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1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background 1.1.1. Energy crisis and role of renewable energy The energy is required for various purposes such as transportation, lighting and industries. Presently, non-renewable energy source such as fossil fuel and renewable energy source like hydropower are used to meet the energy requirement. Higher needs and excess demand cause the production of mechanical tools, equipments and machines to increase sophisticatedly causing rapid increase in the industrialization process thus results in what called energy crisis. The point of concern is that the use of this limited fossil fuel which is not sufficiently available with the geography, if deteriorated; the alternative option has to be investigated. Moreover, today's climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental concern, alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. The alternative sources of energy in use are biomass, nuclear power and solar power. As biomass cannot supply larger energy demand, nuclear power generates harmful radioactive rays; solar power is a potential solution and best options for the production of real, clean and non-hazardous natural energy. Solar energy is naturally distributed throughout the earth surface. More solar energy hits the earth in one hour than all the energy the world consumes in a year. So to solve the energy crisis the solar power could be the best option. The solar energy is commonly applicable for the purpose of heating and generation of electricity.
1.1.2. Earth movement Earth Rotation and Revolution Earth rotation refers to the spinning of our planet on its axis. Because of rotation, the Earth's surface moves at the equator at a speed of about 467 m per second or slightly over 1675 km per hour.
Figure 1.1: The movement of the Earth about its axis One rotation takes exactly twenty-four hours and is called a mean solar day. The Earth’s rotation is responsible for the daily cycles of day and night. At any one moment in time, one half of the Earth is in sunlight, while the other half is in darkness. The edge dividing the daylight from night is called the circle of illumination. The Earth’s rotation also creates the apparent movement of the Sun across the horizon.
Figure 1.2: Annual change in the position of the Earth in its revolution. The movement of the Earth around the Sun is called an Earth revolution. This celestial motion takes 365.26 days to complete one cycle. Further, the Earth's orbit around the Sun is not circular, but oval or elliptical (see Figure 1.2). An elliptical orbit causes the Earth's distance from the Sun to vary over a year. Yet, this phenomenon is not responsible for the Earth’s seasons. This variation in the distance from the Sun causes the amount of solar radiation received by the Earth to annually vary by about 6%. Figure 1.2 illustrates the positions in the Earth’s revolution where it is closest and farthest from the Sun. On January 3, perihelion, the Earth is closest to the Sun (147.3 million km). The Earth is farthest from the Sun on July 4, or aphelion (152.1 million km). The average distance of the Earth from the Sun over a one-year period is about 149.6 million km. 1.2. Presently used solar panel mechanism Due to the nature of solar energy, two components are required to have a functional solar energy generator. These two components are a collector and a storage unit. The collector simply collects the radiation that falls on it and converts a fraction of it to other forms of energy (either electricity and heat or heat alone). The storage unit is required because of the non-constant nature of solar energy; at certain times only a very small amount of radiation will be received. At night or during heavy cloud cover, for example, the amount
of energy produced by the collector will be quite small. The storage unit can hold the excess energy produced during the periods of maximum productivity, and release it when the productivity drops. In practice, a backup power supply is usually added, too, for the situations when the amount of energy required is greater than both what is being produced and what is stored in the container. Methods of collecting and storing solar energy vary depending on the uses planned for the solar generator. In general, there are three types of collectors and many forms of storage units. The three types of collectors are flat-plate collectors, focusing collectors, and passive collectors. Flat-plate collectors are more commonly used type of collector today. They are arrays of solar panels arranged in a simple plane. Focusing collectors are essentially flat-plane collectors with optical devices arranged to maximize the radiation falling on the focus of the collector. Passive collectors are completely different from the other two types of collectors. The passive collectors absorb radiation and convert it to heat naturally, without being designed and built to do so. All objects have this property to some extent, but only some objects (like walls) will be able to produce enough heat to make it worthwhile. People use energy for many things, but a few general tasks consume most of the energy. These tasks include transportation, heating, cooling, and the generation of electricity. Solar energy can be applied to all four of these tasks with different levels of success. 1.3 Existing system of solar tracker Global warming has increased the demand and request for green energy produced by renewable sources like wind power, solar power, hydroelectricity and biomass. Producing electricity by using solar cells (also called photovoltaic) is a fast growing business. To keep up with other green energies, the solar cell market has to be as efficient as possible in order not to lose market shares on the global energy marketplace. There are three main ways to make the solar cells more efficient, one is to develop the solar cell material and make the panels even more efficient and another way is to optimize the output by
Increased efficiency will give the owner of the solar panel (producer of energy) more money as the payment is based on how much energy the panel can produce.5 installing the solar panels on a tracking base that follows the sun and the last one is to use the concentrator. and many work without any tracking at all. of varying costs. at the cost of additional system complexity. Solar powered equipment works best when pointed at or near the sun. The sun's position in the sky varies both with the seasons (elevation) and time of day as the sun moves across the sky. Actually. so a solar tracker can increase the effectiveness of such equipment over any fixed position. especially in solar cell applications. Near to equator. Non-concentrating applications require less accuracy. tracking can substantially improve both the amount of total power produced by a system and that produced during critical system demand periods. it will have the highest benefit of tracking the sun. and they keep the same output The return of the investment timeline is reduced Tracking the sun from east in the morning to west in the evening will increase the efficiency of the solar panel by 20-62% depending on position. which is at (or near) the focal point of the reflector or lens. The use of trackers in non-concentrating applications is usually an engineering decision . sophistication. However. The end-user will prefer the tracking solution rather than a fixed ground system to increase their earnings because: • • • The efficiency increases by 30-40% The space requirement for a solar park is reduced. a solar tracker is a device for orienting a solar photovoltaic panel or concentrating solar reflector or lens toward the sun. The required accuracy of the solar tracker depends on the application. and performance. require a high degree of accuracy to ensure that the concentrated sunlight is directed precisely to the powered device. Concentrators. There are many types of solar trackers.
