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Country Profile of Conventional and Renewable Energies: Republic of Zambia
Last updated on 04 Oct 2006

Prepared by Maria-Evangelia Kaninia Intern from August to …, 2006 for the Department of Economic and Social Affairs Statistics Division Energy Statistics Section United Nations, New York

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1 Executive Summary

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2 Introduction & Overview
2.1 Brief Country Fact
2.1.1 Geographical data
Location: Southern Africa, landlocked Surface area: 752,614 sq.km. (or approximately 2.5% of the continent’s surface) (out of which 1.6% is water surface and 7.0% arable land) ([EIU]) Terrain/ topography: high plateau, interspersed hills and mountains, fertile valleys Climate: tropical, distinct rain season

Figure 1 Map of Zambia, [EIU]

2.1.2 Population
Total population: 11.5 million ([CIA], July 2006 estimate); highly urbanized Growth rate: 2.1% (same source); extremely high (16.5%, 2003 estimate, [CIA]) HIV/AIDS prevalence rate, low development indices ([HDR])

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2.1.3 Political situation ([CIA], [EIU])
Zambia acquired independence from the UK in 1964. Democratic institutions function reasonably well (within the context of the continent) since 1991 when one-party rule was abolished, the fact that the same party has remained in power notwithstanding. Recent elections (of which the last held in 2001) were marked by incidents such as accusations of harassment of the opposition or of administrative malpractice.

2.1.4 Economical Situation ([EIU], [STA])
The economy of Zambia relies heavily on its abundant mineral resources (of which copper is the most important1). It was therefore severely afflicted when copper prices fell in the 70s, after the copper production had peaked at 750,000t/y (in comparison with 450,000t/y in 2005) and has strived to resume its course since. On a similar pattern, the surging of international copper prices (along with the privatisation process) boosted the mining sector from 2001 onward (see Figure 8). The mining sector is also closely related to the energy (and specifically electricity) sector, because the refining process is energy-intensive. External aid plays a major role in the economy: The country receives help from the World Bank (largest multilateral donor). Other key multilateral donors include the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European Union, UN agencies, and the African Development Bank. The largest bilateral donor is the US. In 1991 Zambia commenced, under donor supervision, a reform program based on liberalisation. The program failed, resulting in the donors accusing the government of corruption and failure to implement structural changes and the government blaming the failure on the external debt. Regarding this issue, Zambia was cleared in 2005 to participate in the IMF sponsored HIPC initiative ([IMF]). 2.1.4.1 Vital statistics (2005 estimation, [CIA]) GDP (PPP): $10.6b; $13.2b according to [EIU] GDP growth rate: 5.1%; projected to remain steady at the level of 6% GDP (PPP) per capita: $920 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18.3% Main exports: Copper is the main export commodity (plus other non-ferrous metals); major recipients: South Africa (24.3%), China (12.6%), South Korea (12.6%) Main imports: all commodities, primarily from South Africa

2.2 Overview of the energy sector
2.2.1 Production, trade and consumption of commercial energy
ktoe, source: [IEA], 2004 Inland Production Imports Exports Stock changes TPES Electricity Plants Refineries Other transformation TFC Industry
1

Coal

Crude Oil

Oil products

Hydro

Combustible Renewable and Waste 5495

Electricity

Total

137 555 -6 -41 90 -7 -555 555 119 -8 -15 96 -10 526 -22 83 76 589 158

728

6360 674 -20 -34 -56

728 -728

5495

-20 732

6944 -13 -29 1383 5518 1319

-1312 4183 628

-49 663 457

Copper mines are located in the Copperbelt region bordering an equally mineral-rich province of Congo DR.

