Job Analysis - A Basic Understanding

Job Analysis is a systematic exploration, study and recording the responsibilities, duties, skills, accountabilities, work environment and ability requirements of a specific job. It also involves determining the relative importance of the duties, responsibilities and physical and emotional skills for a given job. All these factors identify what a job demands and what an employee must possess to perform a job productively.

What Does Job Analysis Involve ?
The process of job analysis involves in-depth investigation in order to control the output, i.e., get the job performed successfully. The process helps in finding out what a particular department requires and what a prospective worker needs to deliver. It also helps in determining particulars about a job including job title, job location, job summary, duties involved, working conditions, possible hazards and machines, tools, equipments and materials to be used by the existing or potential employee. However, the process is not limited to determination of these factors only. It also extends to finding out the necessary human qualifications to perform the job. These include establishing the levels of education, experience, judgment, training, initiative, leadership skills, physical skills, communication skills, responsibility, accountability, emotional characteristics and unusual sensory demands. These factors change according to the type, seniority level, industry and risk involved in a particular job.

Importance of Job Analysis
The details collected by conducting job analysis play an important role in controlling the output of the particular job. Determining the success of job depends on the unbiased, proper and thorough job analysis. It also helps in recruiting the right people for a particular job. The main purpose of conducting this whole process is to create and establish a perfect fit between the job and the employee. Job analysis also helps HR managers in deciding the compensation package and additional perks and incentives for a particular job position. It effectively contributes in assessing the training needs and performance of the existing employees. The process forms the basis to design and establish the strategies and policies to fulfill organizational goals and objectives. However, analysis of a particular job does not guarantee that the managers or organization would get the desired output. Actually collecting and recording information for a specific job involves several complications. If the job information is not accurate and checked from time to time, an employee will not be able to perform his duty well. Until and unless he is not aware of what he is supposed to do or what is expected of him, chances are that the time and energy spent on a particular job analysis is a sheer wastage of human resources. Therefore, proper care should be taken while conducting job analysis. A thorough and unbiased investigation or study of a specific job is good for both the managers and the employees. The managers get to know whom to hire and why. They can fill a place with the right person. On the other hand, existing or potential employee gets to know what and how he is supposed to perform the job and what is the desired output. Job analysis creates a right fit between the job and the employee

Purpose of Job Analysis
As discussed already, job analysis involves collecting and recording job-related data such as knowledge and skills required to perform a job, duties and responsibilities involved, education qualifications and experience required and physical and emotional characteristics required to

perform a job in a desired manner. The main purposes of conducting a job analysis process is to use this particular information to create a right fit between job and employee, to assess the performance of an employee, to determine the worth of a particular task and to analyze training and development needs of an employee delivering that specific job. Let’s understand the concept with the help of an example. If the job of an executive sales manager is to be analyzed, the first and foremost thing would be to determine the worth of this job. The next step is to analyze whether the person is able to deliver what is expected of him. It also helps in knowing if he or she is perfect for this job. The process doesn’t finish here. It also involves collection of other important facts and figures such as job location, department or division, compensation grade, job duties, routine tasks, computer, educational, communicational and physical skills, MIS activities, reporting structure, ability to adapt in a given environment, leadership skills, licenses and certifications, ability to grow and close sales, ability to handle clients, superiors and subordinates and of course, the presentation of an individual.

Purpose of Job Analysis
Job Analysis plays an important role in recruitment and selection, job evaluation, job designing, deciding compensation and benefits packages, performance appraisal, analyzing training and development needs, assessing the worth of a job and increasing personnel as well as organizational productivity.

Recruitment and Selection: Job Analysis helps in determining what kind of person is required to perform a particular job. It points out the educational qualifications, level of experience and technical, physical, emotional and personal skills required to carry out a job in desired fashion. The objective is to fit a right person at a right place. Performance Analysis: Job analysis is done to check if goals and objectives of a particular job are met or not. It helps in deciding the performance standards, evaluation criteria and individual’s

output. On this basis, the overall performance of an employee is measured and he or she is appraised accordingly. Training and Development: Job Analysis can be used to assess the training and development needs of employees. The difference between the expected and actual output determines the level of training that need to be imparted to employees. It also helps in deciding the training content, tools and equipments to be used to conduct training and methods of training. Compensation Management: Of course, job analysis plays a vital role in deciding the pay packages and extra perks and benefits and fixed and variable incentives of employees. After all, the pay package depends on the position, job title and duties and responsibilities involved in a job. The process guides HR managers in deciding the worth of an employee for a particular job opening. Job Designing and Redesigning: The main purpose of job analysis is to streamline the human efforts and get the best possible output. It helps in designing, redesigning, enriching, evaluating and also cutting back and adding the extra responsibilities in a particular job. This is done to enhance the employee satisfaction while increasing the human output.

