Driver HanDbook

California
ENGLISH
2011
See It,
Touch It,
Trust It.
NEW
Cards
& Security
Features
S
T
A
T
E
O
F CAL
IF
O
R
N
I
A
®
Edmund G. Brown Jr., Governor
State of California
George Valverde, Director
Department of Motor Vehicles
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new 2011 lAws
Effective January 1, 2011
Motorcycle License Applicants Under 21
• Applicantsunder21yearsofageapplyingforamotorcyclelicensemust
complete an approved motorcycle training class, before applying for a
permitandmustholdthepermit6monthsbeforethemotorcyclelicense
canbeissued.
Firefighter Endorsement Change
• Afirefighter,includingatilleroperator,isrequiredtohaveavalidnoncom-
mercialClassClicense,orCommercialClassAorBlicenseandafirefighter
endorsementissuedbytheDepartmentofMotorVehicles(DMV)tooperate
firefightingequipment.
Pedicab Operator Requirements
• Operatorsofpedicabsforhirearerequiredtoholdoneormoreofthefol-
lowingdocuments:
1. AvalidCaliforniadriverlicense.
2. Proofofsuccessfulcompletionofabicyclesafetytrainingcoursecerti-
fiedbytheLeagueofAmericanBicyclistsoranequivalentorganization
asdeterminedbythelocalauthority,OR avalidCaliforniaidentifica-
tioncardandproofofsuccessfulcompletionofthewrittenportionof
theCaliforniadriver’slicenseexaminationadministeredbytheDMV.
-i-
dmv.ca.gov
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Go online
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dmv.ca.gov
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Go online
for speedy DMV transactions
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
new 2011 lAws .......................... i
new informAtion 2011 ............ viii
Where to Write ............................. viii
Dmv informAtion .....................ix
GenerAl informAtion ............... 1
Disclaimer ......................................1
Accurate Identifcation ....................1
Basic Information ...........................1
tHe cAliforniA Driver
license ................................ 2
Who Must Have a License? ...........2
California Residents .....................2
California Resident
Military Personnel
(U.S. Armed Forces) ..................2
Nonresident Military Personnel
Stationed in California ...............2
New Residents.............................2
Adults Visiting California ..............2
Minors Visiting California ..............3
oBtAininG A Driver license ........ 3
Acceptable Documents ..................3
Application Requirements for a
Basic Class C Driver License ......4
Adults’ Permit Requirements ..........4
Adults’ License Requirements ........5
license clAsses ....................... 5
tHe eXAminAtion process .......... 7
Where to Take the Tests .................7
DMV Examinations .........................7
speciAl section - minors ........... 8
Minors’ Permit Requirements ..........8
Minors’ Permit Restrictions .............9
Minors’ License Requirements........9
Exceptions - Minors License
Restrictions ..................................9
Traffic Violations ...........................10
Teenage Traffic Deaths ...............10
Actions against the
Provisional License ....................10
Keeping Your
Provisional License .................10
Habitual Truant—Persons
13 – 18 Years of Age ................ 11
Minors and Cell Phones ...............12
miscellAneoUs licensinG
informAtion ........................12
To Replace a Lost/Stolen or
Damaged License .....................12
Name Changes ............................12
License Renewals ........................12
Renewal by Mail or Internet ..........12
License Extension ........................14
License in Your Possession ..........14
Address Changes .........................14
Medical Information Card .............14
Organ and Tissue Donation ..........14
Unlicensed Drivers .......................15
Diplomatic Driver Licenses ...........15
Identifcation (ID) Card .................15
Free ID Cards for Physical and
Mental (P&M) Conditions ..........15
Driving Schools ............................16
Mature Driver Program .................16
Pedestrian Responsibilities ..........16
seAt Belts ..............................17
Mistaken Beliefs about
Seat Belts ..................................18
Child Restraint System and
Safety Seats ..............................19
Riding Safely with Air Bags ..........19
Side-Impact Air Bags ....................19
Unattended Children in
Motor Vehicles ...........................20
trAffic liGHts AnD siGns .........20
Traffic Signal Lights ......................20
Pedestrian Signal Lights ...............21
Traffic Signs ..................................22
lAws AnD rUles of tHe roAD.....23
Right-of-Way Rules ......................23
General Information ...................23
Pedestrians ................................23
Crosswalks .................................26
Intersections...............................26
Roundabouts .............................27
On Mountain Roads ...................27
Speed Limits ................................28
Maximum Speed Limit ..................28
Reduced Speeds ..........................28
Heavy Traffic or Bad Weather ...28
Towing Vehicles, Buses,
or Large Trucks .......................28
-v-
Around Children .........................29
Blind Intersections .....................29
Alleys ..........................................29
Near Railroad Tracks ..................29
Light Rail Transit Vehicle
Crossings ................................30
Near Streetcars, Trolleys,
or Buses ..................................30
Business or Residential
Districts ...................................31
Near Animals ..............................31
trAffic lAnes .........................31
Line Colors ...................................31
Choosing a Lane ..........................31
Changing Lanes ...........................32
Passing Lanes ..............................32
Carpool/High Occupancy
Vehicles (HOV) Lanes ..............34
Center Left Turn Lanes .................34
Turnout Areas and Lanes .............35
End-of-Lane Markings ..................35
Bicycle Lanes ...............................35
Shared Roadway Bicycle
Markings (Sharrows) .................35
tUrns ....................................36
Examples of Right and
Left Turns ...................................37
Legal U-Turns ...............................38
Illegal U-Turns ..............................39
pArKinG .................................39
Parking on a Hill ...........................39
Parking at Colored Curbs .............39
Illegal Parking ...............................41
Special Parking Rules ..................41
sAfe DrivinG prActices ............45
Signaling ......................................45
Steering .....................................45
Scanning ......................................46
Know What Is Ahead ..................46
Know What Is at Your Side .........48
Know What Is Behind You ..........48
Clean Windows and Mirrors .......49
Adjust Seat and Mirrors .............49
How Well Can You Stop? ............49
Driving in the Fog .........................50
Driving in Darkness ......................50
Driving in Rain or Snow ................51
Driving in Hill Country ...................51
Horn, Headlights, and
Emergency Signals ...................51
Use Your Horn ............................51
Do Not Use Your Horn ................51
Use Your Headlights ...................52
Use Your Emergency Signals .....52
Following Distances .....................53
Taking Dangers One
at a Time ..................................53
Splitting the Difference ...............53
Problem Drivers .........................53
Merging in/out of Traffic ................53
Space to Merge .........................54
Space to Cross or Enter .............54
Space to Exit ..............................54
Passing Other Traffic ....................55
Space and Speed to Pass .........55
Space to Return .........................55
sHArinG tHe roAD....................55
Large Trucks (Big Rigs)
and RVs .....................................55
Braking ......................................55
Trucker’s Blind Spots—
the “No Zone” ..........................56
Turning .......................................56
Maneuverability .........................56
Buses, Streetcars, and Trolleys ....58
Light-Rail Vehicles ........................58
Emergency Vehicles .....................59
Slow-Moving Vehicles ...................60
Neighborhood Electric Vehicles
(NEV) and Low-Speed
Vehicles (LSV) ...........................60
Animal-Drawn Vehicles .................60
Motorcycles ..................................60
Bicycles ........................................61
Pedestrians Who Are Blind ...........62
Road Workers and Work Zones
(“Cone Zones”) ..........................63
Double Fine Zones .......................64
Move Over and Slow Down ..........64
Vehicles with Hazardous Loads ...64
-vi-
importAnt DrivinG tips ............64
Dealing with Traffic Congestion ....66
Dealing with Aggressive Drivers and
Road Rage ................................66
Text Messaging and
Cell Phones ...............................66
Collision Avoidance ......................67
Keep Your Car Visible .................67
What is the Road Condition .......67
Curves ........................................67
Driving in Heavy Traffic ...............67
Traffic Speeds ............................67
Driving Hazards ............................68
Water on the Road .....................68
Slippery Roads ..........................68
Skids on Slippery Surfaces .......68
Mechanical Tips............................69
Acceleration Skids .....................69
Locked Wheel Skids ..................69
Accelerator Malfunction .............69
Steering Wheel Locking
Device .....................................69
Collisions are not Accidents .........69
Causes of Collisions ..................70
Involved in a Collision ................70
Reporting a Collision .................70
ADDitionAl DrivinG
lAws/rUles..........................71
Things You Must Not Do: ..............71
Things You Must Do: .....................72
HeAltH AnD sAfetY ...................73
Safety for the Aging Driver ............73
Good Vision for All Drivers ............73
Hearing .........................................73
Alertness ...................................... 74
Medications .................................. 74
Hot Weather Risks........................ 74
Health and Emotions ....................75
Conditions Physicians
Must Report ...............................75
Safety Tips ....................................75
Record Confdentiality ..................76
Vehicle Theft Prevention Tips ........76
Traffic Breaks ...............................77
What a Driver Should Do
During an Enforcement Stop .....77
Actions tHAt resUlt in loss of
license ...............................78
Financial Responsibility ................78
Insurance .....................................79
Insurance Requirements ............79
Collisions on Your Record ..........79
Collisions, Insurance,
and Minors ..............................82
Alcohol/Drugs while Driving .........82
Alcohol/Drugs and Driving
Is Dangerous ...........................82
Carrying Alcohol in a Vehicle .....82
Drivers Under 21
(Possession of Alcohol) ...........83
Drivers of All Ages ......................83
Blood Alcohol Concentration
(BAC) Limits ............................83
Admin Per Se ...............................84
Court DUI Convictions ..................85
Drivers 21 and Older —DUI
Programs and Restricted
Licenses ..................................85
Designated Driver Program ..........86
Getting a Ticket .............................86
Evading a Police Officer ...............87
Points on the Driver Record .........87
Vandalism/Graffiti—All Ages .........88
Speed Contests/Reckless
Driving .......................................88
Possessing Firearms ....................88
Traffic Violator School
Dismissals .................................88
Suspension or Revocation
by DMV ......................................88
Suspension by Judge ...................89
veHicle reGistrAtion
reqUirements ......................89
California Vehicles ........................89
Out-of-State Vehicles ....................90
Related Fast Facts and
Other Publications
(available online): .......................91
Sample Test #1 .............................93
Sample Test #2 .............................94
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Where to Write
If you have any comments or suggestions regarding this publication,
please send them to:
Department of Motor Vehicles
Customer Communications Section
MS H165
PO Box 932345
Sacramento, CA 94232-3450
© Copyright, Department of Motor Vehicles 2011
All rights reserved
This work is protected by U. S. Copyright Law. DMV owns the copyright of this work.
Copyright law prohibits the following: (1) reproduction of the copyrighted work; (2)
distribution of copies of the copyrighted work; (3) preparation of derivative works
based upon the copyrighted work; (4) displaying the copyrighted work publicly; or
(5) performing the copyrighted work publicly. All requests for permission to make
copies of all or any part of this publication should be addressed to:
Department of Motor Vehicles
Legal Offce MS C128
PO Box 932382
Sacramento, CA 94232-3820
new informAtion 2011
• TheCaliforniaDMVbeganissuinganewlydesigned,moresecureCalifor-
niadriverlicenseandidentificationcard.Thenewcardsaredistinguished
byadditionalsecurityfeatures,andhaveadifferentlookandfeel.Thenew
cardshavethelatestsecuritytechnologyandhaveseveralfeaturestoprotect
themagainstfraud,tamperingandcounterfeiting.Someofthenewfeatures
includeaverticallayoutforpersonsunder21;thecardholders’dateofbirth
andsignaturescanbefeltbytouch;imagesthatcanonlybeseenwiththe
useofanultravioletlight;andalaserperforationoutlineoftheCalifornia
Brown Bear, which can only be seen from the front of the card when a
flashlightispressedagainstthebackofthecard.VisitDMV’swebsiteat
www.dmv.ca.govtoviewtheredesignedDL/IDcards.
• Sharedlanemarkings,commonlycalled“Sharrows”arepavementmarkings
andareusedtoreminddriversthatbicyclingisallowedandencouragedin
atravellanewhenconditionswarrant.Seeillustrationonpage35.
-viii-
Dmv informAtion
DMVofficesareopen8a.m.to5p.m.onMonday,Tuesday,Thursday,and
Fridayandfrom9a.m.to5p.m.onWednesday.Afewofficesofferonlydriver
licenseorvehicleregistrationservices.Goonlineorcallthetoll-freenumber
belowtofindtheofficelocationsandserviceoptionsofanofficenearyou.
Goonlineat:www.dmv.ca.govfor:
• Fieldofficelocations,hours,directions,andphonenumbers
• Makingappointments(exceptforcommercialdrivingtests)
• Orderingpersonalizedplates
• Driverlicenseandidentificationcardinformation
• Vehicle/vesselregistrationinformation
• Downloadableforms
• Publications—handbooks,brochures,andsampletests
• Seniordriverinformation
• Teendriverinformation
• Linkstootherstateandfederalagencies
• Renewyourdriverlicenseorvehicleregistration
• Call1-800-777-0133duringnor-
malbusinesshoursto:
– Get driver license and ve-
hicleregistrationinformation,
forms,andpublications.
– Findofficelocationsand
hours.
– Makeadrivingtestappoint-
ment.
– SpeaktoaDMVrepresenta-
tive.
• Call 1-800-777-0133 for auto-
matedservice24hoursaday,7
daysaweekto:
– Renewyourdriverlicenseor
vehicleregistrationwiththe
RenewalIdentificationNum-
berprovidedonyourbilling
notice.Youcanpaywitha
creditcard.
– Makeanofficeappointment.
Advertising sponsorship, instead of your fees, helps defray the printing costs of this
publication. The products and services provided by the advertising sponsors are not
promoted or endorsed by DMV, but the signifcant contribution by the advertising
sponsors is most appreciated.
If you would like to advertise in this publication, please call the Offce of State
Publishing Advertising Department at 1-866-824-0603.
-ix-
dmv.ca.gov
Be courteous –
We all want to
get home safely!
GenerAl informAtion
Disclaimer
FeeslistedintheCalifornia Driver Handbookaresubjecttolegislativechange.
Thishandbookprovidesasummaryofthelawsandregulationsoutlinedinthe
California Vehicle Code (CVC).TheDepartmentofMotorVehicles(DMV),
lawenforcement,andthecourtsfollowthefullandexactlanguageoftheCVC.
TheCVCandCalifornia Code of Regulations(CCR)areavailableonlineat
www.dmv.ca.gov ortheLegislativewebsiteatwww.leginfo.ca.gov. You may
alsobuyacopyoftheCVCatanyDMVoffice.
accurate iDentification
Thereliability,integrity,andconfidentialityoftheCaliforniadriverlicense
(DL)andidentificationcard(ID)isofprimeconcerntoalllevelsofgovern-
mentandtheprivatesector.
Itiscriticalthatthesedocumentsbecompletelyauthenticatedandaccurate.
TheCaliforniaLegislaturehasdeclaredthattheDLorIDcardistheprimary
identificationdocumentinthisstate.Californialawrequiresthatallapplicants
whoapplyforanoriginalCaliforniaDL/IDcardsubmitproofoflegalpresence
intheU.S.asauthorizedunderfederallaw.Yourtruefullnameasshownon
yourlegalpresencedocumentwillappearonyourDL/IDcard.
Basic information
ACaliforniadriverlicenseshowsthatyouhavebeengivenpermissionbythe
statetodriveonpublicroadways.Youmayapplyforadriverlicenseatmost
DMVoffices(seepageix).
It is a misdemeanor to drive in California without a valid driver license. If
youdo,youcanbecited,yourvehiclemaybeimpounded,andyoumayhave
toappearincourt.
Ifyoudonothaveoutstandingactionsonyourrecord,youwillreceivealicense
afteryoupaytheapplicationfee,passallapplicableexaminations,showthat
yourphysicaland/ormentalconditionissatisfactory,anddemonstrateyour
abilitytodrivesafely.Ifyouhaveamedicalconditionoradisability,DMV
mayrequireyoutotakeadrivingtest.Youmayalsohavetoprovideastate-
mentfromyourphysicianregardingyourcurrenthealthcondition.
-1-
tHe cAliforniA Driver
license
Who must have a license?
California Residents
California residents who drive on
publichighwaysorusepublicpark-
ingfacilitiesmusthaveaCalifornia
driverlicense,unlesstheyare:
• MembersoftheArmedForcesor
a United States (U.S.) Govern-
mentcivilianemployeewhoonly
drives vehicles owned or con-
trolled by the U.S. Government
onfederalbusiness.
• Persons who drive farming ve-
hiclesnotnormallyusedonpublic
highways.
• Personswhodriveregisteredoff-
highwayvehiclesorsnowmobiles
across a highway (other than a
freeway).
California Resident Military
Personnel (U.S. Armed Forces)
Ifyouareout-of-stateonactivemili-
tarydutyandhaveavalidCalifornia
driverlicense,yourlicensewillbe
validforthefulltimeyouareabsent
fromCaliforniaandfor30daysfol-
lowingyourdischargedate,ifyou
arehonorablydischargedoutsideof
California.Carry bothyour driver
licenseanddischargeorseparation
papersduringthose30days(CVC
§12817).
Call 1-800-777-0133 to obtain an
ExtensionofLicenseforPersonin
ArmedForces(DL236)cardwhich
extendsyourCalifornialicense.
NOTE:Yourlicenseisnotvalidif
ithasbeensuspended,cancelledor
revoked.
Militarydependentsdonotqualify
forthisextension.
Nonresident Military Personnel
Stationed in California
Ifyouare18yearsofageorolder,see
therulesfor“CaliforniaResidents”
and “Adults Visiting California.”
Licenseeseligibleformilitaryexten-
sions should carry documentation
fromtheirhomestatetoverifytheir
statustolawenforcement.
New Residents
When you become a California
resident and you want to drive in
California, you must apply for a
California driver license within
10 days. Residency is established
inavarietyofways,includingthe
following:
• BeingregisteredtovoteinCali-
forniaelections.
• PayingresidenttuitionataCali-
forniacollegeoruniversity.
• Filingforahomeowner’sprop-
ertytaxexemption.
• Receivinganyotherprivilegeor
benefitnotordinarilyextendedto
nonresidents.
Adults Visiting California
Visitors over 18 years old with a
validdriverlicensefromtheirhome
stateorcountrymaydriveinCali-
forniawithoutgettingaCalifornia
driverlicenseaslongastheirhome
statelicenseisvalid.
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Minors Visiting California
Visitorsbetween16–18yearsold
may drive with their home state
license for only 10 days after ar-
rivinginCalifornia.After10days,
theymusthavea:
• CurrentCaliforniadriverlicense,
or
• NonresidentMinor’sCertificate
(which is issued by DMV) to a
minor with proof of financial
responsibility.
oBtAininG A Driver
license
When you apply for an original
DL/ID card, you must present an
acceptablebirthdate/legalpresence
documentandprovideyoursocial
security number (SSN). Depend-
ingonthebirthdate/legalpresence
document you present, your first
CaliforniaDL/IDcardmayexpire
onthesamedateasyourlegalpres-
encedocument.Ifthenameonyour
birthdate/legalpresencedocument
isdifferentfromthenameonyour
DL/ID card application, you must
also bring an acceptable true full
name document.Your fingerprint,
signature, and picture will also be
taken (see page 4). For any other
DL/ID card transaction, you must
presentphotoidentification.
acceptaBle Documents
Anacceptablebirthdate/legalpres-
enceortruefullnamedocumentis
issued by a county or state. This
documentisacertifiedcopyofthe
original(theoriginalisretainedby
the county or state) and contains
an impressed seal or an original
stampedimpression.DMVwillnot
acceptaphotocopy ofthecertified
copyforbirthdate/legalpresenceor
truefullnameverification.
Examplesofotheracceptablebirth
date/legalpresencedocumentsare:
U.S.BirthCertificate,ProofofIn-
dianBloodDegree,U.S.Passport,
U.S.ArmedForcesIDCards,Cer-
tificateofNaturalization,Permanent
ResidentCard,oraforeignpassport
orMexicanBorderCrossingCard
withavalidI-94.TheI-94expiration
date must be more than 2 months
from the DL/ID card application
date.Acompletelistofbirthdate/
legalpresencedocumentsisavail-
ableonlineatwww.dmv.ca.gov or
intheFastFactbrochureBirth Date
and Legal Presence Requirements
(FFDL05).
Examples of true full name veri-
fication documents include the
following:
• Adoptiondocumentscontaining
yourlegalnameasaresultofthe
adoption.
• Namechangedocumentscontain-
ingyourlegalnamebothbefore
andafterthenamechange.
• MarriageCertificate.
-3-
• A certificate, declaration, or
registration document verifying
the information of a domestic
partnership.
• Dissolution of marriage docu-
mentcontainingyourlegalname,
asaresultofthecourtorder.
application requirements
for a Basic class c Driver
license
To apply for a driver license, you
must:
• Submit a completed and signed
DMV Driver or Identification
Card application (DL 44) form.
Signing this form means you
agree to submit to a chemical
test to determine the alcohol or
drugcontentofyourbloodwhen
requested by a police officer. If
yourefusetosignthisstatement,
DMVwillnotissueapermitor
license.
• Presentanacceptablebirthdate/
legalpresencedocument.
• Provideyourtruefullname.
• ProvideyourSSN,whichwillbe
electronically verified with the
SocialSecurityAdministration.
• Payanonrefundableapplication
feewhenyouapplyforanynewor
changeofclasspermitorlicense.
Thisfeewillnotbereturned.The
feeisgoodfor12monthsandal-
lowsyoutotaketheappropriate
lawtest(s)threetimes.Ifyoufail
thelawtestand/ordrivetestthree
times your application will be
void,andanewapplicationand
fee are required. This fee pays
for both the instruction permit
anddriverlicense,ifyouqualify
for both documents within the
12-monthperiod.Iftheapplica-
tion expires, you must resubmit
documents,repaytheapplication
fee,andretaketherequiredtests.
• Pass a vision test.You must be
abletopassavisiontest,withor
without corrective lenses, with
visual acuity better than 20/200
in at least one eye without the
useofabioptictelescopiclensor
similarbiopticdevicetomeetthe
minimumvisionacuitystandard.
Youareallowedtouseabioptic
lens for the behind-the-wheel
road test.A bioptic lens restric-
tion and daytime driving only
restrictionwillbeaddedtoyour
driverrecord.
• Haveyourpicturetaken.
• Giveafingerprintscan.
• Signyourname.
aDults’ permit requirements
Ifyouareatleast18yearsold,meet
the application requirements, and
pass the required tests, you may
be issued a California instruction
permit.
Youmusthaveaninstructionper-
mit while learning to drive. Your
accompanying driver must be 18
years of age or older and have a
validCaliforniadriverlicense.This
personmustbeseatedcloseenough
-4-
toyouthatheorsheisabletotake
controlofthevehicleatanytime.An
instructionpermitdoesnotpermit
you to drive alone–not even to a
DMVofficetotakethedrivingtest.
Ifyouwanttoobtainprofessional
drivereducationanddrivertraining,
refertopage16.
If you have a motorcycle permit,
you cannot carry passengers, you
mustrideduringdaylighthoursonly,
andyoucannotrideonthefreeway.
Togetamotorcyclepermityoumust:
• Beatleast18yearsofage.
• Completetheapplicationrequire-
ments.
• Passatrafficlawsandroadsigns
test.
aDults’ license requirements
Ifyouhaveneverbeenlicensed,you
mustmeetthefollowingcriteria:
• Beatleast18yearsold.
• Complywiththerequirementsfor
a driving permit, and when you
arereadyyoumustscheduleyour
behind-the-wheeldrivingtest.
• Makeanappointmentandbring
yourinstructionpermitwithyou
to the behind-the-wheel driving
test.
• Passthebehind-the-wheeldriving
test.Ifyoufailthetest,youmust
pay a retest fee for a second or
subsequent test and schedule a
behind-the-wheeldrivingtestfor
anotherday.
If you have an out-of-state or
out-of-country driver license,
youmust:
• Completeallthestepsrequired
forapermit.
• Bring your valid out-of-state
driver license to DMV. Your
out-of-statedriverlicensewill
beinvalidatedandreturnedto
youunlessyouareapplyingfor
acommerciallicense.
NOTE:Thebehind-the-wheeldriv-
ingtestforholdersofout-of-stateor
U.S.territorylicensesarenormally
waived. However, the department
may require a behind-the-wheel
drivingtestforany typeofdriverli-
censeapplication.Behind-the-wheel
drivingtestsare mandatory forout-
of-countrydriverlicenseholders.
license clAsses
This handbook is primarily for a
basicClassCdriverlicense.
Class C license -
• You may drive a:
– 2-axlevehiclewithaGrossVe-
hicleWeightRating(GVWR)
of26,000lbs.orless.
– 3-axlevehicleweighing6,000
lbs.orlessgross.
– Housecar40feetorless.
– 3-wheelmotorcycle.
– Vanpool vehicle designed to
carry more than 10 persons,
but no more than 15 persons
includingthedriver.
-5-
NOTE: The driver must have a
valid medical certification on file
withDMVandcarryavalidmedical
card. The driver must keep in the
vanpoolvehicleastatementsigned
under penalty of perjury, that he
or she has not been convicted of
recklessdriving,drunkdriving,or
hit-and-run in the last five years
(CVC§12804.9(j)).
• You may tow a:
– SinglevehiclewithaGVWR
of10,000lbs.orless,including
atowdolly,ifused.
• With a vehicle weighing 4,000 lbs.
or more, unladen, you may tow a:
– Trailer coach or 5th-wheel
traveltrailerunder10,000lbs.
GVWRwhentowingisnotfor
compensation.