hence the name polar.3. Such trackers may also be referred to as a "single-axis tracker". and the angle between this axis and the vertical should be equal to latitude. as production at this time will match the peak demand time for summer season air-conditioning. Single axis trackers usually use a polar mount for maximum solar efficiency. Polar Polar trackers have one axis aligned to be roughly parallel to the axis of rotation of the earth around the north and south poles-. a single axis tracker increases annual output by approximately 30% and a dual axis tracker an additional 6%. Single axis trackers will usually have a manual elevation (axis tilt) adjustment on a second axis which is adjusted on regular intervals throughout the year. since strong afternoon performance is particularly desirable for grid-tied photovoltaic systems.6 based on economics. depending upon manufacturer. Tracker mount types Solar trackers may be single axis or dual axis. The axis of the tube is on a North-South line. Panels are mounted upon the tube. A fixed system oriented to optimize this limited time performance will have a relatively low annual production. 1. This makes them especially effective for photovoltaic systems using high-efficiency (and thus expensive) panels. Horizontal axle Single axis horizontal trackers may be oriented by either passive or active mechanisms. a long horizontal tube is supported on bearings mounted upon pylons or frames. but add a substantial amount of productivity during the spring and summer seasons when the solar path is high in the sky.1. The polar axis should be angled towards due north. trackers can be inexpensive. Compared to photovoltaic. Compared to a fixed mount. In these. and the tube will rotate on its axis to track the apparent motion of the sun through the day. Since these do not tilt toward the equator they are not especially effective during winter mid day. . Single axis tracking is often used when combined with time-of-use metering. because only one drive mechanism is needed for daily operation.
One axis of support is vertical (called the altitude) and allows the device to move up and down. One axis is a vertical pivot shaft or horizontal ring mount that allows the device to be swung to a compass point. or tracked elevation angle. The second axis is a horizontal elevation pivot mounted upon the azimuth platform. tracking an object as the Earth turns is more complicated. or may use a tracking sensor to control motor drives that orient the panels toward the sun. this mount is also becoming popular owing to its structural simplicity and compact dimensions.3. Such systems may be operated under computer control according to the expected solar orientation.2. However. adjustable. 1. The other axis is horizontal (called the azimuth) and allows the device to swing in a circle parallel to the ground. any location in the upward hemisphere may be pointed. with the sun traveling through a long arc.2. By using combinations of the two axes. Electronic Drive Type Sensor based electronic trackers . at a fixed.3. Drive types 1. This makes it easy to position the device: swing it around in a circle and then lift it to the target. The device needs to be adjusted in both directions while tracking. but which leads to long days in summer. where the apparent solar path is not especially high. which requires a computer or microcontroller to control the device. Two-axis mount Restricted to active trackers.1. with the panels either vertical.7 Vertical axle A single axis tracker may be constructed that pivots only about a vertical axle. Altitude-azimuth A type of mounting that supports the weight of the solar tracker and allows it to move in two directions to locate a specific target. Such trackers with fixed or (seasonably) adjustable angles are suitable for high latitudes.
Light-sensing trackers typically have photo sensors. A chronological tracker is a very simple yet potentially a very accurate solar tracker specifically for use with a polar mount. Since the motors consume energy. with a real time clock that is used to infer the "solar time" (hour angle). Tracking adjustments can be made incrementally or continuously. Actually the rates aren't quite equal. 1. such as photodiodes. Also.8 Sensor based electronic trackers use motors and gear trains to direct the tracker as commanded by an electronic controller responding to the solar direction. configured differentially so that they output a null when receiving the same light flux. Mechanically. This is also true when there is not enough difference in light level from one direction to another. Chronological tracker A chronological tracker counteracts the Earth's rotation by turning at an equal rate as the earth. it is moved in discrete steps. such as when clouds are passing overhead.3. because as the earth goes around the sun.2. assuming there is enough clearance for a complete rotation. the position of the sun changes with respect to the earth by 360° every year or 365. they should be omni-directional and apart. if the light is below some threshold there would not be enough power generated to warrant reorientation. such as with a solar concentrator or the tracker may be reset each day to avoid these issues. Consideration must be made to keep the tracker from wasting energy during cloudy periods.24 days. Mechanical drive type Mechanical trackers use a low boiling point compressed gas fluid that is driven to one side or the other (by solar heat creating gas pressure) to cause the tracker to move in response to an imbalance. So instead of a continuous motion. but in the opposite direction. As this is a non-precision orientation it is unsuitable for certain . an electronic controller may be used. The drive method may be as simple as a gear motor that rotates at a very slow average rate of one revolution per day (15 degrees per hour). Alternatively. one wants to use them only as necessary. and assuming that twisting wires are not an issue.2. In theory the tracker may rotate completely.