Therefore, job analysis is one of the most important functions of an HR manager or department. This helps in fitting the right kind of talent at the right place and at the right time.

Job Analysis Process
Where to place the employees in order to best utilize their skills and talent? How to determine the need of new employees in the organization? How to eliminate unneeded jobs? How to set realistic performance measurement standards? How to identify the jobs and prepare a plan to fill them? Well, all this can be effectively done by a proper and thorough job analysis. Managers deal such kinds of challenges in day-to-day company operations where they need to fulfill effectively and efficiently fulfill the organization’s requirements related to human resource recruitment, selection, performance, satisfaction and cutting down and adding extra responsibilities and duties. And there is no scope where they can avert the risk of being wrong. An effective and right process of analyzing a particular job is a great relief for them. It helps them maintain the right quality of employees, measure their performance on realistic standards, assess their training and development needs and increase their productivity. Let’s discuss the job analysis process and find out how it serves the purpose.

Job Analysis Process

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Identification of Job Analysis Purpose: Well any process is futile until its purpose is not identified and defined. Therefore, the first step in the process is to determine its need and desired output. Spending human efforts, energy as well as money is useless until HR managers don’t know why data is to be collected and what is to be done with it. Who Will Conduct Job Analysis: The second most important step in the process of job analysis is to decide who will conduct it. Some companies prefer getting it done by their own HR department while some hire job analysis consultants. Job analysis consultants may prove to be extremely helpful as they offer unbiased advice, guidelines and methods. They don’t have any personal likes and dislikes when it comes to analyze a job. How to Conduct the Process: Deciding the way in which job analysis process needs to be conducted is surely the next step. A planned approach about how to carry the whole process is required in order to investigate a specific job. Strategic Decision Making: Now is the time to make strategic decision. It’s about deciding the extent of employee involvement in the process, the level of details to be collected and recorded, sources from where data is to be collected, data collection methods, the processing of information and segregation of collected data. Training of Job Analyst: Next is to train the job analyst about how to conduct the process and use the selected methods for collection and recoding of job data. Preparation of Job Analysis Process: Communicating it within the organization is the next step. HR managers need to communicate the whole thing properly so that employees offer their full support to the job analyst. The stage also involves preparation of documents, questionnaires, interviews and feedback forms. Data Collection: Next is to collect job-related data including educational qualifications of employees, skills and abilities required to perform the job, working conditions, job activities, reporting hierarchy, required human traits, job activities, duties and responsibilities involved and employee behaviour. Documentation, Verification and Review: Proper documentation is done to verify the authenticity of collected data and then review it. This is the final information that is used to describe a specific job. Developing Job Description and Job Specification: Now is the time to segregate the collected data in to useful information. Job Description describes the roles, activities, duties and responsibilities of the job while job specification is a statement of educational qualification, experience, personal traits and skills required to perform the job.

Thus, the process of job analysis helps in identifying the worth of specific job, utilizing the human talent in the best possible manner, eliminating unneeded jobs and setting realistic performance measurement standards.

Though there are several methods of collecting job analysis information yet choosing the one or a combination of more than one method depends upon the needs and requirements of organization and the objectives of the job analysis process. Typically, all the methods focus on collecting the basic job-related information but when used in combination may bring out the hidden or overlooked information and prove to be great tools for creating a perfect job-candidate fit. Selecting an appropriate job analysis method depends on the structure of the organization, hierarchical levels, nature of job and responsibilities and duties involved in it. So, before executing any method, all advantages and disadvantages should be analyzed because the data collected through this process serves a great deal and helps organizations cope with current market trends, organizational changes, high attrition rate and many other day-to-day problems.

Let’s discuss few of job analysis methods that are commonly used by the organizations to investigate the demands of a specific job.