– 5th-wheeltraveltrailerexceed-
ing10,000lbs.butunder15,000
lbs. GVWR, when towing is
notforcompensation,and with
endorsement.
• A farmer or employee of a farmer
may drive:
– Any combination of vehicles
with a GVWR of 26,000 lbs.
or less, if used exclusively in
agricultural operations and it
isnotforhireorcompensation.
NOTE:
• Class C licensees may not tow
morethanonevehicle.
• A passenger vehicle, regardless
ofweight,maynottowmorethan
onevehicle.
• Nomotorvehicleunder4,000
lbs.unladenweightmaytow
anyvehicleweighing6,000lbs.
ormoregross.(CVC§21715)
Other classes of driver licenses/
endorsements are:
• NoncommercialClassA
• NoncommercialClassB
• CommercialClassA
• CommercialClassB
• CommercialClassC
• MotorcycleClassM1
• MotorcycleClassM2
• Commercial Endorsement for:
– Doubles/Triples
– HazardousMaterials
– PassengerTransportation
– TankVehicle
• AmbulanceDriverCertificate
• FirefighterEndorsement
• SchoolBusEndorsement
• TowTruckDriverCertificate
• Verification of Transit Training
Certificate
Detailed information on other li-
censetypesandendorsementscanbe
foundintheCalifornia Commercial
Driver Handbook, Recreational
Vehicles and Trailers Handbook,
Ambulance Drivers Handbook,
Parent-Teen Training Guide, and
California Motorcycle Handbook.
Pleaserefertotheabovehandbooks
foradditionalinformation.
-6-
tHe eXAminAtion
process
Where to take the tests
You may take the written, vision,
andbehind-the-wheeldrivingtests
atanyDMVfieldofficewhichpro-
videsdriverlicenseservices.
Tosavetime,makeanappointment
online: www.dmv.ca.gov or call
1-800-777-0133 during normal
businesshours.
NOTE: DMV will not administer
written or audio exams after 4:30
p.m.,toensureyouhavesufficient
timefortesting.
Writtenandvisiontestsarerequired
whenyouapplyforanoriginaldriver
licenseorupgradetoadifferentclass
ofdriverlicense.
The use of testing aids is strictly
prohibited.Thisincludes,butisnot
limited to: The California Driver
Handbook, cheat sheets, or elec-
troniccommunicationdevicessuch
asacellphone,hand-heldcomputer,
etc. If any testing aid(s) are used
duringthewrittentest,thewritten
test will be marked as a “failure.”
An action may also be taken by
DMVagainstyourdrivingprivilege
or the driving privilege of anyone
elsewhoassiststheapplicantinthe
examinationprocess.
Dmv examinations
Your driver license examinations
include:
• A vision test. (Bring your
eyeglasses or contact lenses to
theexam.)
• A test of traffic laws and road
signs.
• Abehind-the-wheeldrivingtest,
if required. You must have an
appointmenttotakethebehind-
the-wheel driving test. For the
drivingtest,bring:
– Your old driver license or in-
struction permit, if you have
one.
– Alicenseddriverage18years
or older with a valid driver
license.
– Proofthatthevehicleisprop-
erlyinsured.
– Avehiclethatissafetodrive
with valid registration and
displaysafrontandrearlicense
plate. The vehicle’s brake
lights, horn, parking brake,
andelectricsignalsmustwork
properly,andthevehiclecannot
have bald tires. The driver’s
side window must roll down.
The windshield must allow a
fullunobstructedfieldofvision
andtheremustbetworearview
mirrors(oneontheleftoutside
ofthevehicle).
You will be asked to locate
the controls for the vehicle’s
headlights, windshield wip-
ers, defroster, and emergency
-7-
flashers.Youmustdemonstrate
howtousetheparkingbrake.If
youusearentalvehicleforthe
drivingtest,thedriver’sname
must show on the contract as
the insured driver. You must
alsowearyourseatbelt.
NOTE:Thebehind-the-wheeldriv-
ing test will be rescheduled if the
vehicle does not meet the above
requirements,orifyourefusetouse
yourseatbeltduringthedrivingtest.
Formoreinformation,refertothe
FastFactsbrochureHow to Prepare
for Your Driving Test(FFDL22)and
sample tests which are available
onlineatwww.dmv.ca.gov.
speciAl section -
minors
minors’ permit requirements
Aminorisapersonunder18years
of age. Minors must have their
applicationforadriverlicense,or
anychangeofdriverlicenseclass,
signedbyhis/herparent(s)orlegal
guardian(s).
NOTE: Minors may not work
as a driver for pay and they may
notdriveaschoolbuscontaining
pupils.
Togetapermityoumust:
• Beatleast15
1
/2yearsofage,but
under18yearsofage.
• Complete the Driver License or
Identification Card application
(DL44)(seepages4and5).
• Haveyourparent(s)orguardian(s)
signtheDL44form.
• Passatrafficlawsandroadsigns
test.Ifyoufailthetest,youmust
wait one week before retaking
thetest.
• Ifyouare15
1
/2–17
1
/2yearsofage,
you will need to provide proof
thatyou:
– Completed driver education
(Certificate of Completion of
DriverEducation)OR
– Are enrolled and participat-
inginanapprovedintegrated
driver education/driver train-
ing program. (Certificate of
Enrollment in an Integrated
[Classroom]DriverEducation
andDriverTrainingProgram.)
For more information, refer
to the Fast Fact Provisional
Licensing Changes(FFDL19)
atwww.dmv.ca.gov.
The provisional permit is not
validuntilyou startyourbehind-
the-wheel driver training with an
instructororreachage17
1
/2.
If you have a permit and plan to
drive outside of California, check
licensingrequirementsinthatstate
orcountry.
NOTE: If you are at least 17
1
/2
years of age, you may obtain a
permit without completing driver
educationordrivertraining.How-
ever,youcannotgetalicensebefore
youare18yearsold,oryoumust
provide proof of driver education
anddrivertrainingcompletion.
-8-
minors’ permit restrictions
Your permit is not valid until you
begindrivertraining;yourinstruc-
torwillsignthepermittovalidate
it.Youmustpracticewithalicensed
Californiadriver:parent,guardian,
drivinginstructor,spouse,oranadult
25yearsofageorolder.Theperson
mustsitcloseenoughtoyoutotake
controlofthevehicleatanytime.
Aprovisionalpermitdoesnotallow
youtodrivealone–noteventoa
DMVofficetotakeadrivingtest.
minors’ license requirements
Youmust:
• Beatleast16yearsold.
• Prove that you have finished
bothdrivereducationanddriver
training.
• HavehadaCaliforniainstruction
permitforatleastsixmonths.
• Provideparent(s)orguardian(s)
signature(s) on your instruction
permit stating that you have
completed50hoursofsupervised
driving practice (10 hours must
be night driving) as outlined in
theParent-Teen Training Guide
(DL603).VisittheTeenwebsite
atwww.dmv.ca.gov/teenweb/or
call 1-800-777-0133 to request
thisbooklet.
• Passthebehind-the-wheeldriving
test. You have three chances to
passthetestwhileyourpermitis
valid.Ifyoufailthebehind-the-
wheeldrivingtest,youmustpay
aretestfeeforasecondorsub-
sequenttestandwaittwoweeks
beforeyouareretested.
Once you have your provisional
license,youmaydrivealone,aslong
asyoudonothaveanycollisionsor
trafficviolations.
Whenyoubecome18yearsold,the
“provisional” part of your license
ends.Youmaykeepyourprovisional
photo license or pay a fee for a
duplicatelicensewithouttheword
“provisional.”
During the first 12 months after
youarelicensed,youcannotdrive
between11p.m. and5a.m. and you
cannot transport passengers under
20yearsofage,unlessyouareac-
companiedbyalicensedparentor
guardian,alicenseddriver25years
ofageorolder,oralicensedorcerti-
fieddrivinginstructor.
exceptions - minors license
restrictions
The law allows the following
exceptionswhenreasonabletrans-
portationisnotavailable,anditis
necessaryforyoutodrive.Asigned
notemustbekeptinyourpossession
forthefollowingexceptions,which
explainsthenecessitytodriveand
thedatewhenthisdrivingnecessity
will end (emancipated minors are
excludedfromthisrequirement):
• Medicalnecessitytodrivewhen
reasonable transportation alter-
nativesareinadequate.Thenote
must be signed by a physician
withthediagnosisandprobable
dateofrecovery.
-9-
• Schooling or school-authorized
activity.Thenotemustbesigned
bytheschoolprincipal,dean,or
designee.
• Employment necessity and the
needtooperateavehicleaspart
of your employment. The note
mustbesignedbytheemployer
verifyingemployment.
• Thenecessitytodriveanimmedi-
atefamilymember.Aphysician’s
note and a note signed by your
parent(s) or legal guardian(s) is
required, stating the reason and
probable end date of the neces-
sitytodrivetheimmediatefamily
member.
EXCEPTION:Theserequirements
do not apply to an emancipated
minor. You must have declared
yourself emancipated and pro-
videdDMVwithProofofFinancial
Responsibility (SR1P) in lieu of
your parent(s) or guarantor(s)
signature(s).
traffic violations
Nearly 50 percent of the drivers
between 15 – 19 years of age are
convicted of a traffic violation in
theirfirstyearofdriving.
Themostcommonviolationisfor
speeding,whichoftenresultsinthe
lossofvehiclecontrolandaccounts
forabout50percentofallteentraffic
convictions.
Whenyouviolatetrafficlaws,you
increaseyourchancesofhavinga
collision.
Teenage Traffic Deaths
Drivers 15–19 years old have the
highesttrafficconviction,collision,
andinjuryratesofanyagegroup.
Traffic collisions are the leading
causeofdeathforteenagers.Ifyou
areunder18yearsold,yourriskof
afatalcollisionisabout2
1
/2times
thatofthe“average”driver.Yourrisk
ofaninjurycollisionisthreetimes
higherthantheaveragedriver’srisk.
actions against
the provisional license
Teenagersasagroupaveragetwice
asmanycollisionsasadultdrivers,
while driving only half as many
miles.Theteenagecollisionrateper
mileisfourtimesgreaterthanthe
adultdrivercollisionratepermile.
Studiesshowthatthetrafficdeaths
ofnewdriversaredeadlycombina-
tionsoftheirinexperiencedriving,
lackoffamiliaritywiththevehicle,
andtheirneedtopushthemselves
andthevehicletothelimit.
Keeping Your Provisional License
TheDMVwilltrackyourdrivingre-
cordandtakeactionsbaseduponany
collisionsorviolationsasfollows:
• Ifyougetatrafficticketandfail
to appear in court, DMV will
suspend your driving privilege
untilyouappearincourt.
• Ifyougetatrafficticketandfail
topaythefine,DMVwillsuspend
your driving privilege until you
paythefine.
-10-
dmv.ca.gov
Cell phone use on the road...
Get the picture?
It is illegal and dangerous.
• If you have one “at fault” col-
lision or conviction within 12
months, DMV will send you a
warningletter.
• If you have a second “at fault”
collisionorconviction(orcom-
bination of both) within 12
months, you cannot drive for
30 days, unless accompanied
byyourlicensedparentorother
licensedadultwhoisatleast25
yearsofage.
• If you have a third “at fault”
collision or conviction (or any
combination)within12months,
you will be suspended for six
monthsandplacedonprobation
foroneyear.
• Ifyouhaveadditional“atfault”
collisionsorpointcountconvic-
tionswhileonprobation,youwill
besuspendedagain.(Trafficlaw
violations resolved in Juvenile
CourtarealsoreportedtoDMV.)
• If you are convicted of using
alcoholoracontrolledsubstance
andyouarebetween13–21years
ofage,thecourtorderstheDMV
to suspend your driver license
foroneyear.Ifyoudonothave
adriverlicensethecourtorders
DMVtodelayyoureligibilityto
apply for a driver license. You
mayalsoberequiredtocomplete
a Driving-Under-the-Influence
(DUI)program.
Anyrestriction,suspension,orpro-
bationwillcontinueforitsfullterm
pastyour18
th
birthday.
Other,strongeractionsmaybetaken
ifyourdrivingrecordjustifiesthem.
Remember,ifyourdrivingprivilege
hasbeensuspendedorrevoked,you
may not driveinCalifornia.
Habitual Truant—
Persons 13 – 18 Years of Age
Thecourtwillsuspend,restrict,de-
lay,orrevokeyourdrivingprivilege
foroneyearifyouareconvictedof
beingahabitualtruantfromschool.
minors anD cell phones
• Itisagainstthelawforaminor
to use a cell phone while driv-
ing.Ifyourcellphonerings,do
notanswerthecallorrespondto
thetext.
• Convictionsforviolationsofthis
lawaresubjecttofines.
• Exceptions:You may use a cell
phonetocontactlawenforcement,
a health care provider, the fire
department,oranotheremergency
entityinanemergencysituation.
miscellAneoUs
licensinG
informAtion
to replace a lost/stolen or
DamageD license
Ifyourdriverlicenseislost,stolen,
ordamaged,youmustgotoaDMV
officeandpayafeeforareplacement
license. You should also present
photoidentification.IfDMVcannot
confirmyouridentity,youwillnot
beissuedatemporarylicense.
-12-
If you are a minor, your parent(s)
orguardian(s)mustsigntheDMV
applicationform(DL44).
Onceareplacementlicenseisissued,
the previous license is no longer
valid.Destroytheoldlicenseifyou
finditlater.
name changes
Whenyoulegallychangeyourname
becauseofmarriageorotherreasons,
besuretochangeyournamewith
theSocialSecurityAdministration
(SSA)beforecomingintoDMV.
BringyourdriverlicensetoDMV
in person, along with your mar-
riagecertificateorotheracceptable
verificationofyour“truefullname”
(see page 3). You must complete
theDriverLicenseorIdentification
Cardapplication(DL44)andpaythe
applicablefee.DMVwillelectroni-
callyverifyyourname,birthdate,
and social security number (SSN)
withtheSSA.
A new picture, fingerprint, and
signaturewillbetakenandyourold
photoDL/IDcardwillbeinvalidated
andreturnedtoyou.
license reneWals
The DMV sends a renewal notice
toyouraddressofrecordabouttwo
months before your driver license
expires.Followtheinstructionson
the renewal notice. If you do not
receivearenewalnotice,goonlineor
calltomakeanappointmenttorenew
yourdriverlicense(seepageix).
Qualifieddriversmaybeeligibleto
renewtheirlicenseonlineatDMV’s
websiteatwww.dmv.ca.govorby
mail.
TheDMVissuesadriverlicensefor
five years. The license expires on
yourbirthdayintheyearshownon
thelicense.Itisagainstthelawto
drivewithanexpireddriverlicense.
A driving test may be required as
part of any driver license transac-
tion.Drivingtestsarenotrequired
simplybecauseofage.
If DMV cannot confirm your
identity, you will not be issued a
temporarylicense.
Forothertypesoflicensesreferto
theCalifornia Commercial Driver
Handbook, Recreational Vehicles
and Trailers Handbook,orCalifor-
nia Motorcycle Handbook.
reneWal By mail or internet
Ifyouhavenotreceivedtwocon-
secutive five-year driver license
extensions,youmaybeeligibleto
renewbymail,internetortelephone
withouttakingalawtest,if:
• Yourcurrentlicenseexpiresbe-
foreage70.
• Youdonothaveaprobationary
license(CVC§14250).
• You have not violated a written
promisetoappearincourtorto
payafinewithinthelasttwoyears.
• Youarenotsuspendedfordriv-
ingwithanillegalBloodAlcohol
Concentration (BAC) level, or
refusingorfailingtocompletea
-13-
chemicalorpreliminaryalcohol
screeningtestwithinthelasttwo
years.
• Youdonothaveatotalviolation
pointcountgreaterthanonepoint.
NOTE:Ifyourenewbytelephone,
youneedtohavetheRenewalIden-
tificationNumber(RIN).
license extension
IfyouareawayfromCalifornia(up
tooneyear),youmayrequestafree
one-year extension before your
driver license expires. Limited
term drivers are not eligible for
thisextension.Mailyourrequestto
DMV,POBox942890,Sacramento,
CA94290-0001.Includeyourname,
driver license number, birth date,
California residence address, and
out-of-stateaddress.
license in your possession
Youmustalwayshaveyourdriver
license with you when you drive.
Show it to any police officer who
askstoseeit.Ifyouareinacolli-
sion,youmustshowittotheother
driver(s)involved(seepage69).
aDDress changes
When you move, you must give
DMV your new address within
10days.Thereisnofeetochange
your address. You may notify
DMV of your address change for
your driver license, identifica-
tion card, and vehicle(s) online at
www.dmv.ca.gov. You may also
download a Change of Address
(DMV14)formandmailittothe
addressontheform,orcallDMVat
1-800-777-0133, and request a
DMV14formbemailedtoyou.
Anewdriverlicenseisnotissued
when you change your address.A
space is provided on the back of
yourdriverlicenseoridentification
cardtorecordyouraddresschange.
Youmayalsotypeorwriteyournew
addressonasmallpieceofpaper,
sign,anddatethepaperandcarryit
(donotusetapeorstaples)withyour
driverlicenseoridentificationcard.
If you change your address at a
fieldoffice,theDMVrepresentative
willgiveyouaChangeofAddress
Certificate(DL43)tocompleteand
carrywithyourlicense.
REmINdER: The U.S. Postal
Service does not forward DMV
correspondence.
meDical information carD
Call 1-800-777-0133 to obtain a
freeMedicalInformationCard(DL
390)tolistyourbloodtype,aller-
gies,nameofphysician,andother
medicalinformation.Itcanbecar-
riedwithyourDL/IDcard.
organ anD tissue Donation
You may sign up to donate your
organsandtissuefortransplantation
afteryourdeath.Whenyouapplyfor
orrenewyourdriverlicenseorID
card,check“YES!Iwanttobean
organandtissuedonor”toplaceyour
nameontheDonate Life California
Organ Tissue Donor Registry.You
may also financially contribute at
-14-
thistime,orbyvisitingtheDonate
Life Californiawebsite.
Ifyouareolderthan13,andunder
18 years of age, you may register
with Donate Life California, pro-
videdyourparent(s)orguardian(s)
authorizethedonation.
For more information about
the donor registry, adding re-
strictions to your gift, and the
donation process, visit the Do-
nate Life California website at
donateLIFEcalifornia.org,orcall
1-866-797-2366.
unlicenseD Drivers
It is against the law to loan your
vehicletoapersonwhoisunlicensed
orwhosedrivingprivilegehasbeen
suspended.Ifanunlicensedperson
is caught driving your vehicle, it
may be impounded for 30 days
(CVC§14607.6).
No person of any age may drive
on a highway or in a public park-
ing facility unless he or she has a
validdriverlicenseorpermit.The
law also states that you must not
employ, permit, or authorize any
person to drive your vehicle on a
publicstreetorhighway,unlesshe
orsheislicensedtodrivethatclass
ofvehicle.
Apersonmustbeatleast21yearsold
todrivemostcommercialvehicles
forhireininterstatecommerceand
totransporthazardousmaterialsor
wastes.
Diplomatic Driver licenses
Nonresidents who possess a valid
diplomatic driver license issued
by the U.S. Department of State
are exempt from California driver
licensing requirements.
iDentification (iD) carD
DMVissuesIDcardstopersonsof
any age. To obtain an original ID
card,youmustpresentabirthdate/
legal presence verification docu-
ment(seepage3)andprovideyour
socialsecuritynumber(seepage13).
TheIDcardisvaliduntilthesixth
birthday after the issue date. The
feeforanIDcardmaybereduced,
ifyoumeetcertainincomerequire-
mentsforspecificpublicassistance
programs.
NOTE: Governmentalornon-profit
organizationsdeterminewhetheran
individual meets the requirements
forareduced-feeIDcard.
Ifyouareage62orolder,youmay
obtainafree SeniorCitizenIDcard
thatisgoodfor10years.
free iD carDs for physical
anD mental (p&m) conDitions
Drivers with physical or mental
(P&M)conditionsmayneedtobe
reexaminedfromtimetotimebya
physician,or beretestedmoreoften
than every five years by a DMV
examiner to obtain a limited-term
driverlicense.
Drivers who are no longer able
to drive safely because of a P&M
condition may exchange their
-15-
validdriverlicenseforano-feeID
card,ifcertainguidelinesaremet.
Go online at www.dmv.ca.gov or
call1-800-777-0133foradditional
information.
Driving schools
Whenlearningtodrive,youshould
seek qualified instruction, either
withanaccreditedpublicorprivate
highschoolorastatelicensedpro-
fessionaldrivingschool.
DMVlicensesprofessionalschools
and instructors in California that
meet rigid qualifying standards.
Schoolsmustcarryliabilityinsur-
ance, hold a bond, and maintain
completerecordsforDMVinspec-
tion.Vehiclesaresubjecttoannual
inspection. Instructors must pass
a written examination every three
yearsorshowproofofcontinuing
educationinthetrafficsafetyfield.
Ifyouusetheservicesofaprofes-
sionaldrivingschool,asktoseethe
instructor’sidentificationcard.Go
onlineatwww.dmv.ca.gov orrefer
tothefastfactbrochureSelecting a
Driving School(FFDL33)forad-
ditionalinformation.
mature Driver program
The Mature Driver Program is an
eight-hourcoursefordrivers55and
older.Thiscoursecoversavariety
of topics of special interest to the
maturedriverandisavailablefrom
DMVapprovedcourseproviders.
Yourinsurancecompanymayoffer
discounts for those who complete
theclassandreceiveacompletion
certificate . The certificate is valid
forthreeyearsandcanberenewed
bycompletingafour-hourcourse.
peDestrian responsiBilities
Pedestrians (including joggers)
shouldbeawareoftrafficconditions.
Watch out for aggressive drivers
beforeassumingthatyouhavethe
right-of-waywhencrossingastreet.
Be aware that hybrid and electric
vehicles are virtually silent when
runningonelectricpowerandyou
maynothearthemapproachingan
intersection.
Yieldtheright-of-waytovehicles,
when you cross a street between
intersections and in areas with no
pedestriancrosswalksorsignals.
REmEmbER:Makingeyecontact
withadriverdoesnotmeanthatthe
driverwillyieldtheright-of-way.
Donotsuddenlyleaveacurborother
safeplaceandwalkorrunintothe
pathofavehiclecloseenoughtobe
a danger to you.This is true even
thoughyouareinacrosswalk.The
lawstatesthatdriversmustalways
yield the right-of-way to a pedes-
trian–but if the driver cannot stop
intimetoavoidhittingyouthelaw
willnotpreventyoufrombeinghit.
Alwaysobeytrafficsignals.Wheth-
er the intersection has pedestrian
signals or traffic lights, you must
obeythepedestrianrules(seepages
23-26). At an intersection where
trafficisnotcontrolledbysignals,
drivers are required to yield the
right-of-way to pedestrians within
anycrosswalk,markedorunmarked.
-16-
Whenasignalfirstchangestogreen
or“WALK”,lookleft,right,andthen
leftagain,andyieldtheright-of-way
to any vehicle in the intersection
beforethesignalchanges.
If the signal begins blinking or
changes to “DON’T WALK,” or
toanupraisedhandafteryouhave
gonepartwayacrossadividedstreet,
youmaycontinueacrossthestreet.
Donotstopordelaytrafficunneces-
sarilywhilecrossingastreet.
Pedestrians are not permitted on
any toll bridge or highway cross-
ing,unlessthereisasidewalkand
signs stating pedestrian traffic is
permitted.
Iftherearenosidewalks,walkfac-
ingoncomingtraffic(seegraphic).
Donotwalkorjogonanyfreeway
wheresignstellyouthatpedestrians
are not allowed. Do not walk or
joginabikelaneunlessthereisno
sidewalk.
Iftherearenosidewalks,walkfac-
ingoncomingtraffic(seegraphic).
Donotwalkorjogonanyfreeway
wheresignstellyouthatpedestrians
are not allowed. Do not walk or
jobinabikelaneunlessthereisno
sidewalk.
Atnight,makeyourselfmorevis-
ibleby:
• Wearingwhite,light,orreflective
materialclothing.
• Carryingaflashlight.
seAt Belts
Seat belts, both the lap belt and
shoulderharness,mustbeingood
workingorder.Youmaynotoperate
yourvehicleunlessyouandallyour
passengerssixyearsofageorolder,
orwhoweigh60lbs.ormore,are
wearingseatbelts.Youngerchildren
must be seated in a federally-
approvedchildpassengerrestraint
system. You and your passengers
must wear seat belts while your
vehicleismovingonpublicroads
and on private property, such as
publicparkinglots.Ifseatbeltsare
notwornbyanyofyourpassengers,
you and the passenger(s) mayboth
becited.Youwillbecitedifapas-
senger,youngerthan16yearsofage,
isnotwearinghisorherseatbelt.
Alwaysuseyourseatbelts(includ-
ingtheshoulderharness)evenifthe
vehicle is equipped with air bags.
You can have shoulder harnesses
or seat belts installed in older ve-
hicles.Evenifyouwearonlyalap
beltwhendriving,yourchancesof
livingthroughacollisionaretwice
as high as someone who does not
wearalapbelt.Ifyouwearalapand
shoulderbelt,yourchancesarethree
tofourtimeshighertolivethrough
acollision.
Pregnantwomenshouldwearthelap
beltaslowaspossibleundertheab-
domen,andtheshoulderstrapshould
beplacedbetweenthebreastsand
tothesideoftheabdomen’sbulge.
WARNING: Using seat belts re-
ducestheriskofbeingthrownfrom
-17-
yourvehicleinacollision.Ifyoudo
notinstallanduseashoulderharness
with the seat (lap) belt, serious or
fatalinjuriesmayhappeninsome
crashes. Lap-only belts increase
the chance of spinal column and
abdominal injuries—especially in
children. Shoulder harnesses may
be available for your vehicle, if it
isnotalreadyequippedwiththem.
mistaken Beliefs aBout seat
Belts
Manystudiesandactualcrashtests
haveprovensafetybeltscanreduce
injuriesanddeaths.Haveyouheard
thesemyths?