4. which can take nearly an hour. 1. Introduction to solar efficiency maximizer with sun path tracking system. Solar efficiency maximizer with sun path tracking is a special type of system for tracking the position of the sun as it moves. The compared intensity is fed to microcontroller in digital format which is then decided by the program on microcontroller to rotate the panel.9 types of concentrating photovoltaic collectors but works fine for common PV panel types. For sensing the movement of sun. CASE STUDY Our project team members felt the necessity of field visit for the purpose of inspecting the feasibility of our project.. It uses dual axis tracking system. . During this process. Mahankal and Himchuli Energy Pvt.1. arrays of photodiodes are used with various positioning. Balaju. Feature of solar efficiency maximize with sun path tracking • • • • Increase Solar Panel Output Maximize Power per unit Area Provide Educational Demonstration of Renewable Energy Useful for surveying for placement of large solar panels 2. Ltd. a supervisor of ours suggested us to make a study on the related topic and accordingly a visit was made to the Bright Energy Pvt.4. Ltd. 1. Reflectors are used to reflect early morning sunlight to heat the panel and tilt it toward the sun.
Existing system We focused our study on the equipments and technology used in the company for sale which was most suitable to our work. Figure 2. The PV panel system used there was a fixed flat panel system i. since PV panel are expensive. There is a chance of improving the total output of the system with some modification. The panel worked on the principle of photoelectric effect.e.The amount of light effect the production of electricity. We found a PV panel system in application. Among various solutions. like using concentrator. Analysis and improvement The PV panel system for the energy generation purpose was less efficient. Due to energy crisis there is more energy demand so we were compelled to think the way to improve the efficiency of the system so that more energy could be collected without adding extra PV panel. it could not follow the path of the sun. The energy produced by the panel was directly proportional to the intensity and amount of light it receives.1 Power curve of solar tracker . 2. From the analysis we found that the output of solar panel could be increased 20% to 60% of the total output compared to fixed panel. using mechanical tracker and other solutions. The panel presently used could not utilize the solar power properly and we believed that the efficiency of the panel could be improved.2.1. we prefer to use dual axis solar tracker that efficiently increase the output performance. The following graph shows the analysis that we did. When light falls on the solar cell it converts the light to electricity .10 2.
which showed that the price of tracking system was negligible compared to costly solar panel .The panel cost 5 or more times expensive than the tracking system. 2.1. 3.11 We also did the cost analysis. The use of powerful stepper motors with smooth gear system and the light sensors in the solar panel could make same process and technology efficient and successful.We designed it using sustainable technology. So adding a tracking system was beneficial. BLOCK DIAGRAM 3. The imported tracking system is costly . General block diagram The light sensors.3. comparator and microcontroller are the major components for the electronic design. Decision Visit to the two companies and the study of the system based there was influencing factor for our project team members to act immediately on the project. . We concluded that dual axis tracking system with light sensor will be the best solution to implement for the purpose of tracking sun path.
Array of Photo diode 3. Microcontroller then. The first component in the diagram is the transducer.2. The outputs of the transducer are fed to comparator which gives certain logic to the microcontroller. Transducer detects the varying intensity of Sun light. Detail block diagram LM 324 Sun Light Stepper motor 1 Solar panel Stepper motor 2 ULN 2003 ULN 2003 Microcontro ller AT89C51 . Finally. the processed logic from the microcontroller is used to rotate the motors which in turn rotate the Solar Panel.1: General Block Diagram The figure 3.1 shows the general block diagram of the device. as per the programs installed to it.12 Figure 3. processes the logic from the comparator.
Four are placed at the reference ground and two are moving with the panel.The light from one of the four directions fall at one sensor at one time except at noon.This current is enough to trigger the Darlington array pairs which can create high voltage and .2 Detail Block Diagram Array of photo diodes: These array acts as transducer which senses the light from the sun.The photodiode act as a high resistance which drops when light falls and change the current flow in resistor which changes the input to comparator. Driver (ULN 2003): The stepper motor cannot be directly driven by microcontroller as the output current from microcontroller is around 1mA to 2 mA and voltage is 5V. It is the main module that provides the logic for the microcontroller to decide which way the motor should be driven. There are total six photodiode that are implemented here. The array was placed with special mechanism which could limit the exposure to light at certain times . Microcontroller: It is the main deciding unit that directs the output according to input.It can also monitor the movement according to the information from the sensor. The program in it checks the input and provides the logic to rotate or stop the motor . The comparator compares the two input to it and gives the output with respect to the reference input.13 Figure 3. Comparator (LM 324): The comparator was used to analyze the output from the sensor .
4.1. COMPONENT DESCRIPTION 4.1. Electronics component 4. Regulator .14 current from another source. Stepper Motor: The stepper motor converts the electrical signal from the microcontroller to mechanical movement which moves the panel. The movement of panel changes the input to microcontroller and the motion is adjusted so as to track the sun. Power module 4. The ULN 2003 is suitable Darlington array pair that drives the stepper motor.1. It moves in discrete steps which is more accurate than other motor. The movement of panel needs precise steps and it is provided by the motion of stepper motor. The stepper motor is the digital version of the motor.1. Two stepper motor are used one for horizontal and another vertical movement.1.1.
Temperature stability is the change in output voltage for a change in temperature and is expressed as part per million (ppm/c). switching regulators and special regulators. extending from the simple to the very complex. It is the simplest of semiconductors but play a very vital role in the electronic systems. Diode The first electronic device be introduced is the diode. load regulation. A voltage can provide positive and negative output voltage. Ripple reflection is a measure of regulator’s ability to reject ripple voltages. Smaller the values of line regulation. the better the regulator. 4.15 A voltage regulator is a circuit that supplies a constant voltage regardless of the changes in load current.1. Line or input regulation is defined as the change in the output voltage for a change in input voltage and usually expressed as percentage of output voltageV0. the very important data and graphics to be found on specifications sheets will also be converted to ensure an understanding of the terminology employed and to demonstrate the wealth of information typically available from manufactures. with its characteristics that closely match those of a simple switch. Load regulation and temperature stability.2. . In addition to the details of its constructions and characteristics. There are fixed output voltage regulators. It will appear in a range of applications. The typical performance for voltage regulators are line regulation.1. adjustable output voltage regulators. and ripple rejection. It is usually expressed in decibel. temperature stability.