Job Analysis Methods

Most Common Methods of Job Analysis

Observation Method: A job analyst observes an employee and records all his performed and nonperformed task, fulfilled and un-fulfilled responsibilities and duties, methods, ways and skills used by him or her to perform various duties and his or her mental or emotional ability to handle challenges and risks. However, it seems one of the easiest methods to analyze a specific job but truth is that it is the most difficult one. Why? Let’s Discover. It is due to the fact that every person has his own way of observing things. Different people think different and interpret the findings in different ways. Therefore, the process may involve personal biasness or likes and dislikes and may not produce genuine results. This error can be avoided by proper training of job analyst or whoever will be conducting the job analysis process. This particular method includes three techniques: direct observation, Work Methods Analysis and Critical Incident Technique. The first method includes direct observation and recording of behaviour of an employee in different situations. The second involves the study of time and motion and is specially used for assembly-line or factory workers. The third one is about identifying the work behaviours that result in performance.

Interview Method: In this method, an employee is interviewed so that he or she comes up with their own working styles, problems faced by them, use of particular skills and techniques while performing their job and insecurities and fears about their careers. This method helps interviewer know what exactly an employee thinks about his or her own job and responsibilities involved in it. It involves analysis of job by employee himself. In order to generate honest and true feedback or collect genuine data, questions asked during the interview should be

carefully decided. And to avoid errors, it is always good to interview more than one individual to get a pool of responses. Then it can be generalized and used for the whole group.

Questionnaire Method: Another commonly used job analysis method is getting the questionnaires filled from employees, their superiors and managers. However, this method also suffers from personal biasness. A great care should be takes while framing questions for different grades of employees. In order to get the true job-related info, management should effectively communicate it to the staff that data collected will be used for their own good. It is very important to ensure them that it won’t be used against them in anyway. If it is not done properly, it will be a sheer wastage of time, money and human resources.

These are some of the most common methods of job analysis. However, there are several other specialized methods including task inventory, job element method, competency profiling, technical conference, threshold traits analysis system and a combination of these methods. While choosing a method, HR managers need to consider time, cost and human efforts included in conducting the process.

Job Analysis Tools
Job Analysis supports all other management activities including recruitment and selection, training and development need analysis, performance analysis and appraisal, job evaluation, job rotation, enrichment and enlargement, a right job-individual fit creation and regulation of entry and exit of talent in an organization. The process is the basis of all these important management activities, therefore, requires solid ground preparation. A properly performed job analysis is adequate for laying strong organization foundation. There are various tools and techniques such as O*Net model, PAQ model, FJA model, F-JAS model and competency model that help HR managers to develop genuine job description and job specification data. Though not very new but these specialized tools and techniques are used by only a few of very high profile organizations. Not very common in use but once understood, these systematic approaches prove to be extremely useful for measuring the worth of any job in an organization.

Job Analysis Tools
O*Net Model: The beauty of this model is that it helps managers or job analysts in listing jobrelated data for a very large number of jobs simultaneously. It helps in collecting and recording basic and initial data including educational requirements, physical requirements and mental and emotional requirements to some extent. It also links the level of compensation and benefits, perks and advantages to be offered to a prospective candidate for a specific job. FJA Model: FJA stands for Functional Job Analysis and helps in collecting and recording jobrelated data to a deeper extent. It is used to develop task-related statements. Developed by Sidney Fine and his colleagues, the technique helps in determining the complexity of duties and responsibilities involved in a specific job. This work-oriented technique works on the basis of relatedness of job-data where complexity of work is determined on a scale of various scores given to a particular job. The lower scores represent greater difficulty. PAQ Model: PAQ represents Position Analysis Questionnaire. This well-known and commonly used technique is used to analyze a job by getting the questionnaires filled by job incumbents and their superiors. Designed by a trained and experienced job analyst, the process involves interviewing the subject matter experts and employees and evaluating the questionnaires on those bases. F-JAS Model: Representing Fleishman Job Analysis System, it is a basic and generic approach to discover common elements in different jobs including verbal abilities, reasoning abilities, idea generation, quantitative abilities, attentiveness, spatial abilities, visual and other sensory abilities, manipulative abilities, reaction time, speed analysis, flexibility, emotional characteristics, physical strength, perceptual abilities, communication skills, memory, endurance, balance, coordination and movement control abilities. Competency Model: This model talks about the competencies of employees in terms of knowledge, skills, abilities, behaviors, expertise and performance. It also helps in understanding what a prospective candidate requires at the time of entry in an organization at a particular designation in a given work environment and schedule. The model also includes some basic

elements such as qualifications, experience, education, training, certifications, licenses, legal requirements and willingness of a candidate. Job Scan: This technique defines the personality dynamics and suggests an ideal job model. However, it does not discuss the individual competencies such as intellect, experience or physical and emotional characteristics of an individual required to perform a specific job. Different tools can be used in different situation. Selection of an ideal job analysis tool depends upon job analysis needs and objectives and amount of time and resources.