• “Seat belts can trap you inside
avehicle.”Itactuallytakesless
than a second to take off a seat
belt.Thismythoftendescribesa
vehiclethatcaughtfireorsankin
deepwater.Aseatbeltmaykeep
you from being “knocked out.”
Therefore,yourchancestoescape
arebetterifyouareconscious.
• “Seat belts are good on long
trips,butIdon’tneedthemifI’m
drivingaroundtown.”Morethan
half of all traffic deaths happen
within25milesofhome.Donot
takechanceswithyourlifeorthe
livesofyourpassengers.Buckle
upeverytimeyoudriveregardless
oftraveldistance.
• “Some people are thrown from
a vehicle in a crash and walk
awaywithhardlyascratch.”Your
chancesofsurvivingacollision
arefivetimesbetterif,uponim-
pact,youarenotthrownfromthe
vehicle.Aseatbeltcankeepyou
frombeingthrownintothepath
ofanothervehicle.
• “I’monlygoingtothestore.My
littlebrotherorsisterdoesn’tneed
to be secured in a safety seat.”
Car collisions are the number
one preventable cause of death
for children. The law requires
that you buckle children into a
federally-approved child pas-
sengerrestraintsystem.
The following graphics illustrate
whatcanhappeninacollision.Your
vehiclestopswhenyoucollide,but
youkeepgoingatthesamespeed
youweretraveling,untilyouhitthe
dashboardorwindshield.At30mph
thismotionisequivalenttohitting
thegroundfromthetopofathree-
storybuilding.
Ifyouarestruckfromtheside,the
impact could push you back and
forthacrosstheseat.Seatbeltsand
shoulder harnesses keep you in a
betterpositiontocontrolthevehicle
andmayminimizeseriousinjuries.
-18-
chilD restraint system anD
safety seats
Anychildundertheageofsixyears
andweighinglessthan60lbs.,must
besecuredinafederally-approved
childpassengerrestraintsystemand
rideinthebackseatofavehicle.
Proper child passenger restraint
systeminstallationcanbechecked
bycontactinglocallawenforcement
agencies or fire departments, that
may provide this service or refer
you to a Child Passenger Safety
(CPS)Technicianinyourarea.As
yourchildgrows,checkwiththese
agenciestoconfirmthatthecarseat
isthecorrectsizeforyourchild.
Achildundertheageofsixyears,
andweighinglessthan60lbs.may
rideinthefrontseatofavehicleonly
inthefollowinginstances:
• Thereisnorearseatortherear
seatsareeitherside-facingjump
seatsorrear-facingseats.
• Thechildpassengerrestraintsys-
temcannotbeproperlyinstalled
intherearseat.
• Allrearseatsarealreadyoccupied
bychildrenundertheageof 12
years.
• A medical reason requires the
childtorideinthefrontseat.
A child may not ride in the front
seatofanairbag-equippedvehicle
ifthechild:
• Islessthanoneyearofage.
• Weighslessthan20lbs.
• Is riding in a rear-facing child
passengerrestraintsystem.
Childrenagessixyearsandolder,
butlessthan16years,andchildren
under age six years, who weigh
morethan60lbs.,mustbeproperly
securedinanappropriatechildpas-
senger restraint system or safety
belt which meets federal safety
standards.
riDing safely With air Bags
Mostpeoplecantakestepstoelimi-
nateorreduceairbagriskwithout
turning off air bags. The biggest
riskisbeingtooclosetotheairbag.
An air bag needs about 10 inches
ofspacetoinflate.Rideatleast10
inches(measuredfromthecenterof
the steering wheel to your breast-
bone)fromtheairbagcover,ifyou
can do this while maintaining full
controlofthevehicle.Ifyoucannot
safelysit10inchesawayfromthe
airbag,contactyourvehicledealer
or manufacturer for advice about
additional ways of moving back
fromyourairbag.
Passengers should also sit at least
10inchesawayfromthepassenger-
sideairbag.
siDe-impact air Bags
Side-impact air bags can provide
extra safety benefits to adults in
side-impactcrashes.However,chil-
drenwhoareseatednexttoaside
airbagmaybeatriskofseriousor
fatalinjury.Sincesideairbagsare
differentindesignandperformance,
youshouldconsiderthebenefitsand
-19-
risksassociatedwiththeuseofside
air bags if you transport children.
Studies have shown that children
whoareleaningagainstasideairbag
whenitinflatesareatriskofserious
injury.Thesestudiesalsoshowthat
childrenwhoaretravelinginacor-
rectly installed child restraint system
appropriate to age and weight are
notatriskofseriousinjury.These
childrenareusuallynotinthepath
ofasideairbagwhenitinflates.
unattenDeD chilDren in
motor vehicles
Itisillegaltoleaveachildsixyears
ofageoryoungerunattendedina
motorvehicle.Beawareif:
• Weatherconditionsorothercon-
ditionspresentasignificantrisk
to the child’s health or safety.
Example: Leaving a child in a
closedvehicleonaveryhotday.
• Thevehicle’sengineisrunning,
keysareintheignition,orboth.
Children may start or move the
vehicle causing injuries and/or
deathstothemselvesorothers.
EXCEPTION: The child may be
leftunderthesupervisionofaperson
12yearsofageorolder.
The court may fine a violator and
requirehimorhertoattendacom-
munity education program. Also,
DMVandcourtpenaltiesforleaving
anunattendedchildinavehicleare
moresevereifthechildisinjured,
requires emergency medical ser-
vices,ordies.
trAffic liGHts
AnD siGns
traffic signal lights
Solid Red–A red signal
light means “STOP.”You
can make a right turn
againstaredlightafteryoustopthen
yieldtopedestrians,bicyclists,and
vehiclescloseenoughtobeahazard.
Maketherightturnonlywhenitis
safe.Donotturnifa“NOTURN
ONRED”signisposted.
Red Arrow–Aredarrow
means “STOP.” Remain
stopped until the green
signalorgreenarrowappears.Do
notturnagainstaredarrow.
Flashing Red–Aflashing
red signal light means
“STOP.” After stopping,
you may proceed when it is safe.
Observetheright-of-wayrules.
Solid Yellow–A yellow
s i gna l l i ght me a ns
“CAUTION.”Theredsignal
is about to appear. When you see
theyellowlight,stopifyoucando
sosafely.Ifyoucannotstopsafely,
crosstheintersectioncautiously.
Yellow Arrow–A yellow
arrow means the “pro-
tected”turningtimeperiod
isending.Bepreparedtoobeythe
nextsignal,whichcouldbethegreen
orredlightortheredarrow.
Flashing Yellow–Aflash-
ing yellow signal light
warnsyouto“PROCEED
WITHCAUTION.”Youdonotneed
-20-
tostopforaflashingyellowlight,
but you must slow down and be
especiallyalertbeforeenteringthe
intersection.
Fl a s h i n g Ye l l o w
Arrow–Thi s si gnal
meansturnsarepermitted
(unprotected), but you
mustfirstyieldtooncomingtraffic
and pedestrians and then proceed
withcaution.
Solid Green–Give the
right-of-waytoanyvehi-
cle,bicyclist,orpedestrian
in the intersection. A green light
means“GO.”Ifyouareturningleft,
make the turn only if you have
enoughspacetocompletetheturn
before creating a hazard for any
oncoming vehicle, bicyclist, or
pedestrian.Donotentertheintersec-
tion if you cannot get completely
acrossbeforethelightturnsred.If
youblocktheintersection,youcan
becited.
Green Arrow–A green
arrow means “GO.” You
mustturninthedirection
the arrow is pointing after you
yield to any vehicle, bicyclist, or
pedestrian still in the intersection.
The green arrow allows you to
makea“protected”turn.Oncoming
vehicles,bicyclists,andpedestrians
arestoppedbyaredlightaslongas
thegreenarrowislighted.
Traffic Signal blackout–Ifatraffic
signallightisnotworking,proceed
cautiously, as if the intersection
is controlled by a stop sign in all
directions.
peDestrian signal lights
Pedestrian signals show words or
pictures similar to the following
examples:
“Walk” or “Walking
Person”lightsmeanitis
legaltocrossthestreet.
“don’ t Wal k” or
“Raised Hand” lights
mean you may not start crossing
thestreet.
Flashing“don’t Walk”
or Flashing “Raised
Hand” lights mean do
notstartcrossingthestreet
becausethetrafficsignalisaboutto
change. If the flashing starts after
you have already started to cross,
finishcrossingthestreetasquickly
aspossible.
Countdown signals indicate how
manysecondsremainforcrossing,
andallowspedestrianstheflexibility
tospeedupifthecrossingphaseis
abouttoexpire.
Somesignalsmayprovideabeep-
ingorchirpingsoundoraverbal
message.Thesesignalsaredesigned
to help blind or visually impaired
pedestrianscrossthestreet.
At many traffic signals, you need
topushthepedestrianpushbutton
toactivatethe“Walk”or“Walk-
ing Person”signal.Ifthereareno
pedestriansignals,obeythetraffic
signallights.
-21-
traffic signs
Theshapeandcolorofasignoffers
you a clue about the information
containedonthesign.Herearethe
commonshapesused:
An eight-sided red STOP
sign indicatesthatyoumust
makeafull“STOP”when-
ever you see a STOP sign. Stop
beforeenteringacrosswalkorata
white limit line, which is a wide
whitelinepaintedonthestreet.Ifa
crosswalkorlimitlineisnotpainted
onthestreet,stopatthecorner.
Athree-sided red YIELD
sign indicates that you
must slow down and be
readytostop,ifnecessary,toletany
vehicle,bicyclist,orpedestrianpass
beforeyouproceed.
Asquare red and white
regulatory sign indi-
cates that you must
followthesign’sinstruc-
tion. For example, the
dO NOT ENTERsign
means: do not enter a
roadorofframpwherethesignis
posted,whichisusuallyonafreeway
offramp.TheWRONG WAYsign
mayormaynotbepostedwiththe
dO NOT ENTERsign.Ifyousee
oneorbothofthesesigns,driveto
thesideoftheroadandstop.You
aregoingagainsttraffic.Whensafe,
backoutorturnaroundandreturn
totheroadyouwereon.Atnightif
you are going the wrong way, the
roadreflectorswillshineredinyour
headlights.
STOP
DO NOT
WRONG
WAY
ENTER
DO NOT
WRONG
WAY
ENTER
Ifasignhasared circle with
a red line through it, it al-
ways indicates “NO.” The
pictureinsidethecircleshowswhat
you cannot do. The sign may be
shownwithorwithoutwords.
Ayellow and black circular
signindicatesthatyouare
approaching a railroad
crossing.
X-shaped signs withawhite
background that state
RAILROAd CROSSING
indicate that you must slow down
andbereadytostop,ifnecessary,
to let any trains pass before you
proceed.
A five-sided sign indicates
thatyouarenearaschool.
Stopifchildrenareinthe
crosswalk.
A four-sided diamond-shaped sign
warns you of specific road condi-
tions and dangers ahead. Many
warningsignsarediamond-shaped.
A white rectangular sign indicates
thatyoumustobeyimportantrules.
Some warning signs have a flo-
rescent yellow-green background.
These signs warn of conditions
related to pedestrians, bicyclists,
schools,playgrounds,schoolbuses,
andschoolpassengerloadingzones.
Obey all warning signs regardless
oftheirshape(seepages24and25
forexamples).
R R
R
A
I
L
R
O
A
D
C
R
O
S
S
I
N
G
-22-
lAws AnD rUles
of tHe roAD
right-of-Way rules
General Information
Right-of-way rules, together with
courtesyandcommonsense,helpto
promotetrafficsafety.Itisimportant
torespecttheright-of-wayofothers,
especiallypedestrians,motorcycle
riders, and bicycle riders. Never
assumeotherdriverswillgiveyou
theright-of-way.
Respecting the right-of-way of
others is not limited to situations
suchasyieldingtopedestriansin
crosswalks,orwatchingcarefully
toensuretheright-of-wayofbicy-
clistsandmotorcyclists.Motorists
must respect the right-of-way of
othersbynotviolatingtrafficlaws,
suchasfailingtostopatastopsign
or traffic light, speeding, making
unsafelanechanges,orillegalturns.
Statistics show that right-of-way
violationscauseahighpercentage
ofinjurycollisionsinCalifornia.
Pedestrians
Pedestriansafetyisaseriousissue.
Apedestrianisapersononfootor
whousesaconveyancesuchasroller
skates,skateboard,etc.,otherthan
abicycle.Apedestriancanalsobe
a person with a disability using a
tricycle,quadricycle,orwheelchair
fortransportation.
Pedestriandeathsoccurin17percent
of all traffic fatalities. Drive cau-
tiously when pedestrians are near
because they may suddenly cross
yourpath.
Pedestriansmaybeatriskwalking
near hybrid and electric vehicles,
becausethesevehiclesarevirtually
silentwhileoperating.Useextracau-
tionwhendrivingnearpedestrians.
• Respect the right-of-way of
pedestrians.Alwaysstopforany
pedestrian crossing at corners
or other crosswalks, even if the
crosswalkisinthemiddleofthe
block,atcornerswithorwithout
trafficlights,whetherornotthe
crosswalksaremarkedbypainted
lines.
• Do not pass a vehicle that has
stopped at a crosswalk. A pe-
destrian you cannot see may be
crossingthestreet.
• Donotdriveonasidewalk,ex-
cepttocrossittoenterorexita
drivewayoralley.Whencrossing,
yieldtoallpedestrians.
• Do not stop in a crosswalk.
You will place pedestrians in
danger.
• Remember,ifapedestrianmakes
eyecontactwithyou,heorsheis
readytocrossthestreet.Yieldto
thepedestrian.
• Allowolderpedestrians,disabled
pedestriansandpedestrianswith
youngchildrensufficienttimeto
crossthestreet.
• Important: Blind pedestrians
relyonthesoundofyourvehicle
tobecomeawareofyourvehicle’s
presence; so it is important that
-23-
- 78 -
Red and White Regulatory Signs
Highway Construction and Maintenance Signs
Guide Signs
Hazardous Loads Placards
White Regulatory Signs
Slow Moving Vehicle
NoU-turn NoLeftTurn NoRightTurn
-24-
- 79 -
Warning Signs
Slippery
When Wet
Sharp
Turn
Merging
Traffic
Divided
Highway
Lane
Ends
Two Way
Traffic
Traffic
Signal
Ahead
Pedestrian
Crossing
Stop Ahead
“T”
Intersection
Winding
Road
Reverse
Turn
Crossroad Added Lane
Yield Ahead
Directional
Arrow
End Divided
Highway
Curve
-25-
you stop your vehicle within 5
feetofthecrosswalk.Driversof
hybrid or electric vehicles must
remainespeciallyawarethatthe
lackofenginenoisemaycausea
blindpedestriantoassumethere
is not a vehicle nearby. Follow
thiscue:
– When a blind person pulls in
hisorhercaneandstepsaway
from the intersection, this
gestureusuallymeansforyou
to go (additional information
regardingblindpedestrianscan
befoundonpages62and63).
Crosswalks
A crosswalk is the part of the
roadway set aside for pedestrian
traffic. Most intersections have a
pedestriancrosswalkwhetherornot
linesarepaintedonthestreet.Most
crosswalks are located at corners,
buttheycanalsobelocatedinthe
middleoftheblock.Beforeturning
acorner,watchforpeopleaboutto
crossthestreet.Pedestrians have
the right-of-way in crosswalks.
Crosswalksareoftenmarkedwith
whitelines.Yellowcrosswalklines
maybepaintedatschoolcrossings.
Mostoften,crosswalksinresidential
areasarenotmarked.
Some crosswalks have flashing
lightstowarnyouthatpedestrians
may be crossing. Look for pe-
destrians and be prepared to stop,
whetherornotthelightsareflashing.
Intersections
Anintersectionisanyplacewhere
onelineofroadwaymeetsanother
roadway.Intersectionsincludecross
streets,sidestreets,alleys,freeway
entrances, and any other location
wherevehiclestravelingondifferent
highwaysorroadsjoineachother.
Driving through an intersection
is one of the most complex traf-
fic situations motorists encounter.
Intersection collisions account for
morethan45percentofallreported
crashesand21percentoffatalities
accordingtotheFederalHighway
Administration.
• Atintersectionswithout“STOP”
or“YIELD”signs,slowdownand
bereadytostop.Yieldtotraffic
and pedestrians already in the
intersection or just entering the
intersection. Also, yield to the
vehicleorbicyclewhicharrives
first,or tothevehicleorbicycle
onyourrightifitreachesthein-
tersectionatthesametimeasyou.
• At “T” intersections without
“STOP”or“YIELD”signs,yield
totrafficandpedestriansonthe
through road. They have the
right-of-way.
• Whenyouturnleft,givetheright-
of-waytoallvehiclesapproaching
thatarecloseenoughtobedanger-
ous.Also,lookformotorcyclists,
bicyclists,andpedestrians.When
youturnright,besuretocheckfor
pedestrianscrossingthestreetand
bicyclistscomingupbehindyou
ontheright.Ondivided,highways
-26-
or highways with several lanes,
watchforvehiclescominginany
laneyoucross.Turneitherleftor
rightonlywhenitissafe.
• Whenthereare“STOP”signsat
allcorners,stopfirstthenfollow
theaboverules.
• If you have parked off the road
orareleavingaparkinglot,etc.,
yieldtotrafficbeforereentering
theroad.
Safety suggestion:Whilewaiting
to turn left, keep your wheels
pointed straight ahead until it
issafetostartyourturn.Ifyour
wheelsarepointedtotheleft,and
a vehicle hits you from behind,
youcouldbepushedintooncom-
ingtraffic.
Roundabouts
A roundabout is an intersection
wheretraffictravelsaroundacentral
islandinacounter-clockwisedirec-
tion.Vehiclesenteringorexitingthe
roundaboutmustyieldtoalltraffic
includingpedestrians.
Multiple and single lane roundabout
Whenyouapproacharoundabout:
• Slowdownasyouapproachthe
roundabout.
• Yieldtopedestriansandbicyclists
crossingtheroadway.
• Watchforsignsand/orpavement
markingsthatguideyouorpro-
hibitcertainmovements.
• Entertheroundaboutwhenthere
isabigenoughgapintraffic.
• Drive in a counter-clockwise
direction. Do not stop or pass
othervehicles.
• Useyourturnsignalswhenyou
change lanes or exit the round-
about.
• If you miss your exit, continue
around until you return to your
exit.
For roundabouts with multiple
lanes,chooseyourentryorexitlane
basedonyourdestinationasshown
inthegraphic.Forexample,to:
• Turn right at the intersection,
choose the right-hand lane and
exitintheright-handlane(blue
car).
• Gostraightthroughtheintersec-
tion,chooseeitherlane,andexit
inthelaneyouentered(redcar).
• Turnleft,choosetheleftlane,and
exit(yellowcar).
On Mountain Roads
Whentwovehiclesmeetonasteep
roadwhereneithervehiclecanpass,
the vehicle facing downhill must
yieldtheright-of-way,bybacking
upuntilthevehiclegoinguphillcan
-27-
pass. The vehicle facing downhill
has the greater amount of control
whenbackingupthehill.
speeD limits
Californiahasa“BasicSpeedLaw.”
Thislawmeansthatyoumaynever
drivefasterthanissafeforcurrent
conditions.Forexample,ifyouare
driving45mphina55mphspeed
zoneduringadensefog,youcould
be cited for driving “too fast for
conditions.”Youmayneverlegally
drive faster than the posted speed
limit,evenifyouthinkitissafe.
Regardlessofthepostedspeedlimit,
yourspeedshoulddependon:
• The number and speed of other
vehiclesontheroad.
• Whether the road surface is
smooth, rough, graveled, wet,
dry,wide,ornarrow.
• Bicyclistsorpedestrianswalking
on the road’s edge or crossing
thestreet.
• Whetheritisraining,foggy,snow-
ing,windy,ordusty.
maximum speeD limit
Themaximumspeedlimitonmost
Californiahighwaysis65mph.You
maydrive70mphwhereposted.Un-
lessotherwiseposted,themaximum
speedlimitis55mphontwo-lane
undividedhighwaysandforvehicles
towingtrailers.
Otherspeedlimitsignsareposted
for the type of roads and traffic
in each area. All speed limits are
based on ideal driving conditions.
Construction zones usually have
reducedspeedzones.
Drivingfasterthanthepostedspeed
limit,ordrivingfasterthansafefor
current conditions on any road is
dangerousand illegal.High speed
increases your stopping distance.
Thefasteryougo,thelesstimeyou
havetoavoidahazardorcollision.
Theforceofa60mphcrashisnot
justtwiceasgreatasa30mphcrash,
it’sfourtimesasgreat!
reDuceD speeDs
Heavy Traffic or Bad Weather
Youmustdriveslowerwhenthere
is heavy traffic or bad weather.
However,ifyoublockthenormal
and reasonable movement of traf-
ficbydrivingtooslowly,youmay
begivenaticket.Ifyouchooseto
drive slower than other traffic, do
notdriveinthe“Number1”(fast)
lane(seepage31).Whentraveling
belowthespeedlimitalwaysmove
totherightwhenanotherdriveris
closebehindyouandwishestodrive
faster,unlessyouarealreadyinthe
extremerightlane.
Towing Vehicles, Buses, or Large
Trucks
Whenyoutowavehicleortrailer,
ordriveabusorthreeormoreaxle
truck, you must drive in the right
hand lane or in a lane specially
marked for slower vehicles. If no
lanesaremarkedandtherearefour
lanesormoreinyourdirection,you
mayonlydriveineitherofthetwo
lanes closest to the right edge of
theroad.
-28-
Around Children
Whendrivingwithin500to1,000
feet of a school while children
are outside or crossing the street,
the speed limit is 25 mph unless
otherwiseposted.Also,iftheschool
groundshavenofenceandchildren
areoutside,neverdrivefasterthan
25 mph. Some school zones may
havespeedlimitsaslowas15mph.
Always drive more carefully near
schools, playgrounds, parks, and
residential areas because children
may suddenly dart into the street.
Also, many children have not yet
developed the ability to judge
speeds and distances well enough
tocrossstreetssafelywhencarsare
movingfast.
All vehicles must stop
Nearschools,lookfor:
• Bicyclistsandpedestrians.
• School safety patrols or school
crossingguards.Besuretoobey
theirdirections.Forthecrossing
guard’ssafety,allowhimorherto
safelygettothesideoftheroad
beforedrivingahead.
• Stoppedschoolbusesandchildren
crossingthestreet.Someschool
buses flash yellow lights when
preparingtostoptoletchildren
offthebus.Theyellowflashing
lights warn you to slow down
and prepare to stop. When the
busflashesredlights(locatedat
thetopfrontandbackofthebus),
youmuststopfromeitherdirec-
tionuntilthechildrenaresafely
acrossthestreetandthelightsstop
flashing. The law requires you
remainstoppedaslongasthered
lightsareflashing(CVC§22454).
If you fail to stop, you may be
finedupto$1,000,andyourdriv-
ingprivilegecouldbesuspended
foroneyear.Iftheschoolbusis
ontheothersideofadividedor
multilanehighway(twoormore
lanes in each direction), you do
notneedtostop.
Blind Intersections
Thespeedlimitforablindintersec-
tion is 15 mph.An intersection is
considered “blind” if there are no
stop signs at any corner and you
cannotseefor100feetineitherdi-
rectionduringthelast100feetbefore
crossing.Trees,bushes,buildings,
orparkedcarsatintersectionscan
blockyourviewtotheside.Ifyour
view is blocked, edge forward
slowlyuntilyoucansee.
Alleys
The speed limit in any alley is 15
mph.
Near Railroad Tracks
The speed limit is 15 mph within
100feetofarailroadcrossingwhere
youcannotseethetracksfor400feet
-29-
in both directions.You may drive
faster than 15 mph if the crossing
is controlled by gates, a warning
signal,oraflagman.
Atrailroadortraincrossings:
• Lookinbothdirectionsandlisten
for trains. Many crossings have
multiple tracks, so be ready to
stop before crossing, if neces-
sary. Cross railroad tracks only
atdesignatedcrossingsandonly
whenitissafetodoso.
• Expectatrainonanytrackatany
timetravelingineitherdirection.
Ifyouneedtostopaftercrossing
thetracks,makesureyourvehicle
clearsthetracksbeforeyoustop.
• Neverstopontherailroadtracks.
Rememberthatatraincannotstop
quicklyorswerveoutoftheway.
Ifyouareonthetracksyourisk
injuryordeath.
• Watchforvehiclesthatmuststop
before they cross train tracks.
These vehicles include buses,
school buses, and trucks trans-
portinghazardousloads.
• Rememberthatflashingredlights
meanSTOP!Stopatleast15feet,
butnotmorethan50feet,from
thenearesttrackwhenthecross-
ingdevicesareactiveoraperson
warnsyouatrainiscoming.Stop
ifyouseeatraincomingoryou
hearthewhistle,horn,orbellof
anapproachingtrain.
• Donotgounderloweringgates
oraroundloweredgates.Flashing
redlightsindicateyoumuststop
andwait.Donotproceedoverthe
crossinguntiltheredlightsstop
flashing,evenifthegaterises.If
thegatesareloweredandyoudo
notseeatrainapproaching,call
the posted railroad emergency
toll-free number or 9-1-1. Be
readytogiveadetaileddescrip-
tionofyourlocation.
