Compact Disc

A project on-

Submitted toAmol Sir

Submitted By Ram Prakash Singh Div-A, Roll no-38 IIDEA

Page 1

Compact Disc

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that this project report entitled Compact Dics submitted to Indira ISCS (School of Career Studies, Pune) is the fulfillment of requirement of PGP+PGDM has been completed by me under the guidance of Mr. Amol Sir and is the result of my own research work carried out during March 2011.

This report is entirely an outcome of my own effort and has not been previously submitted to any other university or institute for any other examination and for any other purpose by any other person.

Page 2

Compact Disc

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that this presentation entitled Compact Disc submitted to Indira ISCS (School of Career Studies, Pune) is the fulfillment of requirement of PGP+PGDM has been completed by me under the guidance of Mr. Amol and is the result of my own research work carried out during Feb-March 2011.

This project is entirely an outcome of my own effort and has not been previously submitted to any other university or institute for any other examination and for any other purpose by any other person.

Page 3

Pune for their valuable help and support during the course of the assignment. It is my proud privilege to express my deepest gratitude and veneration for Amol Sir for providing me the opportunity to work on the project. Pune) for their moral support and guidance and also the entire staff of IIDEA. Page 4 . showing confidence in my abilities and for making me comfortable with the organizational structure. Finally. I also express my special gratitude for my friends who has always been with me through the ups and downs of all walks of my life. yet importantly I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to my beloved family for their support and blessings.Compact Disc ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am greatly indebted to faculty for giving me the opportunity of having a life time experience of working with such a highly professional corporate organization. I would like to express my deep gratitude to Amol Sir (Faculty member of IIDEA. The confidence she instilled in me paved the way for proceeding with the survey and entire presentation. I would like to further extend my thanks to Mr. I would also like to express my gratitude to all the respondents whose inputs are an important part of the venture. Amol Sir (Research Methodology Faculty).

...........................................................................................3 CHAPTER 1-INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................CONCLUSION..............................................13-16 4.................................................................................4 RESEARCH PROCESS...Compact Disc TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.........................................6 3...........................5 CHAPTER 3-LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................30 Page 5 ....4 VARIOUS INVESTMENT OPTIONS IN COMPACT DISC .......................1 RESEARCH OF PROJECT...................24 CHAPTER 6..18 CHAPTER 5..............................METHODOLOGY OF STUDY............................................2 HISTORY OF COMACT DISC..................................3 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS........................................................9 3..............................................................................................................................................................2 RESEARCH PLAN..................................7 3............4 CHAPTER 2-OBJECTIVE.........................................................................................................................13 4...11 CHAPTER 4................................................DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION.........1 ABOUT COMPACT DISC..................................8 3....................17 4.....................................................................................BIBLOGRAPHY.....................................12 4..........5 CURRENT SCENARIO................................................30 CHAPTER 8.................................................................................6 3..............................3 ADVANTAGES OF COMPACT DISC...............

The main purpose of doing this project was to know about compact disc and its functioning.Compact Disc EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This study gives the complete information of the Compact Disc. growth and future prospects. Page 6 . It also helps in understanding different schemes of compact disc. Because my study depends upon prominent in worldwide and their schemes like quality. sizes. It was very interesting to see the results that were obtained after completion of the projects and hope they add lot of value to the study conducted. This helps to know in details about compact disc. prize as well as the returns how it¶s important to use.

CD-ROM. Super Video Compact Discs (SVCD). and CD-R reached about 30 billion discs. worldwide sales of CD audio. such as downloading and flash drives.1 in).Compact Disc CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION A Compact Disc (also known as a CD) is an optical disc used to store digital data. Video Compact Discs (VCD). but later expanded to encompass data storage CD-ROM.[1] Compact Discs are increasingly being replaced or supplemented by other forms of digital distribution and storage. they are sometimes used for CD singles. write-once audio and data storage CD-R. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimeters (4. Page 7 . storing up to 24 minutes of audio or delivering device drivers. The CD and its extensions are successful: in 2004. It was originally developed to store and playback sound recordings exclusively. CD-ROMs and CD-Rs remain widely used technologies in the computer industry. 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. The Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimeters (2. and Enhanced CD. with audio CD sales dropping nearly 50% from their peak in 2000. By 2007.4 to 3. Photo CD. Picture CD. CD-I.7 in) and can hold up to 80 minutes of uncompressed audio (700 MB of data). rewritable media CD-RW.