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Transport sector Residential Other 7

342 18 40 3354

1 125 81

343 3497 128

Table 1 Simplified energy balance table for 2004 (source: [IEA])

According to Table 1, Zambia is a net importer of energy commodities. The largest quantity of petroleum products is produced in the local refineries from imported crude oil and supplemented with imported quantities. In total, oil accounts for 11% of the final energy consumption, while another 12% is covered with electricity and 1.5% with coal, leaving fuel wood and other types of biomass or waste to cover the remaining 76% (mainly for residential sector use). Electricity is almost entirely generated in hydro plants, also allowing for exportation of approximately 3% pf the generated quantity. In terms of primary energy supply, renewable energy resources account (combined) for 90%. Sector organisation: The industry is regulated by the Department of Energy within the Ministry of Energy and Water Development (for which there is no official site as of the date of last review). For the National Energy Policy of the country (1994), see 3.1.2 and the respective sections for each subsector. The Energy Regulation Board ([ERB]) is an agency established by law to regulate the provision of energy services to the consumers. It is an autonomous statutory body created under the Energy Regulation Act of 1995 (but operational since 1997), according to the respective official site. 2.2.1.1 Coal The largest producer of coal is the state-owned (but scheduled to be privatised) Maamba Collieries Limited (MCL). According to [MCL], the proven reserves of the assigned area of the company amount to 60.2 million metric tons (plus 18 million tons of probable reserves)2. These figures refer to the two open cast mines operating at Maamba. These two mines have an annual capacity to produce between 600,000 and 800,000 metric tons of saleable coal, “depending on demand and other constraints” (quoted verbatim from [MCL], which does not detail these constraints). However, despite its capacity, MCL only produced 120,000 tons in 2005 (reported in [FINa]). Further underground exploration is in order. Major domestic customers of the MCL include the copper mines, cement plants, breweries, tobacco farmers, and manufacturers. Collum Mining Industries Ltd (Chinese-owned) had a production of 120,000 in 2005, projected to increase to 480,000 in 2008. It is one of the coal suppliers to the country’s largest copper mines and also exports to Congo, DR. The coal production (approximately 190,000-200,000 metric tons in 2004) is not significant in the international context and has declined since the peak in the early eighties (see Figure 2), though the reserves and capacity to effectively multiply the production do exist.

[MEW], which was compiled by the Ministry of Energy, places the proven estimates at 30 million tons (2006); though, the reliability of the report is questionable, given that it also quotes figures from the late nineties.

2

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Coal production, [EIAa] 700 600 000 metric tons 500 400 300 200 100 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004

Figure 2 Coal production timeline, [EIAa] (see 5)

2.2.1.2 Oil The country has no known hydrocarbon reserves and therefore no upstream oil sector. The mid- and downstream oil industry is an important sector in the national economy. The country has an oil refinery at Ndola (Indeni Refinery, which came on stream in 1973, was damaged in a fire incident in 1999 and rehabilitated and operational by the end of 2000; breakdowns leading to fuel shortages are frequent), one of the few located in the inland. In 2004, the refinery processed 555ktoe of imported3 crude oil (equivalent to approximately 75% of the primary energy supply). Its nominal capacity is 1,100ktoe per year. It is co-owned by the government and Total of France ([MBEb]). The country also imports refined petroleum products from other countries, especially South Africa (imported oil products in 2004 were an additional 20% in comparison with the output of the refinery; the [EIAa] estimate for total 2003 imports was 132ktoe, divided among the various qualities as shows Figure 3). Oil products supplied 44% of the commercial energy needs in 2004, the balance being provided by hydroelectricity and coal4.

The crude oil is transported via a pipeline from the port of Dar-es-Salaam in Tanzania (provenance: Kuwait or Saudi Arabia). The pipeline is owned and managed by Tazama Pipelines Limited (jointly owned by the governments of Zambia (two thirds) and Tanzania (one third), but scheduled to be privatised). It stretches for about 1,710 km and currently transports yearly approximately 600ktoe of crude oil, although it was initially designed for 1,100ktoe per year (see [TAZ]). 4 All percentage calculations based on the 2004 [IEA] energy balance table.