Light Rail Transit Vehicle
Crossings
The same rules apply to light rail
transitvehiclecrossingsastofreight
train crossings. Do not proceed
acrossthetracksuntilyoucansee
clearlyinbothdirectionsandaresure
therearenolightrailtransitvehicles
ortrainscoming.Donotgoaround
orunderanyloweredgate.
NOTE: Light rail transit vehicles
areveryquietandacceleratemore
quicklythanfreighttrains.
Near Streetcars, Trolleys, or
Buses
Thepassingspeedlimit,whensafe
topass,isnomorethan10mph.This
speedlimitappliesatasafetyzone
oranintersectionwhereastreetcar,
-30-
trolley,orbusisstoppedand traffic
iscontrolledbyapoliceofficeror
trafficsignal.Asafetyzoneismarked
byraisedbuttonsormarkersonthe
roadandissetasideforpedestrians.
Youwillmostoftenseesafetyzones
inareaswherestreetcarsortrolleys
andvehiclessharetheroadway.
Business or Residential Districts
The speed limit is 25 mph, unless
otherwiseposted.
Near Animals
Ifyouseeanimalsorlivestock,slow
downandfollowdirectionsfromthe
personinchargeoftheanimals.If
youseeastrayanimalinyourpath,
slowdownorstop,ifitissafe.
trAffic lAnes
(1) Solid yellow line: No passing if
solid yellow line is on your side.
(2) Double solid lines: DO NOT pass.
(3) Broken yellow line: May pass if
movement can be made safely.
Examplesoflanemarkings
line colors
Solid yellow linesmarkthecenter
ofaroadusedfortwo-waytraffic.
broken yellow lines indicate that
youmaypassifthebrokenlineis
nexttoyourdrivinglane.
Two solid yellow lines indicateno
passing. Never drive to the left of
theselinesunlessyouare:
• Turningleftatanintersection.
• Turning into or out of a private
roadordriveway.
• Inacarpoollanethathasadesig-
natedentranceontheleft.
• Instructedbyconstructionorother
signstodriveontheothersideof
theroadbecauseyoursideofthe
roadisclosedorblocked.
Two sets of solid double yellow
lines spaced two or more feet apart
areconsideredabarrier.Donotdrive
onoroverthisbarrierormakealeft
turnoraU-turnacrossitexceptat
designatedopenings(seediagram).
B
Solid white lines marktrafficlanes
goinginthesamedirection,suchas
one-waystreets.
broken white lines separatetraffic
lanes on roads with two or more
lanesinthesamedirection.
choosing a lane
Traffic lanes are often referred to
bynumber.Theleftor“fast”lane
iscalledthe“Number1Lane.”The
lane to the right of the “Number
1 Lane” is called the “Number 2
Lane,”thenthe“Number3Lane,”
etc.
-31-
Example of numbered traffic lanes
Driveinthelanewiththesmoothest
flow of traffic. If you can choose
amongthreelanes,pickthemiddle
lane for the smoothest driving. To
drive faster, pass, or turn left, use
the left lane. When you choose to
driveslowlyorenterorturnoffthe
road,usetherightlane.
Ifthereareonlytwolanesinyour
direction,picktherightlaneforthe
smoothestdriving.
Donotweaveinandoutoftraffic.
Stayinonelaneasmuchaspossible.
Onceyoustartthroughanintersec-
tion,keepgoing.Ifyoustarttomake
aturn,followthrough.Lastminute
changes may cause collisions. If
youmissaturn,continueuntilyou
cansafelyandlegallyturnaround.
changing lanes
Changinglanesincludes:
• Movingfromonelanetoanother.
• Entering the freeway from an
on-ramp.
• Enteringtheroadfromacurbor
theshoulder.
Beforechanginglanes,signal,look
inallyourmirrors,and:
• Checktrafficbehindandbeside
you.
• Glance over your left or right
shoulder to make sure the lane
youwantisclear.
• Look for all vehicles, motorcy-
clists,andbicycletrafficinyour
blindspot.
• Besurethereisenoughroomfor
yourvehicleinthenextlane.
passing lanes
Before you pass, look ahead for
roadconditionsandtrafficthatmay
cause other vehicles to move into
yourlane.
Neverdriveoffthepavedormain-
traveled portion of the road or on
the shoulder to pass. The edge of
the main-traveled portion of the
road may have a painted white
lineontheroad’ssurface.Passing
othervehiclesatcrossroads,railroad
crossings,andshoppingcenteren-
trancesisdangerous.
Passtrafficontheleft.Youmaypass
ontherightonlywhen:
• An open highway is clearly
markedfortwoormorelanesof
travelinyourdirection.
• Thedriveraheadofyouisturning
leftandyoudonotdriveoffthe
roadwaytopass.Neverpasson
theleft,ifthedriverissignaling
aleftturn.
Right Wrong
-32-
dmv.ca.gov
The Road MosT TRaveled
Consider Car or van Pooling
and Buddy Up!
carpool/high occupancy
vehicles (hov) lanes
Acarpoollaneisaspecialfreeway
laneusedonlyforcarpools,buses,
motorcycles,ordecaledlow-emis-
sionvehicles.Youmayuseacarpool
laneoron-rampifyourvehiclecar-
riesthepostedminimumnumberof
peoplerequiredforthecarpoollane,
or youdrivealow-emissionvehicle
displaying a special DMV-issued
decal. Motorcycle riders may use
designated carpool lanes, unless
otherwiseposted.
Signs at the on-ramp or along the
freewaytellyoutheminimumnum-
berofpeoplepervehiclerequired
forthecarpoollane(s).Thesesigns
alsolistthedaysoftheweekandthe
hourswhenthecarpoolrequirement
applies.Thepavementinthislane
ismarkedwithadiamondsymbol
and the words “Carpool Lane.”
Theselanesarealsoknownashigh-
occupancyvehicle(HOV)lanes.Do
notcrossoverdoubleparallelsolid
lines to enter or exit any carpool
lane except at designated entry or
exitplaces.
Vehicles towing trailers are typi-
cally not allowed to use carpool
lanes,becausetheymustdrivemore
slowlyandareusuallyrestrictedto
theright-handlane.
center left turn lanes
Acenterleftturnlaneislocatedin
themiddleofatwo-waystreetandis
markedonbothsidesbytwopainted
lines.Theinnerlineisbrokenand
theouterlineissolid.Ifastreethas
acenterleftturnlane,youmustuse
itwhenyouturnleft(CVC§21460.5
(c))orstartapermittedU-turn.You
B
I
K
E
L
A
N
E
B
I
K
E
L
A
N
E
mayonlydrivefor200feetinthe
centerleftturnlane.Thislaneisnot
a regular traffic lane or a passing
lane. To turn left from this lane,
signal,lookoveryourshoulder,and
drive completely inside the center
leftturnlane.Donotstopwiththe
backofyourvehicleblockingtraffic.
Makesurethelaneisclearinboth
directionsandthenturnonlywhen
itissafe.Lookforvehiclescoming
towardyouinthesamelane,prepar-
ingtostarttheirleftturn.
Whenturningleftfromasidestreet
ordriveway,signalandwaituntilit
issafe.Thenyoumaydriveintothe
center left turn lane. Enter traffic
onlywhenitissafe.
-34-
Youmaydriveacrossacenterleft
turnlanetoturnleftortoturninto
adriveway.
turnout areas anD lanes
Special “turnout” areas
are sometimes marked
ontwo-laneroads.Drive
intotheseareastoallow
carsbehindyoutopass.
Sometwo-laneroadshavepassing
lanes.Ifyouaredrivingslowlyon
atwo-lanehighwayorroadwhere
passingisunsafe,andfiveormore
vehicles are following you, drive
intotheturnoutareasorlanestolet
thevehiclespass.
enD-of-lane markings
Freewaylanes,aswellassomecity
streetlanes,whichareendingwill
usuallybemarkedbylargebroken
lines painted on the pavement. If
you are driving in a lane marked
withthesebrokenlines,beprepared
toexitthefreewayorforthelaneto
end.Lookforasignthattellsyou
toexitormerge,etc.
Bicycle lanes
Abicyclelaneisadesignated traffic
laneforbicyclists,markedbyasolid
whiteline,typicallybreakingintoa
dottedlineatthecorner.Different
from a simple white line showing
theedgeoftheroad,abicyclelane
followsspecificwidthrequirements
andisclearlymarkedasabikelane.
shareD roaDWay Bicycle
markings (sharroWs)
Sharrowsareusedtoremindmotor-
ists that bicyclists are allowed to
lawfullyusethisportionofalane.
Sharrows are used to assist bicy-
clistswithpositioningonashared
roadway.Italsoalertsmotoristsof
thelocationabicyclistmayoccupy
withinthetraveledroadway.
• Treatabicyclelanethesameas
othertrafficlanes.
• Donotturnintothelaneifthereis
abicyclistinthebikelane.Yield
tooncomingtraffic.
• Donotobstructbicycletrafficby
reducing the width required for
safe bicycle passage, typically
threetofourfeet.
Whenyouaremakingarightturn
andarewithin200feetofthecorner
orotherdrivewayentrance,youmust
enterthebicyclelaneonlyafteren-
suringthereisnobicycletraffic,
andthenmaketheturn.Donot
driveinthebicyclelaneatany
othertime.
-35-
You may park in a bicycle lane
if your vehicle does not block a
bicyclistand/orthereisnota“No
Parking”signposted.
Drivers of motorized bicycles
should use bicycle lanes carefully
toavoidcollisionswithbicyclists.
When passing a bicyclist in the
travellaneensureenoughwidthfor
the bicyclist, typically 3 feet. Do
notsqueezeabicyclistofftheroad.
Bicyclistsmayoccupythecenterof
thelanewhenconditionssuchasa
narrowlaneorroadhazardmakeit
unsafetorideinapositionthatmay
provideroomforavehicletopass.
With any slow-moving vehicle,
driversshouldfollowatasafedis-
tance.Whenitissafethebicyclists
shouldmovetoapositionthatallows
vehiclestopass.Remember,bicy-
clistsareentitledtosharetheroad
withotherdrivers.
Bicyclists have the same rights
andresponsibilitiesasvehicleand
motorcycledrivers.
Respect the right-
of-way of bicyclists
because they are en-
titledtosharetheroad
withotherdrivers.Here
aresomecriticalpoints
for drivers and bicy-
cliststoremember:
Motorvehicledriversmust:
• Pass a bicyclist as you would a
slowmovingvehicle.Allowsuf-
ficentclearance,andampleroom
for movement and unexpected
road conditions. Change lanes
andpasswithcautiononlywhen
itissafe.
• Always look carefully for bicy-
clistsbeforeopeningdoorsnextto
movingtrafficorbeforeturning.
• Allowbicyclistsenoughroomto
avoidcollidingwithvehicledoors
thatareopenedintotraffic.
• Merge toward the curb or into
thebikelaneonlywhenitissafe.
• Nottrytopassabicyclistjustbe-
foremakingaturn.Mergesafely
whereitisallowed,thenturn.
• Not drive in a bike lane un-
less initiating a turn at an
intersectionordriveway,andnot
morethan200feetinadvance.
• Makeavisualcheckforbicyclists
whenchanginglanesorentering
traffic.Bicyclesaresmallandmay
behiddeninavehicle’sblindspot.
• Becarefulwhenapproachingor
passingabicyclistonatwolane
highwayorfreeway.
tUrns
Left turns–To make a left turn,
drive close to the center divider
lineorintotheleftturnlane.Begin
signalingabout100feetbeforethe
turn.Lookoveryourleftshoulder
andreduceyourspeed.Stopbehind
thelimitline.Lookleft,thenright,
then left again, and make the turn
whenitissafe.Whenyouturnleft,
do not turn too soon and “cut the
corner”ofthelanebelongingtothe
vehiclescomingtowardsyou.
-36-
Example of a left turn
D
O
N
O
T
C
U
T
C
O
R
N
E
R
Safety suggestion:Whilewaitingto
turnleft,keepyourwheelspointed
straightaheaduntilitissafetostart
yourturn.Ifyourwheelsarepointed
to the left and a vehicle hits you
frombehind,youcouldbepushed
intooncomingtraffic.
A left turn against a red light can
onlybemadefromaone-waystreet
ontoaonewaystreet.Signalandstop
foraredtrafficlightatthelimitline
orcorner.Youmayturnleftintoa
left-moving,one-waystreetifthere
isnosigntoprohibittheturn.Yield
to pedestrians, bicyclists, or other
vehiclesmovingontheirgreenlight.
Right turns–Tomakearightturn,
driveclosetotherightedgeofthe
road. If there is a bike lane, drive
intothebikelanenomorethan200
feetbeforetheturn.Watchforbicy-
clistsormotorcyclistswhomayget
betweenyourvehicleandthecurb.
Beginsignalingabout100feetbe-
foretheturn.Lookoveryourright
shoulder and reduce your speed.
Stop behind the limit line. Look
bothwaysandturnwhenitissafe.
Donotturnwideintoanotherlane.
Completeyourturnintherightlane.
Example of a right turn
DO
N
O
T
T
U
R
N
W
I
D
E
Right turn against a red light–Sig-
nalandstopforaredtrafficlightat
thelimitlineoratthecorner.Ifthere
isnosigntoprohibittheturn,you
mayturnright.Yieldtopedestrians,
motorcyclists, bicyclists, or other
vehiclesmovingontheirgreenlight.
No turn against a red arrow–You
maynotturnrightorleftagainsta
redarrow.
examples of right anD left
turns
The numbers on the cars in the
diagrams refer to the numbered
sentences on these pages.Always
useyourturnsignals.
1. Left turn from a two-way street.
Start the turn in the left lane
closest to the middle of the
street. Complete the turn, if
safe,ineitherlaneofthecross
street (shown by arrows). Use
the center left turn lane if one
isavailable.Aleftturnmaybe
made from the other lane, if
permittedbysignsorarrows.
1
1
2
*
2. Right turn. Begin and end the
turninthelanenearesttheright-
hand curb. Do not swing wide
intoanotherlaneoftraffic.Watch
for pedestrians, motorcyclists,
-37-
andbicyclistsbetweenyourve-
hicleandthecurb.Sometimes,
signsorpavementmarkingswill
let you turnrightfromanother
laneasshownbythegraphic
2
.
3. Left turn from a two-way street
into a one-way street. Startthe
turnfromthelaneclosesttothe
middle of the street. Turn into
anylanethatissafelyopen,as
shownbythearrows.
4. Left turn from a one-way street
into a two-way street. Startthe
turnfromthefarleftlane.Turn
intoeitherofthelanesthatare
safely open, as shown by the
arrows.
5. Left turn from a one-way street
into a one-way street. Startthe
turnfromthefarleftlane.Watch
for pedestrians, motorcyclists,
andbicyclistsbetweenyourve-
hicleandthecurbbecausethey
canlegallyusetheleftturnlane
fortheirleftturns.Turnintoany
lanethatissafelyopen,asshown
bythearrows.
6. Right turn from a one-way street
into a one-way street. Startthe
turninthefarrightlane.Ifsafe,
youmayendtheturninanylane.
Sometimes, signs or pavement
markingswillletyouturnright
fromanotherlane,asshownby
thegraphic
6
.
5
6
*
o
n
e

w
a
y
7. Turn at a “T” intersection
from a one-way street into a
two-way street. Throughtraffic
has the right-of-way. You may
turneitherrightorleftfromthe
centerlane.Watchforvehicles,
motorcyclists, and bicyclists
insideyourturn.
7
legal u-turns
A U-turn is turning your vehicle
aroundinthestreettogobackthe
wayyoucame.TomakeaU-turn,
signalandusethefarleftlaneorthe
centerleftturnlane.Youmaymake
alegalU-turn:
• Acrossadoubleyellowlinewhen
itissafeandlegal.
• Inaresidentialdistrict:
-38-
– If there are no vehicles ap-
proachingyouwithin200feet.
– Wheneveratrafficsign,light,
or signal protects you from
approachingvehicles.
• Atanintersectiononagreenlight
orgreenarrow,unlessa“NoU-
turn”signisposted.
• Onadividedhighway,onlyifan
openingisprovidedinthecenter
divider.
illegal u-turns
NevermakeaU-turn:
• Atoronarailroadcrossing.
• Onadividedhighwaybycrossing
adividingsection,curb,stripof
land, or two sets of double yel-
lowlines.
• Whereyoucannotseeclearly200
feetineachdirectionbecauseof
a curve, hill, rain, fog, or other
reason.
• Where a “No U-Turn” sign is
posted.
• Whenothervehiclesmayhityou.
• Onaone-waystreet.
• In front of a fire station. Never
useafirestationdrivewaytoturn
yourvehiclearound.
• Inbusinessdistricts.Areaswith
churches, apartments, multiple
dwellinghouses,clubs,andpublic
buildings (except schools) are
also considered to be business
districts. Turn only at an inter-
section or where openings are
providedforturns.
pArKinG
parking on a hill
Whenyoupark:
• Onaslopingdriveway,turnthe
wheelssothevehiclewillnotroll
intothestreetifthebrakesfail.
• Headeddownhill,turnyourfront
wheelsintothecurbortowardthe
sideoftheroad.Settheparking
brake.
• Headed uphill, turn your front
wheels away from the curb and
let your vehicle roll back a few
inches.Thewheelshouldgently
touch the curb. Set the parking
brake.
• Headedeitheruphillordownhill
when there is no curb, turn the
wheels so the vehicle will roll
awayfromthecenteroftheroad
ifthebrakesfail.
Alwayssetyourparkingbrakeand
leave the vehicle in gear or in the
“park”position.
down hill up hill no curb-up hill
or down hill
parking at coloreD curBs
Paintedcoloredcurbshavethefol-
lowingspecialparkingrules:
White–Stop only long enough to
pick up or drop off passengers or
mail.
-39-
Green–Parkforalimitedtime.Look
forapostedsignnexttothegreen
zone for time limits, or locate the
timelimitpaintedonthecurb.
Yellow–Stopnolongerthanthetime
postedtoloadorunloadpassengers
orfreight.Driversofnoncommercial
vehiclesareusuallyrequiredtostay
withthevehicle.
Red–Nostopping,standing,orpark-
ing.(Busesmaystopataredzone
markedforbuses.)
blue–Parking is permit-
ted only for a disabled
personoradriverofadis-
abledpersonwhodisplays
aplacardoraspeciallicenseplate
for disabled persons or disabled
veterans. Disabled people with a
placardorspecialplatesmayparkin
specialareasforunlimitedperiods
oftime,regardlessoftimerestric-
tions.Nooneotherthanadisabled
personoradriverofadisabledper-
sonmayparkthere.Acrosshatched
(diagonal lines) area adjacenttoa
designateddisabledparkingspace
isano parkingarea.Qualifiedper-
sonsmayapplyatanyDMVoffice
orvisittheDMVwebsiteatwww.
dmv.ca.govtoobtainaformfora
parking placard or special plates.
An identification card will be is-
suedtoholdersofdisabledperson
ordisabledveteranlicenseplates.
Example of crosshatched
(diagonal lines) area
NOTE:Placardabuseresultsinthe
loss of special parking privileges.
Itisalsoamisdemeanorandpun-
ishable by a fine of up to $1,000,
imprisonmentincountyjailforup
tosixmonths,orboth.
Examplesofplacardabuse:
• Usingaplacardafterithasbeen
reportedlostorstolenwithoutre-
portingthattheplacardwasfound.
• Loaningyourplacardtofriendsor
familymembers(disabledornot).
• Interchanging placards with
friendsorfamilymembers.
• Usingaplacardwhenthepersonit
wasissuedtoisnotinthevehicle
withyou(disabledchild,family
member,disabledemployer,etc.).
• Usingadeceasedperson’splac-
ard.
-40-
illegal parking
Neverparkorleaveyourvehicle:
• Where a “No Parking” sign is
posted.
• On a marked or unmarked
crosswalk, sidewalk, partially
blocking a sidewalk, or in front
ofadriveway.
• Within three feet of a sidewalk
ramp for disabled persons or in
frontoforonacurbthatprovides
wheelchairaccesstoasidewalk.
• In a disabled person parking
space,unless youaredisabledand
displayaplacardorspecialplates.
• Inthespacenexttoadisabledper-
sonparkingspace,ifitispainted
inacrosshatched(diagonal)pat-
tern(CVC§22507.8).
• Inaspacedesignatedforparking
orfuelingzero-emissionvehicles
which display an identifying
decal.
• Inatunneloronabridge,except
wherepermittedbysigns.
• Within 15 feet of a fire hydrant
orafirestationdriveway.
• Onorwithin7
1
/2feetofarailroad
track.
• Between a safety zone and the
curb.
• “Double parked.” (Parking in
thestreetwhenalllegalparking
placesatthecurbaretaken.)
• Onthewrongsideofthestreet.
• Ataredcurb.
• Onafreeway,except:
– Inanemergency,or
– When an officer or device
requiresastop,or
– Where a stop is specifically
permitted. A vehicle (even
if disabled) that is stopped,
parked, or left standing on
a freeway for more than
four hours may be removed
(CVC§22651(f)).
NOTE: If you must stop on a
freeway, park completely off the
pavementandstayinyourvehicle
with the doors locked until help
arrives. Leave enough space for
other vehicles to freely pass by
your vehicle.Your vehicle should
be visible for at least 200 feet in
eachdirection.
special parking rules
• Whenyouparkalongsideacurb
on a level street, the front and
back wheels must be parallel
andwithin18inchesofthecurb.
Parkparalleltothestreetifthere
isnocurb.
• Never leave your vehicle until
youhavestoppedtheengineand
settheparkingbrake.
• Do not open the driver’s side
doorunlessitissafeandyoudo
not interfere with traffic. Look
carefully for passing vehicles,
bicyclists,andmotorcyclists.Do
notleavethedooropenanylonger
thannecessary.
-41-
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intentionally
blank
ExprEss yoursElf!
Signaling can save lives.
Visit dmv.ca.gov for the
California Driver Handbook
sAfe DrivinG
prActices
signaling
Always signal to other drivers,
motorcyclists, bicyclists, and pe-
destrianswhenyouplantoturnleft,
right, slow down, or stop. Signals
may be given by hand-and-arm
positionsorbyusingthevehicle’s
signallights.Ifbrightsunlightmakes
thesignallightshardtosee,alsouse
hand-and-armsignals.
Motorcyclistsoftenusehandsignals
to make themselves more visible.
Bicyclistsmaygiverightturn-sig-
nalswiththeirrightarmheldstraight
out,pointingright.
Always signal—this lets other
drivers, bicylists, and pedestrians
knowyourplans.
Signal:
• When making a left or right
turn,duringthelast100feetbe-
fore reaching the turning point.
Caution!—Even though you
RIGHT TURN
SLOW or STOP
LEFT TURN
signal, do not automatically as-
sumethatthespaceyouwantto
occupyisclear.
• Beforeeverylanechangecheck
your mirrors, look over your
shoulder, and check your blind
spotbeforechanginglanes.
• Atleastfivesecondsbeforeyou
changelanesonafreeway.
• Beforepullingnexttothecurbor
awayfromthecurb.
• Whenyouchangedirections.
• Evenwhenyoudonotseeother
vehicles.Avehicleyoudonotsee
maysuddenlyappearandhityou.
Ifyouplantoturnbeyondaninter-
section,startsignalingwhenyouare
intheintersection.Ifyousignaltoo
early,theotherdrivermaythinkyou
plantoturnintotheintersectionand
heorshemaypulloutinfrontofyou.
Remember to cancel your signal
afterturning.
Steering
Steering Control–Modernvehicles
require very little steering to turn.
Lookatthesteeringwheelasaclock
faceandplaceyourhandsat9and3
o’clockorslightlylowerat8and4
o’clock.Thesearethedesiredhand
positionsthatreducethepossibility
ofturningthewheeltoosharply.
Toreduceforearmandhandinjuries,
yourhandsshouldbeplacedonthe
lowerhalfofthesteeringwheel,with
yourknucklesontheoutsideofthe
wheel, and your thumbs stretched
alongtherimofthesteeringwheel.
-45-
Pull-Push Steering–Usepull-push
steeringformostturningmaneuvers.
Putyourhandsinthe8and4o’clock
positions.Pulldownwithonehand
andpushupwiththeother.Thisre-
sultsinsmoothsteeringandreduces
thepotentialforoversteering,which
canleadtolossofcontrol.Keepyour
handsandthumbsontheoutsideof
thewheel.
Hand-Over-Hand Steering–Use
hand-over-hand steering when
steering movements are critical,
suchaswhen:
• Parking.
• Performingsharprightturns.
• Correctingaskid.
Use quick movements on entry to
the maneuver, and then use slow,
smoothmovementswhenstraight-
eningthewheel.
One-Hand Steering–Useone-hand
steeringfor:
• Backing maneuvers that do not
requirefullleftorrightturns,or
• When operating vehicle con-
trols for information, safety, or
comfort.
Steeringerrorsaredirectlyrelated
tovisionerrors.
scanning
Scanningyoursurroundings(keep-
ing your eyes moving) includes
keepingasafedistancearoundyour
vehicle.Whenanotherdrivermakes
amistake,youneedtimetoreact.
Giveyourselfthistimebykeepinga
“spacecushion”onallsidesofyour
vehicle.Thisspacecushionwillgive
youroomtobrakeormaneuverif
youneedthespace.
Know What Is Ahead
To avoid last minute moves, look
downtheroad10–15secondsahead
ofyourvehiclesoyoucanseehaz-
ardsearly.Constantlystaringatthe
road just in front of your vehicle
is dangerous. As you scan ahead,
be alert for vehicles around you.
Where is the green vehicle headed?
Use your mirrors. Allow enough
spacebetweenyouandthevehicle
ahead to give yourself an “out.”