Semiconductor diode: The semiconductor diodes are those types of the diodes that is formed by simply bringing the n-type and p-type materials together. 4. But both use the same basic principles and components. Lead acid battery is also found as “Wet Cell” and “Dry Cell” or “Maintenance free Cell”. Electrodes 2. The region of uncovered positive and negative ions is called the depletion region due to the depletion of carriers in region. a diode will conduct current in the direction define by arrow in the symbol and act like an open circuit to any attempt to establish current in the opposite direction.2. Separations and 3. Lead acid battery Lead acid battery is a widely used chargeable battery where high values of load current are necessary.16 Ideally. As we know that battery contains of number of cells and each cell consists of: 1.1.3. The characteristics of an ideal diode are those of a switch that can conduct current in only one direction. 4.1. the lead-acid cell is the type most commonly used.1. At the instant the two materials are joined the electrons and holes in the region of the junction will combine resulting in a lack of carriers in the region near the junction. Electrolyte. System module .
Holding RESET active forces the SPI bus into a serial programming interface and allows the program memory to be written to or read from unless Lock Bit 2 has been activated.1. the AT89C51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Power-down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next The Downloadable Flash can be changed a single byte at a time and is accessible through the SPI serial interface. The AT89C51 provides the following standard features: 4Kbytes of Flash. 32 I/O lines. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Downloadable Flash on a monolithic chip. The onchip Downloadable Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system through an SPI serial interface or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. wide-voltage range.17 4. Microcontroller (AT89C51) The AT89C51 is a low-power. 128 bytes of RAM.2. the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications. a full duplex serial port. timer/counters. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 8K bytes of Downloadable Flash programmable and erasable read only memory.1. Pin Configuration: . two 16-bit timer/counters. a five vector two-level interrupt architecture. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard MCS51 instruction set and pin out. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM. In addition. serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry.
The supply voltage is +5V. Port 0 is an 8-bit open-drain bi-directional I/O port.e. the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes.. Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special feature of the AT89C51.18 Figure 4.e. Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups.. i. Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins. Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external . In normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency. Port 0 may also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. Pin 30 is Address Latch Enable outputs pulses for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. 4 ports. Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current because of the internal pull-ups.3: Pin Configuration of AT89C51 Pin Description: This is a 40 pin chip. A high on the Reset (RST) input pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. program counter will be loaded with #00h program execution address. As inputs. This has 32 I/O lines i. Pin 29. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs.
1. When the AT89C51 is executing code from external program memory. EA will be internally latched on reset. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. PSEN. There are usually several steps in getting electrical signals compared to one another which gives the values of these variables and convert it into suitable logic as digital signals so that the microcomputer can work with. Comparator In order to control the machines in electronics factory. XTAL2 is the output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. LM 324 The LM324 series consists of four independent. for parts that require 12-volt VPP.1. XTAL1 is the input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and inputs to the internal clock operating circuit. we need to determine the values of variables such as pressure. or automobiles with microcomputers.2. The first step involves a sensor. medical instruments. Operation from split power supplies is also possible and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage. 4. except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. 4. The electrical signals from most sensors are quite small. active low.2. and flow.1. temperature. if lock bit 1 is programmed. temperature. This is usually done with some type of operational amplifier (op-amp) circuit. or other variable to a proportional voltage or current.2. so they must next be amplified. Pin 31 is External Access Enable. which converts the physical pressure.19 program memory. . This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (V PP) during Flash programming. filtered or compared. is activated twice each machine cycle. internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers which are designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages.2. high gain. However.
1. For example.5V to ±16V • Very low supply current drain (700 µA)-essentially independent of supply voltage • Low input biasing current 45 nA (temperature compensated) • Low input offset voltage 2 mV and offset current: 5 nA • Input common-mode voltage range includes ground • Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage • Large output voltage swing 0V to V+ . DC gain blocks and all the conventional op amp circuits which now can be more easily implemented in single power supply systems. Its feature includes: • Internally frequency compensated for unity gain • Large DC voltage gain 100 dB • Wide bandwidth (unity gain) 1 MHz (temperature compensated) • Wide power supply range: Single supply 3V to 32V or dual supplies ±1.4.20 Figure 4.5V . the LM324 series can be directly operated off of the standard +5V power supply voltage which is used in digital systems and will easily provide the required interface electronics without requiring the additional ±15V power supplies. Connection Diagram of LM324 Application areas include transducer amplifiers.
The term photodiode can be broadly defined to include even solar batteries.21 4. but it usually refers to sensors used to detect the intensity of light. color and presence of light.1. Photodiode type 2.2.3. PIN photodiode 4. position. Schottky type photodiode 5. Photo diode Photodiodes are semiconductor light sensors that generate a current or voltage when the P-N junction in the semiconductor is illuminated by light. Features of photodiode: • • • • • • Excellent linearity with respect to incident light Low noise Wide spectral response Mechanically rugged Compact and lightweight Long life . Photodiodes can be classified by function and construction as follows: 1. PN photodiode 3. APD All of these types provide the following features and are widely used for the detection of the intensity.