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Figure 3 Consumption of oil products for 2003, [EIAa]

Total oil products consumption, ktoe, [EIAa] 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004

Figure 4 Oil consumption timeline, [EIAa]5

According to [MBEa], distribution of fuels and lubricants is carried out by number of international and local companies. A major breakthrough in the downstream sector (currently in process of deregulation) was when in December 1999, the companies were given the authority to import petroleum products on their own and not through parastatal agencies as the case used to be. The distribution infrastructure consists of pipeline, road and rail systems, all of which are in need of upgrading. According to [EIAb], the share of the oil products classes was as follows:
ktoe, [EIAb], 2003 Gasoline Jet Fuel Kerosene
5

refinery output 128.0 26.9 25.4

imports 46.3 20.4 0.0

consumption 174.8 47.8 17.9

The decrease in the early nineties was a reflection of a decline in the economy.

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Distillate Residual LPG Unspecified TOTALS

211.7 73.7 5.5 50.3 521.4

53.8 0.0 0.0 11.5 132.0

265.9 61.3 5.5 61.8 635.0

Table 2 Oil products shares, 2003, [EIAb]

2.2.1.3 Uranium As reported by [ZME], Zambia possesses uranium reserves which are (primarily) geologically associated with its most important mining commodity (copper). [URA] lists several companies that perform uranium exploration (within the context of copper mining), though (the same source mentions that) the government has given out no licenses for mining, while the country is in contact with the IEAE to define a suitable policy. Equinox Minerals Ltd (source: [ZME]) is reported to be considering (2006) the possibility to obtain uranium as a by-product from a copper mine project it has undertaken. The deposit contains 22 million pounds of U3O8 (enough to fuel three average 1000MW nuclear plants for 20 years). 2.2.1.4 Electricity The electricity sector is entirely dependent on the hydro resources (apart from a minimal percentage that comes from thermal generators and only amounted to approximately 0.6% in 2004 ([EIAa])). The sector is robust enough to allow for exportation of 3% of the generated electricity, within the context of developing African countries. The current capacity is divided among hydro (94% out of 1780MW) and thermal (6%) plants ([EIAa] data). A reliable electricity sector is crucial to the mining sector, which is the backbone of the economy and the largest consumer with 68% of the total consumption. The plants operated by ZESCO (see below) are detailed in [ZCOa]. Among them, the most important are: o Kafue Gorge Power Stations: 6x150MW (900MW), hydraulic resources provided through the ItezhiTezhi Dam. o Victoria Falls Power Station: Run of river station (without a dam) located on the Zambezi River at the Victoria Falls. Comprised of three stations (A: 8MW, B: 60MW, C: 40MW) amounting to 108MW in total. o Kariba North Bank Power Station: 4 machines of 150MW (600MW); it is operated and owned by the Kariba North Bank Company (public utility); the

