Networking Based Patient Monitoring System

INTRODUCTION

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Networking Based Patient Monitoring System

1.1 INTRODUCTION:Patient monitor or "multiparameter monitor" or also referred to as "physiological monitor" is a clinical use electronic machine designed to display and minimally interpret, a person's vital signs. Some monitors can warn of pending fatal cardiac conditions before visible signs are noticeable to clinical staff .The parameters (or measurements) usually consist of Pulse Oximetry (measurement of the saturated percentage of Oxygen in the blood referred to as SPO2), ECG (electroCardiograph of the P-QRS-T wave of the heart w/wo pacemaker), Blood pressure (either invasively through an inserted blood Pressure-to-transducer assembly or non-invasively with an Inflatable blood pressure cuff) ,and temperature (usually Skin temperature through an adhesive pad. There are more parameters such as cardiac output, CO 2 measurement (referred to as ETCO2 or end-tidal carbondioxide), respiration (through ECG channel or via ETCO2, when it is called AWRR or Airway Respiratory Rate), anaesthetic gas measurement, etc. Patient monitors can be broadly categorized as standalone or multiparameter. Standalone monitors continue to be used in developing countries like India mainly due to cost restraints and also because they are easy to manufacture and maintain.In developed part of the world, multiparameter monitors have supplanted them, in some cases because of statutory requirements (for example the us FDA) and also because if a clinician requires to monitor one channel then other channels are also needed to complement the data and get a complete picture of the patient's vital situation. Example: “ECG+SPO2+respiration”,”SPO2+NIBP”,”ECG+SPO2+resporecg+SPO2+resp+NIBP+temp+pre ssure with or without ETCO2”. Companies are working to integrate the physiological data from the isolated patient monitoring networks into the Emerging hospital digital charting systems. This Newer method of charting patient data reduces the likelihood of human documentation error and will eventually reduce overall paper consumption.

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Networking Based Patient Monitoring System

ABSTRACT

1.2 ABSTRACT:Page 3

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System

Networking based patient monitoring system is used to monitor the different parameters of patients remotely and simultaneously. In this system the doctor can monitor different parameters of many patients by sitting in his room, House or from anywhere of the world. Parameters of each patient are recorded and upload to web with the help of a microcontroller. In our system we are going to use Telnet based networking system. It uses one master and multi slave systems which are connected to each other in network using Telnet protocol. Master unit consists of a PC connected with serial communication Ethernet cable. The Slave unit consists of a microcontroller, sensors and Ethernet communication cable. The slave unit reads the analog values from sensors and stores them into memory. When master sends a command for data then that particular slave has to send these values to the master. The master then sends these values through web. The serial communication of the master with the computer is achieved by means of Telnet protocol. A Dot Net program is used to display these values on screen. This program also stores these values on hard disk for future analysis. This project provides real-time update of the patient’s health to the doctor. It reduces the frequent visits of the doctors to the patient in person.This project helps in conserving paper and thus saving very important trees. In our project, the number of patients can be increased depending upon the number of client devices. Thus the project provides the facility of virtual supervision for the doctors. This kind of monitoring system can be applied to the private rooms, semi-private rooms as well as general wards.

1.3 COMPARISON WITH CURRENT SCENARIO:-

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Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 1. These bedside monitors are local the room in which they are installed.2 show the current bedside monitors available in the hospitals.1 and Fig1. Here the doctor or the central nurse who is incharge of the ward has to visit every patient to check his/her health status and verify the parameter values.1 Fig 1. The current scenario can be represented in a more simplified manner with the help of following sketch.2 Sonography instrument The pictures Fig 1. Page 5 .

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 1.  In a life threatening condition. for example in the case of a drug overdose or anaesthesia.3 As shown in the sketch various sensors are connected to the patient’s body. But these monitors are local to the room only and hence arises a need for remote monitoring. Page 6 . The parameter values obtained from the sensors are shown on the bedside monitors.4 NEED OF MONITORING: In unstable physiological regulatory systems. for example where there are indications of a heart attack. 1.

5 CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM:- Page 7 .Networking Based Patient Monitoring System CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM 1.