PROBLEM STATEMENT In this survey some problems arrived which were related to:1. Page 8 . Problem which is related to survey of the product. 3. ‡ To study some of the importance to the nature of compact disc. ‡ To give an idea of the types of disc available. ‡ To explore and easy of uses compact disc. ‡ To discuss about the market awareness. 2. Problem with competitors in the market. 4. ‡ To observe how can we easily use the compact disc. Problems related to questionnaires. Brand name problem.Compact Disc CHAPTER-2 OBJECTIVE ‡ To give a brief idea about the benefits available from compact disc in the market.

is 1. the data can be read from the disc. and the rim. the pitch. (A disc played from beginning to end slows down during playback).Compact Disc CHAPTER-3 Literature Review 3.4 m/s (constant linear velocity) ± equivalent to approximately 500 rpm at the inside of the disc. the program (data) area. The areas between pits are known as "lands". Each pit is approximately 100 nm deep by 500 nm wide.2±1. encoded in a spiral track molded into the top of the polycarbonate layer. Page 9 . Scanning velocity is 1. The label is printed on the lacquer layer.2 millimetres (0. components are: the center spindle hole (15 mm).6 µm. and varies from 850 nm to 3.5 µm in length. more rarely. CD data are stored as a series of tiny indentations known as "pits". The change in height between pits and lands results in a difference in the way the light is reflected. The metal is protected by a film of lacquer normally spin coated directly on the reflective layer. The inner program area occupies a radius from 25 to 58 mm A thin layer of aluminum or. A CD is read by focusing a 780 nm wavelength (near infrared) semiconductor laser through the bottom of the polycarbonate layer.1 ABOUT COMPACT DISCA CD is made from 1. usually by screen or offset printing.[21] From the center outward. the clamping area (stacking ring). By measuring the intensity change with a photodiode. the firsttransition area (clamping ring).047 in) thick. gold is applied to the surface making it reflective. The distance between the tracks. the second-transition area (mirror band). and approximately 200 rpm at the outside edge. polycarbonate plastic and weighs 15± 20 grams.

Philips also contributed eight-to-fourteen modulation(EFM). played by the Berlin Philharmonic and conducted by Herbert von Karajan. The demonstration showed that it is possible by using digital optical recording and playback to reproduce audio signals with superb stereo quality. including the choice of the sampling frequency.056 Hz sampling rate. playing time. by the Polydor Pressing Operations plant. An Alpine Symphony). The Compact Disc Story. The disc contained a recording of Richard Strauss's Eine Alpensinfonie (in English language. based on video Laserdisc technology. CIRC. 16-bit linear resolution.2 History of compact discThe Compact Disc is a spin-off of Laserdisc technology. 1979 Philips publicly demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press conference called "Philips Introduce Compact Disc" in Eindhoven. the Compact Disc was thus "invented collectively by a large group of people working as a team. On March 8. Philips contributed the general manufacturing process. gives background information on the many technical decisions made. The taskforce consisted of around four to eight persons. that were similar to those of the Compact Disc introduced in 1982." The first test CD was pressed in Langenhagen near Hannover. cross-interleaved error correction code. In August 1982 the real pressing Page 10 . 2009. and with specifications of 44. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken demonstrated for the international press a Compact Disc Audio Player. respectively. the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology that began independently by Philips and Sony in 1977 and 1975. Philips received an IEEE Milestone with the following citation: "On 8 March 1979. Led by Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi. Netherlands. On March 6. though according to Philips. N. while Sony contributed the error-correction method. Sony first publicly demonstrated an optical digital audio disc in September 1976. After a year of experimentation and discussion. which offers both a long playing time and a high resilience against disc defects such as scratches and fingerprints. The first public demonstration was on the BBC television program Tomorrow's World whenThe Bee Gees' album Living Eyes (1981) was played. held on March 13±16. Technical details of Sony's digital audio disc were presented during the 62nd AES Convention. told by a former member of the taskforce. Sony and Philips Consumer Electronics (Philips) set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. the taskforce produced the Red Book.Compact Disc 3. 1979.V. This research at Philips established the technical standard for digital optical recording systems. Germany. in Brussels. the Compact Disc standard. In September 1978 they demonstrated an optical digital audio disc with a 150 minute playing time. and disc diameter." Later in 1979.

or computer information. CD-Recordable were introduced. although independent and DIY music sales may be tracking better according to figures released March 30. 1983 CD players and discs (16 titles from CBS Records) were released in the United States and other markets.3 ADVANTAGES OF COMPACT DISCThe CD offered other advantages over the phonograph record and recording tape²smaller size. or CD. In recent years. The first album to be released on CD was Billy Joel's 52nd Street. Page 11 . By now. also developed by both Sony and Philips. extremely low distortion . which are used to play back recorded music. 2009 3. The history of the compact disc can be traced back to the development of electronic technology and particularly digital electronic technology in the 1960s. When the CD is played. the information is read or detected by a tightly focused light source called a laser (thus the name optical medium). video. With the advent of the MP3 in the 2000s. and recordable CDs are an alternative to tape for recording music and copying music albums without defects introduced in compression used in other digital recording methods. the computer readable CD-ROM (read-only memory) and. large label CD sales dropped 20%. This event is often seen as the "Big Bang" of the digital audio revolution. Ever since the invention of the phonograph in 1876. In June 1985. From its origins as a musical format. the sales of CDs has dropped in seven out of the last eight years. had become a part of PolyGram. Early the following year on March 2.Compact Disc was ready to begin in the new factory. Deutsche Grammophon. Berliner's company and the publisher of the Strauss recording. 1982 in Japan. not far from the place where Emil Berliner had produced his first gramophone record 93 years earlier. In 2008. the compact disc has become the playback medium of choice for recorded music. in 1990. This article will focus on audio compact discs. Other newer video formats such as DVD and Blu-ray have used the same form factor as CDs. that reached the market alongside Sony's CD player CDP-101 on October 1. The CD's compact format has largely replaced the audio cassette player in new automobile applications. The CD was planned to be the successor of the gramophone record for playing music. The first CD to be manufactured at the new factory was The Visitors (1981) by ABBA. greater dynamic range. music has been a popular source of home entertainment. is an optical storage medium with digital data recorded on it. rather than primarily as a data storage medium. The digital data can be in the form of audio.. A compact disc. and video players can usually play audio CDs as well.. Although the first applications of this technology were not in the recording area. CDs have grown to encompass other applications.