If an external circuit is connected between the P. depletion layer and Nlayer materials.g. (See Figure 4.and P-layers. and collected in the P-layer valence band. When light strikes a photodiode. and holes will flow away from the P-layer toward the opposite respective electrodes. These electrons and holes generating a current flow in a semiconductor are called the carriers. In the depletion layer the electric field accelerates these electrons toward the N-layer and the holes toward the P-layer. the electron within the crystal structure becomes stimulated. substrate N-layer and bottom N+-layer as well as the doping concentration. The holes at this time are being diffused through the Nlayer up to the depletion layer while being accelerated. . along with electrons that have arrived from the P-layer. leaving holes in their place in the valence band.and N-layers is known as the depletion layer. This results in a positive charge in the P-layer and a negative charge in the N-layer. are left in the N-layer conduction band. the electrons. electrons will flow away from the N-layer. to a thickness of approximately 1 µm or less and the neutral region at the junction between the P.and N-layers. By controlling the thickness of the outer P-layer. The usual P-layer for a Si-photodiode is formed by selective diffusion of boron.22 Principle of operation Figure 4. In this manner.6) These electron-hole pairs occur throughout the P-layer. the electrons are pulled up into the conduction band. The P-layer material at the active surface and the N material at the substrate form a PN junction which operates as a photoelectric converter. If the light energy is greater than the band gap energy E. the spectral response and frequency response can be controlled.. Of the electron-hole pairs generated in the N-layer. electron-hole pairs which are generated in proportion to the amount of incident light are collected in the N.5 shows a cross section of a photodiode.
Figure 4. Photodiode equivalent circuit IL: Current generated by the incident light (proportional to the amount of light) .7.7. Photodiode cross section Figure 22.214.171.124 Figure 4. Photodiode P-N junction state Equivalent circuit An equivalent circuit of a photodiode is shown in Figure 4.
can take less space than two individual transistors because they can use a shared collector.2.4.4. in the case of integrated devices. We had to use eight outputs to drive the stepper motor from the microcontroller which required eight Darlington pairs.24 ID: Diode current Cj: Junction capacitance Rsh: Shunt resistance Rs: Series resistance I’: Shunt resistance current VD: Voltage across the diode Io: Output current Vo: Output voltage 4. 4.2. ULN 2003 .1. This configuration gives a much higher current gain than each transistor taken separately and.1. So we preferred to use ULN2003.1. Darlington array pair Darlington transistor (Darlington pair) is a compound structure consisting of two bipolar transistors (either integrated or separated devices) connected in such a way that the current amplified by the first transistor is amplified further by the second one.
Applications include relay drivers. The Darlington pairs may be paralleled for higher current capability. It consists of seven NPN Darlington pairs that feature high-voltage outputs with common-cathode clamp diode for switching inductive loads. line drivers. Features: • • • • 500mA rated collector current(Single output) High-voltage outputs: 50V Inputs compatible with various types of logic. and logic buffers. lamp drivers. hammer drivers.2. The ULN2003 has a 126.96.36.199k series base resistor for each Darlington pair for operation directly with TTL or 5V CMOS devices. display drivers (LED gas discharge). Pin Configuration The ULN2003 is a monolithic high voltage and high current Darlington transistor arrays.25 Figure 4. A Driver of ULN 2003 Figure 4. The collector-current rating of a single Darlington pair is 500mA. Relay or motor driver application 4. Mechanical structure .
Mechanical design We have used two stepper motors for the movement of the solar panel.10. one for vertical movement and another for horizontal movement. .26 The mechanical components used in design are: • • • • • Solar Panel Aluminum and Iron bar Stepper Motor Nuts and Bolts Wheels Figure.4.
The solar Panel is faced directly towards the sun and it is attached to the stepper motor to track the vertical motion of the Sun. 4. The basic structure of the design is made using aluminum metal as frame and metal bars with ply-wood as base.3. Permanent magnet.3. good holding torque. Unipolar motors have two windings with each having a center tap as shown in Figure 4. Stepper motor Stepper motors are commonly used for precision positioning control applications. We have used the aluminum metal bar to support the Panel because it is being cheap and light weight. Permanent magnet motors may be wound either with unipolar or bipolar windings. have open loop positioning capability. Variable reluctance and 3. The arrangement of windings on the stator is the main distinguishing factor between the three types. There are three types of stepper motors: 1. The load of the panel is transferred to the four wheels which play on their axis under the movement of the stepper motor. Electromechanical component 4. they are brushless.11 . discussion will be limited to this type of stepper motor.27 The solar Panel is used for making 'stand alone device'. As such. Namely. 2. All stepper motors possess five common characteristics which make them ideal for this application. Hybrid. load independent.1. and excellent response characteristics. The tracker uses a unipolar step motor.
1. Figure 4.11. Step 1 # 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Winding Winding Winding 1 0 0 1a 2a 1b 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 Table 4. in a sequence as shown in Table 4. Half-Step Drive Sequence Winding 1 2b 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 . Standard Drive Sequence The motor may also be half-stepped. then two coils. then one coil.2. Step 1 # 2 3 4 Winding Winding Winding Winding 1 0 0 1 1a 2a 1b 2b 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 Table 4. Half-stepping is achieved by first energizing one coil.11.1.. shows a 4-phase motor.2. The number of phases is equal to two times the number of coils. The motor is rotated by applying power to the windings in a sequence as shown in table 4.28 Figure 4. etc. Unipolar Stepper Motor Coils The center taps are connected to a positive voltage while the coil ends are alternately grounded to cause a reversal of the field direction in that winding.