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company performs the generation function only and its power is dispatched to the national grid. Small hydro stations: These amount to a combined capacity of 23.75MW and include Lusiwasi (12MW), Musonda Falls (5MW), Chishimba Falls (6MW) and Lunzua (750Kw). Generally, the small hydro plants do not have sufficient water storage capacity to operate through the dry season. The sum total of the nominal capacities of the ZESCO plants as described above is 1631.75MW, which means that approximately 150MW are in addition privately operated. Out of this difference, 38MW are allocated to the Mulungushi and Lunsemfwa Hydropower Company plc, a privately owned independent power producer that runs the Mulungushi and Lunsemfwa hydropower stations. All of the electricity generation from this facility is sold to ZESCO on a contract basis. Another 80MW is operated by the CEC (see respective paragraph). [ZCOa] estimates the demand at 1200MW (which gives a surplus allowing for exportation of electricity). However, this surplus will be partially eliminated as existing plants will need to undergo rehabilitation works. The demand is mainly affected by the major mining and industrial units, since the rate of residential electrification is still extremely low (see 2.2.2). The locations of these plants are visible on the grid map6 published in [ZCOb]. This map includes the major hydro plants, substations and transmission lines (66-330kV). The national transmission grid transports power from the generating stations and other systems to the distribution subsystems throughout the country and also to the Copperbelt Energy Corporation and the various export points. The transmission system is currently undergoing refurbishment. In [ZCOb] it is detailed to consist of: 4,638 km in total, of which: 2,008 km of 330kV lines, 348 km of 220kV, 85 km of 132kV, 704 km of 88kV, and 2,823 km of 66kV lines. The total transformer installed capacity is about 3,000MVA. SADC and SAPP: ZESCO is a member of SAPP which falls under SADC. SADC (Southern African Development Community) is committed to the development of the region. The South African Pool (in which countries participate through their respective public utilities) aims at providing “reliable and economical electricity” ([SAPP]) to the consumers in each member country. The major asset of the SAPP is the hydro potential of the Congo River in Congo, DR. As can be seen in [SAPPa], Zambia would play a significant role in wheeling through its transmission network energy from Congo DR to its southern partners at a larger rate than currently. SAPP members trade energy through the Short Term Energy Market (STEM) system, which will eventually develop into a spot market. Sector organisation: ZESCO ([ZCO]) is the largest power utility in the country. It is a parastatal company under the Companies Act, established in 1970. ZESCO cooperates with additional agencies, among which the Zambezi River Authority (ZRA) which regulates the consumption of the hydraulic resources of the Zambezi River System. The role of the agency is to arbitrate the amount of energy drawn from the river system by the countries that “share” its resources (the other country being Zimbabwe, represented by its public utility, ZESA). The Copperbelt Energy Corporation ([CEC]) (initially known as the Power Division of ZCCM which has now been privatised) has a narrow cooperation with ZESCO: It purchases7 electricity generated by the public utility8 (ZESCO) on long-term contracts (it is also implied that it imports electricity on behalf of the mining companies mentioned in [CECa] from Congo DR) and transmits it to the privatized mining companies on the Copperbelt Province (whose demand for electricity actually constitutes 70% of the total demand in the country). CEC maintains 80MW9 of emergency10 gas turbine plants in selected substations of the network so as to o

An other map of the transmission grid, published in [GVEP] is available in the Annex. The original power purchase agreement with the national electricity supply utility, ZESCO, stipulates that a 450MW base supply be distributed to six copper mines through the CEC transmission network. 8 CEC sources power from two points within Zambia, at Luano and Kabwe, and from a third point in Congo DR (see [ESI]). 9 This capacity comprises two 20MW generators (Luano substation), two 10MW (Bancroft substation) and one 10MW (Maclaren substation). All of these provide back up to ensure critical water-pumping requirements are met. 10 In copper mines, even short power failures could have catastrophic consequences, such as flooding.
7

6

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assure reliability. The CEC transmission and distribution network consists of 808km of overhead lines (mostly double ones so as to enhance reliability) and 36 high voltage substations. The CEC also serves the SAPP region by operating an interconnection to Congo DR (210MW are wheeled from Congo DR to the southern neighbors of Zambia through the CEC network ([ESI])). Last, [CEC] mentions that, should the SAPP projects for exportation of electricity to the deprived market of East Africa go ahead, the CEC would participate in the bidding process. Within the SAPP context, the interconnection to Congo DR is to have its capacity increased from the current 210 MW to 500 MW ([ESI], according to which the project was to have been completed by 2007). The increase of the capacity would be achieved (again, according to [ESI]) through the construction of a 220 kV line from Luano to Karavia, with 45 km of the length in Zambia and 92 km in Congo DR. Schematically, the sector is depicted as follows:

Figure 5 Electricity sector hierarchy, source: [ERBa]

o o o o o

National Energy Policy: The following issues are included in the NEP (compare 3.1.2): Restructuring of the electricity industry in order to improve service delivery, e.g., commercialization of ZESCO Policy framework for the improvement of accessibility to electricity by a larger part of the Zambian population, e.g., enacting of the Rural Electrification Authority (REA) Bill passed in December 2003 Promotion of electrification of productive areas and social institutions such as schools and health centers, including farming blocks Development of hydro-potential to take advantage of the strategic location of the country in the subregion, e.g., Establishment of the Office For Promoting Private Power Investment (OPPPI), and Review of the existing legislation on electricity in order to bring it into conformity with the new macroeconomic environment, e.g., the new amendments to the Electricity Act -- Energy Regulation Act.