For convinience only one slave is shown.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 1. they are given to the remote master who takes the responsibility of displaying the values on the doctor’s computer or mobile phone. Here instead of displaying the parameter values on the bedside monitors. Also the networking between master and slave is shown. Page 8 .4 The previous sketch can be replaced by the conceptual diagram shown above.

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System SPECIFICATIONS 1.6 SPECIFICATIONS OF THE PROJECT:- Page 9 .

SENSORS:  Temperature Sensor : LM35  Pressure Sensor  Heart rate sensor: MASTER SPECIFICATIONS:  PC or mobile or Laptop  Ethernet based network for Telnet protocol. SLAVE SPECIFICATIONS:  Microcontroller 8051 and serial to Ethernet module and sensors.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System POWER SUPPLY SPECIFICATIONS: DC +-9V Adaptor. NETWORKING SPECIFICATIONS:  Telnet networking protocol  Serial to Ethernet Module For converting data in to Telnet format SOFTWARE SPECIFICATION:  Visual C#  Visual Studios 2008  Keil4 Page 10 .

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System BLOCK DIAGRAM 1.7 BLOCK DIAGRAM:- Page 11 .

5 The figure represents block diagram of the project. It clearly indicates the data acquisition and the networking part. Page 12 .Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 1.

8.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION 1.8 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION:1.1 MICROCONTROLLER:- Page 13 .

2 TELNET PROTOCOL:Telnet is a telecommunications standard for binary serial communications between devices.  It has four ports to drive output. Features: Uses Harvard architecture.  It can control up to 6 interrupt sources.6 The microcontroller used is 89v51RD2. While the original RS-232 standard allowed for the connection of two devices Page 14 .This protocol is an updated version of the original serial protocol known as RS232. It is the protocol or specifications that need to be followed to allow devices that implement this standard to speak to each other.8.  It has built in two 16-bit timers.  Contains built in serial port.  Register files/data memory can be accesed directly or indirectly. 1.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 1.

There is no need for the senders to explicitly turn the device on or off. Depending on the information in the sent data. All other nodes receive these data. There are other implementations of Telnet networks where every node can start a data session on its own. This is comparable with the way ethernet networks function. With such an implementation of a Telnet network it is necessary that there is error detection implemented in the higher level protocol to detect the data corruption and resend the information at a later time. all the senders on the Ethernet bus are in tri-state with high impedance.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System through a serial link.7 Page 15 . The graph below shows potentials of the '+' and '−' pins of an RJ-45 line during transmission of one byte (0xD3) of data using anasynchronous start-stop method. In higher level protocols. one of the nodes is defined as a master who sends queries or commands over the network bus. Fig 1. zero or more nodes on the line respond to the master. Telnet allows for serial connections between dis-similar devices on a networked system. Default.

9 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND INTERFACING DETAILS:1.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System DESIGN AND INTERFACING 1.1 POWER SUPPLY:Page 16 .9.

Determine the total current that the system sinks from the supply.9V Frequency = 50Hz Time Period =1/50 = 20ms Page 17 . ii.4 + 7 = 8. Determine the voltage rating required for the different components.8 a) Transformer Selection:Minimum input required for LM7805 IC is given by the equation below. Vin =Vreg + drop out voltage across LM7805 IC = 5V + 2V = 7V The drop across diodes in the bridge rectifier is 1.4V Hence.The steps involved in the designing power supply are i. Fig 1.4V Minimum secondary voltage required is = 1. Vr (ripple voltage) = 10% of output voltage = 0. unregulated power supply design is for 9V.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System The basic step in the designing of any system is to design the power supply required for that system.

readily available and portable.2 SERIAL COMMUNICATION:DB-9 connector female Page 18 . The sensors also require the same voltage supply. c) Regulator Selection:- AT89C51 requires a supply of +5V.9.Selection of capacitance depends on the current rating of the supply and selection of voltage rating for capacitor on the secondary voltage of the transformer. We choose capacitor as a filter as it is cost effective. If = 1A Reasons for choosing bridge rectifier: The TUF is increased to 0.  Output of bridge rectifier is not pure DC.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System b) Diode Design :- PIV = Vm Vm = 9V Hence we select diode 1N4007 PIV = 100V. which smoothens the output voltage. To remove these ripples we have used a capacitor as a filter.The sink current of the system is not more than 200mA. Hence we select regulator IC LM7805.  Input voltage range: – 8V to 35V  Drop out voltage: – 2V  Output rating: – 5V 1.812 as compared to the full wave rectifier. It contains some AC ripples in it.  The PIV across each diode is Vm and not 2Vm as in case of two diode rectifier.