Problems with Job Analysis
No process can be entirely accurate and fully serves the purpose. Job analysis is no exception to it. The process involves a variety of methods, tools, plans and a lot of human effort. And where there people are involved, nothing can be 100 percent accurate. However, they may be appropriate considering various factors including organizational requirements, time, effort and financial resources. Since the entire job analysis processes, methods and tools are designed by humans only, they tend to have practical issues associated with them. Human brain suffers with some limitations, therefore, everything created, designed or developed by humans too have some or other constraints. Coming back to the subject, even the process of job analysis have lot of practical problems associated with it. Though the process can be effective, appropriate, practical, efficient and focused but it can be costly, time consuming and disruptive for employees at the same time. It is because there are some typical problems that are encountered by a job analyst while carrying out the process. Let’s discuss them and understand how the process of job analysis can be made more effective by treating them carefully.

Problems with Job Analysis

Lack of Management Support: The biggest problem arises when a job analyst does not get proper support from the management. The top management needs to communicate it to the middle level managers and employees to enhance the output or productivity of the process. In case of improper communication, employees may take it in a wrong sense and start looking out for other available options. They may have a notion that this is being carried out to fire them or take any action against them. In order to avoid such circumstances, top management must effectively communicate the right message to their incumbents. Lack of Co-operation from Employees: If we talk about collecting authentic and accurate jobdata, it is almost impossible to get real and genuine data without the support of employees. If they are not ready to co-operate, it is a sheer wastage of time, money and human effort to conduct job analysis process. The need is to take the workers in confidence and communicating that it is being done to solve their problems only. Inability to Identify the Need of Job Analysis: If the objectives and needs of job analysis process are not properly identified, the whole exercise of investigation and carrying out research is futile. Managers must decide in advance why this process is being carried out, what its objectives are and what is to be done with the collected and recorded data. Biasness of Job Analyst: A balanced and unbiased approach is a necessity while carrying out the process of job analysis. To get real and genuine data, a job analyst must be impartial in his or her approach. If it can’t be avoided, it is better to outsource the process or hire a professional job analyst. Using Single Data Source: A job analyst needs to consider more than one sources of data in order to collect true information. Collecting data from a single source may result in inaccuracy and it therefore, defeats the whole purpose of conducting the job analysis process.

However, this is not the end. There may be many other problems involved in a job analysis process such as insufficient time and resources, distortion from incumbent, lack of proper communication, improper

questionnaires and other forms, absence of verification and review of job analysis process and lack of reward or recognition for providing genuine and quality information.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Job Analysis
Though job analysis plays a vital role in all other human related activities but every process that has human interventions also suffers from some limitations. The process of job analysis also has its own constraints. So, let us discuss the advantages and disadvantages of job analysis process at length.

Advantages of Job Analysis

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Provides First Hand Job-Related Information: The job analysis process provides with valuable job-related data that helps managers and job analyst the duties and responsibilities of a particular job, risks and hazards involved in it, skills and abilities required to perform the job and other related info. Helps in Creating Right Job-Employee Fit: This is one of the most crucial management activities. Filling the right person in a right job vacancy is a test of skills, understanding and competencies of HR managers. Job Analysis helps them understand what type of employee will be suitable to deliver a specific job successfully. Helps in Establishing Effective Hiring Practices: Who is to be filled where and when? Who to target and how for a specific job opening? Job analysis process gives answers to all these questions and helps managers in creating, establishing and maintaining effective hiring practices. Guides through Performance Evaluation and Appraisal Processes: Job Analysis helps managers evaluating the performance of employees by comparing the standard or desired output with delivered or actual output. On these bases, they appraise their performances. The process helps in deciding whom to promote and when. It also guides managers in understanding the skill gaps so that right person can be fit at that particular place in order to get desired output. Helps in Analyzing Training & Development Needs: The process of job analysis gives answer to following questions:  Who to impart training  When to impart training  What should be the content of training

What should be the type of training: behavioral or technical Who will conduct training Helps in Deciding Compensation Package for a Specific Job: A genuine and unbiased process of job analysis helps managers in determining the appropriate compensation package and benefits and allowances for a particular job. This is done on the basis of responsibilities and hazards involved in a job.