brackets isolate the light from other orientations to achieve a wide-angle search and quickly determine the sun’s position . Figure 5. At the sensor positions. The system drives the step motor towards the orientation of this sensor. If the light source intensity received by the sensors is different.29 5. east/west and north/south. Figure below shows the sensor stereogram. the output difference is zero and the motor’s drive voltage is zero. In the east/west group. If the output values of the two sensors are equal. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION 5. The system then determines which sensor received more intensive light based on the sensor output current and voltage value interpreted by LM324 Op-Amp. Sensor placement 5. The Op-Amp gives signals to microcontroller. which means the system has tracked the current position of the sun. which are located at the east.1. Two sensors are placed in panels. west.1.The four sensors are divided into two groups.1. Photodiode as a sensor .1. the system obtains signals from the sensor’s output voltage in the two orientations. the east and west sensors compare the intensity of received light in the east and west. The north/south sensors track the position of the sun similarly. and north to detect the light source intensity in the four orientations. south. Sensor design and placement The tracking sensor is composed of four similar photodiode sensors.
Figure 5. It was decided to full-step the motor in order to provide positioning accuracy.2. In this project.2 illustrates the circuit. Photodiode as a sensor 5. To utilize the photodiode. a control circuit is needed to drive the stepper motor.2.1. A voltage divider is thus formed and the output at the junction is determined by the two resistances (resistance for photodiode is very small compared to resistor).30 We used various sensors including LDR.5 degrees-per-step. Additionally.1. The photodiode conducts the current when light strikes it thus increasing the voltage drop in a resistor connected in series with it. unipolar motor. 5. Figure 5. A stepper motor was selected because of the precision it offers in positioning applications such as this. 4 phase. The drive sequence used in this design is shown in table 4. Lastly. This results in 7.5 degree-per-step. The basic control circuit for a unipolar stepper motor we used is ULN 2003 with inputs from microcontroller.2. 7. Vertical movement . which was not as sensitive as photodiode. it was desired for the output voltage to increase as the light intensity increases. so the photodiode was placed in the top position. Stepper motor Two unipolar stepper motor was chosen to position the tracking sensor. it is placed in series with a resistor. complicated drive circuitry is not required with the unipolar type motor. The motor specifically used in the project was a 15-24 volt.
light intensity is maximum towards east in the morning and its intensity shifted towards west as time passes. It is necessary to move the Panel in vertical direction i. 5. horizontal movement i.2. So we used Darlington pair for high current and high voltage supply for stepper motor. So. Speed and torque performance of the step motor is based on the flow of current from the driver to the motor winding. SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT . is known as inductance. The rotor moves the panel up to 180 degree rotation.2.31 The necessary of the panel for the vertical movement is due to the fact that the path of the sun varies from north to south as per the change of the seasons. Here. for the greater efficiency.e. 5. most types of driver circuits are designed to supply a greater amount of voltage than the motors rated voltage. or limits the time it takes for the current to energize the winding. we have used another stepper motor for left-right movement of panel. with a standard 200 step motor.e. This is because the revolving orbit of the earth towards the Sun is elliptical. The lower the inductance. For it. It means. east-west rotation of the Panel is necessary. again to increase the efficiency of the Panel. In full step mode. Horizontal movement Natural rotation of the Sun is from east to west. We can call it as the seasonal movement of the Sun. the faster the current gets to the winding and the better the performance of the motor. The factor that inhibits the flow. North-South direction. we used stepper motor for vertical movement of panels. 6. One step pulse is required for every step of the motor shaft. Microcontroller cannot directly drive the stepper motor. For it. Microcontroller and stepper motor interfacing The stepper motor driver receives low-level signals from the microcontroller system and converts them into electrical (step) pulses to run the motor.3. 200 step pulses are required to complete one revolution. The rotor moves the panel up to 360 degree rotation. To reduce inductance.
more complex projects because they relieve the chore of handling low level details and make programming faster and easier. At the same time. and Ada. Assembly language is best suited for small. Basic. but they require more memory and execute the code more slowly.32 6.1. 6. it can control individual bits and set register directly. simple projects that need minimum memory. such as assembly language. Assembly Language is peculiar to the processor architecture and closest to the hardware in the processor. our main objective is to reduce complexity and improve understanding of the software. C++.2. Whatever language we choose. The main program that has been written in the assembly programming has been compiled by the asm51 assembler. and precise control of peripheral devices. They are better for large. High language languages such as Basic and C make programming easier than assembly language and provide some measure of structure and readability. it is most tedious to program because it requires careful attention to exacting details. In this project we have adopt the assembly language as the programming language due to the nature of the project. highest execution speed. Language Software has much application: • • • • • Peripheral interface and drivers Operating system User interface Firmware Application Programs These applications may use a variety of languages. Tools Used . C.
For our high level assembly programming. for the verification of the driving circuits and the other circuits such as regulated power supply and the backup power. In addition.3. D from port P2. C. We created the flow charts and state diagram for our easy understanding with Microsoft word.33 We used a variety of computer applications to assist us in the design process. .3. Lastly. Algorithm and flowchart 6. we have simulated the components in the Electronics Workbench and Circuit Maker Software’s before the practical application in our project. we traced through every line of code and examined what was being loaded into the microcontrollers’ registers and what was being stored into the microcontrollers’ memory. Using a debugging tool known as Simu51. We also employed Microsoft Visio for planning out the basic framework for various aspects of our design. For example. The HEX code for the microcontroller chip (AT89C51) was downloaded by the Easy Atmel Programmer (AAP) software which was very easy to use and help a lot in testing the program. For the designing of the PCB. The combination of asm51 and Simu51 allowed us to troubleshoot what may have been functioning unexpectedly in our code. 6. driving circuits and the main circuit that consists of the microcontroller. The utility of this software application lies in the large number of components its library contains. Algorithm STEP 1: Read Input A. we used the Keil and asm51 assembler.1. STEP 2: If B=1 turn the vertical stepper motor to counter clock till B=0. This software allowed us to better understand how our code worked. Visio and Flash MX. B. we mapped out our initial block diagrams for our project using Visio. we employed Portel 99 SE and Auto CAD for the schematic drawing of the circuit components to draw our various circuits such as power supply with backup power. we used Express PCB software which had helped in the designing of the PCB board.