It was initially developed by the EIA to standardize Page 19 .Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 1.9 DB-9 connector male Fig 2.0 RS232 Protocol:The RS-232 interface is the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) standard for the interchange of serial binary data between two devices.

The baud rate is usually 150 times an integer power of 2. The transfer rate is rated > 20 kbps and a distance of < 15m. from 5 to 25 volts. of opposite polarity. ranging from 0 to 7 (150. they may be able to be connected. The baud rate at which the word sent is device-dependent. Many of the modem signals are not needed when a computer terminal is connected directly to a computer. an optional parity bit and one or two stop bits.The standard allows as many as 20 signals to be defined.. Compliance to RS-232 does not imply that the devices will be able to communicate or even acknowledge each other's presence.. so that appreciable attenuation along the line can be tolerated. Electrical Characteristics:The RS-232-C specifies the signaling rate between the DTE and DCE. The signal transmission is bipolar. The RS-232 standard specifies that logic "1" is to be sent as a voltage in the range -15 to -5 V and that logic "0" is to sent as a voltage in the range +5 to +15 V. 300. many system-unique rates are used. receive data.The load impedance of the terminator side of the interface must be between 3000 and 7000 ohms. Communication Standards:The industry custom is to use an asynchronous word consisting of: a start bit.200). but it is reasonable to assume that these limits apply in practice as well as in theory. The standard RS232-C connector has 25 pins. Working:Data is transmitted and received on pins 2 & 3 respectively Data Set Ready (DSR) is an indication for the data set that it is ON. seven or eight data bits. requiring two voltages. and not more than 2500pF. and a digital signal is used on all interchange circuits. Three wires are sufficient: send data.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System the connection of computers with telephone line modems. Specifying compliance to RS-232 only establishes that the signal levels in two devices will be compatible and that if both devices use the suggested connector. 19. The standard specifies that voltages of at least 3 V in amplitude will always be recognized correctly at the receiver according to their polarity. The remaining lines can be hardwired on or off permanently. 21 pins which are used in the complete standard. Greater distance and data rates are possible with good design. but gives complete freedom to the user.Similarly DTR indicates to the data set that the DTE is Page 20 . 600. Below 150 baud. and signal ground.

The transmission starts with a “start” bit followed by 8 data bits (LSB to MSB) and ending with a “stop” bit.Pins 4 (RST-Request to send from transmitting computer) and 5 (CTS.1 Waveform Explanation:The bit by bit serial transmission is as shown above. It is a TTL to RS232 level converter.Clear to send from the data set) are used for handshaking purposes. Data Carrier Detect (DCD) indicates that a good carrier is being received from the remote modem. When the station has finished it’s transmission. It converts +5V signal to +/-9V signal. MAX232:Communication between PC and microcontroller is done using IC MAX232. The serial signals provided on Page 21 . it drops RTS and modem drops CTS and carrier together. In most aynchronous situations the RTS and CTS are continuously ON throughout the communication session.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System ON. Typical Waveform:- Fig 2.The DTE transmits when it sees CTS up.

(Pin 6):Negative supply for TIA/EIA-232-E drivers. Connection Diagram:- Fig 2. 3.2 Pin Description:i.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System these pins by the microcontroller are TTL signal levels and must be boosted and inverted through a suitable converter to comply with RS232 standard. 4. +5V. iv. C2. logic’1’ is -3V to -25V.A standard serial interfacing for a PC. MAX232 requires negative logic i. 5 ):External capacitor connection pins.e. ii. 10):Page 22 v. Vcc (Pin16):Power supply pin for the device. T2I (Pins 11. C2+. V+ (Pin 2):Positive supply for TIA/EIA-232-E drivers. V. C1+. iii. .(Pins 1. T1I. C1-.