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Disadvantages of Job Analysis

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Time Consuming: The biggest disadvantage of Job Analysis process is that it is very time consuming. It is a major limitation especially when jobs change frequently. Involves Personal Biasness: If the observer or job analyst is an employee of the same organization, the process may involve his or her personal likes and dislikes. This is a major hindrance in collecting genuine and accurate data. Source of Data is Extremely Small: Because of small sample size, the source of collecting data is extremely small. Therefore, information collected from few individuals needs to be standardized. Involves Lots of Human Efforts: The process involves lots of human efforts. As every job carries different information and there is no set pattern, customized information is to be collected for different jobs. The process needs to be conducted separately for collecting and recording jobrelated data. Job Analyst May Not Possess Appropriate Skills: If job analyst is not aware of the objective of job analysis process or does not possess appropriate skills to conduct the process, it is a sheer wastage of company’s resources. He or she needs to be trained in order to get authentic data. Mental Abilities Can not be Directly Observed: Last but not the least, mental abilities such as intellect, emotional characteristics, knowledge, aptitude, psychic and endurance are intangible things that can not be observed or measured directly. People act differently in different situations. Therefore, general standards can not be set for mental abilities.

Role of Job Analysis in Effective hiring Practices
A major change has been observed in the world of work since 1980s. The era of structured jobs, packed or fixed work schedules, male-dominated working culture and no family intruding started diminishing gradually.

Companies and employees around the world faced dramatic effects of modernization, flexibility in work schedules, job sharing, work from home options and employee-supportive policies, etc. All thanks to the then managers who analyzed the importance of fitting an individual at a job he or she excelled at to increase the company turnover, employee satisfaction and achieve a professional-personal life balance. And all this was possible by analyzing the worth of a specific job and collecting genuine job-related data. A proper job analysis, hence, may prove to be a turning point for an organization. It not only creates the right job-candidate fit but also enhance the success of management practices, which in turn, lays the foundation for a strong organization. A step-by-step process of discovering the different aspects of a job results in a proper regulation of incoming and outgoing of the talent or human resource. Job Analysis thus, started gaining popularity in early 1990s in order to create competitive advantage and has been considered as the basis for other HRM practices since then. The data collected during the process helps managers in identifying the risks and challenges involved in a specific job and kind of person suitable for delivering the desired duties perfectly. An employer’s recruitment and selection process purely depends on job analysis. Until the recruiting managers do not know about job to be performed, expectations from prospective candidate and the right individual profile required for performing a specific job, it is almost impossible to source or target talent or human resource in order to fill the vacancy. Job analysis process helps in establishing effective hiring practices and guides managers in identifying the selection criteria required to deliver the expected output. Let’s discuss how.

How to Establish Effective Hiring Strategies ?

Identifying KRAs: Job Analysis process helps in identifying Key Result Areas/ Key Responsibilities Areas (KRAs) such as knowledge, technical, communication and personal skills, mental, aptitude, physical and emotional abilities to perform a particular task. Different jobs have different requirements. Therefore, the process needs to be performed every time when there is a requirement to fill the job opening. This is a basis for developing questionnaires, devising interview

questions and setting selection test papers. The information in the form of scores or grades can then be used for hiring process. Setting Selection Standards: Job Analysis also helps managers in setting certain standards for selection process in terms of educational qualifications, work experience, expertise, special skill sets, unusual sensory abilities, specific career track, certifications and licenses and other legal requirements. This helps in identifying the basic requirements that make a candidate eligible for a particular post. Identifying KSAs: The process also helps managers in determining Key Success Areas or Key Performance Areas. These are performance measurement tools that are used by companies around the world to measure those aspects that determine success of a job such as organizational goals, individual goals and the actions required to achieve these goals. This is about comparing the actual results delivered by an individual with pre-set success factors and analyzing the performance. Once through, the whole process may require few changes if achieved results are around the set standards. They may require a complete change if there is a huge gap between the expected and delivered results.

Therefore, a thorough and unbiased job analysis process can help organizations source right candidates, hire the most suitable individual and set appropriate selection standards.

Job Analysis and Strategic HRM
Human Resource Management is the most critical function of any organization as it deals with the most complicated problems - the people problems, especially when the organizations are operating in highly competitive and uncertain environments. Strategic HRM lays emphasis on developing and implementing policies and strategies in order to get the desired output. Therefore, job analysis and strategic HRM are inter-related. In fact, we can say, establishing a person-job-environment fit is the basic function of SHRM.