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o
Figure 6 Net electricity generation and consumption, [EIAa] data

2.2.2 Access to electricity/ network
The [WRI] estimate of the percentage of population with access to the network in 2000 was 12%. This, instead of the fact that the population is highly urbanized, which would allow for wide electrification. The following tables, which have been copied from [SEIa], confirm the above percentage. The percentage of electrification for lighting in rural areas appears to be 5.7% in 1998, while in the urban areas it was 23.7% in 1990. However, for many of the electrified households, the supplied electricity only suffices for light-duty usage: not sufficient power is provided for more power-intensive uses, such as cooking (which is clear in the tables below).

Table 3 Tables copied from [SEIa] concerning the percentages of the population with access to electricity for various uses

[MEW] (2005) gives an estimate of 20% in urban areas and only 2% in rural areas.

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The CEC, which operates a significant part of the transmission network, declares itself “keen to investigate projects that support the rural electrification process”, though it earnestly specifies that these projects should be economically viable. See also 2.2.1.4 for details on the electricity network. According to [MEW], a review and evaluation of Rural Electrification Projects was undertaken between January and March 2004. This is a reference to ZESCO projects of grid expansion towards isolated urban areas (Kasempa (completed), Kaoma, Nyimba and Chavuma (preparatory work) are specifically mentioned). Projects for electrification of “farming blocks” are also reported to be underway. Further, [MEW] mentions the existence of a “Rural Electrification Master Plan” realised by an external consultant. This document is to be sent to potential donors (among which JICA, USAID and SIDA have expressed interest). Zambia is also expected to profit from GVEP11 projects ([see GVEP]), which are parallel to the government’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. [GVEP] also mentions that currently, a project under UNIDO/GEF on “Renewable Energy Based Electricity Generation for Isolated Mini-grids”, involving solar energy, biomass and mini-hydro units, is being implemented ([UND]). The functions of the governmental Rural Electrification Authority (REA), which was established in December 2003, are detailed in [GVEP], page 21, and include the administration and management of the Rural Electrification Fund, cooperation with GVEP agents, implementation of master plans for systematic electrification of rural areas, mobilization of external, and financing of studies. With the establishment of the REA, government hopes to increase the rural electricity access from the current 2% to 15% by 2010.

3 Analysis of Renewable Energy Sector
3.1 Overview
3.1.1 Current shares of RE and ongoing activities
Zambia has considerable solar and hydro resources (apart from biomass, which is the typical staple for residential use in Sub-Saharan Africa). The former remain virtually unexploited; while hydro resources already play a determinant role in the electricity sector, as was described in the respective session. In terms of primary energy, RE energy, including biomass, constitute 90% of the total supply, with biomass alone accounting for 80% (calculation based on [IEA] data). In comparison, imported oil only amounted to 8% in 2004.

3.1.2 Legislative and institutional structure
The Zambian Ministry of Energy and Water Development is in charge of RE policies. The public utility, ZESCO, operates and manages the existing hydro plants. The majority of Papers and Programs promoting the development of the country (whether national or supported by external donors) underline the importance of supplying sustainable energy, mainly electricity, to the population. The National Energy Policy of 1994 (and its amended versions) dictates the changes and developments in the energy sector. The policy document “contains measures for each energy subsector, outlines strategies for implementation, and identifies the legal framework needed to implement the policy. It establishes an appropriate regulatory framework to protect consumer interest, investors, and the environment. Its main objective is "to promote optimum supply and utilization of energy, especially indigenous forms, to facilitate the socio-economic development of the country and maintenance of a safe and healthy environment” ([GVEP]). As far as the new (apart from hydro) RE resources are concerned, the related clauses included in the NEP are vague.

GVEP is a partnership of organisations such as the World Bank, USAID, UNDP private firms and bilateral donors with a view to provide modern energy access to those yet unserved.