Mistakes cause collisions. In the
city, 10–15 seconds is about one
block.Onthehighway,10–15sec-
onds is about a quarter of a mile.
Take in the whole scene–If you
onlylookatthemiddleoftheroad,
youwillmisswhatishappeningon
thesideoftheroadandbehindyou.
Scanninghelpsyoutosee:
• Carsandpeoplethatmaybeinthe
roadbythetimeyoureachthem.
-46-
• Signswarningofproblemsahead.
• Signsgivingyoudirections.
The shaded areas are your blind spots.
Before changing lanes, look into
your rear view mirror for nearby
vehiclesandalsooveryourshoulder
tocheckforblindspots.Blindspots
canhideamotorcyclist,avehicleor
abicyclist.Watchforthingsabout
to happen, like a ball rolling into
thestreetoravehicledooropening.
Watch for hazards–Lookbeyond
thevehicleaheadofyou.Donotde-
velopa“fixedstare.”Keepscanning.
Checkyourrearviewmirrorsevery
two–fivesecondssoyouknowthe
positionofvehiclesnearyou.
Onthefreeway,bereadyforchanges
in traffic conditions. Watch for
signalsfrom other drivers. Expect
merging vehicles at on-ramps and
interchanges.Bepreparedforrapid
changesinroadconditionsandtraf-
ficflow.Knowwhichlanesareclear
soyoucanusethemifnecessary.
do not be a tailgater! Manydriv-
ersdonotseeasfaraheadasthey
should because they follow too
closely (tailgate), and the vehicle
aheadblockstheirview.
Themorespaceyouallowbetween
yourvehicleandthevehicleahead,
themoretimeyouwillhavetoseea
hazardandstoporavoidthathazard.
Mostrearendcollisionsarecaused
bytailgating.Toavoidtailgating,use
the“three-secondrule.”Whenthe
vehicleaheadofyoupassesacertain
point such as a sign, count “one-
thousand-one, one-thousand-two,
one-thousand-three.” This takes
aboutthreeseconds.Ifyoupassthe
samepointbeforeyoufinishcount-
ing,youarefollowingtooclosely.
Youshouldallowafour-secondor
morecushionwhen:
• Being crowded by a tailgater.
Allow extra room ahead, do
not brake suddenly. Slow down
graduallyormergeintoanother
lane to prevent being hit from
behindbythetailgater!
• Drivingonslipperyroads.
• Following motorcyclists on wet
or icy roads, on metal surfaces
(e.g., bridge gratings, railroad
tracks,etc.),andongravel.Mo-
torcyclistscanfallmoreeasilyon
thesesurfaces.
• The driver behind you wants to
pass.Allowroominfrontofyour
vehicle so the driver will have
spacetomoveinfrontofyou.
• Towing a trailer or carrying a
heavy load. The extra weight
makesithardertostop.
• Following large vehicles that
blockyourviewahead.Theextra
space allows you to see around
thevehicle.
• You see a bus, school bus, or
a placarded vehicle at railroad
crossings. These vehicles must
-47-
stopatrailroadcrossings,soslow
down early and allow plenty of
room.
• Mergingontoafreeway.
Ifyoufollowtoocloselyandanother
driver “cuts” in front of you, just
takeyourfootoffthegas.Thisgives
youspacebetweenyourvehicleand
the other driver, without having to
slamonyourbrakesorswerveinto
anotherlane.
Know What Is at Your Side
Anytimeyoucometoaplacewhere
peoplemaycrossorenteryourpath
or onelineoftrafficmeetsanother,
youshouldlooktotheleftandright
sidesofyourvehicletomakesureno
oneiscoming.Alwayslooktoeach
sideofyourvehicleatintersections,
crosswalks,andrailroadcrossings.
Atintersections:
• Lookbothwaysevenifothertraf-
fichasaredlightorastopsign:
– Look to the left first, since
vehiclescomingfromtheleft
areclosertoyouthanvehicles
comingfromtheright.
– Looktotheright.
– Takeonemorelooktotheleft
incasethereisavehicleora
pedestrianyoudidnotseethe
firsttime.
• Do not rely on traffic signals.
Somedriversdonotobeytraffic
signals so before you enter an
intersection,lookleft,right,and
aheadforapproachingtraffic.
Tomaintainaspacecushiononeach
sideofyourvehicle:
• Do not stay in another driver’s
blindspot.Theotherdrivermay
not see your vehicle and could
changelanesandhityou.
• Avoiddrivingdirectlyalongside
othervehiclesonmultilanestreets
withorwithouttrafficintheop-
posite direction.Another driver
mightcrowdyourlaneorchange
laneswithoutlookingandcrash
intoyou.Driveeitheraheadofor
behindtheothervehicle.
• Ifpossibleandwhensafe,make
roomforvehiclesenteringfree-
wayseventhoughyouhavethe
right-of-way.
• At freeway exits, do not drive
alongsideothercars.Adrivermay
decidetoexitsuddenlyorswerve
backontothefreeway.
• Keep a space between yourself
and parked cars. Someone may
step out from between them. A
vehicledoormayopenoravehicle
maypulloutsuddenly.
• Becarefulwhendrivingnearmo-
torcyclistsorbicyclists.Always
leaveplentyofroombetweenyour
vehicleandanymotorcyclistsor
bicyclists.
Know What Is Behind You
Itisveryimportanttocheckbehind
youbeforeyou:
• Change lanes. Look over your
shouldertomakesureyouarenot
gettinginthewayofvehiclesin
thelaneyouwanttoenter.
-48-
• Reduceyourspeed.Takeaquick
glanceinyourmirrors.Alsocheck
your mirrors when you are pre-
paringtoturnintoasideroador
drivewayandwhenyouarestop-
pingtopullintoaparkingspace.
• Drivedownalongorsteephill.
Watchforlargevehiclesbecause
they can gather speed very
quickly.
• Back up. Backing up is always
dangerous because it is hard to
see behind your vehicle. When
youarebackingoutofaparking
space:
– Checkinfrontandbehindthe
vehiclebeforeyougetin.
– Know where your kids are.
Makesuretheyareawayfrom
your vehicle and in full view
beforemovingyourvehicle.
– If other children are nearby,
make sure you can see them
beforebackingup.
– Do not depend only on your
mirrors or only looking out a
sidewindow.
– Turnandlookoveryourright
and left shoulders before you
begin backing. As a safety
measure, also look over your
right and left shoulders again
whilebacking.
– Backslowlytoavoidcollisions.
Check traffic behind you often to
know if you are being tailgated
(another driver is following too
closely).Ifyouarebeingtailgated,
be careful! Brake slowly before
stopping.Tapyourbrakeslightlya
fewtimestowarnthetailgateryou
areslowingdown.
“Lose”thetailgaterassoonasyou
can,bychanginglanesandallowing
thetailgatertopassyouorslowing
down to allow enough “cushion”
betweenyouandthecarinfrontof
you.Ifthisdoesnotwork,pulloff
theroadwhenitissafeandletthe
tailgaterpass.
Clean Windows and Mirrors
Keepyourwindshieldandsidewin-
dows clean inside and out. Bright
sunorheadlightsonadirtywindow
make it hard to see out. Clear off
ice,frost,ordewfromallwindows
beforeyoudrive.
Makesureyoucanseeandbeseen.
If you drive in rain or snow, you
mayhavetostopsometimestowipe
mudorsnowoffyourwindshield,
headlights,andtaillights.
Adjust Seat and Mirrors
Adjustyourseatbeforeyouputon
yourseatbelt.Youshouldsithigh
enoughtoseetheroad.Ifyoustill
cannotsee,useaseatcushion.
Adjustyourrearandsidemirrorsbe-
foreyoustartdriving.Ifyourvehicle
hasaday/nightmirror,learnhowto
useit.Thenightsettingreducesthe
headlightglarefromthecarsbehind
youandhelpsyouseewell.
How Well Can You Stop?
If something is in your path, you
need to see it in time to stop.As-
sumingyouhavegoodtires,good
brakes,anddrypavement:
-49-
• At55mph,ittakesabout400feet
toreactandbringthevehicletoa
completestop.
• At35mph,ittakesabout210feet
toreactandbringthevehicletoa
completestop.
Adjust your driving speed to the
weatherandroadconditions(“Basic
SpeedLaw”page28.)Turnonyour
lightsduringtheday,ifitishardto
seeoryoucannotseeatleast1,000
feetaheadofyou.
Driving in the fog
The best advice for driving in the
fogisDON’T.Youshouldconsider
postponing your trip until the fog
clears.However,ifyoumustdrive,
thendriveslowlyanduseyourlow
beamheadlights.Thelightfromthe
high beam headlights will reflect
backandcauseglare.
Never drive with just your parking
or fog lights.
Increase your following distance
andbepreparedtostopwithinthe
space you can see ahead. Avoid
crossingorpassinglanesoftraffic
unlessabsolutelynecessary.Listen
fortrafficyoucannotsee.Useyour
wipers and defroster as necessary
forbestvision.
Ifthefogbecomessothickthatyou
canbarelysee,pullcompletelyoff
the road. Do not continue driving
until you can see well. Turn off
yourlightsandkeepyourfootoff
thebrakepedalorsomeonemaysee
yourtaillights,thinkyouaremoving,
anddriveintoyourvehicle.
Driving in Darkness
Drivemoreslowlyatnightbecause
you cannot see as far ahead and
youwillhavelesstimetostopfor
a hazard. Make sure you can stop
withinthedistancelightedbyyour
headlights.
Use your low beam headlights at
night when it rains. do not drive
using only your parking lights.
Use your high beam headlights
wheneverpossibleinopencountry
ordarkcitystreets,aslongasitis
notillegal.Donotblindotherdriv-
erswithyourhighbeamheadlights.
Dimyourlightswhennecessary.If
anotherdriverdoesnotdimhisor
herlights:
• Do not look directly into the
oncomingheadlights.
• Look toward the right edge of
yourlane.
• Watchtheoncomingvehicleout
ofthecornerofyoureye.
• Do not try to “get back” at the
other driver by keeping your
brightlightson.Ifyoudo,both
ofyoumaybeblinded.
Whenyoudriveatnight,remember:
• Pedestrians and bicyclists are
much harder to see at night, so
stayalertforthem.
• Motorcyclesarealsohardertosee
atnightbecausemosthaveonly
onetaillight.
• Morehighwayconstructiontakes
placeatnight.Reduceyourspeed
inhighwayconstructionzones.
-50-
• When you leave a brightly-lit
place,driveslowlyuntilyoureyes
adjusttothedarkness.
• Drive as far to the rightas pos-
sible, when a vehicle with one
lightdrivestowardyou.Itcould
be a bicyclist or motorcyclist,
butitcouldalsobeavehiclewith
amissingheadlight.
Driving in rain or snoW
Manyroadpavementsarethemost
slipperywhenitfirststartstorainor
snowbecauseoilanddusthavenot
yetwashedaway.Slowdownatthe
firstsignofrain,drizzle,orsnowon
theroad.Turnonyourwindshield
wipers,headlights,anddefroster.
Inaheavyrainstormorsnowstorm,
youmaynotbeabletoseemorethan
100feetaheadofyourvehicle.When
you cannot see any farther than
100 feet, you cannot safely drive
fasterthan30mph.Youmayhave
to stop from time to time to wipe
mudorsnowoffyourwindshield,
headlights,andtaillights.
Ifyoudriveinsnowyareas,carry
thecorrectnumberofchainsandbe
suretheywillfityourdrivewheels.
Learnhowtoputthechainsonbe-
fore youneedtousethem.
Driving in hill country
You never know what is on the
othersideofasteephillorasharp
curve.Whenyoucometoahillor
curve,slowdownsoyoucanstopfor
anyhazard.Youmustdriveslowly
enoughtostop.
Anytimeyourviewisblockedbya
hilloracurve,youshouldassume
there is another vehicle ahead of
you.Onlypassthevehicleifahillor
curveisatleastone-thirdofamile
away,becauseyouneedatleastthat
muchroomtopasssafely.
Donotdriveontheleftsideofthe
roadwhencomingtoacurveorthe
top of a hill, because you cannot
seefarenoughaheadtoknowifit
issafetopass.
horn, heaDlights, anD
emergency signals
Use Your Horn
• Only when necessary, to avoid
collisions.
• Totrytoget“eyecontact”with
otherdrivers.Youmaytapyour
horntoalertanotherdriverwho
might turn in front of you and
causeacollision.
• On narrow mountain roads,
whereyoucannotseeatleast200
feetaheadofyourvehicle.
Do Not Use Your Horn
• If a driver or bicyclist is going
slowly,andyouwanthimorher
todrivefasterorgetoutofyour
way;thedriverorbicyclistmay
notbeabletosafelygofaster,due
toillness,beinglost,intoxication,
or having mechanical problems
withthevehicle.
• To alert other drivers that they
made a mistake. Your honking
may cause them to make more
mistakesortobecomeangryand
retaliate.
-51-
• Because you may be angry or
upset.
• Tohonkatpedestrians,bicyclists,
ormotorcyclistsunlessnecessary
to avoid a collision. Remember
thatyourhornsoundsmuchlouder
outsideavehicle.
• It’ssafertoslowdownortostop,
instead of honking your horn,
whichmaystartleotherdrivers.
Use Your Headlights
• When it is cloudy, raining,
snowing, or foggy. If weather
conditionsrequireyoutouseyour
windshieldwipers,youmustturn
onyourheadlights—it’sthelaw.
• Onfrostymornings,whenother
drivers’windowsmaybeicyor
“fogged.”
• Anytimeconditionspreventyou
fromseeingothervehicles.Other
driversmayhavetroubleseeing
you,too.
• On small country or mountain
roads,evenonsunnydays.This
helps other drivers see you and
may help you avoid a head-on
crash.
• When necessary to get another
driver’sattention.
Use Your Emergency Signals
Ifyoucanseeacollisionahead,warn
thedriversbehindyoubyturningon
youremergencyflashersortapping
your brake pedal quickly three or
fourtimes.Youcanalsousethehand
signalwhenslowingandstopping.
Neverstopontheroad,unlessneces-
saryforsafetyortoobeyalaw.If
youneedtostop,thenstartbraking
earlyasasignaltothecarsbehind
you. If your vehicle breaks down
on the road, make sure that other
driverscanseeit.Ifyouexperience
vehicle trouble, and need to stop,
followtheserules:
• Pull off the road away from all
traffic,ifpossible.
• Ifyoucannotgetcompletelyoff
theroad,stopwherepeoplecan
see you and your vehicle from
behind. Do not stop just over a
hillorjustaroundacurve.
• Turnonyouremergencyflashers
if you are not moving. If your
vehicledoesn’thaveemergency
flashers,turnsignalsmaybeused
instead.
• Ifitissafe,liftthehoodtosignal
anemergency.
• Give other drivers plenty of
warning.Placeemergencyflares
ortriangles200–300feetbehind
the vehicle. This allows other
drivers time to change lanes, if
necessary.Beverycarefulwhen
using flares. They may cause
fires,especiallywhenusednear
flammableliquids.
• If you do not have emergency
flares, follow the rules listed
above and stay in your vehicle
untilhelparrives.Becarefulfor
yoursafetyandstay off the road.
Remember:donottrytochangea
tireifitmeansyouhavetostand
inatrafficlane.
-52-
folloWing Distances
Taking Dangers One at a Time
Suppose there is an oncoming
vehicletoyourleftandachildon
a bicycle to your right. Instead of
driving between the vehicle and
thechild,takeonedangeratatime.
First,slowdownandletthevehicle
pass.Then,movetothelefttoallow
plentyofroomtopassthechild.
Splitting the Difference
Sometimes there will be dangers
on both sides of the road at the
sametime.Forexample,therewill
beparkedcarstotherightandon-
comingcarstotheleft.Inthiscase,
the best thing to do is “split the
difference.”Steeramiddlecourse
betweentheoncomingcarsandthe
parkedcars.
If one danger is greater than the
other, give the most room to the
mostdangeroussituation.Suppose
thereareoncomingcarsonyourleft
sideandachildonabikeonyour
rightside.Thechildismorelikely
tomakeasuddenmove.Therefore,
slowdown,andifsafe,useasmuch
ofyourlanetotheleftaspossible
untilyoupassthechild.
Problem Drivers
Increase your following distance
and allow a bigger space cushion
fordriverswhomaybepotentially
dangerous. Persons who present
dangersare:
• Drivers who cannot see you
becausetheirviewisblockedby
buildings,trees,orothercars.
• Drivers backing out of drive-
waysorparkingspaceswiththe
vehicle’s windows covered by
snoworice.
• Driverswhopassyouwhenthere
isacurveoroncomingvehicle(s)
ahead.
• Drivers about to be forced into
your lane to avoid a vehicle, a
pedestrian, a bicyclist, an ob-
struction, or because of fewer
lanesahead.
• Pedestrians with umbrellas in
frontoftheirfacesorhatspulled
downovertheireyes.
• Distractedpeople,suchas:
– Deliverypersons.
– Constructionworkers.
– Children,whooftenrunintothe
streetwithoutlooking.
– Driverstalkingoncellphones
orspeakingtotheirpassengers.
– Driverstakingcareofchildren,
eating,orlookingatmapswhile
driving.
• Confusedpeople,suchas:
– Tourists,oftenatcomplicated
intersections.
– Drivers who are looking for
a house number or who slow
downfornoapparentreason.
merging in/out of traffic
Wheneveryouentertraffic,signal
andbesureyouhaveenoughroom
tosafelyenterthelane.Youhaveto
sharespacewithtrafficalreadyon
-53-
theroad,andyoumustknowhow
muchspaceyouneedtomergewith
traffic,crossorentertraffic,andexit
outoftraffic.
Space to Merge
Enter the freeway at or near the
speed of traffic. (Remember that
themaximumspeedallowedis65
mph on most freeways.) do not
stop before merging into freeway
traffic unlessabsolutelynecessary.
Freewaytraffichastheright-of-way.
Anytimeyoumergewithothertraf-
fic,youneedagapofatleastfour
seconds,whichgivesbothyouand
theothervehicleonlyatwo-second
followingdistance.Whenitissafe,
go back to following the “three-
secondrule”(seepage47).
• Donottrytosqueezeintoagap
thatistoosmall.Leaveyourself
abigenoughspacecushion.
• Watch for vehicles around you.
Useyourmirrorsandturnsignals.
Turn your head to look quickly
overyourshoulderbeforechang-
inglanes.Leavethreesecondsof
spacebetweenyouandthevehicle
aheadofyou.Makesureyoucan
stopsafelyifnecessary.
• Ifyouneedtocrossseveralfree-
way lanes, cross them one at a
time.Ifyouwaituntilallofthe
lanes are clear, you may cause
trafficdelaysoracollision.
Space to Cross or Enter
Whenever you cross or enter city
orhighwaytrafficfromafullstop,
you will need a large enough gap
(fromvehiclesapproachingineither
direction)togetuptothespeedof
othervehicles.Youneedagapthat
isabout:
• Halfablockoncitystreets.
• Afullblockonthehighway.
Ifyouarecrossinglanesorturning,
makesuretherearenovehiclesor
peopleblockingthepathaheadorto
thesidesofyourvehicle.Youdonot
wanttobecaughtinanintersection
withtrafficcomingatyou.
Evenifyouhavethegreenlight,do
not start across the intersection, if
therearevehiclesblockingyourway.
Whenturningleft,donotstartthe
turn just because an approaching
vehiclehasitsrightturnsignalon.
The driver may plan to turn just
beyondyou,orthesignalmayhave
beenleftonfromanearlierturn.This
isparticularlytrueofmotorcycles.
Theirsignallightsoftendonotturn
off automatically. Wait until the
other driver actually starts to turn
beforeyoucontinue.
Space to Exit
Whenyouplantoexitthefreeway,
give yourself plenty of time. You
should know the name or number
ofthefreewayexityouwantaswell
astheonethatcomesbeforeit.To
exitsafely:
• Signal,lookoveryourshoulder,
and change lanes one at a time,
untilyouareintheproperlaneto
exitthefreeway.
-54-
• Signalyourintentiontoexitfor
approximately five seconds be-
forereachingtheexit.
• Besureyouareattheproperspeed
forleavingthetrafficlane–nottoo
fast(soyouremainincontrol)and
nottooslow(sotheflowoftraffic
canstillmovefreely).
passing other traffic
Space and Speed to Pass
Always signal before passing. Do
notpullouttopassunlessyouknow
youhaveenoughspacetopullback
intoyourlane.
Avoid passing other vehicles, in-
cluding motorcycles and bicycles,
ontwo-laneroads.Itisdangerous.
Everytimeyoupass,youincrease
yourchancesofhavingacollision.
Bepatientwhenpassingabicyclist.
Slowdownandpassonlywhenit
issafe.Donotsqueezethebicyclist
offtheroad.
Athighwayspeedsof50–55mph,
you need a 10–12 second gap in
oncomingtraffictopasssafely.At55
mph,youwilltravelover800feetin
10–12seconds.Sowillanoncoming
vehicle.Thatmeansyouneedover
1,600feet(oraboutone-thirdofa
mile)topasssafely.Itishardertosee
and judge the speed of oncoming
vehiclesthataretravelingone-third
ofamileormoreawayfromyou.
Youmustjudgewhetherornotyou
haveenoughroomtopasswhenever
youapproach:
• Anoncomingvehicle.
• Ahilloracurve.
• Anintersection.
• Aroadobstruction.
Vehiclesappeartomoveslowerthan
they really are moving.A vehicle
that is far enough away generally
appearstobestandingstill.Infact,
if you can see it moving closer to
you,itisprobablytoocloseforyou
tostarttopass.
Space to Return
Before you return to your driving
lane,besureyouarenotdangerously
close to the vehicle you have just
passed.Onewaytodothisistolook
for the vehicle in your inside rear
viewmirror.Whenyoucanseeboth
headlightsinyourrearviewmirror,
youhaveenoughroomtoreturnto
yourdrivinglane.Donotcounton
havingenoughtimetopassseveral
vehiclesatonce,orthatotherdrivers
willmakeroomforyou.
sHArinG tHe roAD
large trucks (Big rigs)
anD rvs
To reduce the chance of having a
collisionwithalargetruckorRV,
you must be familiar with a big
rig’sphysicalcapabilitiesandhow
itmaneuvers.
Braking
Largetruckstakelongertostopthan
vehiclestravelingatthesamespeed.
Theaveragepassengervehicletrav-
elingat55mphcanstopwithin400
feet.However,alargetrucktraveling
atthesamespeedcantakealmost
800 feet to stop. Do not move in
-55-
frontofalargetruckandsuddenly
slowdownorstop.Thetruckerwill
notbeabletostopquicklyenough
toavoidcrashingintoyou.
Trucker’s Blind Spots—the “No
Zone”
Shaded areas are the driver’s blind spots.
Passenger vehicle drivers incor-
rectlyassumethatatruckercansee
theroadbetterbecauseheorsheis
higherofftheroad.Whiletruckers
dohaveabetterforwardviewand
biggermirrors,theystillhavelarge
blindspots,andyourvehiclecanget
lostinthoseblindspots.Ifyoustay
inthoseblindspots,youblockthe
trucker’sabilitytotakeevasiveac-
tiontoavoidadangeroussituation.
Generally speaking, if you cannot
seethetruckdriverinhisorherside
mirror, he or she cannot see you.
These blind spots are often called
the“NOZONE.”
Turning
Whenanyvehiclemakesaturn,the
rear wheels follow a shorter path
than the front wheels. The longer
the vehicle, the greater the differ-
enceisintheturningpath.Thisis
whybigrigdriversmustoftenswing
widetocompletearightturn.When
youfollowabigrig,lookatitsturn
signalsbeforeyoustarttopass.If
thetruckappearstobeturningleft,
check the turn signals again; the
drivermayactuallybeturningright
butfirstswingingwide.
Maneuverability
Trucks are designed to transport
products and they are not as ma-
neuverable as passenger vehicles.
Largetruckshavelongerstopping
and starting distances. They take
morespaceforturnsandtheyweigh
more.Onmultilanehighwaysand
freeways,largetrucksusuallystay
inthecenterportionofthelaneto
help the flow of traffic. This also
increasesthetrucker’soptionsifhe
orshemustchangelanestoavoid
ahazard.
Avoidthesemistakeswhendriving
aroundlargetrucks:
• Cutting off a truck in traffic
or on the highway to reach an
exit or turn. Cutting into the
openspaceinfrontofatruckis
dangerous.Tryingtobeatatruck
throughasingle-laneconstruction
zone, for example, removes the
truck driver’s cushion of safety
and places you in danger. Slow
down and take your turn enter-
ing the construction zone. Do
notspeeduptopassatruck,so
youcanexittheroadway.Takea
momenttoslowdown,andexit
behindatruck—itwillonlytake
youafewextraseconds.
-56-
dmv.ca.gov
Can the driver see
your vehiCle? Allow for
extra space and be safe!
• Lingering alongside a truck
when passing. Always pass a
large truck on the left side, and
after you pass the truck, move
aheadofit.Donotlinger,other-
wiseyoumakeitverydifficult,if
notimpossible,forthetruckerto
takeevasiveactionifanobstacle
appearsintheroadahead.
• Following too closely or tailgat-
ing.Whenyoufollowsoclosely
behindatruckthatyoucannotsee
thetruckdriver’ssideviewmir-
rors, the trucker cannot see you
andhasnowayofknowingyou
are there. Tailgating a truck, or
anyvehicle,isdangerousbecause
youtakeawayyourowncushion
ofsafetyifthevehicleinfrontof
youstopsquickly.
• Underestimating the size and
speed of an approaching tractor-
trailer. A large tractor-trailer
oftenappearstobetravelingata
slowerspeedbecauseofitslarge
size.Manycollisionsinvolvinga
passengervehicleandalargetruck
occur at intersections, when the
passenger vehicle driver did not
realize how close the truck was
orhowfastitwastraveling.