7kW pulls input low.Internal input resistor 4.  Available in plastic DIP. 9):Receiver output pins are TTL/CMOS compatible. viii. GND (Pin 15):Ground pin.  Low power Icc 3. 7):Driver output pins conform to TIA/EIA-232-E levels.  Receiver noise filter. ix.2 drivers and 2 receivers. R2O (Pins 12. 8):Receiver input pins accept TIA/EIA-232-E input voltages ( + 25V).Inputs of unused drivers may be left open. vi.0 mA maximum.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Driver input pins are TTL/CMOS compatible. R2I (Pins 13.Output will be low for open inputs. T2O (Pins 14.Unused receiver input pins may be left open.9. T1O. R1I. 1. narrow and wide SOIC package. providing a failsafe high output. vii.  Package efficiency: . an internal active pull-up resistor (500kW min.Receiver output high voltage is specified for both CMOS and TTL load conditions. Receivers feature a noise filter and guaranteed hysteresis of 100mV.3 LCD INTERFACING:A typical LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) is as shown below Page 23 . Features: Single +5V power supply. R1O. typically 5MW) pulls input HIGH.

With the help of this trim pot we can vary the brightness and intensity of LCD.  Ability to display numbers. This is due to the following reasons.4 Various terminals for LCD and the connections required are as shown in Fig 2. This is in contrast to LEDs. In our project we are using the LCD for debugging purpose. LCD connection diagram:- Fig 2.3 In recent years LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED.4.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 2. characters. which are limited to numbers and few characters.  Declining prices of LCD. and graphics. The trim pot for intensity variation of LCD is shown.  Ease of programming for character and graphics. The LCDs can be connected to either of the slaves and the readings of the sensors and those being displayed on screen can be Page 24 .

D0 to D7. To display letters and numbers.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System verified. Following table lists the instruction command codes. LCD Pin Description:- Pin 1 2 3 4 Symbol Vss Vcc Vee RS (Register Select) I/O ---I 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 R/W (Read/Write) E DB0 DB1 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB5 DB6 DB7 I I I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O Description Ground +5V Power Supply Power supply to control contrast RS=0 to select command register RS=1 to select data register R/W=0 for write R/W=1 for read Enable Data pin Data pin Data pin Data pin Data pin Data pin Data pin Data pin D0-D7:The 8 bit data pins. There are also instruction command codes that can be sent to clear the display or force the cursor to the home position or blink the cursor. Main advantage of using LCD is that the application becomes very user friendly and it serves as a very good debugging tool. are used to send information to the LCD or read the content of the LCD internal registers. CODE (HEX) Command to LCD instruction register Page 25 . A-Z and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1. we send ASCII codes for the letters.

Following fig shows interfacing with the microcontroller. cursor on Display on.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor Increment cursor Shift display left Shift display right Display off. cursor on Display on. cursor off Display off. However a much better way is to monitor the busy flag before issuing a command or data to the LCD. cursor off Display on. cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift entire display to left Shift entire display to right Force cursor to the beginning of first line Force cursor to the beginning of second line Two lines and 5x7 matrix By using the table. Page 26 . programming is done and the generated code is sent to the LCD. Note that we must put along delay between issuing data or command to the LCD.

The receiver features a minimum input impedance of 12 k. The driver is designed for up to 60 mA of sink or source current.5 1. Thermal shutdown is designed to occur at a junction temperature of approximately 150oC. The driver features positive and negative current limiting and thermal shutdown for protection from line-fault conditions.4 SN75176B:The SN65176B and SN75176B differential bus transceivers are integrated circuits designed for bidirectional data communication on multipoint bus transmission lines.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System 8 33 40 AT89C5 1 29 D0 Vcc D7 Vee Vss LCD 1k Pot RS Fig 2. The driver differential outputs and the receiver differential inputs are connected internally to form differential input/output (I/O) bus ports that are designed to offer minimum loading to the bus when the driver is disabled or VCC = 0.11 and X. that can be connected together externally to function as a direction control. respectively.They are designed for balanced transmission lines and meet ANSI Standards TIA/EIA-422-B and TIA/EIA-485-A. They also meet ITU recommendations V.11 and X. an input sensitivity of 200 mV. The driver and receiver have active-high and active-low enables.9. The SN65176B and SN75176B combine a 3-state differential line driver and a differential input line receiver.27. Features: Bidirectional Transceivers  Meet or Exceed the Requirements of ANSI Standards TIA/EIA-422-B and TIA/EIA-485-A and ITU Recommendations V. both of which operate from a single 5-V power supply.27  Designed for Multipoint Transmission on Long Bus Lines in Noisy Environments  3-State Driver and Receiver Outputs  Individual Driver and Receiver Enables  Wide Positive and Negative Input/Output Bus Voltage Ranges Page 27 .