These include the Recording Industry Association of America-certified CD Plus and CD Extra. which was held in Brussels. which was done by German composer Wilhelm Furtwangler as part of the Bayreuth Festival in 1951. The second size has a diameter of 80 millimeters. The additional 14-minute playing time eventually led to the change of disk size. This size was also adopted for later formats like the Blu-ray Disc. At first. In that very same year. Sony became the very first company to demonstrate the optical digital audio disk to the public. a 16-bit linear resolution and a 150-minute playing time. The compact disk comes in different logical formats. On March 8. the format of which was increased to 120 millimeters. The technical specifications of Sony¶s audio disk were revealed at the 62nd Audio Engineering Society Convention. Belgium. In September 1976.Compact Disc Additional Facts and Other Important Details The CD is considered the spin-off of a precedent technology called the Laserdisc.1 kHz. there are various kinds of compact disks available. The first one is the audio CD. Japanese electrical engineer Toshitada Doi and Dutch inventor Kees Schouhamer Immink were two of the most notable members of that group. In 1981. you can also find the Super Video CD. Aside from these. It has a dual-channel with 16-bit PCM encoding capacity. However. Philips followed by holding a press conference entitled Philips Introduce Compact Disc. This particular disk featured a cross-interleaved error correction code. A number of factors. Philips and Sony made a joint task force comprised of skilled engineers to create a new digital audio disk. logical structure and frame. while Philips designed one with a diameter of 115 millimeters. High Speed ReWritable CD and High Capacity Recordable CD. which has a 74. Some of its latest variations include the ReWritable Audio CD. The CD contained a recording of ³Eine Alpensinfonie. such as manufacturing tolerances. the HD-DVD and Super Audio CD. The sampling rate per channel is measured at 44. 1979.to 80-minute capacity to play audio files. it was later on suggested to extend the disk capacity to a longer 74 minutes. can significantly affect the structure of data stored within a disk. which was originally developed by Philips and Sony in 1980. Sony used a disc with a diameter of 100 millimeters. Germany. VinylDisc and Photo CD. Video CD and CD-ROM. At first. the targeted playing time of these disks was just 60 minutes. the initial test compact disk was pressed at the Polydor Pressing Operations plant in Hannover. The compact disk has two major sizes.¶ where it demonstrated to the public an optical digital audio disk prototype. from March 13 to 16. The most commonly used size has a diameter measuring 120 millimeters. which can actually play audio files of up to 24 minutes. 1979. Today. Page 12 . One of the major reasons behind this move was to accommodate the recording of Beethoven¶s 9th Symphony. They eventually came up with the Compact Disc standard after one year of discussion and experimentation.´ which was conducted by Herbert von Karajan and played by the Berlin Philharmonic.

When the CD is played. it became commercially available. it found increasing use in audio components as the technology evolved. the compact disk can store up to 700MB or a maximum of 80 minutes of audio files. music has been a popular source of home entertainment. Background Ever since the invention of the phonograph in 1876. which are used to play back recorded music. the information is read or detected by a tightly focused light source called a laser (thus the name optical medium). Among these companies. the compact disc has become the playback medium of choice for recorded music. Although the first applications of this technology were not in the recording area. In recent years. Until now. many companies started experimenting with optical information storage and laser technology. This article will focus on audio compact discs. video. and Philips were credited for a major part of its development. or computer information. The history of the compact disc can be traced back to the development of electronic technology and particularly digital electronic technology in the 1960s. is an optical storage medium with digital data recorded on it.Compact Disc An optical disk designed to store different types of digital data. Electronic manufacturers Sony Corp. A compact disc. The digital data can be in the form of audio. it remains as a reliable standard audio physical storage medium. or CD. electronic giants Sony and Philips made notable progress in this area. Page 13 . there are lots of other important facts to learn about it including the thickness of a compact disk. Besides these significant details. During the same period. Since October 1982.