Buses, streetcars, anD
trolleys
Donotdrivethroughasafetyzone,
whichisaspacesetasideforpedes-
triansandmarkedbyraisedbuttons
ormarkersonaroadway.
Whenpeopleareboardingorleav-
ingastreetcarortrolleywherethere
is no safety zone, stop behind the
vehicle’s nearest door or vehicle
platformandwaituntilthepeople
havereachedasafeplace.
Whenabus,streetcar,ortrolleyis
stoppedatasafetyzoneorataninter-
sectionwheretrafficiscontrolledby
apoliceofficerortrafficsignal,you
maypassatnomorethan10mph.
Donotovertakeandpassanylight
rail vehicle or streetcar on the
left side, whether it is moving or
standing.
EXCEPTIONS:
• Whenyouareonaone-waystreet.
• When the tracks are so close to
therightsidethatyoucannotpass
ontheright.
• Whenatrafficofficerdirectsyou
topassontheleft.
light-rail vehicles
Light-rail vehicles have the same
rightsandresponsibilitiesonpublic
roadways as other vehicles. Al-
though everyone must follow the
same trafficlaws,light-railvehicles
requireexceptional handlingability
becauseoftheirsize.
Safelysharetheroadwithlight-rail
vehiclesby:
• Being aware of where light-rail
vehiclesoperate.Buildings,trees,
etc.,causeblindspotsforthetrol-
leyoperator.
• Never turninfrontofanapproach-
inglight-railvehicle.
-58-

Do not turn in front of light rail vehicles
• Maintain a safe distance from
thelight-railvehicleifitsharesa
streetwithvehiculartraffic.

Safety Zones are marked by dotted white lines
• Look for approaching light-rail
vehicles before you turn across
the tracks. Complete your turn
onlyifasignalindicatesyoumay
proceed.
NOTE:Light-railvehiclescaninter-
rupttrafficsignals,sodonotproceed
untilthesignallightindicatesyou
mayproceed.
emergency vehicles
Youmustyieldtheright-of-wayto
anypolicevehicle,fireengine,am-
bulance,orotheremergencyvehicle
usingasirenandredlights.Drive
to the right edge of the road and
stopuntiltheemergencyvehicle(s)
havepassed.However,never stop
in an intersection.Ifyouareinan
intersectionwhenyouseeanemer-
gencyvehicle,continuethroughthe
intersection and then drive to the
rightassoonasitissafeandstop.
Emergency vehicles often use the
wrongsideofthestreettocontinue
ontheirway.Theysometimesuse
a loud speaker to talk to drivers
blockingtheirpath.
Yield to emergency vehicles.
You must obey any traffic direc-
tion,order,orsignalbyatrafficor
policeofficerorafirefightereven
if it conflicts with existing signs,
signals,orlaws.
Itisagainstthelawtofollowwithin
300 feet behind any fire engine,
policevehicle,ambulance,orother
emergencyvehiclewith a sirenor
flashinglights(CVC§21706).
If you drive for sight-seeing pur-
posestothesceneofafire,collision,
orotherdisasteryoumaybearrested.
Casualobserversinterferewiththe
essential services of police, fire-
fighter,ambulancecrews,orother
rescueoremergencypersonnel.
-59-
sloW-moving vehicles
Somevehiclesarenotdesignedto
keepupwiththespeedoftraffic.
Farmtractors,animal-drawncarts,
and road maintenance vehicles
usuallytravel25mphorless.Slow-
movingvehicleshaveanorange/red
triangleonthebackofthevehicles.
Itlookslikethesigninthepicture
onthispage.Lookforthesevehicles
and adjust your speed before you
reachthem.
A Slow-Moving Vehicle
Also, be aware that large trucks,
bicyclistsandsmall,underpowered
carslosespeedonlongorsteephills
andtakelongertogetuptospeed
whenenteringtraffic.
Othertypesofslow-movingmotor-
izedvehicles(suchaswheelchairs,
scooters, Neighborhood Electric
Vehicles (NEVs) and golf carts)
maylegallyoperateonpublicroads.
Adjust your speed accordingly to
accommodatethem.
neighBorhooD electric
vehicles (nev) anD loW-
speeD vehicles (lsv)
Youmayhaveseenlanesmarkedas
NEVUSE ONLYonroadwaysin
some California towns, especially
thosenearretirementcommunities
andgolfcourses.NEVsandLSVs
arerestrictedfromroadwayswhere
the speed limit is greater than 35
mph (CVC §§385.5 and 21260).
TheNEVandLSVvehiclesreach
amaximumspeedof25mph.
Owners of registered NEVs and
LSVsmustcomplywithfinancialre-
sponsibilitylawsandadriverlicense
isrequiredtooperatethevehicle.
animal-DraWn vehicles
Horse-drawnvehiclesandridersof
horsesorotheranimalsareentitled
to share the road with you. It is a
traffic offense to scare horses or
stampedelivestock.Slowdownor
stop,ifnecessary,orwhenrequested
todosobytheridersorherders.
motorcycles
Motorcyclistshavethesamerights
and responsibilities as automobile
drivers.Whileeveryonemustfollow
thesametrafficlaws,motorcyclists
face additional dangers because
motorcycles require exceptional
handling ability and are harder to
see. Therefore, many motorcycles
keeptheirheadlightonevenduring
daylighthours.
From ahead or behind, a motor-
cycle’soutlineismuchsmallerthan
a passenger vehicle’s outline, and
most drivers expect to see larger
vehicles on the road and are not
lookingformotorcycles.
Motorcyclistscandomanythingsto
makeiteasierforotherstorecognize
themandincreasetheirchancesof
beingseen.
-60-
• Wearabright-coloredjacket,vest,
andahelmet.
• Wearreflectivematerialonhel-
metsandclothes.
• Use turn signals when planning
tochangelanesorturn.
• Flash their brake lights before
slowing down to help others
noticethemotorcycle.
Follow these rules to respect the
right-of-way and safely share the
roadwithmotorcyclists:
• Whenyouchangelanesorentera
majorthoroughfare,makeavisual
checkformotorcycles.Alsouse
your mirrors. Motorcycles are
small,andtheycaneasilydisap-
pearintoavehicle’sblindspots.
• Allow a four-second following
distance.Youwillneedthisspace
toavoidhittingthemotorcyclist,if
heorshebrakessuddenlyorfalls
offthemotorcycle.Motorcycles
generally can stop faster than
passengervehicles.
• Allowthemotorcycleafulllane
width.Although it is not illegal
tosharelaneswithmotorcycles,
itisunsafe.
• Never try to pass a motorcycle
inthesamelaneyouaresharing
withthemotorcycle.
• When you make a turn, check
formotorcyclistsandgaugetheir
speedbeforeturning.
• Lookcarefullyformotorcyclists
beforeopeningdoorsnexttomov-
ingtrafficorbeforeturningright.
• Motorcycles may travel faster
thantrafficduringcongestedroad
conditionsandcanlegallytravel
intheunusedspacebetweentwo
linesofmovingorstationaryve-
hicles,whichiscommonlycalled
“lanesplitting.”
• Remember that road conditions
which are minor annoyances to
you pose major hazards to mo-
torcyclists.Potholes,gravel,wet
or slippery surfaces, pavement
seams, railroad crossings, and
grooved pavement can cause
motorcyclists to change speed
ordirectionsuddenly.Ifyouare
awareoftheeffectofthesecon-
ditions and drive with care and
attention,youcanhelpreducemo-
torcyclist injuries and fatalities.
Formoreinformationregarding
motorcycle safety, contact the
California Motorcyclist Safety
Program at 1-877-RIDE-411 or
www.ca-msp.org
Bicycles
Bicyclists:
• Mustobeyalltrafficsignalsand
stopsigns.
• Are lawfully per-
mitted to ride on
certain sections of
roadway in rural
areas where there
isnoalternateroute.
• Mustrideinthesamedirectionas
othertraffic,notagainstit.
-61-
Turns for bicyclists
STOP, LOOK
BEFORE CROSSING
RIDE A STRAIGHT LINE—DON’T TURN IN AND OUT
BETWEEN PARKED CARS. LEAVE SPACE TO AVOID
SUDDENLY OPENED DOORS.
MERGE LEFT TO PASS
VEHICLE TURNING RIGHT
Intersections with special lanes
• Shallrideasneartotherightcurb
oredgeoftheroadwayaspracti-
cal–notonthesidewalk.
• Arelegallyallowedtorideinthe
centerofthelanewhenmoving
atthesamespeedasothertraffic.
• Maymovelefttopassaparkedor
movingvehicle,bicycle,animal,
avoiddebris,orotherhazards.
• Maychoosetorideneartheleft
curboredgeofaone-waystreet.
• Shouldridesinglefileonabusy
ornarrowstreet.
• Must make left and right turns
inthesamewaythatdriversdo,
usingthesameturnlanes.Ifthe
bicyclist is traveling straight
ahead, he or she should use a
through traffic lane rather than
ride next to the curb and block
trafficmakingrightturns.
• Must signal all their intentions
to motorists and bicyclists near
them.
• Mustwearahelmetifunderthe
ageof18.
• Shouldcarryidentification.
• Shallnotoperateabicycleona
roadwayduringdarknessunless
thebicycleisequippedwith:
– Abrakewhichwillenablethe
operator to make one braked
wheelstopondry,level,clean
pavement.
During darkness bicyclists must
havethefollowingequipment:
– Afrontlampemittingawhite
lightvisiblefromadistanceof
300feet.
– A rear red reflector visible
fromadistanceof500feet.
– Awhiteoryellowreflectoron
eachpedaloronthebicyclist’s
shoesoranklesvisiblefroma
distanceof200feet.
peDestrians Who are BlinD
Pedestrians using guide dogs or
white canes with or without a red
tipmustbegiventheright-of-way
at all times.These pedestrians are
partiallyortotallyblind.
Whenthesepedestriansareinyour
vicinitybeespeciallycarefulwhen
turningcornersorbackingup,par-
ticularlyifyouaredrivingaquiet
hybridvehicle.
-62-
frontofthem.Turningmayresult
intheblindpedestrianbecoming
disorientedandvulnerabletobe-
ing hit by another right turning
vehiclewhenattemptingtocross
thestreet.
• do not honk your horn at a blind
person.Theblindpersonhasno
ideawhoyouarehonkingatand
maybestartledbythenoise.
• do not block any sidewalk.
roaD Workers anD
Work Zones (“cone Zones”)
Paycloseattentionwhereroadwork
isbeingperformed.Signsandmes-
sageboardswarnyouofworkers,
slowmovingequipment,andclosed
lanes ahead. Cones and/or drums
will guide you through the work
zone.Mergeassoonasitissafeto
dosoandwithoutcrossingthecones
ordrums.Reduceyourspeedandbe
preparedtoslowdownorstopfor
highwayequipment.Inworkzones
where lanes are narrow or where
the shoulder is closed, watch for
bicyclesand“sharetheroad”when
theyarepresent.
The most common
cause of deaths and
injuriesinworkzones
isrear-endcollisions.
In fact, most of the
peoplekilledinwork
zones are drivers and
passengers. For your own safety
and the safety of your passengers
remembertoslowdown,allowextra
following room between vehicles,
Herearesomesuggestionsforhelp-
ingpedestrianswhoareblind:
• do not stop your vehicle more
than five feet from the cross-
walk, unless there is an advance
stop bar (line).Ablindpedestrian
usesthesoundofyourengineas
aguide,sodriveuptothecross-
walktoallowthepersontohear
you. ImPORTANT: Drivers of
electricandhybridvehiclesmust
beextraalerttoblindpedestrians,
astheymaybeunawareofyour
presenceduetothenearlysilent
natureofthesevehicles.
• Stop at all crosswalks where
pedestrians are waiting.
• do not stop in the middle of a
crosswalk.Thisforcestheblind
pedestrian to go around your
vehicle and into traffic outside
ofthecrosswalk.
• do not give the blind pedestrian
verbal directions.Ablindpedes-
trianlistenstoalltrafficsounds
beforedecidingtocrossthestreet.
• do not wait too long for the blind
pedestrian to cross the street.
Whenablindpersonpullsinhis
orhercaneandstepsawayfrom
theintersection,thisgestureusu-
allymeansforyoutogo.
• do not turn right without
looking first. Look for any
pedestrians,especiallyblindpe-
destriansortrafficbeforestarting
yourturn.Blindpedestrianswho
haveagreenlightarenotexpect-
ingadrivertomakearightturnin
-63-
merge early, expect
sudden slowing or
stopping, watch for
drivers changing
lanesatthelastmin-
ute, and minimize
distractions. Avoid distractions
includingusingyourhands-freecell
phone while in the “Cone Zone.”
Fines for traffic violations in the
“Cone Zone”canbeupto$1,000,or
more.Anyoneconvictedofassault-
ingahighwayworkerfacesfinesof
upto$2,000andimprisonmentfor
uptooneyear.
Keep your eyes on the road and
othervehiclesaroundyou.Donot
stoptowatchtheroadwork.Obey
special signs or instructions from
workers.Drivingcarefullythrough
work zones improves safety for
drivers,pedestrians,bicyclists,and
roadworkers.
Rememberto“Slow for the Cone
Zone.”
DouBle fine Zones
Due to increased collision-related
injuriesandfatalitiescertainroads
aredesignatedas“SafetyEnhanced-
Double Fine Zones.” Fines for
violationsaredoubledinthesezones
andalsoinhighwayconstructionor
maintenance zones when workers
arepresent.(CVC§42010)
move over anD sloW DoWn
Driversarerequiredtomoveover
andslowdownwhenapproaching
a stationary emergency vehicle or
towtruckthatisdisplayingflashing
amberwarninglights,oravehicle,
markedDepartmentofTransporta-
tion that is displaying emergency
flashing or amber warning lights,
whileitisstoppedonthesideofa
statehighwayorfreeway.Thelaw
isdesignedtoreducethedeathsof
police officers, tow truck drivers,
paramedics, CalTrans employees,
andotheremergencypersonnelwho
areaidingstrandedorinjuredmotor-
istsorinvolvedinroadwork.Use
cautioniflanechangesarerequired.
vehicles With haZarDous
loaDs
- 78 -
Red and White Regulatory Signs
Highway Construction and Maintenance Signs
Guide Signs
Hazardous Loads Placards
White Regulatory Signs
Adiamond-shapedsignonatruck
means that the load on the truck
is potentially dangerous (gas, ex-
plosives,etc.)CaliforniaHighway
Patrol(CHP)orfiredepartmentof-
ficersknowwhattodoiftheloadis
accidentallyspilled.Vehicleswhich
displaythesesignsarerequiredto
stopbeforecrossingrailroadtracks.
importAnt DrivinG tips
Alwaysbecourteous.Safedriving
requires personal responsibility
to use sound judgment, reflexes,
experience, common sense and
consideration—every time you
arebehindthewheelofavehicle.
Courtesy...passiton!
-64-
Overtake other vehicles only
on the left.
Avoid blocking passing lanes.
Yield to faster traffic by mov-
ing to the right.
Keep to the right as much as
possible.
Maintain appropriate follow-
ing distance.
Provide appropriate distance
when cutting in after passing
vehicles.
Use headlights in cloudy,
rainy, low light conditions.
Yield to pedestrians.
Come to a complete stop at
stop signs, etc.
Stop for red traffic lights.
Approach intersections and
pedestrians at slow speeds.
Follow right-of-way rules at
four-way stops.
Drive below the posted speed
limit when conditions warrant.
Drive at slower speeds in
construction zones.
Maintain speeds appropriate
for conditions.
Use vehicle turn signals for
turns and lane changes.
Make eye contact and signal
intention where needed.
Acknowledge intention of oth-
ers.
Use your horn sparingly.
Avoid unnecessary use of
high beam headlights.
Yield and move to the right
for emergency vehicles.
Refrain from fashing head-
lights.
Make slow, deliberate U-
turns.
Maintain proper speeds
around roadway crashes.
Avoid returning inappropriate
gestures.
Avoid challenging other driv-
ers.
Try to get out of the way of
aggressive drivers.
Focus on driving and avoid
distracting activities.
DO YOu AVOID:
Driving when drowsy.
Blocking the right-turn lane.
Taking more than one parking
space.
Parking in a space desig-
nated for the disabled.
Letting your door hit the ve-
hicle parked next to you.
Using the cell phone while
driving.
Stopping in the road to talk.
Inficting loud music on neigh-
boring cars.
ARE YOu AN AGGRESSIVE DRIVER?
DO YOU (Check the appropriate box):
Y N Y N
Score Yourself:
Count the number of “No” Answers
(1-3) SAFE DRIVER (4-7) GOOD DRIVER
(8-11) SEMI-AGGRESSIVE DRIVER (12+) AGGRESSIVE DRIVER
-65-
Dealing With traffic
congestion
Smallchangesinyourdrivinghabits
canhelprelievechronictrafficcon-
gestion,accordingtotheCalifornia
OfficeofTrafficSafety(OTS).
Avoid the following driving
behaviors:
• Rubbernecking–slowing down
to look at collisions or virtu-
ally anything else out of the
ordinary.
• Tailgating–followingtooclosely.
• Unnecessarylanechanges–weav-
inginandoutoffreewaylanes.
• Inattention–eating, grooming,
talkingonacellphone,textmes-
saging, reading the newspaper,
etc.
• Operatingapoorly-maintainedor
malfunctioningvehicleorrunning
outoffuel.
Dealing With aggressive
Drivers anD roaD rage
Aggressive driving and road rage
happenswhencrowdedroads,rush-
ing,andimpatiencecauseonedriver
to react angrily to another driver.
Some suggestions for avoiding
aggressive driving and road rage
situationsare:
• Allowplentyoftimetoreachyour
destination.
• Donotcutoffotherdrivers.
• Do not drive slowly in the left
(fast)lane.
• Donottailgate.
• Do not make gestures to other
drivers.
• Use your horn for emergencies
only.
Prevent a potentially violent inci-
dentby:
• Avoiding eye contact with an
angrydriver.
• Giving an angry driver plenty
ofspace.
• Taking the questionnaire on the
previous page to determine the
typeofdriverthatyouare.
text messaging anD
cell phones
Regardless of age, it is illegal to
drive a motor vehicle while using
anelectronicwirelesscommunica-
tion device to write, send, or read
text messages, instant messages,
ande-mail(s).
NOTE: With certain exceptions,
adultsmaynotuseacellphonewhile
drivingunlesshands-freeequipment
isused.Minorsmaynotuseacell
phoneexceptincertainemergencies
(seepage12).
Cell phones can be a lifesaver in
emergency situations. Use your
cell phone in the following safe
andresponsiblewayswhiledriving:
• Use hands-free devices (except
minors).
• If your cell phone rings, do not
answerit.
• Letthecallgotovoicemailifyou
havethisfeature.
-66-
• Donotusethecellphoneduring
hazardousconditions.
• Do not engage in distracting
conversations.
• Payattentiontotheroad.
• Use your cell phone to call for
helpinanemergency.
collision avoiDance
Keep Your Car Visible
Thedriver’sblindspotsareshown
onpage47.Youcannotseevehicles
intheseblindspots,ifyouonlylook
inyourmirrors.Turnyourheadto
see if a vehicle is in one of these
blindspots.Donotlingerinanother
driver’sblindspot.Asquicklyasyou
can,dropbackorpassthevehicle.
What is the Road Condition
Thefasteryourspeed,thelesscon-
trolyouhaveofyourvehicle.Rather
thandrivingatthelegalpostedspeed
limit,considerwhatelsemayaffect
thesafeoperationofyourvehicle.
For example, should you drive 35
mph (the posted speed limit) on a
curvedownanicymountainroad?
Manyinexperienceddriversdonot
adjusttheirdrivingspeedforroad
conditions.Thatisonereasonwhy
inexperienced drivers have more
“out-of-control” collisions than
experienceddrivers.
Curves
Oncurves,thereisastrongoutward
pullonyourvehicle,especiallywhen
theroadisslippery.Rain,mud,snow,
iceandgravelmaketheroadslip-
pery.Ifaspeedlimitisnotposted
before a curve, you must judge
how sharp the curve is and adjust
yourspeedaccordingly.Slowdown
before youenterthecurve.Braking
onacurvemaycauseyoutoskid.
Driving in Heavy Traffic
Drive slower in heavy traffic, so
you can stop within the available
stoppingdistance.
Asageneralrule,drivemoreslowly:
• Inshoppingcenters,parkinglots,
anddowntownareas.
• Onroadswithheavytraffic.
• When you see the brake lights
ofseveralvehiclesaheadofyou.
• Overnarrowbridgesandthrough
tunnels.
• Throughtollplazas.
• Near schools, playgrounds, and
inresidentialareas.
Traffic Speeds
Collisionsaremorelikelytohappen
whenonedrivergoesfasterorslower
thantheothercarsontheroad.
Ifyoudrivefasterthanothertraffic,
youincreaseyourchancesofbeing
involvedinacollision.Studieshave
shownthatspeedingdoesnotsave
morethanafewminutesinanhour
ofdrivingtime.
Drivingslowerthanothervehicles
orstoppingsuddenlycanbejustas
dangerousasspeeding,ifnotmore
dangerousbecauseyoumaycause
arearendcollisionorcauseother
drivers to swerve to avoid hitting
yourvehicle.Ifyouareinthefast
laneandyounoticevehiclesmoving
totherightlanetopassyou,oraline
-67-
dryoutlast.
• Bridges and overpasses tend to
freezebeforetherestoftheroad
does.Theycanhidespotsofice.
• Ifitstartstorainonahotday,the
pavement can be very slippery
forthefirstseveralminutes.Heat
causesoilintheasphalttocome
tothesurface.Theoilmakesthe
roadslipperyuntiltherainwashes
theoiloffthesurfaceoftheroad.
Skids on Slippery Surfaces
Aroadthatisnormallysafecanbe-
comedangerouswhenitisslippery.
Iceandpackedsnowontheroadcan
causeyourvehicletoskid,especially
ifyouaredrivingtoofastorgoing
downhill.Ifyoustarttoskid:
• Easeoffthegaspedal,
• Stopbraking,and
• Turn the steering wheel in the
directionoftheskid.
Ifyoucannotcontrolyourvehicle
on a slippery surface, try to find
something to stop the skid.Try to
getawheelondrypavementoron
theshoulderoftheroad.Youmay
havetoedgeslowlyintoasnowbank
orsomebushestostopthevehicle.
To prevent skidding on slippery
surfaces:
• Drive slowly and stay farther
behindthevehicleaheadofyou.
• Slow down, as you approach
curvesandintersections.
• Avoidfastturns.
ofvehiclesareformingbehindyou,
thebestthingtodoismoveintothe
rightlane,whenitissafe,andletthe
vehicle(s)pass.
Driving haZarDs
Water on the Road
Slow down when there is a lot of
waterontheroad.Inaheavyrain
atspeedsof50mphormore,your
tirescanloseallcontactwiththeroad
andthenyourvehiclewillberiding
onwateror“hydroplaning.”Aslight
changeofdirectionoragustofwind
couldthrowyourvehicleintoaskid.
Ifyourvehiclestartstohydroplane,
slowdowngradually–donotapply
thebrakes.
Slippery Roads
Slowdownatthefirstsignofrain.
This is when many roads are the
mostslippery,becauseoilanddust
havenotwashedaway.Aslippery
roadwillnotgiveyourtiresthegrip
theyneed.Drivemoreslowlythan
you would on a dry road. Adjust
yourspeedasfollows:
• Wet road–go five–ten miles
slower.
• Packedsnow–reduceyourspeed
byhalf.
• Ice–slowtoacrawl.
Someroadsurfacesaremoreslip-
pery than others when wet and
usually have warning signs. Here
are some clues to help you spot
slipperyroads:
• On cold, wet days, shade from
treesorbuildingscanhidespots
ofice.Theseareasfreezefirstand
-68-
• Avoid quick stops. “Pump” the
brakes to slow or stop. (Do not
pumpantilockbrakes.)
• Shift to low gear before going
downasteephill.
• Avoid especially slippery areas,
such as ice patches, wet leaves,
oil,ordeeppuddles.
Ifthebrakesgetwet,drythemby
lightly pressing the gas pedal and
brakepedalatthesametimesothat
thevehicledrivesagainstthepres-
sureofthebrakes.Performthislight
pressingonlyuntilthebrakesdry.
mechanical tips
Acceleration Skids
An acceleration skid usually hap-
pens when the drive wheels lose
traction on the road surface. To
maintaincontrolofaskiddingve-
hicle,donotapplythebrakes.Ease
offthegaspedalandstraightenthe
frontwheelsasthevehiclebegins
tostraightenitselfout.
Locked Wheel Skids
Thistypeofskidisusuallycaused
bybrakingtoohardatahighrateof
speedandlockingthewheels.The
vehicle will skid no matter which
way the steering wheel is turned.
Takeyourfootoffthebraketoun-
lockthewheels.Thenstraightenthe
frontwheelsasthevehiclebegins
tostraightenout.Slowthevehicle
graduallyuntilyouareatasafespeed
tocontinuedriving.
Accelerator Malfunction
If your accelerator becomes stuck
youshould:
1. Shifttoneutral.
2. Applythebrakes.
3. Keepyoureyesontheroad.
4. Lookforanalternaterouteaway
fromtrafficorlookforawayout.
5. Warn other drivers by honking
and flashing your emergency
lights.
6. Try to drive the car safely off
theroad.
7. Stop and turn off the ignition.
(WARNING: Turning the ig-
nition off while the vehicle is
movinglocksthesteeringwheel
of some vehicles and you will
nothavecontrolofthesteering.)