Page 28 . ±200 mV Receiver Input Hysteresis . 12 k Min Receiver Input Sensitivity . . ±60 mA Max Thermal Shutdown Protection Driver Positive and Negative Current Limiting Receiver Input Impedance . . 50 mV Typ Operate From Single 5-V Supply Connection Diagram:- Fig 2.6 Differential wires are connected to the input terminals A and B of the IC. . . This figure shows only single configuration of SN75176B but it can be used in multipoint configuration which can be clearly represented with the help of following diagram. . .Networking Based Patient Monitoring System        Driver Output Capability . . The IC can be interfaced with PIC microcontroller as shown above. .

Texas Instruments SN75176B transceiver that interfaces between RS-485 and TTL logic levels. but not both at the same time. but there’s no discussion of connector pinouts or software protocols (as there is for RS-232). RS-485’s hardware and protocol requirements are simpler and cheaper. at 1 Mbps it drops to 400’. The RS-485 standard is flexible enough to provide a choice of drivers.The chip has a two-wire RS-485 interface. An RS-485 link can extend as far as 4000’ and can transfer data at up to 10 Mbps.Several vendors offer RS-485 transceivers with various combinations of features. number of nodes.7 The figure shows that the networking employed by RS485 protocol and SN75176B transreceiver can support upto 32 transreceivers. Similar chips include Linear Technology’s LTC485. At 90 kbps.Compared to Ethernet and other network interfaces. and at Page 29 .5 RS485:When a network needs to transfer small blocks of information over long distances. There are brief suggestions relating to terminations and wiring. RS-485 is similar to RS-422. microcontrollers. By using high-impedance receivers. RS-485 is often the interface of choice. Also. with one unit load equivalent to an input impedance of 12k. you can have as many as 256 nodes. and the need to conserve power.The specification document (TIA/EIA-485-A) defines the electrical characteristics of the line and its drivers and receivers. and TTL enable inputs for the driver and receiver.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 2. and National Semiconductor’s DS3695. data rate. The interface popularly known as RS-485 is an electrical specification for multipoint systems that use balanced lines. the maximum cable length is 4000’.9. but RS-422 allows just one driver with multiple receivers whereas RS-485 supports multiple drivers and receivers. a TTL driver input and receiver output. Maxim’s MAX485. receivers. An RS-485 network can have up to 32 unit loads. and other components depending on the cable length. there are options for methods of terminating and biasing the line and controlling the driverenable inputs. 1. or any devices capable of asynchronous serial communications.The network nodes can be PCs.

signals.The receiver detects the voltage difference between a signal voltage and a common ground. Two wires (usually a twisted pair) carry the signal voltage and its inverse.5 V. At the driver. A transmitted word consists of a start bit followed by data bits. Maxim. the receiver’s output is logic high. These companies are also excellent sources for application notes containing circuit examples and explanations of the theory behind them. Most links use twisted pairs because of their ability to cancel magnetically and electromagnetically coupled noise. so the interface tolerates a fair amount of non-commonmode noise and attenuation. you can connect an RS-485 transceiver to any asynchronous serial port. Advantage using twisted pair cable:- Page 30 . An RS-485 receiver must see a voltage difference of just 200 mV between A and B. the output is undefined. The datasheets for interface chips label the noninverted RS-485 line as line A and the inverted line as line B. Any stubs that connect a node to the line should be as short as possible. If A is at least 200 mV greater than B. most RS-485 links use the familiar asynchronous protocols supported by the UARTs in PCs and other computers. the output is a logic low.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System 10 Mbps it drops to 50’. If that’s not available. Although the RS-485 standard says nothing about protocols. If B is at least 200 mV greater than A. you can use repeaters that regenerate the signals and begin a new RS-485 line. Ports designed for RS-232 communications can use the RTS output. including Visual Basic’s MSComm. and Texas Instruments. In contrast.Most serial-communications tools. And noise on the ground wire can cause the receiver to misread transmitted logic levels. Because most noise that couples into the wires is common to both wires.The receiver detects the difference between the two. RS-485 is designed to be wired in a daisy-chain or bus topology. The main reason why RS-485 links can extend so far is their use of balanced.On microcontrollers. or single-ended. Converters for RS-232 are widely available and Inside Out Networks has developed a USB–to–RS-485 converter. The COMM-DRV serialport drivers from WCSC have automatic RTS control built-in. signals. Many network circuits also require a port bit to control each transceiver’s driver-enable input. For differences less than 200 mV. along with whatever other noise has entered the wire from other sources. and a stop bit. National Semiconductor.Two ways to add RS-485 to a PC are on an expansion card and by attaching an RS-485 converter to an existing port.or differential. an optional parity bit. interfaces like RS-232 use unbalanced.For more nodes or long distances. also available from B&B Electronics. any spare output bit will do. it cancels out. Vendors for RS-485 transceivers include Linear Technology. support RS-485 communications with RTS controlled in software. the voltage difference must be at least 1. The ground wire tends to be noisy because it carries the return currents for all of the signals in the interface.