The solution was provided by the development of integrated circuit technology. A practical method of audio encoding was developed from the theories published by C. This information is read by means of a laser beam that is capable of focusing on a very narrow area as small as 1/2500th of an inch. By the late 1970s. known as pulse code modulation (PCM). a common set of standards for the optical storage discs had been developed by the joint efforts of Sony and Philips. is a technique that samples a sound during a short time interval and converts the sample to a numerical value that is then modulated or stored for later retrieval. to store one second of music requires one million bits of data. which allow the processing of millions of computations in just microseconds. These technologies provided solutions to the three main challenges faced by the developers of digital audio. A consortium of 35 hardware manufacturers agreed to adopt this standard in 1981 and the first compact discs and compact disc players were introduced in the market in 1982. The solution to this problem came in the form of optical discs. was to find a suitable storage medium to accommodate any significant amount of sound.Compact Disc By the 1970s. An optical disc can store large amounts of data tightly compressed together. The storing of audio signals in digital form requires a large amount of data. This method. digital and optical technologies had reached a level where they could be combined to develop a single audio system. For instance. one million bits of data on a CD can occupy an area smaller than a pinhead. For example. a process known as audio encoding. The next challenge. The final challenge of digital audio was to process the densely packed information on compact discs quickly enough to produce continuous music. The first challenge was to find a suitable method for recording audio signals in digital format. therefore. Shannon in 1948. Page 14 .

A clear protective acrylic coating over the aluminum layer. Some manufacturers use a silver or even gold layer instead of the aluminum layer in the manufacture of their compact discs. and finally the label. CDs consist of three layers of materials: y y y A base layer made of a polycarbonate plastic. A reflective aluminum layer is applied. its information is transfered onto a plastic disc. followed by a clear acrylic protective layer. A thin layer of aluminum coating over the polycarbonate plastic. Page 15 . metal layers are deposited on the glass master using electric currents." This master is then encoded with the desired information and put through a series of electroforming steps.Compact Disc Making a compact disc involves first preparing a glass "disc master. In electroforming. Raw Materials A compact disc is a deceptively simple looking device considering the technology required to make it. When the final master version is ready.

" which is kept free from virtually all dust particles. which is a disc made from specially prepared glass. The sensor sees more light when it is on a land than when it is on a pit. y 2 The pre-master tape will be used to create the disc master (also called the glass master).24 of an inch (six millimeters) thick. The air in the room is specially filtered to keep out dirt. Next. A tiny laser beam moving along the track reflects light back to a photo sensor.45 inches (240 millimeters) in diameter and .047 inches (1.53 of an ounce (15 grams). A CD usually weighs around . Page 16 . the tape is called a pre-master. even the smallest dust particle can render a disc useless. the audio program is transferred to a 3/4-inch (1. most CDs contain only about 50 minutes of music.72 inches (120 millimeters) in diameter and . The positioning hole in the middle is .59 of an inch (15 millimeters) in diameter. The Manufacturing Process Compact discs must be manufactured under very clean and dust free conditions in a "clean room. and then data (called subcodes) used for indexing and tracking the music is added to the audio data on the tape.9 centimeters) video tape. and occupants of the room must wear special clothing. However. The glass is polished to a smooth finish and coated with a layer of adhesive and a layer of photoresist material. Because an average dust particle is 100 times larger than the average pit and land on a CD. After the adhesive and photoresist are applied. A CD is 4. This spiral or track consists of a series of indentations called pits. The recorded data on the CD takes the form of a continuous spiral starting from the inside and moving outward. The disc is approximately 9. At this point. all of which is recorded on only one side of the CD (the underside). the disc is cured in an oven.Compact Disc Design The compact disc is designed strictly according to the standards established by Sony and Philips in order to maintain universal compatibility. and these variations in light intensity are converted into electrical signals that represent the music originally recorded.2 millimeters) thick. separated by sections called lands. Preparing the disc master y 1 The original music is first recorded onto a digital audio tape. A standard CD can store up to 74 minutes of data.

in which another metal layer such as nickel is deposited onto the disc's surface. or father. which is put aside. A metal coating. Replication y 9 The metal son is then put into a hollow cavity²a die²of the proper disc shape in an injection molding machine. a layer of metal forms on the disc master. Electroforming y 5 After etching. both the pre-master tape and the disc master are put into a complex laser cutting machine. in other words. which in turn generates an electrical signal. the program is transferred to a device called a CD encoder. polished and put in a punching machine that cuts out the center hole and forms the desired outside diameter. As it does so. is then applied to the disc. The disc is bathed in an electrolytic solution. the track on the metal layer is an exact replica. which exposes or "cuts" grooves into the photoresist coating on the glass disc (the disc master). usually silver. such as nickel solphamate. these etched grooves will form the pits of the CD's surface. the disc master undergoes a process called electroforming. The disc master now contains the exact pit-and-land track that the finished CD will have. This signal powers a laser beam. of the track on the disc master. the newly applied metal layer is pulled apart from the disc master. Molten polycarbonate plastic is then poured into this die to form Page 17 . It is the son that is then used to create the actual CD. The metal layer. the metal son is rinsed. The thickness of this metal layer is strictly controlled. y 7 The metal father then undergoes further electroforming to produce one or more mothers. which are simply metal layers that again have positive impressions of the original disc master track. The machine plays back the audio program on the pre-master tape.Compact Disc y 3 Next. contains a negative impression of the disc master track. y 6 Next. y 4 The grooves that have been exposed are then etched away by chemicals. and as the electric current is applied. dried. The phrase "electro" is used because the metal is deposited using an electric current. y 8 After being separated from the mother. Using the same electroforming process. but in reverse. each mother then produces a son (also called a stamper) with a negative impression of the track.