Steering Wheel Locking Device
Neverturnyourvehicle’signitionto
the“lock”positionwhileitisstillin
motion,orthesteeringwilllockand
youwilllosecontrolofyourvehicle.
collisions are not acciDents
An“accident”impliesanunforeseen
eventthatoccurswithoutanyone’s
fault or negligence. Most often in
traffic,thatisnotthecase.
Ifyouseeavehicle’shazardlights
ahead,slowdown.Theremaybea
collision or other road emergency
ahead. Stop and give assistance
if asked by anyone, or pass very
carefully.
Avoid driving near collisions, if
you can. Those injured will be
helpedfasterifothervehiclesaren’t
-69-
blockingtheroad.Ifyoumustdrive
nearacollision,donotstoporslow
downjusttolook.Youmaycause
another crash. Drive by carefully,
watchingforpeopleintheroad.
Causes of Collisions
Themostcommoncausesofcolli-
sionsare:
• Unsafespeed.
• Driving on the wrong side of
theroad.
• Improperturns.
• Violatingtheright-of-wayrules.
• Violatingstopsignalsandsigns.
• Driverdistractions.
Involved in a Collision
Ifyouareinvolvedinacollision:
• You must stop. Someone could
be injured and need your help.
If you do not stop, you may be
convicted of “hit and run” and
couldbeseverelypunished.
• Call9-1-1,ifanyoneishurt.
• Move your vehicle out of the
traffic lane if no one is injured
orkilled.
• Showyourdriverlicense,regis-
trationcard,evidenceoffinancial
responsibility, and current ad-
dresstotheotherdriver,persons
involved,orpoliceofficer.
• You (or your insurance agent,
broker, or legal representative)
mustmakeawrittenreporttothe
policeorCHPwithin24hoursof
thecollisionifsomeoneiskilled
orinjured.
• You (or your insurance agent,
broker, or legal representative)
must make a written report to
DMVwithin10days.
• If you hit a parked vehicle or
otherproperty,leaveanotewith
your name, phone number, and
address in or securely attached
to the vehicle or property you
hit. Report the collision to the
citypoliceor,inunincorporated
areas,totheCHP.
• Ifyourparkedcarrollsawayand
hitsanothervehicle,trytofindthe
ownerandreporttheincidentto
authoritiesasmentionedabove.
• If you kill or injure an animal,
callthenearesthumanesociety,
thepolice,orCHP.Donottryto
moveaninjuredanimalorleave
aninjuredanimaltodie.
Reporting a Collision
Whenyouhaveacollision,reportit
totheDMVwithin10daysif:
• Morethan$750indamagewas
donetothepropertyofanyperson.
• Anyone was injured (no matter
howslightly)orkilled.
Each driver (orthedriver’sinsurance
agent, broker, or legal representa-
tive) must make a report to DMV
usingtheReportofTrafficAccident
OccurringinCalifornia(SR1)form.
Go online at www.dmv.ca.gov or
call1-800-777-0133andaskforthe
Report ofTrafficAccident (SR 1)
form.The CHP or police will not
makethisreportforyou.
-70-
You or your representative must
makethisreportwhetherornotyou
causedthecollision,evenifthecol-
lisionoccurredonprivateproperty.
Your driving privilege will be
suspended:
• Ifyoudonotmakethisreport.
• Foruptofouryears,ifyoudidnot
haveproperinsurancecoverage.
Duringthelastthreeyearsofthe
suspension, your license can be
returnedtoyouifyouprovidea
California Insurance Proof Cer-
tificate (SR 22) and maintain it
duringthethree-yearperiod.
ADDitionAl DrivinG
lAws/rUles
things you must not Do:
• do notsmokewhenaminorisin
thevehicleatanytime.Youcan
befinedupto$100.
• do notdumporabandonanimals
onahighway.Thiscrimeispun-
ishablebyafineofupto$1,000,
sixmonthsinjail,orboth.
• do notoperateacellphonewith-
outtheuseofahands-freedevice
(minors,seepage12).
• do notdriveamotorvehiclewhile
usingawirelesscommunications
devicetowrite,send,orreadtext-
basedcommunications.
• do not wear a headset over or
earplugsinbothyourears.
• do not driveavehiclesoloaded,
eitherwithpropertyorpeople,that
youcannotcontrolitorseeahead
ortothesidesofyourvehicle.
• It is illegal to drive any vehicle
withanunsafe,unsecuredloadthat
isasafetyhazard(CVC24002a).
• do notcarryanythinginorona
passengervehiclewhichextends
beyondthefendersontheleftside
or more than six inches beyond
the fenders on the right side.
Cargoextendingmorethanfour
feetfromthebackofthevehicle
must display a 12-inch red or
fluorescentorangesquareflagor
tworedlightsatnight.
• do not allow anyone to ride
on any part of your vehicle not
intendedforpassengers.
• do notallowanyonetorideinthe
trunkofyourvehicle.Convictions
willresultinpenaltiesforboththe
driverandtheperson(s)ridingin
thetrunk.
• do not allowapersontoridein
thebackofapickuporothertruck,
unlessthevehicleisequippedwith
seatsandthepersonusesboththe
seatandasafetybelt.
• do not transport animals in the
back of a pickup or other truck
unless the animal is properly
secured.
• do notleaveachildorananimal
unattendedinahotvehicle(see
page74).
• do nottowanyonewhoisriding
a bicycle, in a wagon, on roller
skates,rollerblades,skis,sled,toy
vehicle,orskateboard,etc.
-71-
• do not litter the roadside. The
fine is $1,000, and you may be
forcedtopickupwhatyouthrew
away.Litteringconvictionsshow
onyourdrivingrecord.
• do not wear eyeglasses with
templeswideenoughtokeepyou
fromseeingclearlytothesides.
• do not driveavehicleequipped
with a video monitor, if the
monitor is visible to the driver
anddisplaysanythingotherthan
vehicle information or global
mappingdisplays.
• do not honk your horn unless
itisasafetywarningtoavoida
collision.
• do notthrowanycigarette,cigar,
orotherflamingorglowingsub-
stancefromyourvehicle.
• do not shootfirearmsonahigh-
wayorattrafficsigns.
• do not blockyourviewbyput-
tingsignsorotherobjectsonthe
frontwindshieldorthebackside
windows.Donothangobjectson
the mirror. Windshield/window
stickers, etc., are permitted in
theselocationsonly:
– Aseven-inchsquareoneither
the passenger’s side wind-
shield, lower corner; or the
lower corner of the rear win-
dow.
– A five-inch square on the
lower corner of the driver’s
sidewindow.
– Thesidewindowsbehindthe
driver.
• do not driveanymotorvehicle
intoadesignatedwildernessarea
(CVC§38301.5).
• do not drive with illegally—
tinted safety glass. If you have
sun-sensitiveskin,youmayuse
removable sun screens during
daylighttravelifyouhavealetter
fromyourphysician.
• do notblockorhinderafuneral
procession.Vehicles taking part
inafuneralprocessionhavethe
right-of-way,andifyouinterfere,
obstruct,orinterruptthefuneral
procession you are subject to a
citation(CVC§2817).Afuneral
processionisledbyatrafficof-
ficer,andallvehiclestakingpart
intheprocessionhavewindshield
markerstoidentifythemandhave
theirheadlightson.
• do not ride,orallowachildto
ride,a“pocketbike”onapublic
streetorhighway.Thesevehicles
arenotmanufacturedordesigned
forhighwayuse,andtheydonot
meetfederalsafetystandards.
things you must Do:
• You mustdriveasfartotheright
asreasonablypossibleonnarrow
mountainroads,andifyoucannot
seeatleast200feetaheadhonk
yourhorn.
• You must use your headlights
30minutesaftersunsetandleave
themonuntil30minutesbefore
sunrise.
• You mustdimyourlightstolow
beamswithin500feetofavehicle
-72-
comingtowardyouorwithin300
feetofavehicleyouarefollowing.
• You mustturnonyourheadlights
ifsnow,rain,fog,orlow-visibility
(1,000feetorless)requiretheuse
ofwindshieldwipers.
• You must move your vehicle
out of the traffic lane (unless it
isdisabled)whenitissafetodo
so,ifyouareinvolvedinacolli-
sion.Lawenforcementmaytow
or impound your vehicle if it is
leftinanunsafeareaandcauses
safetyconcerns.
HeAltH AnD sAfetY
safety for the aging Driver
The department has published a
handbook specifically for senior
drivers. Please go online at www.
dmv.ca.gov toviewordownloada
copyoftheSenior Guide for Safe
Driving,orcall1-800-777-0133to
requestacopybymailorcontactthe
Senior Driver Ombudsman Program
inyourarea:
Sacramento/NorthernCalifornia
(916)657-6464
SanFrancisco/Oakland
(510)563-8998
Orange/SanBernardino/SanDiego
(949)553-3573
LosAngeles/Oxnard
(310)412-6103
gooD vision for all Drivers
Youneedgoodvisiontodrivesafely.
Ifyoucannotseeclearly,youcannot
judgedistancesorspottrouble,and
youwillnotbeabletomakethebest
judgements. You also need to see
peripherally or “out of the corner
of your eye” to spot cars coming
upbesideyou,whileyoureyesare
ontheroadahead.
Youmayseeclearlyandstillnotbe
able to judge distances. You need
gooddistancejudgmentsoyouknow
how far you are from other cars.
Manypeoplewhomayseeclearly
inthedaytimehavetroubleseeing
clearly at night. Some people see
poorlyindimlight.Othersmayhave
troublewiththeglareofheadlights.
Have your eyes checked every
yearortwo.Youmayneverknow
aboutpoorperipheralvisionorpoor
distancejudgment,unlessyouhave
youreyescheckedbyahealthcare
professional.
hearing
Hearingismoreimportanttodriv-
ingthanmanypeoplerealize.The
soundofhorns,asiren,orscreech-
ing tires can warn you of danger.
Sometimesyoucanhearavehicle;
butcannotseeit,especiallyifitis
inyourblindspots.
Evenpeoplewithgoodhearingcan-
nothearwelliftheradioorCDplayer
isblaring.Donotwearaheadsetor
earplugsinbothearswhiledriving;
itisagainstthelaw.
Hearingproblems,likebadeyesight,
cancomeonsoslowlythatyoudo
notnoticethem.Haveyourhearing
checked periodically. Drivers that
are deaf or hearing-impaired can
-73-
adjusttheirdriversafetyhabitsby
relyingmoreontheirseeingsense
and therefore, compensate for the
lossofhearing.
alertness
Whenyouaretired,youarelessalert.
Thebodynaturallywantstosleepat
night.Mostdriversarelessalertat
nightespeciallyaftermidnight.You
maynotseehazardsassoonorreact
asquickly,aswhenyouarerested
andalert;soyourchancesofhaving
a crash may be greater. If you are
sleepy,theonlysaferesponseisto
getofftheroadandgetsomesleep.
Tokeepfrombecomingtiredona
longtrip:
• Getanormalnight’ssleepbefore
youstartonyourtrip.
• Do not take any drugs that can
makeyoudrowsy.
• Donotdrivelonghours,andtry
nottodrivelateatnight.
• Take regular rest stops even if
youarenottired.
• Keepshiftingyoureyesfromone
partoftheroadtoanother.Lookat
objectsnearandfar,leftandright.
• Trychewinggumorsingingalong
withtheradio/CD.
• Roll your window down to get
somefreshair.
Ifyouaretiredallthetimeandfall
asleep often during the day, ask
yourphysiciantocheckforasleep
disorder.
meDications
Remember that all medications,
prescription or over-the-counter,
are potentially dangerous. Over-
the-countermedicinesthatyoutake
for colds and allergies can make
youdrowsyandaffectyourdriving
ability.Ifyoumusttakemedication
beforedriving,findouttheeffectsof
themedicationfromyourphysician
orpharmacist.It is your responsi-
bility to know the effects of the
medications you take.
Beforeyoudecidetodrive,donot:
• Mixmedications,unlessdirected
byyourphysician.
• Takemedicationsprescribedfor
someoneelse.
• Mix alcohol with your medi-
cations. This applies to both
prescribed and over-the-counter
medications.
hot Weather risks
Asstatedonpage20,itisagainst
thelawtoleaveunattendedminor
childreninavehicle.Additionally,
andequallyimportant,itisdanger-
ousanddeadlytoleavechildrenand/
or animals in a hot vehicle.After
sittinginthesun,withevenaslightly
openedwindow,thetemperaturecan
riserapidlyinsideaparkedvehicle.
Thetemperatureinsideavehiclecan
rise approximately 40-50 degrees
higherthantheoutsidetemperature.
Dehydration,heatstroke,anddeath
canresultfromoverexposuretothe
heat. Remember if it’s too hot for
you,it’stoohotforchildrenandpets.
-74-
health anD emotions
Your personality affects the way
youdrive.Donotletyouremotions
interferewithsafedriving.Useall
of your good judgment, common
sense,andcourtesywhenyoudrive
andfollowalltherecommendedsafe
drivingrules.
Discusshealthconcernssuchaspoor
vision,heartproblems,diabetes,or
epilepsywithyourphysicianandfol-
lowhisorheradvice.NotifyDMV
ifyouhaveaconditionthatmight
affectyourabilitytodrivesafely.
conDitions physicians must
report
Physiciansandsurgeonsarerequired
toreportpatientsatleast14years
ofageandolderwhoarediagnosed
ashavinglapsesofconsciousness,
Alzheimer’sDisease,orrelateddis-
orders.(CaliforniaHealth & Safety
Code§103900)
Althoughnotrequiredbylaw,your
physicianmayreporttoDMVany
othermedicalconditionthatheor
shebelievesmayaffectyourability
todrivesafely.
safety tips
According to the CHP, if your
vehicle becomes disabled on the
freeway:
• Safelypulltotherightshoulder.
Ideally,parkthevehiclenextto
acallbox,ifpossible.(Thereis
acallboxlocatedeveryquarter
miletotwomiles.)
• Ifyoumustexitthevehicle,exit
ontherightsideofyourvehicle,
awayfromtraffic.
• Onceyouarrangeforassistance,
return to your vehicle, get back
into the vehicle from the right
side(awayfromtraffic),andput
onyourseatbelts.
• Stayinsideyourvehiclewiththe
seatbeltsonuntilhelparrives.
Incertaincircumstances,exityour
vehicle, such as when there is not
enoughshoulderspaceorifthereis
aguardrailoranareatosafelystay
away from the freeway lanes, and
awayfromyourvehicle.Useyour
emergency blinking lights at your
discretion according to weather
conditions.Thelightsmaybehelp-
ful,buttheycouldalsoattractdrunk
drivers.
The California Highway Patrol’s
Freeway Service Patrol (FSP)
provides free emergency roadside
services during commute periods.
If you get stuck on the freeway
becauseyourautomobilestopsrun-
ning,FSPwill:
• Offeryouagallonofgasifyou
runout.
• “Jumpstart”yourvehicleifthe
batteryisdead.
• Refill your radiator and tape
hoses.
• Changeaflattire.
TheFSPprogram:
• Cannot tow your vehicle to a
privaterepairserviceorresidence.
-75-
• Doesnotrecommendtowservice
companies or repair and body
shops.
• Doesnottowmotorcycles.
• Does not assist vehicles which
havebeeninvolvedinacollision
unlessdirectedbytheCHP.
• Doesreportanycollisiontothe
CHP.
IfFSPcannotstartyourvehicle,it
will be towed free of charge to a
locationapprovedbytheCHP.FSP
will also contact additional assis-
tanceforyou.TheCHPwillnotify
anautoclubortowingservice.
TheFSPservesthefollowingareas:
• ValleyDivision–theSacramento
metroandTracyareas
• Golden Gate Division–the San
FranciscoBayArea
• CentralDivision–theFresnoarea
• Southern Division–the Los An-
gelesBasin
• Inland Division–the Riverside
area
• Border Division–the San Diego
andOrangeCountyareas
• Coastal Division–the Monterey
andSantaCruzareas
Call 1-800-TELLCHP (835-5247)
tofindoutiftheFSPoperateswhere
youareandhowtocontacttheFSP.
recorD confiDentiality
Most information in your driver
licensefileisavailabletothepublic.
Yourresidenceaddressmayonlybe
viewedbyauthorizedagencies.Your
mailing address, if different from
yourresidence,islessrestricted.
Records on the physical or men-
tal condition of a driver remain
confidential.
Youmayobtainacopyofyourdriv-
ingrecordatanyDMVofficefora
feewithvalididentification.
vehicle theft prevention tips
Ifyoufollowthesuggestionsbelow,
you can minimize your chances
of becoming the victim of vehicle
theft. In the United States, a ve-
hicleisstolenanaverageofevery
21minutes.Vehicletheftresultsin
coststothevictimanditincreases
insurancepremiums.Also,vehicle
thievesoftenusethestolenvehicles
tocommitothercrimes.
Vehicle thefts occur more often
wherelargegroupsofcarsareparked
at any time of day for extended
periods of time, such as shopping
centers, colleges, sporting events,
moviecomplexes,andlargeapart-
mentcomplexes.
Here are some tips you can use
to avoid becoming the victim of
vehicletheft:
• Never leave:
– Yourvehiclerunningandunat-
tendedeventodashintoastore.
– The keys in the ignition. Do
notleavekeysinsidealocked
garageorahide-a-keybox.
– Valuablessuchaspurses,lap-
tops,etc.,inplainviewevenif
your vehicle is locked. Place
themoutofsight.
-76-
– Personal identification docu-
ments, such as the ownership
title or credit cards in the
vehicle.
• Always:
– Rollupyourwindowsandlock
yourvehicleevenifitisparked
infrontofyourhouse.
– Parkinhigh-traffic,well-light-
edareaswheneverpossible.
– Reportastolenvehicleimme-
diatelytothepolice.
• Suggestions:
– Install a mechanical device
that locks the steering wheel,
column,orbrakes.
– Think about purchasing a
vehiclethefttracking/security
system,especiallyifyouown
one of the frequently-stolen
modelvehicles.
– When you must leave your
keywithavalet,attendant,or
mechanic,onlyleavetheigni-
tionkey.
– Copy your license plate and
vehicleinformationonacard,
andkeepthatinformationwith
youandnotinthecar.Thepo-
licewillneedthisinformation,
ifyourvehicleisstolen.
traffic Breaks
Trafficbreaksareusedbylawen-
forcementto:
– Sloworstoptraffictoremove
hazardsfromtheroadway.
– Conduct emergency opera-
tions.
– Prevent traffic collisions in
heavyfogorunusuallyheavy
traffic.
During a traffic break, the officer
turnsontherearemergencylights,
slowsthevehicle,anddrivesacross
the lanes of traffic in a serpentine
manner. To assist the officer in
conductingatrafficbreak:
– Activateyouremergencyflash-
erstowarnotherdriversthere
isahazardahead.
– Slowlybegintodecreaseyour
speed. Do not slow abruptly
unlessitisnecessarytoavoid
a collision. Slow to the same
speed as the officer, while
keeping a safe distance from
thepatrolvehicleaheadofyou.
– Donotattempttodrivepastthe
patrolvehicle.Donotacceler-
ateuntilthepatrolvehiclehas
turnedoffitsemergencylights
andtrafficconditionsaheadal-
lowthereturntonormalspeeds.
What a Driver shoulD Do
During an enforcement stop
Acknowledge the officer’s pres-
ence by turning on your right turn
signal. Activatingyoursignallets
the officer know that you recog-
nizehisorherpresence.Anofficer
may become alarmed if you fail
torecognizehimorherandmight
perceivethatyouhaveareasonto
avoidyieldingorthatyoumightbe
impaired.
-77-
move your vehicle to the right
shoulder of the road.Theofficer
will guide you, using his or her
patrol vehicle. Do not move onto
the center median. Do not stop in
thecentermedianofafreewayor
ontheoppositesideofatwolane
roadway.Thisplacesboththedriver
andtheofficerindangerofbeinghit
byoncomingtraffic.
On a freeway, move completely
onto the right shoulder, even if
you’re in the carpool lane. Stop
inwelllitareaswhenpossible.Pull
yourvehicleasfarofftheroadway
aspossible.Whenitisdark,lookfor
locationsthathavemorelightsuch
asareaswithstreetorfreewaylights,
nearrestaurantsorservicestations.
End your cell phone conversa-
tion and turn off your radio. The
officerneedsyourfullattentionto
communicatewithyoutocomplete
the enforcement stop in the least
amountoftimeneeded.
Remain inside your vehicle unless
otherwise directed by the officer.
Neverstepoutofyourvehicle,un-
lessanofficerdirectsyoutodoso.
During an enforcement stop, the
officer’sprioritiesareyoursafety,
thesafetyofyourpassengers,and
theofficer’sownpersonalsafety.In
mostsituations,thesafestplacefor
you and your passengers is inside
yourvehicle.Exitingyourvehicle
without first being directed by an
officercanincreasetheriskofbeing
struckbyapassingvehicleand/or
increasetheofficer’sleveloffeeling
threatened.
Place your hands in clear view,
including all passengers’ hands
such as on the steering wheel,
on top of your lap, etc. During
an enforcement stop, an officer’s
inability to see the hands of the
driver and all occupants in the
vehicle increases the officer’s
level of feeling threatened. Most
violentcriminalactsagainstalaw
enforcementofficeroccurthrough
theuseofaperson’shands,suchas
the use of a firearm, sharp object,
etc. If your windows are tinted,
it is recommended that you roll
downyourwindowsafteryouhave
stopped your vehicle on the right
shoulderoftheroadwayandbefore
theofficermakescontactwithyou.
Actions tHAt resUlt in
loss of license
financial responsiBility
TheCaliforniaCompulsoryFinan-
cial Responsibility Law requires
everydriverandeveryownerofa
motorvehicletomaintainfinancial
responsibility(liabilitycoverage)at
all times. There are four forms of
financialresponsibility:
• A motor vehicle liability insur-
ancepolicy.
• Adepositof$35,000withDMV.
• A surety bond for $35,000 ob-
tainedfromacompanylicensed
todobusinessinCalifornia.
• A DMV issued self-insurance
certificate.
-78-
Youmustcarrywrittenevidenceof
financial responsibility whenever
you drive, and show it to a police
officerafteratrafficstoporcollision
whenaskedtodoso.Youmayhave
topayafineorhaveyourvehicle
impounded if you do not comply
withthislaw.
insurance
Insurance Requirements
The law states that you must be
financially responsible for your
actionswheneveryoudriveandfor
allthemotorvehiclesyouown.Most
drivers choose to have a liability
insurancepolicyasproofoffinancial
responsibility.Ifyouhaveacollision
not covered by your insurance, or
you do not have insurance, your
driverlicensewillbesuspended.If
thedriverisnotidentified,theowner
ofthemotorvehicleinvolvedina
collisionwillhavehisorherdriver
licensesuspended.
Theminimumamountyourinsur-
ance*mustcoverpercollisionis:
• $15,000 for a single death or
injury.
• $30,000 for death or injury to
morethanoneperson.
• $5,000forpropertydamage.
Call 1-800-927-HELP, before you
purchaseinsurancetoconfirmthat
your agent/broker and insurer are
licensedbytheCaliforniaDepart-
mentofInsurance.
* LowcostautomobilepoliciesareavailableinAlameda,
ContraCosta,Fresno,Imperial,Kern,LosAngeles,
Orange,Riverside,Sacramento,SanBernardino,San
Diego,SanFrancisco,SanJoaquin,SanMateo,Santa
Clara, and Stanislaus counties. Please contact your
insuranceagent.
IfyouarevisitingCaliforniaorhave
justmovedhere,beawarethatnot
allout-of-stateinsurancecompanies
are authorized to do business in
California. Before you drive here,
askyourinsurancecompanyifyou
arecoveredincaseofacollision.If
youhaveacollisioninCalifornia,
allthreeofthefollowingconditions
mustbemettoavoidthesuspension
ofyourdrivingprivilege:
1. Your liability policy must pro-
videbodilyinjuryandproperty
damagecoveragewhichequals
or exceeds the required limits
statedabove.
2. Your insurance company must
fileapowerofattorneyallowing
DMVtoactasitsagentforlegal
serviceinCalifornia.
3. You must insure the vehicle
beforeyoucometoCalifornia.
You cannot renew the out-of-
statepolicy,oncethevehicleis
registeredinCalifornia.
Collisions on Your Record
DMVretainsinformationonevery
collisionreportedtoDMVby:
• Law enforcement, unless the
reporting officer states another
personwasatfault.
• You,oranotherpartyinvolvedin
thecollision,ifanyonepersonhas
over$750indamageorifanyone
isinjuredordies.
Itdoesnotmatterwhocausedthe
collision; DMV must keep this
record.
-79-
Provide law enforcement with the:
exact location
vehicle make & model
license plate
One call could save a life.
If you see a drunk driver
on the road, call 911.
G
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Collisions, Insurance, and Minors
Ifyouareunder18yearsofage,your
parent(s) or guardian(s) must sign
yourdriverlicenseapplicationand
assumefinancialresponsibilityfor
yourdriving.Whenyoureachage
18, your parent(s) or guardian(s)
liabilityautomaticallyends.
If you are involved in a collision
your parent(s) or guardian(s) may
beliableforcivildamagesandyou
mayalsobefined.
EXCEPTION: Your parent(s) or
guardian(s) can have your license
cancelled at any time while you
areaminor.
alcohol/Drugs While Driving
Alcohol/Drugs and Driving Is
Dangerous
Alcoholand/ordrugsimpairsyour
judgment. Impaired judgment or
goodsense,affectshowyoureactto
soundsandwhatyousee.Itisalso
dangeroustowalkintrafficorride
abicycle,whileundertheinfluence
ofalcoholordrugs.Ittakesaboutan
hourforthebodytogetridofeach
“drink.” If a person has had more
thanonedrinkanhour,onehourof
“sobering up” time should be al-
lowedforeachextradrinkconsumed
beforedriving.Betterstill,someone
whohasnotbeendrinkingshould
drive(seepage86).