2. go to STEP C. If D=1 turn the horizontal stepper motor to right till D=0. Hold the START motor.34 Hold the motor. D= 0. Hold the motor. ? TURN VERTICAL MOTOR COUNTER CLOCKWISE TURN HORIZONTAL MOTOR LEFT CHECK INPUT 6. If A=1 turn the vertical stepper motor to counter clockwise till A=0. If C=1 turn the horizontal stepper motor to left till C=0. ? IS A= 0. B. Flowchart IS B= 1. ? TURN VERTICAL MOTOR CLOCKWISE TURN HORIZONTAL MOTOR RIGHT CHECK INPUT IS B= 0. READ INPUT HOLD THE IS A=B =C= D ? IS A= 1. 2. Hold the motor. STEP 4: If A. B. C. D all else. D A. MOTORare same then hold the motor as it is. STEP 3: Monitor the input again.3. D= 1. STEP 5: REPEAT STEP 1. C= 1. C= 0. ? .
The debugging entailed . DESIGN VERIFICATION 7. Microcontroller test Much of the testing with this project involved debugging the micro controller code and interfacing the micro controller with the wired hardware. Testing Hardware 188.8.131.52.35 YES NO YES NO NO YES YES NO NO YES 7.
one photo diode is faced to east and another to the west.2. First direction is East-West direction for the vertical rotation. Photodiode are placed in four directions for the movement of Solar Panel in four directions. The biggest hurdle we had to overcome was making sure that each input was sent to the right port of the micro controller. we looked at how the particular component was wired and determined if it was behaving correctly based on the signal sent to it by the micro controller. 7. Ultimately. it was difficult to determine if a problem was rooted in the hardware wiring or in the micro code. For it. This was verified using a number of test LEDs placed in appropriate locations within in our circuit. Oftentimes. While testing. if the micro controller read signals different than those expected. If an LED was erroneously triggered.36 positioning various print statements throughout the code to see exactly which op codes were executed. The sensor was placed in different places for checking the proper alignment of the sensor such that microcontroller can detect the change in intensity of the photodiode. we checked the voltage and current from photodiodes. this could be easily detected when the program was stuck in an endless loop outputting error statements. Therefore. Only when the micro controller recognized a valid input did it jump to the next loop. This was ensured with numerous compare statements within the micro code. Sensor module test Testing sensor module was a tedious task. this was how many of our debugging problems were rectified.1. But still it couldn’t detect in cloudy days. we first traced it back to the micro code to see if any of the instructions interpreted the inputs incorrectly. We used the computer monitor to explicitly output the code executed and the oscilloscope to diagnose any potential hardware problems. The test of the module yielded detection of sun movement. . As a result. interfacing the micro controller with the rest of our circuit proved to be a long and iterative trial and error process. Next. The reference is taken from these Photodiodes with the photodiode present in the moving panel. Making sure that the micro controller output the correct signals was also important.
4. the microprocessor sends digital signals to the driver chip at appropriate times. Stepper motors are incremental actuators that can run in open-loop mode with sufficient accuracy.3. While stepper motors have this advantage.1. The design worked perfectly while we test it manually. For peak performance it is necessary to generate an optimized step sequence table. Based on step table information.5. 7. A pre-determined sequence of stepstates is then used to energize the motor windings and thus cause successive steps of motion. The roller and motor was greased for proper functioning.1. a suitable driver chip is selected and an appropriate stepping mode (full. But for stepper motor the specification was 24v 500mA but we placed 12v with 1A current so that the total power generated was same. The 7805 regulator produced the required 5v for the microcontroller.37 7. Power module test The regulator and Battery was tested using multimeter. 7. Based on the application.1. Testing software . loss of synchronism and high vibration levels in the design of stepper motor systems. 7. half or micro step) is decided. Stepper motor test The testing of stepper motor was also a difficult task to perform. Mechanical design test We tested all the mechanical movements regarding the module. We placed the panel and vary its load. it is necessary to address issues related to motor instability. This step-state sequence table is stored in the memory of a microprocessor.2. it worked fine with the load up to 1kg for the panel. transistors within the chip switch states such that the next step-state of the motor gets energized. Whenever the driver chip receives a trigger signal from the microprocessor.