Next. I it is then coated with an extremely thin. If a flaw is found. aluminum is put into a vacuum chamber and heated to the point of evaporation. y 12 Finally. dust particles.Compact Disc around the metal son. the disc must be discarded. y 10 The center hole is then punched out of plastic disc. Quality Control A compact disc is a very precise and accurate device. The microscopic size of the data does not allow for any errors in the manufacturing process." A CD player uses a laser beam to read these layers and convert the reflection first into an electrical signal and then into music. a clear acrylic plastic is applied to the disc to help protect the underlying layers from physical damage such as scratches. Page 18 . with the pits and grooves²once again in a positive impression of the original disc master track²formed into one side. y 11 If the disc meets the quality standards. and warps. After the label is printed. In this process. the compact disc is complete and ready for packaging and shipment. the disc is scanned for flaws such as water bubbles. which allows it to be applied evenly to the plastic disc. The smallest of dust particles can render a disc unreadable. The coating is applied using vacuum deposition. which is transparent at A finished compact disc contains a series of tracks or indentations called "lands" and "pits. reflective layer of aluminum. generally using a silkscreening process. the plastic is shaped like the son. Once cooled. this stage.

for instance. The Future The massive storage capabilities. accuracy of data. Compact Disc Terminology Note: Other online glossaries of terms used in the compact disc industry can be found at: Page 19 . Manufacturing techniques will continue to be streamlined and improved. because any vibration would make proper cutting impossible. humidity. with controlled temperature. such as before and after the aluminum coating is deposited and after the protective acrylic coating is applied. bubbles. quality control checkpoints are built into the manufacturing process. If strict quality control is not maintained.Compact Disc The first quality control concern is to ensure that the clean room environment is properly monitored. The laser cutting machine. for instance. the rejection rate of CDs can be very high. The disc master. and relative immunity from wear and tear will continue to make compact discs a popular medium for music and video applications. requiring smaller facilities and less human intervention in the process and resulting in lower CD rejection rates. dust particles. Beyond that. and filtering systems. which allows the human eye to spot defective pits in the track. the manufacturing and quality control processes have become almost completely automated. the disc is checked automatically for warps. must be very stable. At later stages in the process. and encoding errors on the spiral track. a multimedia system that allows users to interact with computers and television. In addition to checking the discs. Already in the first decade of CD manufacture. The hottest new product stirring public interest is CD-Interactive or CD-I. is inspected for smoothness and its photoresist surface for proper thickness by means of laser equipment. the equipment used to manufacture them must be carefully maintained. This mechanical checking is combined with human inspection using polarized light.

a reflective metalized layer. y cyanine One type of organic dye used to form the data layer in CD-R discs. >CD-Recordable discs do not have any data on them until they are recorded.but rather than burning holes in the dye. According to the industry standard. y data layer In CD-R. a digital medium formed of a 12cm polycarbonate substrate. y CD-R Compact Disc-Recordable. software and media used to make recordable discs. As track pitch is tightened (when tracks are packed closer together to put more data on a disc). and a protective lacquer coating. it simply melts it slightly. A maximum value of 50% is allowed by Red Book specifications.Compact Disc y BLER BLock Error Rate. y BLERmax The maximum number of BLERs allowed on a disc. causing it to become nontranslucent so the reading laser beam is refracted rather than reflected back to the Page 20 . The physical format of CDs is described by the ISO9660 industry standard. y CD Compact Disc. An alternative material is phthalocyanine. Instead the recording laser selectively melts "pits" into the dye layer -. y Cross-talk This is a measure of the amount of interference coming from neighboring pit tracks on a CD. a CD-ROM is allowed a BLER of up to 220 before it is considered a "bad" disc. but presently a metal-stabilized cyanine compound is generally used instead of "raw" cyanine. Cyanine was the first material used for these discs. This term is used to describe the technology of recordable CD as well as the equipment. cross-talk increases. the organic dye sandwiched between the polycarbonate substrate and the metalized reflective layer of the media. CD-Recordable discs also have an organic dye data layer between the substrate and the metal reflective layer. This is the "raw" digital error rate before any error correction.