Person-Job-Environment Fit
Job analysis demonstrates who can fit at a particular place and why. The process promotes the alignment of other HR processes and functions. Additionally, it supports the organizational strategy to deal with talent crisis and market competition. The process of job analysis involves collecting job-related information and assembling it together to design a corporate strategy that helps HR managers in determining whom to target and how to fill a particular job vacancy. It also creates linkages between other HR verticals including recruitment and selection, training needs analysis, performance evaluation and appraisal, entry and exit of talent and many more. Strategic Human Resource Management endeavors to connect all these HR functions with organizational goals, work quality, organizational culture, annual turnover and profit and tapping resources for future organizational needs. SHRM is basically concerned with the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats of an organization. The identification of organization’s competencies and flaws is extremely crucial for its success. It provides a clear vision to managers to source, recruit and retain people, develop their skills and competency, address their issues and concerns, motivate people to produce desired output and ensure future planning.

Inter-relationship between Job Analysis and SHRM
Job Analysis, being an integral part of strategic planning, provides a detailed analysis of tasks and responsibilities, risks and hazards, functions and duties, tools and equipments to be used and the expected output. The main objective of conducting the process is to understand who to fit at a particular place to get the work done. Whereas, the fundamental aim of Strategic Human Resource Management is to determine how to exploit human capital to achieve organizational goals.

Job Analysis deals in determining the training needs analysis of employees to get the desired output whereas SHRM decides upon the training content, when and how to train the employees to increase the output to achieve higher business profits. To successfully plan the future strategies of a company, the process of job analysis serves as the basis. If information collected during the process is genuine, managers can make effective strategies and policies in advance and can remain pro-active to deal with unforeseen situations. The main aim of conducting job analysis process is to determine the things affecting human behaviour in an organization. The idea is to find out if they are competent enough to perform the assigned job successfully or they need to be placed somewhere else. Strategic Human Resource Management is all about making strategies and policies to place right person at the right place and at the right time to get the maximum out of an employee. In other way, it is concerned about optimal utilization of human resources.

Job Analysis and TQM
TQM is a management approach that concentrates on teamwork, integrity, continuous improvement and continuous assessment jobs and their worth. On the other hand, job analysis deals in investigating each job separately and collecting the job-related information. Usually, the process is conducted in an organization once in a while especially when HR department has to source candidates for a particular job. TQM is a new approach and is almost inconsistent with traditional management approaches and processes. Job Analysis is no exception.

Points of Inconsistency between Job Analysis and TQM
The concept of Total Quality Management stresses on continuous improvement of management processes as well as employees. For example, if employee joins an organization at a certain level, according to TQM, he or she should not confine themselves to their basic jobs only. Instead they should consider other options and try to learn more and more in order to explore other areas of operations. Whereas, job analysis process is conducted to determine what an employee is supposed to do and how specific duties and activities need to be performed. Total Quality Management approach focuses on an all-round development of employees and expects them to do everything while on job in order to attain higher levels of quality. It also concentrates on their continuous improvement personally as well as professionally. While job analysis defines specific duties and responsibilities of an employee and each one of them is supposed to do only what is assigned to them. The concept is just opposite to TQM approach. The job description and job specification talk about employee’s job title, job summary, job duties, job responsibilities, educational qualifications and working conditions. While it does not discuss about maintaining quality in operations, treating waste and scraps properly and quality of services delivered. It simply gives brief details about what an employee needs to do and how. Though it deals in assessing a job but has nothing to do with improving quality in operations. TQM does not confine employees only to a particular job. The concept leaves scope for additional duties along with the basic job duties. Whereas, it is not true in case of job analysis. It simply measures the worth of a job and determines the duties involved in it. Employees are not encouraged to explore other areas of operations. Instead they are supposed to perform only the assigned job.

Relevance of Job Analysis
Job Analysis is not consistent with TQM. They do not go hand in hand as they focus on entirely different theories and operate on different models. But it does not mean that job analysis has lost its relevance in

today’s world. It has its own importance and is still required to be carried out as this gives basic information related to specific jobs and helps managers in decision making process. It assists in various other management processes including recruitment and selection, job evaluation, performance evaluation and appraisal and training and development need analysis. It also regulates the entry of talent in an organization and helps in sourcing and attracting a pool of talent to work with the organization.

Job Description and Job Specification
Job Analysis is a primary tool to collect job-related data. The process results in collecting and recording two data sets including job description and job specification. Any job vacancy can not be filled until and unless HR manager has these two sets of data. It is necessary to define them accurately in order to fit the right person at the right place and at the right time. This helps both employer and employee understand what exactly needs to be delivered and how. Both job description and job specification are essential parts of job analysis information. Writing them clearly and accurately helps organization and workers cope with many challenges while onboard.

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