often a combination of twisting and shielding is used as for example in STP. practically generating a looping current just like in an ordinary transformer.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 2. we see that in some parts of the signal lines the direction of the noise current is the opposite from the current in other parts of the cable. In the straight cable. When the cable is twisted. Twisted pairs in RS485 communication however add immunity which is a much better way to fight noise. foiled twisted pair networking cables. all noise current is flowing in the same direction.8  In the picture above. the resulting noise current is many factors lower than with an ordinary straight cable. but do no harm. Because of this. shielded twisted pair and FTP. Differential signals and twisting allows RS485 to communicate over much longer communication distances than achievable with RS232. The picture      shows the magnetic field lines and the noise current in the RS485 data lines that is the result of that magnetic field. RS485 Network Topology:- Page 31 . Shielding which is a common method to prevent noise in RS232 lines tries to keep hostile magnetic fields away from the signal lines. noise is generated by magnetic fields from the environment. With RS485 communication distances of 1200 m are possible. If high noise immunity is needed. The magnetic fields are allowed to pass.

 The RS485 network must be designed as one line with multiple drops. Use 100 Ω resistors on both ends.  The general network topology of RS485 is shown. adequate termination is not possible anymore and signal quality may degrade significantly.  For higher speeds and longer lines. not as a star. Although total cable length maybe shorter in a star configuration. the termination resistances are necessary on both ends of the line to eliminate reflections. Page 32 .9 The RS485 network topology is as shown above. Various transreceivers are connected in a multidrop fashion as shown.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 2. N nodes are connected in a multipoint RS485 network.

One end of the link also has two 560-W biasing resistors. the characteristic impedance is mostly resistive.0 The circuit has two 120-W terminating resistors connected in parallel. and the insulation type. the first reflection occurs when the initial current reaches the receiver. the spacing between them. The rest reflects back to the driver. For digital signals (which consist mainly of frequencies greater than 100 kHz). The final current is a function of the line termination. The initial current is a function of the line’s characteristic impedance. at or just beyond the final node at each end of the link. The value varies with the wires’ diameters.A typical value for 24-AWG twisted pair is 120 W. As the current reverses direction. The receiver’s input can absorb only a fraction of the current.The terminations reduce voltage reflections that can cause the receiver to misread logic levels.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 3. the receiver’s input impedance. and the line’s series impedance.The receiver sees reflected voltages as output switches. and the line settles from its initial current to its final current. the receiver initially sees a greater voltage than Page 33 . its magnetic field collapses and induces a voltage on the line. which is the input impedance of an infinite open line. In a typical RS-485 line without a termination. The termination eliminates reflections by making the initial and final currents equal. the initial current is greater than the final current because the characteristic impedance is less than the receiver’s combined input impedance. the inductive and capacitive components are small. As a result. On a line without a termination.