usually under high pressure. but this is not a standard requirement. or the guiding groove into the substrate of CD-Rs. and then cooled so the material takes on the shape of the mirror image of the mold. y injection moulding A manufacturing method where molten material is forced into a mold. and a metal (nickel or silver) mold is electroformed on top of it.s sensors. This "glass master" is then cured (developed) with ultraviolet light and rinsed off. y jitter Definition temporarily unavailable. and some discs have a printable surface silkscreened on them. and a protective lacquer coating. y Orange Book Page 21 . the data layer is part of the polycarbonate substrate. y mastering Mastering is the process of creating a stamper or set of stampers to be used in the injection moulding stage of manufacturing compact discs. Some discs also have an additional protective coating over the metalized layer. Usually a decorative label is also applied on top of the lacquer. This mold is removed and then electroplated with a nickle alloy to create one or more stampers to be used in the injection moulding machine to press the data into the polycarbonate substrate of CDs. a layer of organic dye.Compact Disc reader&apos. Please check back later y lacquer spincoat Acrylic lacquer is spincoated in a thin layer on top of the metal reflective layer of a CD to protect it from abrasion and corrosion. During this process a digital signal from a computer is used to guide a laser beam which etches a pattern of "pits and lands" (in the case of CDs) or a continuous groove (for CD-Rs) onto a highly polished glass disc coated with photoresist. These discs are made of a polycarbonate substrate. y media or "blanks" CD-Recordable media are the discs used to record digital information using a special recorder and premastering software with a computer. a metalized reflective layer. and is pressed into the top side of it by a "stamper" during the injection moulding process. In pressed CDs.

the bumps and grooves that represent the binary data on a disc&apos. but the unmelted. it becomes opaque or refractive. instead of pits and lands.s sensors. y pits & lands In a "pressed" or mass-replicated CD. y substrate Page 22 . y phthalocyanine An organic dye used to form the data layer in some CD-Recordable discs. y stamper The data-bearing removable "die" used during the injection moulding of a CD to imprint pits and lands into the polycarbonate substrate of the disc. This is usually 24K gold in CD-Recordable discs. scattering the reading laser beam so it is not reflected back into the reader&apos.s laser. but has licensed its formula to some other manufacturers. but Mitsubishi has recently introduced a silver disc as well. CD-R discs do not have true pits and lands. In manufacturing CD-R media. y reflective layer The metal layer on top of the dye that reflects the laser beam back to the reading assembly. clear areas and melted. The difference between reflected and non-reflected light is interpreted by the player as a binary signal. opaque places in the dye layer fulfill the same function as pits and lands on a pressed disc. Mitsui Toatsu Corporation holds the patent on this dye. y organic dye The data layer of CD-R discs is made from either cyanine or phthalocyanine dye which is melted during the recording process. The stamper is part of a "disc family" created in the mastering process.Compact Disc The Orange Book is the specification for CD-Recordable.s substrate are pressed into it during manufacture. Where the dye is melted. a continuous spiral is pressed into the substrate as a guide to the recorder&apos.

For CD-Rs.s laser. this layer does not contain "pits and lands" but has a single spiral groove that guides the recorder&apos.Compact Disc The optical-quality. injection moulded optical-quality clear polycarbonate plastic "bottom" of a CD or CD-R. Compact Disc Diameter- Encoding Model- Page 23 .

1946. SMPTE. Eindhoven. the DVD (1996). He worked from 1968 to 1998 at Philips Research Labs. and IEE. starting in the early 70s. In the late 70¶s. The list includes CDR. the Video Disc Recorder. he founded Turing Machines Inc. he was involved in the creation of a long list of digital audio and video recording products. He and his colleagues at Philips¶ Research conducted pioneering experiments with optical videodisc recording. AES. Singapore. played from any brand or type of recorder -optical. the Digital Compact Cassette system. and the Blu-ray Disc (2002). -disc or tape. he was Philips¶ principal engineer in the joint efforts of Sony and Philips to develop the Compact Disc (CD). CD-Video (1982). and the AES Gold Medal. His research resulted more than 1000 international patents. the 1998 IEEE Edison Medal. Kees A. Essen University.that does not use one of his basic inventions. for which he designed the coding techniques. Immink gained eminence through his numerous inventions and contributions to digital audio. and has been elected into the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences and the US National Academy of Engineering. He was knighted by Beatrix. and a distinguished visiting professor at the National University of Singapore and Data Storage Institute. Then. video. He was named a fellow of the IEEE. DCC (1988). Queen of the Netherlands. magnetic. where he currently serves as its president. was inducted into the Consumer Electronics Hall of Fame. Since 1994. and received an Emmy¶ award. was born in Rotterdam December 18. New York. in 1998. the Digital Audio Tape recorder. He received Masters and PhD degrees from the Eindhoven University of Technology in 1975 and 1984. In the 80¶s and 90s. Germany. the 2004 SMPTE Progress Medal. or magnetooptical-. a native of the Netherlands.Compact Disc Dr. and data recording devices. He received widespread recognition for his many contributions to the digital audio and video revolution. he has been an adjunct professor at the Institute for Experimental Mathematics. VDR (1998). Page 24 . DAT (1985). The influence of his creative skill on everyday life can easily be summarized: It is virtually impossible to listen enjoy digital audio or video. respectively. Schouhamer Immink. in 2003. He served the profession as President of the Audio Engineering Society.