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3.2 Hydro
3.2.1 Resource potential
The hydraulic resources are located along four major river systems: the Zambezi River in western Zambia, which also forms much of the southern border of the country including Lake Kariba; the Kafue River which drains the Copperbelt and then loops south-westwards and ultimately eastwards to join the Zambezi; the Luangwa system which dominates eastern Zambia; and the Luapula River which drains northwards into Lake Mweru, forming a common border with Congo DR along much of its length. These are already exploited, mainly through plants supplied through dams. The total potential capacity is estimated at 6,000MW ([MEW]). However, water shortage has led to levels of the water in the dams that cannot fuel the plants to their full capacity. The Kariba Dam has long term storage capacity, but the Itezhi-Tezhi Dam and the smaller hydro plants face problems in maintaining a steady output during the low season ([ZCOa]).

3.2.2 Achievements
The electricity sector depends quasi entirely on the hydro resources of the country with a hydro-fueled capacity of 94% out of 1780MW (as detailed in 2.2.1.3). The National Energy Policy mentions specifically the development of the hydro potential as a major target (see 2.2.1.4).

3.3 Solar
3.3.1 Resource potential
[MEW] reports that the average sunshine is (yearly) 3,000 hours (out of 8,760), while the intensity is substantial, at 4.5kWh/m2/day.

3.3.2 Achievements
[IRI] reports on a solar photovoltaic energy project, supported by the Swedish International Development Agency ([SEI]) and the government, to provide solar energy to rural areas not connected to the national grid. According to [SEI], the first (and current) phase of the project includes the installation of three ESCO (Energy Service Companies; these companies constitute the legal framework for the development of the installations on a lease basis, since private individuals or even communities would not be able to afford the equipment) in the rural communities of Chipata, Lundazi and Nyimba in Zambia’s Eastern Province, with a total installed capacity of 20kWp12. The Nyimba ESCO is operational since December 2000, supplying 100 clients (see [SEIa]). According to [EML], though, Lundazi also appears to be equipped with 150 solar residential connections (no date of entry into operation provided).

3.4 Wind
The potential for wind energy is mainly restricted to mechanical applications (irrigation), according to [MEW] and [GVEP], with an average of 3m/s.

kWp is a unit referring to the peak output of the solar generator. Each of the modular panels used in the project have a capacity of 50Wp.

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3.5 Biomass and other combustible renewable resources
w ood fuel production, 000 cubic meters ([WRI]) 7500 7000 6500 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004

Figure 7 Wood fuel production, source: [WRI]

Wood (mainly uncommercialised) has been used extensively as an energy source. According to [WRI] (Figure 7), the production of wood fuel has been steady during the last decade. At 0.3215toe per ton of fuelwood (average caloric content assumption adopted by the WRI) and an average assumed density of 0.5ton/cm, the quantities reported by [WRI] are equivalent to 1160ktoe for 2004. However, [EIAa] suggests that the total amount or biomass or combustible wastes as primary energy is several times this figure (approximately 5400ktoe or for 2003) and that it has not remained stable but increased in terms of both absolute and relative value. This is also confirmed by [MEW], according to which fuel wood and charcoal combined account for 80% of the total national energy supply. According to [UND], the total “biomass cover” is at 81% and provides ample potential, although it is beginning to be under pressure. A 1998 report ([FAO]) specifies that forest cover was at the time at 60% (and further details the coverage per region and per type of vegetation). Projects: The fact that the population has to resort to fuel wood has led to a major deforestation problem. Thus, projects to reduce consumption of biomass are undertaken. Among these is the promotion of stoves of improved efficiency ([MEW]), of LPG stoves (for which fuel would be subsidized) and of “gel fuel and stoves”, which would be imported from Malawi on obtainment of financing. National Energy Policy: In the fuel wood subsector, the energy policy highlights five measures for managing and attaining sustainable supply, namely ([GVEP]): o Management and sustainability of the forest resources for fuel wood harvesting. o Improvement of technology for charcoal production and utilisation. o Minimization of seasonal fluctuations in the supply of charcoal to urban areas. o Improvement of revenue collection from industry. o Supporting of efforts aimed at finding alternatives to fuel wood.

