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You are on page 1of 3

Say we are comparing the means of p different groups treatment group where each group has ni observations.

We’ll let the total number of observations be n = n1+ n2+ ... + np then.

Because we have to number both the treatment group and the observation number, we need to use two subscripts.

The first subscript (i) is for the group number and the second (j) is for which observation it is.

So that the notation matches that for regression we’ll use yij to name each observation then... but you could use xij

like the book does if you wanted to.

Treatment

y11 y21 y p1

y12 y22 y p2

... Overall

o o o Mean

y1n y2 n y pn ▼

1 2 p

Means

for ► y1 y2 ... yp y

Each Group

If we looked at Example 10.3 on page 452 we would have p=4 (there are four brands). n1=10 because 10 different balls were used with the first

brand. Similarly n2, n3, and n4 are all 10 in this example (they don’t all need to be equal in general) and the total sample size n=40. Just as we have

laid out in the table above, y11=251.2 (first group, first observation), y23=265.0 (second group, third observation), etc... Similarly y1 =250.8 (the

mean of the first group), etc... To find y we would have to take the average of all 40 observations.

The goal of Analysis of Variance is to test the hypothesis that the means of the p-groups are equal (see the top of page 448). We cannot simply use a

t-test because there is no way to “take the difference” of more than two different means. It just doesn’t make sense.

To get around this problem we need to use a different method. Instead of focusing on means we will focus on variances. In particular we will

construct two different variances for our situation: a variance between the groups (due to the treatments) and a variance within the groups (due to

random error). If we had three groups x’s, o’s, and +’s we might get a picture like the following.

Notice in the case where the groups are clearly different, the between group variance is clearly larger than the within group variance. If we took the

variance between divided by the variance within we would get a large number.

In the second case where the groups are similar, the between group variances is clearly smaller than the within group variance. If we took the

between group variance divided by the variance within we would get a small number.

Why divide the variances? Because in Supplement 6 we saw that dividing two variances gives us an F distribution!

So what we will do is use F = , and will reject the null hypothesis when F is large.

variance within groups

The ANOVA Table for Comparing Means

Source F

the numerator of the variance) (the denominator) the variance)

Treatment p ni

∑ ∑ ( yi − y ) 2

SST

(or Between SST = p-1 MST = MST

i =1 j =1 p −1 F=

or Model) MSE

p ni

Error SSE = ∑ ∑ ( yij − yi )2 MSE =

SSE

n-p

(or Within) i =1 j =1 n− p

p ni

Total TSS = ∑ ∑ ( yij − y )2 n-1

i =1 j =1

Notice that if we took the TSS/n-1 we would end up with just the overall variance of all the observations. (Compare the formula you get here to our

usual formula for s2... it only looks different because we had to use two subscripts to make sure to include all of the observations.)

The five keys to remember about the Analysis of Variance table are:

2) The degrees of freedom can be calculated from the sum of squares formulas. Looking at the SST notice that there are p different yi and one y so

we get p-1 degrees of freedom. Looking at the SSE we have n different yij and p different yi and so the degrees of freedom are n-p. Finally, for TSS

there are n different yij and one y so there are n-1 degrees of freedom.

4) The mean squares (the variances) are found by taking the sum of squares (the numerator) and dividing by the degrees of freedom (the

denominator).

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