although downloading has recently cut into its share of the music market. Programs such as Toast/Jam. Page 25 . the CD reproduces the original signal exactly. Nero. replicated CDs are now possible from CD-R copies. there is some confusion about the sound of CDs. up to 650 megabytes of data may be written. The storage of additional data allows fairly precise cueing of the selections in a rapid. random access manner. It was envisioned as a replacement for the phonograph record. few would deny the overall advantages presented by the digital storage of musical data. non-degrading reproduction and near-archival lifetime. For many years. greatly simplifying the process of preparing for CD replication. self-contained cueing information. The songs are assembled with silent spaces of 2 to 4 seconds between cuts and with the final EQ and other settings to produce the exact sound desired at the output of the system.1 RESEARCH OF THE PROJECT OBJECTIVES  Compact disc. While arguments persist about the sampling rate and quantization level chosen for the CD. allowing for up to 72 minutes of stereo music. The technical details of the system include special data encoding procedures necessary to correct errors and a physical tracking system to allow reading of the data on any CD player. the compact disc (CD) has been the dominant medium of music delivery. The specifications for the audio CD were developed by Philips and Sony and are documented in the so-called Red Book. On a disc of slightly less than 5 inches in diameter. Although originally difficult to master. When originally recorded. It has advantages of nearly random access. with no equalizing or coloration.  Compact Discs The compact disc was the first digital medium designed for the consumer market and has become the most popular medium for commercial releases. Unlike tape and vinyl media. even making adjustments in the track amplitude. partially due to the many re-issues of older recordings that were prepared for vinyl release. While this is strictly true.  Tracking. but with several important enhancements: not the least of which are the increased dynamic range and resistance to wear-induced noise.  Mastering  Some General Practices.  Data Encoding. the master tapes were equalized to account for the shortcomings of the vinyl medium. The usual method of pre-mastering for CD release involves the use of a digital editor to assemble the program material into a continuous digital data stream.Compact Disc CHAPTER-4 METHODOLOGIES OF STUDY 4. and several others may be used to assemble the sound files for the CD and burn them to CD-R in the proper order with the desired spacing between cuts.

the stylus (needle) simply rides in the groove that contains the data using gravity and a sophisticated mechanical balancing system. one to the left and behind the data pickup beam and one to the right and ahead of the data pickup beam. but are usually 0¶s on audio CDs. as in CD-ROM and the other variants of the CD.. (The remaining bits can carry user information. the intensity of which is modulated by the data to be written.  The Q bits from 98 frames form a sub-code word 98 bits long.) The P bit is zero during music tracks and 1 between tracks.  In the process of encoding. making manufacturing easier. The rotation rate is varied to maintain a constant linear velocity.  Data encoding  Like the DAT. Unlike the DAT. but it has the advantage of lowering the bandwidth necessary to handle the output data.Q.. this cannot be employed to track the data on the CD. the relative beam intensities are used to tell the mechanism when the beams stray from the data track. Data are coded as edges of pits.W. so the beam reflected from the pit bottom cancels the incident beam while that reflected from the land reinforces the beam. Sub-code data (like the copy-protect bit) are also used on the CD. By using two additional pickup beams. allowing many different types of data in addition to audio data to be read and identified. The data are encoded as pits that are created by a high-power laser beam. which may be adjusted to allow more data to be recorded. EFM greatly reduces the number of short pits and the overall number of pits. By using a mastering house with an experienced engineer. the CD uses EFM (eight-to-fourteen modulation).R. Page 26 . the surface is plated with a thin metal coating. the raw audio samples are encoded along with synchronization and error detection/correction (CIRC) information and are interleaved before being written to the CD itself. When played back on a CD. One sub-code byte is added to every 32-bit symbol as output from the CIRC encoder. Once the entire disc is written. The coating is read from the bottom of the disc by scanning with a focused laser beam that reflects into a photosensitive element. there can be an apparent emphasis of high frequencies. This adds a lot of ³extra´ bits. the master can be digitally equalized to deliver the desired sound at the output of the CD player. On a phonograph record. The CD is tracked using the same optical information that contains the data. The pit depth is 1/4 of the wavelength of the laser light used to read the data (780 nm). which uses eight-to-ten modulation. Care must be taken to guarantee. the high frequencies sound overly emphasized.. Obviously. as well. so several 0 bits in succession are coded by a single pit. Even in some digitally mastered CDs.Compact Disc boosting the high frequencies to compensate for the eventual losses.. that the sound delivered to the customer is exactly what the engineer wanted. creating an interference pattern. Only the P and Q bits are defined in the Red Book. Each bit in the sub-code byte is assigned a designation P. sub-code information is added to the CD data.  Tracking  Because the data are stored as binary optical information. The P bit alternates between 0 and 1 at 2 Hz at the end of the disc (lead-out). some way of aligning the laser beam that reads the disc is necessary. This word conveys information about track. even with CDs.