The size of the biasing resistors is a tradeoff. Most RS-485 transceivers have internal biasing circuits. The solution is to add smaller resistors in parallel with the internal biasing so that a greater proportion of the series voltage drops across the termination. To comply with the specification. For lower power consumption and a greater differential voltage on a driven line. The RS-485 specification recommends connecting a 100-W resistor of at least 0. If the line terminates with a resistor equal to the line’s characteristic impedance.The biasing resistors hold the line in a known state when no drivers are enabled. all of the nodes must share a common ground connection. Without a common ground.0 shows. the receiver’s output is high impedance. When the receiver is disabled. opposite currents. For a greater voltage difference and higher noise immunity on an idle line. A typical internal circuit is a 100-kW pullup from line A to V+. When you add two 120-W terminations. use larger values. as Figure 3. The ground wire provides a path for the current those results from small imbalances in the balanced line. The entire transmitted voltage drops across the load. When the initial current reaches the termi. the difference between A and B shrinks to a few millivolts. it sees exactly what it was expecting—a load equal to the line’s characteristic impedance.nation. use smaller values. the biasing resistors hold line A more positive than line B. there are no reflections.When the reflected voltage reaches the driver. If the A and B outputs balance exactly with equal. This reflection is of opposite polarity to the first reflection and causes the receiver to see a reduced voltage. This ground may be isolated from earth ground. one driver will be a little stronger and one receiver will have a slightly larger input impedance. but adding a termination defeats their ability to bias the line. much less than the required 200 mV.5 W in series between each node’s signal ground and the network’s ground wire.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System what was transmitted. adding a pullup here ensures that the node doesn’t see false start bits when its receiver is disabled. With no termination and when no drivers are enabled. the resistors limit the current in the ground wire. the circuit may work. In real life. In a network with two parallel terminations. and a 100-kW pulldown from line B to ground. components don’t balance perfectly. This way. if the ground potentials of two nodes vary. The reflections bounce back and forth like this for a few rounds before they die out and the line settles to its final current. the driver absorbs some of the reflection and bounces the rest back to the receiver. Page 34 . If the output doesn’t connect to a input with an internal pullup. which has a lower impedance than the line. the drivers drive two lines with each ending at a termination. but the energy from the imbalance has to go somewhere and may dissipate as electromagnetic radiation. the two currents in the ground wire cancel each other out and the wire carries no current at all.

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Circuit Diagram of Master:- Page 35 .

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Circuit Diagram of Slave:- Page 36 .

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Artwork/PCB Layout of Master:- Page 37 .

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Artwork/PCB Layout of Slave:- Page 38 .

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Working:Page 39 .

It then issues a special hex code to the next slave in the ring. Now microcontroller initialises LCD. the successor slave reads the data from the sensors and sends this data to the master similarly as the preceding slave. After power on microcontroller first initialises various port pins as input or output ports. On Screen Display:Visual Studios . Upon receiving the code from the previous slave. If the pin is to be used as input the corresponding bit must be set to “1” and if the pin is to be used as output it must be set to “0”.Then it reads the temperature sensor value which is connected to analog channel 1 of port ‘1’. Then microcontroller reads the blood level and saline levels. Micrcontroller counts the number of pulses in one second and stores it in ram and displays on LCD. stores it in ram and displays on LCD. This software displays the data from all patients on the Screen. Port ‘2’ as output. Master side– The master side PC will be connected with Ethernet connection which has been initializes with Telnet protocol. It then issues a special hex code to the next slave to indicate that now it is his turn to send the data to the master. Then it stores this value in ram. This ports are of eight pins. then serial port for 9600 baud rate. At present microcontroller programs port ‘1’ as all analog inputs. Page 40 . Then master microcontroller repeats this procedure for all other slaves. Now the microcrcontroller sends this data through RJ45 link to the master. All slaves continue this procedure. Thus all the slaves form a loop and continue sending data to the master. The heart rate sensor is connected to timer/counter 0.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Slave side – Each slave consists of a microcontroller based system which is connected to the master side with the help of RJ45 link.Net software is used to display data received from Ethernet port. Then it converts this value in BCD and then converts this value in ASCII and displays on LCD. Next microcontroller displays welcome message on LCD. It will receive the data from slave devices and stores this data in database as well as it uploads this data to the web so that doctors can view this information from anywhere of the world. port ‘0’ and ‘3’ as combination of input and output. then ADC registers. Each port can be read separately. Microcontroller AT89C51 is used.

1 will accept input from the sensors and send it to master. and slave Slave no. Page 41 .Networking Based Patient Monitoring System FLOWCHART Start Initialize master.

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