Muchofwhathasbeensaidabout
alcohol also applies to drugs.
California’s drunk driving law is
also a drug driving law. It refers
to “driving under the influence of
alcoholand/ordrugs.”Ifanofficer
suspects that you are under the
influenceofdrugs,theofficercan
legallyrequireyoutotakeabloodor
urinetest.Driverswhorefusethese
tests are subject to longer license
suspensionsandrevocations.
Theuseofanydrug(thelawdoesnot
distinguish between prescription,
over-the-counter, or illegal drugs)
whichimpairsyourabilitytodrive
safely is illegal. Check with your
physician or pharmacist and read
thewarninglabelifyouarenotsure
thattakingthemedicationwillaffect
yourdriving.Herearesomefacts:
• Mostdrugstakenforcolds,hay
fever,allergy,ortocalmnerves
or muscles can make a person
drowsy.
• Medicinestakentogetherorused
with alcohol can be dangerous.
Manydrugshaveunexpectedside
effectswhentakenwithalcohol.
• Peppills,“uppers,”anddietpills
canmakeadrivermorealertfor
ashorttime.Later,however,they
cancauseapersontobenervous,
dizzy,andnotabletoconcentrate.
Theycanalsoaffectvision.
Anydrugthat“maycausedrowsi-
nessordizziness”isoneyoushould
nottakebeforedriving.Makesure
youreadthelabelandknowtheef-
fectsofanydrugyouuse.
Carrying Alcohol in a Vehicle
Thelawisverystrictaboutcarry-
ing alcohol or drugs in a vehicle,
whetherthevehicleisonoroffthe
-82-
highway. You must not drink any
amountofalcoholinanyvehicle.
Acontainerofliquor,beer,orwine
carried inside the vehicle must be
full, sealed, and unopened. Other-
wise, it must be kept in the trunk
of the vehicle or in a place where
passengers do not sit. Keeping an
openedalcoholicdrinkintheglove
compartmentisspecificallyagainst
thelaw.
In a bus, taxi, camper, or motor
home, this law does not apply to
non-drivingpassengers.
Refertopage86fortheDesignated
DriverProgram.
Drivers Under 21 (Possession of
Alcohol)
Ifyouareunder21yearsofage:
• Youmaynotcarryliquor,beer,or
wineinsideavehicleunlessyou
are accompanied by a parent or
otherpersonasspecifiedbylaw
and the container must be full,
sealed,andunopened.
• Ifyouarecaughtwithanalcoholic
beverageinyourvehicle,itmaybe
impoundedforupto30days.The
courtmayfineyouupto$1,000,
andeithersuspendyourdriving
privilegeforoneyearor require
DMVtodelaytheissuanceofyour
firstlicenseforuptooneyear,if
youarenotalreadylicensed.
• Your driving privilege will be
revokedforoneyear,ifyouare
convictedofeitherdrivingwitha
BACof0.01%orhigher,ordriv-
ingwhileundertheinfluenceof
alcoholand/ordrugs.Onthefirst
offense you will be required to
completetheeducationalportion
of a licensed driving-under-the-
influence (DUI) program. A
subsequent offense may require
a longer DUI program and you
willnothavearestrictedlicense
toattendtheDUIprogram.
EXCEPTION: You may carry
alcoholic beverages in closed
containers, while working for
someone with an off-site liquor
saleslicense.
Drivers of All Ages
It is illegal to drive after consum-
ing excessive amounts of alcohol
inanyform(includingmedications
suchascoughsyrup),ortakingany
drug(includingprescriptionmedi-
cations),orusinganycombination
ofalcoholordrugs.
Blood Alcohol Concentration
(BAC) Limits
Itisillegalforanypersontooperate
avehiclewitha:
• BAC of 0.08% or higher, if the
personisage21orolder.
• BAC of 0.01% or higher, if the
personisunderage21.
• BACof0.01%orhigheratany
age, if the person is on DUI
probation.
• BACof0.04%orhigher,inany
vehicle requiring a commercial
driver license (CDL)—with or
without a CDL issued to the
driver.
-83-
TheDMVcantakeanadministrative
actionagainstyourdrivingprivilege
after you are detained or arrested,
and thecourtmaytakeaseparate
action (suspend, revoke, or delay
the license) for the same offense.
DMV’s action is related only to
yourdrivingprivilege.Thecourt’s
action may involve the payment
of a fine, jail time, suspension, or
revocationofyourdrivingprivilege
andcompletionofaDUIprogram.
Similar provisions (California
Harbors and Navigation Code)
applywhenyouoperateanyvessel,
aquaplane, jet skis, water skis, or
similardevices.Theseconvictions
are placed on your driving record
and will be used by the court to
determine “prior convictions” for
motor vehicle DUI sentencing.
These convictions are also used
when determining the length of a
suspension or revocation action
orthereinstatementrequirements,
becauseofaviolationyoucommit-
tedwhiledrivingamotorvehicle.
aDmin per se
WhenyoudriveinCalifornia,you
consenttohaveyourbreath,blood
or, under certain circumstances,
urinetestedifyouarearrestedfor
drivingundertheinfluenceofalco-
hol,drugs,oracombinationofboth.
Under 21—Zero Tolerance for
Alcohol Use. If you are under 21
yearsofage,youmustsubmittoa
hand-held breath test, Preliminary
AlcoholScreening(PAS),oroneof
theotherchemicaltestsifyouhave
been detained andapolice officer
hasreasontobelieveyouweredrink-
ingalcohol.IfyourBACmeasures
0.01%orhigheronthePAS,theof-
ficermaytakeyourlicenseandissue
youatemporarylicenseforonly30
days,giveyouanorderofsuspen-
sionforoneyear,andthendetermine
whethertoreleaseyou,turnyouover
to juvenile authorities, or contact
yourparent(s)orguardian(s).You
mayrequestaDMVadministrative
hearingwithin10days.
IfyourPASshowsaBACof0.05%,
theofficermayrequireyoutosub-
mittoeitherabreathorbloodtest.
SomePASdevicesprovidearecord
whichmaybesubmittedtothecourt
asevidence.OtherPASdevicesdo
notprovidearecord,sotheofficer
mayaskforabreathorbloodtest
after the PAS. You do not have a
righttoconsultwithalawyerbefore
selectingorcompletingatest.
IfasubsequenttestrevealsaBAC
of0.05%orhigher,theofficerwill
issue you an order of suspension,
arrestyouforDUI(CVC§23140),
and detain you until you can be
turned over to your parent(s),
guardian(s),orjuvenileauthorities.
IfyourBACis0.08%orhigher,the
policeofficermayarrestyou(CVC
§§23152or23153).
If the officer reasonably believes
youareunderthecombinedinflu-
enceofalcoholanddrugsandyou
have already submitted to a PAS
and/orabreathtest,youmaystillbe
requiredtosubmittoabloodorurine
-84-
testbecausethebreathtestdoesnot
detectthepresenceofdrugs.
Ifyourefusetosubmittoanyofthe
tests,yourdrivingprivilegemaybe
suspendedbecauseofyourrefusal.
Evenifyouchangeyourmindlater
andagreetoatest,andyourBAC
measures 0.01% or higher on the
PAS,yourdrivingprivilegemaybe
suspendedforbothreasons,although
bothactionswillrunconcurrently.
court Dui convictions
If you are convicted of driving
whileundertheinfluenceofeither
alcoholand/ordrugsorboth(DUI),
and you have an excessive BAC
level, you may be sentenced to
serve up to six months in jail and
pay a fine between $390—$1,000
(plus about three times the fine in
penaltyassessments)thefirsttime
you are convicted. Your vehicle
may be impounded and is subject
tostoragefees.
Onthefirstconvictionthecourtwill
suspendyourdrivingprivilegeforsix
monthsandrequireyoutocomplete
a DUI program before your driver
licensecanbereinstated.Thelength
of the program may vary. If your
BAC is 0.15% or higher, and you
alreadyhavearecordofviolations
for other reasons, or you refuse to
submittoachemicaltest,thecourt
mayorderyoutocompleteanine-
month or longer program. If your
BAC is 0.20% or higher, and the
courtrefersyoutoanenhancedDUI
treatmentprogram,yourlicensewill
be suspended for 10 months. You
couldalsoberequiredtoinstallan
ignition interlock device (IID) on
yourvehicle.Acourtmayalsoorder
youtoinstallanIIDifyourBACis
0.15% or higher, or you have two
or more prior moving violations,
oryourefuseachemicaltestatthe
timeofyourarrest.AnIIDprevents
youfromstartingyourvehicleifyou
haveanyalcoholonyourbreath.If
anyone was injured as a result of
your driving under the influence,
thesuspensionperiodisoneyear.
Incasesinvolvingseriousinjuryor
death,youmaybepunishedunder
the California Three Strikes Law.
You may also face civil lawsuits.
AllDUIconvictionswillremainon
DMV’s records for 10 years. The
courts and/or DMV may impose
morestringentpenaltiesforsubse-
quentviolationsduringthatperiod.
ABACbelowlegallimitsdoesnot
meanthatyouaresafetodrive.Al-
mostalldriversshowimpairmentby
alcoholatlevelslowerthanthelegal
limit.The impairment you exhibit
atthetimeyouarestoppedmaybe
enough to convict you of driving
undertheinfluenceevenwithouta
BACmeasurement.
Drivers 21 and Older —DUI
Programs and Restricted
Licenses
ThecompletionofaDUIprogram
isrequiredforallDUIconvictions.
Generally,ifyouareover21years
of age, and you enroll in a DUI
program,fileaCaliforniaInsurance
ProofCertificate(SR22),andpay
-85-
therestrictionandreissuefees,DMV
will issue you a restricted driver
license,whichallowsyoutodrive
to/fromworkandduringthecourse
ofemployment(unlessyouholda
commercialdriverlicense)andto/
fromaDUIprogram.However,if
youareconsidereda“trafficsafety”
or“publicsafety”risk,ifpermitted
todrive,thecourtmayorderDMV
tonotgrantyouarestricteddriver
license. Other actions against you
mayalsoprohibittheissuanceofa
restrictedlicense.
SecondandsubsequentDUIconvic-
tions result in increased penalties,
includingatwo-yearsuspensionora
revocationofuptofouryears.After
you complete a prescribed period
ofyoursuspension/revocationand
eitherenrollin,orcompleteapor-
tion of, a DUI program, you may
obtainarestrictedlicensetodrive
anywherenecessary,ifyou:
• InstallanIIDonyourvehicle.
• Agree not to drive any vehicle-
withoutanIID.
• Agreetocompletetheprescribed
DUIprogram.
• FileanSR22.
• Pay the reissue and restriction
fees.
DesignateD Driver program
TheDesignatedDriverProgramis
ananti-DUIeffortthatworks.This
programencouragesoneindividual
toabstainfromconsumingalcoholic
beveragesduringanouting;soheor
shecanberesponsiblefortransport-
ingotherperson(s)safely.
Toparticipateasadesignateddriver,
anindividual:
• Shouldbeatleast21yearsofage
and must possess a valid driver
license.
• Must be part of a group of two
or more persons and verbally
identifyhimselforherselfasthe
designateddrivertotheserver.
• Must abstain from consuming
alcoholicbeveragesforthedura-
tionoftheouting.
• Mustnotbeanotherwiseimpaired
driver.
• Must understand that manage-
mentreservestherighttorefuse
servicetoanyoneatanytime.
getting a ticket
Ifyouarestoppedbyapoliceofficer
andcitedforatrafficlawviolation,
you sign a promise to appear in
trafficcourt.Whenyougotocourt,
youmaypleadguiltyornotguilty,
oryoumayforfeit(pay)thecitation
fine.Payingthefineisthesameas
aguiltyplea.
Ifyouignorethetrafficticketand
donotkeepyourpromisetoappear
incourt,thefailuretoappear(FTA)
goesonyourdriverrecord.Ifyou
failtopayafine(FTP),thecourtwill
notifyDMV,andthiswillalsoshow
onyourdriverrecord.EvenoneFTA
orFTPcancausethedepartmentto
suspend your license. Ending the
suspension willcost youalicense
reissuefeeof$55.
-86-
Each time you are convicted of a
moving traffic law violation, the
courtnotifiesDMV,andtheconvic-
tionisplacedonyourdriverlicense
record. Convictions reported by
otherstatesarealsoaddedtoyour
driverrecord.
evaDing a police officer
Anypersonwhowillfullyfleesor
attempts to evade a police officer
performing his or her duties is
guiltyofamisdemeanorpunishable
by imprisonment in a county
jail for not more than one year
(CVC§2800.1).
Ifapersonisconvictedofcausing
serious bodily injury during the
course of a police pursuit (CVC
§2800.3(a)),heorsheissubjectto:
• Imprisonment in a state prison
forthree,five,orsevenyears,or
inacountyjailfornotmorethan
oneyear.
• Afineofnotlessthan$2,000,nor
morethan$10,000.
• Bothafineandimprisonment.
Whenapersonisconvictedofman-
slaughter resulting from evading
policeduringapursuit,heorsheis
subject to imprisonment in a state
prisonforaminimumoffourtoten
years(CVC§2800.3(b)).
points on the Driver recorD
The DMV keeps a public record
of all your traffic convictions and
collisions. Each occurrence stays
on your record for 36 months, or
longer, depending on the type of
conviction.
TheNegligentOperatorTreatment
System(NOTS)isbasedonnegli-
gentoperatorpointsandconsistsof
acomputergeneratedseriesofwarn-
inglettersandprogressivesanctions
againstthedrivingprivilege.
Youmaybeconsideredanegligent
operator,whenyourdrivingrecord
showsoneofthefollowing“point
count”totals.
• 4pointsin12months
• 6pointsin24months
• 8pointsin36months
Some examples of one point
violations:
• Atrafficconviction.
• Anat-faultcollision.
Some examples of two point
violations:
• Reckless driving or hit-and-run
driving
• Driving under the influence of
alcohol/drugs
• Driving while driver license is
suspendedorrevoked
Ifyouget4pointsin12months,you
willloseyourdriverlicense.Aviola-
tionreceivedinacommercialvehicle
carries one and one-half times the
pointcountnormallyassessed.For
detailed point count information
refertotheCaliforniaCommercial
Driver Handbook.
-87-
vanDalism/graffiti—
all ages
Californialawallowsthecourtsto
suspendthedriverlicenseforupto
twoyearsofapersonconvictedof
engaging in vandalism, including
graffiti.Ifyouareconvictedanddo
nothaveadriverlicense,thecourts
candelaytheissuanceofyourdriver
licenseforuptothreeyearsfromthe
dateyouarelegallyeligibletodrive.
speeD contests/reckless
Driving
A person convicted of driving
recklessly or engaging in a speed
contestwhichcausesbodilyinjury
toanotherpersonissubjectto:
• Imprisonmentinacountyjailor
stateprisonforaminimumof30
daysto6months,
• A fine ranging from $220—
$1,000,or
• Both a fine and imprisonment
(CVC§§23105and23109.1).
possessing firearms
Thecourtwill:
• Suspend or revoke the driving
privilegeofanyminorconvicted
of possessing a concealable
weaponorliveammunition,or
• Impose driver license sanctions
for minors convicted of misde-
meanorsinvolvingfirearms.
traffic violator school
Dismissals
Whenadriveriscitedforaonepoint
trafficviolation,thejudgemay offer
thedrivertheopportunitytoattend
a Traffic Violator School. Drivers
whodonothaveacommercialli-
censemayparticipateonceinany
18-monthperiodtohaveacitation
dismissedfromtheirdrivingrecord.
NOTE:Ifyouhaveacommercial
licenseandattendtrafficschool,the
citationwillstillappearonyourdriv-
ingrecord,regardlessofthetypeof
vehicleyouweredrivingwhencited.
suspension or revocation
By Dmv
Ifyougettoomanynegligentdriver
points,DMVwillplaceyouonpro-
bationforoneyear(whichincludes
asix-monthsuspension)or revoke
yourdrivingprivilege(seepage86).
Yoursuspensionorrevocationorder
informsyouofyourrighttoahearing.
Attheendofthesuspensionorre-
vocationperiod,youmayapplyfor
anewlicense,andyoumustshow
proofoffinancialresponsibility.
TheDMVwillrevokeyourlicense
ifyouareconvictedofahit-and-run
or reckless driving, which results
ininjury.
-88-
veHicle reGistrAtion reqUirements
ThefollowingisabriefsummaryofCalifornia’svehicleregistrationrequire-
ments.PleasevisittheDMVwebsitetoobtaindetailedinformationatwww.
dmv.ca.gov.
california vehicles
WhenyoupurchaseaneworusedvehiclefromalicensedCaliforniadealer,the
dealercollectsusetaxandfeestoregisterandtitlethevehicle.
ThedealersubmitsthesefeesanddocumentstoDMVandgivesyoutemporary
operatingauthority.Usuallywithinsix—eightweeksafterthepurchasedate,
youwillreceivearegistrationcard,licenseplates,stickers,andaCertificate
ofTitle,ifappropriate.
Ifyouobtain or purchase avehiclefromaprivateparty,youmusttransfer
theownershipwithin10 days.SubmitthefollowingtoDMV:
• AproperlyendorsedandcompletedCertificateofTitleorApplicationfor
DuplicateTitle(REG227).
• Smogcertificationprovidedbythesellerifrequired.
• Usetaxpaymentifrequired.
• OdometerMileageDisclosureStatementifapplicable.
• AppropriateDMVfees.
Whenyousell or transferavehicle,reportittoDMVwithin 5 days.You
cancompletetheNoticeofTransferandReleaseofLiabilityform(REG138)
online,downloadandmailthecompletedform,orcallDMVat1-800-777-
0133torequestaformbymail.
suspension By JuDge
A judge may suspend a person’s
license,ifthedriverisconvictedof
oneofthefollowing:
• Breakingspeedlawsorreckless
driving.
• Driving under the influence of
alcoholordrugs.
• Hit-and-run.
• Engaging in lewd conduct and
prostitution in a vehicle within
1,000feetofaresidence.
• Assaulting a driver, passenger,
bicyclist, or pedestrian when
theoffenseoccursonahighway
(roadrage).
• Failure to stop as required at a
railwaygradecrossing.
• Felonyormisdemeanoroffenseof
recklesslyfleeingalawenforce-
mentofficer.
Regardlessofthepointcount,many
seriousoffensesinwhichavehicle
is used are punishable by heavy
penalties such as fines and/or im-
prisonment.Ifyouuseyourvehicle
asaweaponyourdriverlicensemay
bepermanentlyrevoked.
-89-
out-of-state vehicles
Vehicles registered in another state or foreign country must be registered
in California within 20 days after you become a resident or get a job
(seepage2).
Nonresidentmilitarypersonnelandtheirspousesmayoperatetheirvehicles
inCaliforniawiththeirvalidhomestatelicenseplatesoruntiltheplatesis-
suedfromthestateoftheirlastassigneddutystationexpire.Theymayrenew
theregistrationintheirhomestatebeforeitexpiresorregisterthevehiclein
California.
Theitemsneededtoregisteranyout-of-statevehicleare:
• Completed and signed Application for Title or Registration
(REG343).
• VerificationofthevehiclecompletedbytheDMV,lawenforcementagent,
oranautoclubemployee.
• Out-of-statetitleand/orlastissuedout-of-stateregistrationcard,ifthetitle
isnotsubmitted.
• Smogcertification(1976andnewermotorvehiclesonly).
• Weightcertificateforcommercialvehiclesonly.
• AppropriateDMVfeesandusetaxifapplicable.
• CompletedOdometerMileageDisclosurestatementifapplicable.
-90-
relateD fast facts anD other puBlications (availaBle online):
• FFDL05 Birth Date and Legal Presence Requirements
• FFDL08 Social Security Number Requirements for a
Driver License or Identification Card
• FFDL08A Supplemental Social Security Information for Applications with
VISA E1/E2 and L1/L2 (and others)
• FFDL10 Potentially Unsafe Driver
• FFDL14 Vision Requirements For Driving Class C Vehicles
• FFDL15 Retention of Driver Record Information
• FFDL16 Collisions, What To Do
• FFDL19 Provisional Licensing Changes
• FFDL22 How to Prepare for Your Driving Test
• FFDL24 Identity Theft
• FFDL25 Identity Fraud
• FFDL26 A Guide to the Driver Safety Administrative Hearing Process
• FFDL27 DMV’s Reexamination Process
• FFDL28 Driver Distractions
• FFDL29 Federal Hazardous Materials Requirements -
USA Patriot Act of 2001
• FFDL31 Ignition Interlock Devices
• FFDL32 Limited Term for Legal Presence -
Driver License and Identification Card Applications
• FFDL33 Selecting a Driving School
• FFDL34 Organ and Tissue Donation
• FFDL35 Driving Under the Influence -
Immediate Driver License Suspension:
Drivers age 21 and Older
• FFDL36 Driving Under the Influence - Immediate Driver License
Suspension: Drivers Under Age 21 With a 0.01% BAC
• FFDL37 Safety Tips for Bicyclists and Motorists
• FFDL40 Diabetes and Driving
• Senior Guide for Safe Driving (DL 625)
• Parent-Teen Training Guide (DL 603)
• Driving Test Criteria (DL 955)
-91-
dmv.ca.gov
Distractions: A split
second can change or end
your life.
sAmple test #1
1.Whenyoudrivethroughaconstructionzone,youshould:
a. Slowdowntowatchtheworkers.
b. Decreaseyourfollowingdistance.
c. Passtheconstructionzonecarefullyandnot“rubberneck”.
2.Tomakearightturnatthecorner,you:
a. Maynotenterthebicyclelane.
b. Shouldonlymergeintothebicyclelaneifyoustopbeforeturning.
c. Mustmergeintothebicyclelanebeforeturning.
3.Ifatrafficsignallightisnotworking,youmust:
a. Stop,thenproceedwhensafe.
b. Stopbeforeenteringtheintersectionandletallothertrafficgofirst.
c. Slowdownorstop,onlyifnecessary.
4.Apedestrianiscrossingyourlanebutthereisnocrosswalk.Youshould:
a. Makesurethepedestrianseesyou,butcontinuedriving.
b. Carefullydrivearoundthepedestrian.
c. Stopandletthepedestriancrossthestreet.
5.Alwaysuseyourseatbelt:
a. Unlessthevehiclewasbuiltbefore1978.
b. Unlessyouareinalimousine.
c. Whenthevehicleisequippedwithseatbelts.
6.Theextraspaceinfrontofalargetruckisneededfor:
a. Otherdriverswhenmergingontoafreeway.
b. Thetruckdrivertostopthevehicle.
c. Otherdriverswhentheywanttoslowdown.
7.Roadsareslipperyafteritfirststartstorain.Whentheroadisslipperyyou
should:
a. Avoidmakingfastturnsandfaststops.
b. Testyourtires’tractionwhilegoinguphill.
c. Decreasethedistanceyoulookaheadofyourvehicle.
8.Collisionscanhappenmoreoftenwhen:
a. Allvehiclesaretravelingaboutthesamespeed.
b. Onelaneoftrafficistravelingfasterthantheotherlanes.
c. Onevehicleistravelingfasterorslowerthantheflowoftraffic.
A N S W E R S : 1 c , 2 c , 3 a , 4 c , 5 c , 6 b , 7 a , 8 c
-93-
sAmple test #2
1.Whenyouentertrafficfromastop(awayfromthecurb),you:
a. Shoulddriveslowerthanothertrafficfor200feet.
b. Needalargeenoughgaptogetuptothespeedoftraffic.
c. Shouldwaitforthefirsttwovehiclestopass,thendriveintothelane.
2.Whenpassinganothervehicle,itissafetoreturntoyourlaneifyou:
a. Cannotseethevehicledirectlytoyourright.
b. Seethevehicle’sheadlightsinyourrearviewmirror.
c. Havepassedtheothervehicle’sfrontbumper.
3.Dim your headlights for oncoming vehicles or when you are within 300
feetofavehicle:
a. Youareapproachingfrombehind.
b. Approachingyoufrombehind.
c. Youhavealreadypassed.
4.Ifyouseeorangeconstructionsignsandconesonafreeway,youmust:
a. Slowdownbecausethelaneendsahead.
b. Bepreparedforworkersandequipmentahead.
c. Changelanesandmaintainyourcurrentspeed.
5.U-turnsinresidentialdistrictsarelegal:
a. Onaone-waystreetonagreenarrow.
b. Whentherearenovehiclesapproachingnearby.
c. Acrosstwosetsofsoliddouble,yellowlines.
6.You consent to take a blood test for the alcohol content of your blood,
breath,orurine:
a. Onlyifyouhavebeendrinkingalcohol.
b. WheneveryoudriveinCalifornia.
c. Onlyifyouhaveacollision.
7.Onagreenarrow,youmust:
a. Yieldtoanyvehicle,bicycle,orpedestrianintheintersection.
b. Yieldtopedestriansonlyintheintersection.
c. Waitfoursecondsbeforeproceeding.
8.Whendrivingatnightonadimlylitstreet,youshould:
a. Drive slowly enough so you can stop within the area lighted by your
headlights.
b. Turnonyourhighbeamheadlightstobetterseethevehiclesaheadofyou.
c. Keeptheinstrumentpanellightsbrighttobemorevisibletootherdrivers.
GOONLINEATWWW.dmV.CA.GOV FORMORESAMPLETESTS
• A N S W E R S : 1 b ; 2 b ; 3 a ; 4 b ; 5 b ; 6 b ; 7 a ; 8 a
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