DIFFICULTIES 8. we set four sensors (east. south. 8. Due to this fact we test the assembly code in a simulator for 8051.38 The software was coded in assembly language.1. Expected result According to our design principle. the code was burned converting into HEX file using asm51 assembler. Assembly Language is peculiar to the processor. The Hex file was loaded into microcontroller AT89C51 and was tested using led for output. the microcontroller compares its output with those on the . If the four sensors are all on.After the result was achieved as desired. and north) in the sensor design and fixed the mechanism. If any of them are off. west. the mechanism balances.
which sometimes drew more current from microcontroller . This creates positioning error. Building and testing smaller sections of the system made the project more manageable and increased efficiency by decreasing debugging time.We wanted to place the opto-isolator array in between microcontroller and Darlington pairs IC (ULN 2003) but was not available in the market. Since we have used sixarray sensors in four in static position and two in panel. The second issue deals with the photodiode and sensor. less satisfaction was obtained from two hardware areas.39 panel and determines which direction to rotate. We kept this three dimension rotation so as to meet the path of the sun in any season and any parts of the day. However. The present workaround for this is to hold the panel to its extreme in a way as to keep them so that it moves easily. The project performs the required functions envisioned at the proposal phase. Also the gear and chain mechanism required for the mechanical purpose of rotating the panel was very primitive This was the reason we were compelled to use machine fabricated and already manufactured junk component for that purpose.2. This was done by placing a black tape tube around the photodiode to create a tunnel and help shield it from light that is not directly in its direct path. the sensitiveness of tracking the sun’s motion lacks in some critical condition . there is a potential for problems with motor movement due to the motor torque issues. First. It was to moves 180 by 180 rotation. Real performance and analysis Hardware and software portions of the project were separated into stages while developing the overall system. It rotates the stepper motor which in turn rotates the panel in XYZ axis. and software enhancements. motor driving. It was discovered that the photodiode needs to be shielded such that light can be directed narrowly to its surface. The third problem was regarding the use of Darlington pairs IC. The portions consisted of light detection. software tracking. 8. while satisfied with software operation and simulation. .
• • • • • It can only be used for smaller panels.40 9. It may fail to track sun in cloudy days The movement of panel is not smooth. FURTHER ENHANCEMENTS We have made a simple solar tracker that uses change in intensity of light to track the path of the sun. This may not be effective all the time . The force due to wind is not considered. 10. • Using Azimuth Angle Calculation using timer in case of failure to track . it can hardly detect the path of the sun. For this we may enhance our tracker using following schemes.For example. The concept has not been developed for the purpose of saving power at night. if the weather is cloudy and there is more mist. Some of the major limitation may be grouped as follows. LIMITATIONS Limitations relating to the software as well as hardware are present.
41 • Using the stored database in data logger to move the tracker. Different tasks had been found out and their operation was carried as shown in the Gantt chart below: . There is also a need to enhance the mechanical aspects. 11. Use of better gear mechanism in our project. We can use all the method of combination in case of failure of one of them. may lead to use it in industrial purposes. Use of stored database of the previous data. Though the cost may be a crucial to apply all these three alternatives. By the use of better gear mechanism. PROJECT DURATION The overall time duration of the project was about three and half months. we have to use electronic high voltage relays using triac to control the rotation of motor using pulse counter as in mouse wheel. movement of the panel can be controlled in critical circumstances (if any). In the circuit we may have used opto-isolator for protection of microcontroller. We have used stepper motor with low torque which is only a prototype for small PV panels. For bigger panels. We have been trying to add a battery charger and an intensity data logger in this project such that it becomes versatile for home use as well as for research purpose. Solar powered robot for probing planet’s surface. bigger solar panel could be used for better performance and excess power consumption by the stepper motor could be reduced to some extent. the system will function infallibly in critical cases such as Satellite.
Where. Gantt chart Horizontal bar represents the duration. Task1 -Preliminary investigation and feasibility study Task2 –Specification of requirements Task3 –System design Task4 –Programming Task5 –System testing Task6 –Implementation Task7 –System review 12.42 Table 11. COST ESTIMATION Components AT 89C51 Oscillator 12MHZ ULN 2003 Quantity 1 1 2 Price (in Rs) 150 40 60 .
solder Total price capacitors. resistors. CONCLUSION Use of tracking system with panel arrangement designed for the multi-direction rotation solely contributed for the maximum absorption and efficient utilization of solar radiation and fulfills our design criteria and manufacturing ease. 4 6 2 1+1 1 set 2 - 60 180 Available 300+70 225 60 Available wires. While the project has limitations. Entire system is supposed to be a “trace-path” factor for the issue concerning the use of solar energy as renewable resources and help alleviate the energy crisis that the whole world is facing today This report has presented a means of controlling a sun tracking array with an embedded microprocessor system. As per requirement 800 transistors.43 Reset Switch Photo diode Stepper motor PCB board. diodes. wooden frame etc) AccessoriesLEDs. Table of Expenditure 13. Iron. Specifically. it demonstrates a working software solution for maximizing solar cell output by positioning a solar array at the point of maximum light intensity. This project presents a method of searching for and tracking the sun and resetting itself for a new day. small PCB Roller wheel Dual-Comparator (LM324) Mechanical structure (Aluminum. 1945 Table 12. particularly in hardware .
Programming and Applications (II Ed) Ramesh S. Gaonkar New Age International Publishers Limited Student Reference Manual. M. Microelectronic Circuits (IV Ed) Sedra and Smith Oxford House .44 areas discussed above. REFERENCES Books and Manuals: Microprocessor Architecture. Smith Prentice-Hall Inc. this provides an opportunity for expansion of the current project in future years. For Electronic Instrumentation Laboratories Stanley Wolf and Richard F.
com www.howstuffworks.keil.wikipedia. Programming and Hardware Douglas V Hall Tata McGraw Hill Edition User manual of Atmel 89C51 microcontroller.dataarchive.com www.com www.com www. Manual Websites: www.org .com www.8052.com www.45 Microprocessor and Interfacing.hobbyelectronics. Minebea Motor Manufacturing Corporation.atmel.