1. Some general practices When preparing any project for release. with cassette still holding a share of the market.Compact Disc  Mastering  Mastering is the process by which recordings are delivered to manufacturing plants for duplication and distribution. Unfortunately. Not so long ago. An experienced mastering engineer will be able to find any problems with the program material that would create undesirable effects in the finished product. it is recommended that you listen to the ³final´ mixes on different speaker/stereo systems and at different volume levels. While we are tempted to make the program sound great on the studio monitors. Remember that the finished product is designed for the consumer environment. Initially all the questionnaires were analyzed individually. A good mix should sound good on any system. RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION Various Pie-charts and bar-graphs are made to have an easy and quick understanding of the study conducted. DATA ANALYSIS. we must also make it sound good on the average home stereo and even on a ³boom-box´ at the beach. we were given only two formats: vinyl LP or cassette. Today. This might require some equalization or compression that would not be optimal for studio listening. often for DJ use or for distribution of smaller projects (7´ 45 or 33 RPM). and then finally an overall comparison of the various responses was done and analyzed. each medium has sonic characteristics that may require the mastering engineer to take into account these characteristics and alter the recording in a way so as to make the final recording more faithfully represent the original sound. The form in which the final recording is to be distributed determines the format in which the master recording must be delivered. Optimally. The gender categorization is as follows: Page 27 . we would like the final medium to sound just like the master recording. The idea is to get the finished project to sound the best you can on the widest array of systems. These problems vary from one format to another. Vinyl is limited mainly to special purpose releases. the CD is the preferred medium for distribution.

Compact Disc Male Female Youngster Total 30% 25% 45% 100% Analysis: male female youngster Total INTERPRETATION: This analysis shows that questionnaires had been taken mostly from youngster customers. 2: I always prepare list before purchase? Analysis: 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Series1 Page 28 .

3 or more.Compact Disc INTERPRETATION: This analysis shows that questionnaires had been taken mostly agreed. 4: Maximum Price of the Compact disc? Analysis: Brand Sony Philips moserbear Others Price 48 36 25 20 Page 29 . 3: Comapct disc purchase by customers in a month? month 1 Quantity of disc 1 2 3 4 More than 4 Analysis: 60 40 20 0 1 2 brand 3 price 4 INTERPRETATION: This analysis shows that customers buys disc in month 1 .2.

6: Customer like most kind of compact disc? Disc Writable Re-writable DVD Re-Writable DVD others Users 20% 20% 30% 10% 20% Page 30 .Compact Disc price 60 40 20 0 price INTERPRETATION: This analysis shows that the price of compact disc is very fluctuating according to the market. 5: Customer prefer compact disc brand most? Analysis: Brand Sony Samsung Philips Moserbear others User in % 25% 10% 10% 25% 30% User in % 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% User in % INTERPRETATION: This is analysis shows that the customers prefer Sony and moserbear mostly.

5 1 INTERPRETATION: This analysis shows that people interested to change the brand one to another. 0 0. 8: How often people change their brands in 6 months? Analysis: Brand male female Change brand in 6 month 2 4 Page 31 .Compact Disc Users 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Users INTERPRETATION-: This Analysis shows that customers mostly prefer DVDs. 7: Customer change from one brand to another? Analysis: Brand Sony samsung moserbear others Change brand No change Philips HP unknown others Change brand 0 Change brand.

5 1 0. 10: People always purchase branded compact disc? Analysis: Person Male Female Yes/no Yes Yes INTERPRATION: This analysis shows that mostly people are interested in branded compact disc.5 0 female Male Yes yes Series1 INTERPRETATION: This analysis shows that people are aware from the quality of the brand. Page 32 .Compact Disc 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 Change brand in 6 month Brand INTERPReTATION: This analysis shows that peoples are aware to change the brand of compact disc. 9: for purchase people believe in quality? Analysis: Cutomer Male Female Yes /no yes Yes 1.

The history of the compact disc can be traced back to the development of electronic technology and particularly digital electronic technology in the 1960s. Institute for Experimental Mathematics. the compact disc (CD) has been the dominant medium of music delivery. the information is read or detected by a tightly focused light source called a laser (thus the name optical medium).A compact disc. which are used to play back recorded music. or computer information. replicated CDs are now possible from CD-R copies. or CD. it found increasing use in audio. non-degrading reproduction and near-archival lifetime. When the CD is played. Although originally difficult to master. BIBILOGRAPHY: www.com Reference: Kees A.google.wikipedia.Compact Disc Conclusion: For many years. video. Kees A. Audio Engineering Society. Essen. is an optical storage medium with digital data recorded on it. The digital data can be in the form of audio. greatly simplifying the process of preparing for CD replication. Germany. although downloading has recently cut into its share of the music market. self-contained cueing information. Schouhamer Immink from Netherland.com www.answers . This article will focus on audio compact discs. Page 33 . Schouhamer Immink. It has advantages of nearly random access. Fellow. Dr.com www. Although the first applications of this technology were not in the recording area.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful