 4) Public documents b) sources and tabulations It is the process of condensation of the data for convenience. It should present the data clearly. It should save space but attractively designed. biographies. documentation is the process of collecting and extracting the documents which relevant research.+ 4. files or diaries. business and legal papers. in statistical processing. which are primarily written for the use and satisfaction of individuals and which can be utilized for research purposes. It is very valuable source of information for research either in management or in social science. Averages or percentages should be close to the data. company news. enactments. official and unofficial records. A good table is one which has the following requirements : 1. . biographies diaries memories letters observations and inscriptions. proceedings of any courts . Revise and finalize the case Documentation: The documentary sources are important sources of information for a researcher. official statistics. constitution. A document is anything in writing – a record.

According to attributes or qualities this is divided into two parts : (A) Simple classification (B) Multiple classification. C. 9. B. In case irregularities creep in table or any feature is not sufficiently explained. Qualitative Classification : When facts are grouped according to the qualities (attributes) like religion.. Then using the remaining qualities. classify these items .. "Classified and arranged facts speak of themselves. The rounding of figures should be unbiased.. Hicks. literacy. and narrated they are as dead as mutton" This quote is given by J. 2. Qualities are denoted by capital letters (A.. (A) Simple Classification : It is also known as classification according to Dichotomy. the population of a country is classified using three attributes: sex.6... is called a classification. c. the data is divided into different subgroups. According to variable or quantity or classification according to class intervals. For a final analysis it is the best friend of a statistician.) while the absence of these qualities are denoted by lower case letters (a. Units of the measurement should be clearly stated along the titles or headings. business etc. Sources of the data should be given at the bottom of the data. 10. classes) which are homogeneous within but heterogeneous between themselves. the data is divided into two groups (classes) using one of the qualities. b. the classification is called as qualitative classification. d. c) Classification and tabulation The data is classified in the following ways : 1. 7.) (B) Manifold or multiple classification : In this method data is classified using one or more qualities.. Abbreviations and symbols should be avoided as far as possible. D . While forming class-intervals one should bear in mind that each and every item must be covered. First. etc. literacy and business Classification according to class intervals or variables : The data which is expressed in numbers (quantitative data).R. references and foot notes must be given. After finding the least value of an item and the highest value of an item. The process of dividing the data into different groups ( viz. the classification is called as 'Simple Classification'. . is classified according to class-intervals.. 8. When data (facts) are divided into groups according to their qualities.. It helps in understanding the salient features of the data and also the comparison with similar data. For example.

MR is especially interested in new data sources. achieve a reasonable transfer of research results to management practice in several contexts. All types of empirical methods -quantitative. organization theory. However. The management and organization contributions present in MR articles can also be grounded in the basic social disciplines of economics. and Spain/Portugal. MR is open to a variety of perspectives. If it were so then the object of summarization would be defeated. classes should be exhaustive. Manuscripts will be considered for publication with the understanding that their contents are not under consideration for publication elsewhere. management and organizations. theoretical or measurement oriented. For example if in any data the age of 100 persons ranging from 2 years to 47 years In deciding on the grouping of the data into classes. from any perspective relevant to the field and from any country. That includes models that test new theory and expand our sample pools by including alternative approaches to sampling and measurement and samples drawn from non-traditional sources (e. so that no observed value falls in more than one class. The number of classes should also not be too small because then we will miss a great deal of detail available and get a distorted picture. MR encourages the interplay between theorizing the empirical research in the belief that they should be mutually informative. or sociology. we observe that the number of classes should not be too large. organizational behavior. consequently. all classes should have the same length. Articles can be empirical. MR is especially dedicated to foster the general advancement of management scholarship among iberoamerican scholars and/or those academics interested in iberoamerican issues. Prior .. qualitative or combinationsare acceptable. Iberoamerica is defined broadly to include all of Latin America. Latino populations in North America. and the examination of the validity and reliability of such samples. Apart from exceptions. as well. f) Scope of managerial research: Management Research (MR) is an international journal dedicated to advancing the understanding of management in private and public sector organizations through empirical investigation and theoretical analysis. from iberoamerican firms). MR publishes only original research as articles or research notes. MR attempts to provide an international dialogue between researchers and thereby improve the understanding of the nature of management in different settings and. As a rule one should have between 10 and 25 classes. psychology. This is reflected by its international editorial board and publisher and its sponsorship by the Iberoamerican Academy of Management. corporate governance. Conceptual articles should provide new theoretical insights that can advance our understanding of management and organizations. MR intends to become a supranational journal which gives special attention to national and cultural similarities and differences world-wide. Empirical articles should have well-articulated and strong theoretical foundations. including those that seek to improve the effectiveness of.into different class-intervals. MR is receptive to research across a broad range of management topics such as human resource management. Further.g. they should not be overlapping. MR is a multidisciplinary outlet open to contributions of high quality. as those critical of. strategic management. submissions are encouraged from all management scholars regardless of ethnicity or national origin and manuscripts should not be limited to themes dealing with iberoamerican populations. for the purpose of reducing it to a manageable form. the actual number depending on the total frequency. and managerial economics.

.presentation at conference or concurrent consideration for presentation at a conference does not disqualify a manuscript from consideration by MR.

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