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3.6 Geothermal
Zambia has geothermal energy potential (see [GVEP]), though However, little apart from some research has been done to utilize the springs for industrial or energy provision purposes. The same source mentions to the failed attempt to install 2x120kW turbines at the Kapisya site (in 1987, project funded by the Italian government). The installation has never been loaded due to the absence of any infrastructure to distribute the electricity produced to the local community.

4 Sources
[EIU] Economist Intelligence Unit, http://www.eiu.com/, Country profile [FAO] Woodfuel review and assessment in Zambia, December 1998, link [IMFa] Enhanced Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries, Completion Point Document, April 19, 2005, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2005/cr05137.pdf [CIA] World Factbook, https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/za.html [ESI] “Copperbelt Energy Corporation - a regional example”, April 2003, http://www.esi-africa.com/, link [URA] WISE uranium project, http://www.wise-uranium.org/upafr.html [MEW] “Energy and Poverty Reduction Strategy Process, the Zambian Case”, 12/04/05, www.e4d.net/euei/Maputo/presentations/Musonda-zambia.ppt [CEC] Copperbelt Energy Corporation PLC, http://www.copperbeltenergy.com/ o [CECa] Shareholders, Customers, link [SAPP] Southern African Power Pool, http://www.sapp.co.zw/ o [SAPPa] Interconnections in the SAPP region, link [HDR] UN Human Development Reports, http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/countries.cfm?c=ZMB [ERB] Energy Regulation Board of Zambia, http://www.erb.org.zm/ o [ERBa], Economic regulation, Zambia Power sector, link [STA] State Department Background Notes, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2359.htm [IEA] Energy Balances of non-OECD countries, 2006 o [IEAa] Graphs, Evolution of total energy primary supply, link [EIAa] International data, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/ [IRI] “Zambia: Solar power improves everyday life”, 09/06/04, http://www.irinnews.org/, link [ZME] http://www.zambia-mining.com/economic.html [SEI] Stockholm Environment Institute, Photovoltaic Energy Service Companies, http://www.sei.se/energy/pvesco/pv_proj.htm o [SEIa] Rural energy service companies – experiences from Zambia, link [EIAb] energy balance table, 2003, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/world/country/cntry_ZA.html [MCL] Maamba Collieries Limited, reported by the Zambia Privatisation Agency http://www.zpa.org.zm/maamba.htm [FINa] “Zambia suspends mine ops”, article from http://www.fin24.co.za, 07/07/2006, link [EML] Solar installation projects in Zambia, http://www.eml-eis.com/Solar/Projects/Solar_Projects.htm [MBEa] Zambia Oil and Gas overview, http://www.mbendi.co.za/indy/oilg/af/za/p0005.htm [MBEb] Indeni Refining Company overview, http://www.mbendi.co.za/rein.htm [TAZ] Tazama Pipeline overview, reported by the Zambia Privatisation Agency, http://www.zpa.org.zm/tazama.htm [UND] “Renewable Energy based electricity generation for isolated mini-grids in Zambia”, http://www.unido.org/doc/5256 [GVEP] Energy services delivery in Zambia, Status and opportunities for enhancement in the context of the Global Village Energy Partnership initiative (GVEP), 27/05/04, http://www.gvep.org/files/8390_Zambia_Concept_Note.pdf [WRI] http://earthtrends.wri.org/, World Resources Information, Earthtrends [ZCO] ZESCO Limited, electricity utility, http://www.zesco.co.zm/

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o o

[ZCOa] http://www.zesco.co.zm/general-transmission.html [ZCOb] national grid map (including the ZESCO generating plants and transmission links for 66330kV voltage), http://www.zesco.co.zm/Power%20Sys01.html

5 Annex
International copper price; Zambia copper production (source: [EIU]) 500 450 400 350 000 t 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 US c/lb

2002

2003

2004

2005

Copper output (‘000 tonnes)

International copper price (US cents/lb)

Figure 8 Copper production; international price; according to the [EIU] data, the elasticity of the Zambian production to the international price was 0.26, 0.28 and 0.31 in 2003, 2004 and 2005 respectively; copper production is critical to the development of the country and depends heavily on a robust electricity sector

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Figure 9 Transmission grid map, [GVEP]

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